WorldWideScience
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Vagal nerve stimulation protects against burn-induced intestinal injury through activation of enteric glia cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enteric nervous system may have an important role in modulating gastrointestinal barrier response to disease through activation of enteric glia cells. In vitro studies have shown that enteric glia activation improves intestinal epithelial barrier function by altering the expression of tight junction proteins. We hypothesized that severe injury would increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of enteric glial activation. We also sought to define the effects of vagal nerve stimulation on enteric glia activation and intestinal barrier function using a model of systemic injury and local gut mucosal involvement. Mice with 30% total body surface area steam burn were used as model of severe injury. Vagal nerve stimulation was performed to assess the role of parasympathetic signaling on enteric glia activation. In vivo intestinal permeability was measured to assess barrier function. Intestine was collected to investigate changes in histology; GFAP expression was assessed by quantitative PCR, by confocal microscopy, and in GFAP-luciferase transgenic mice. Stimulation of the vagus nerve prevented injury-induced intestinal barrier injury. Intestinal GFAP expression increased at early time points following burn and returned to baseline by 24 h after injury. Vagal nerve stimulation prior to injury increased GFAP expression to a greater degree than burn alone. Gastrointestinal bioluminescence was imaged in GFAP-luciferase transgenic animals following either severe burn or vagal stimulation and confirmed the increased expression of intestinal GFAP. Injection of S-nitrosoglutathione, a signaling molecule released by activated enteric glia cells, following burn exerts protective effects similar to vagal nerve stimulation. Intestinal expression of GFAP increases following severe burn injury. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases enteric glia activation, which is associated with improved intestinal barrier function. The vagus nerve may mediate the signaling that occurs from the central nervous system to the enteric nervous system following gastrointestinal injury. PMID:20705905

Costantini, Todd W; Bansal, Vishal; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Putnam, James G; Peterson, Carrie Y; Loomis, William H; Wolf, Paul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

2010-12-01

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Enhanced antibacterial activity in Hydra polyps lacking nerve cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nervous system evolved within cnidarians. When assessing antibacterial activity in the freshwater polyp Hydra, we observed a strong correlation between the number of neurons present and the antibacterial activity. Tissue lacking neurons had a drastically enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria compared to control tissue. The results indicate direct and strong neural influences on immunity in the phylogenetically oldest animals having a nervous system. PMID:12543122

Kasahara, Shinji; Bosch, Thomas C G

2003-02-01

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Single-step purification and biological activity of human nerve growth factor produced from insect cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human nerve growth factor (NGF) was cloned and engineered for expression in a baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) insect cell system. Culture supernatants contained 2-3 mg/L of recombinant human NGF. The human NGF produced by this system was purified to apparent homogeneity with a single-step affinity chromatography procedure using a high-affinity monoclonal antibody originally raised against murine NGF. The purification procedure yielded 1-2 mg of pure, human NGF per liter of culture supernatant; i.e., approximately 60% recovery of the human NGF originally released into the culture medium. Although the gene transfected into the SF-9 cells coded for pro-NGF, the NGF recovered after purification was greater than 95% fully processed, mature protein. The KD for the affinity of the pure, recombinant human NGF for NGF receptor in PC12 membranes is 0.20 +/- 0.05 nM. Activation of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells occurs with ED50 values of 85 +/- 20 pM and 9.6 +/- 1.5 pM for a 3-day primary response and a 1-day secondary response, respectively. The pure, recombinant human NGF also stimulates a significant increase in dopamine content of PC12 cells with an ED50 of 5.8 +/- 2.7 pM. These binding and biological activation properties are consistent with values observed using murine NGF purified from submaxillary glands. PMID:1993887

Buxser, S; Vroegop, S; Decker, D; Hinzmann, J; Poorman, R; Thomsen, D R; Stier, M; Abraham, I; Greenberg, B D; Hatzenbuhler, N T

1991-03-01

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Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurotrophic factors are essential to maintain and organize neurons functionally; thereby neurotrophic factor-like substances or their inducers are expected to be applied to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we firstly examined the effects of ethanol extracts of four edible mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake), Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), and Agaricus blazei (Himematsutake), on nerve growth factor (NGF) gene expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Among the four mushroom extracts, only H. erinaceus extract promoted NGF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, secretion of NGF protein from 1321N1 cells was enhanced by H. erinaceus extracts, and the conditioned medium of 1321N1 cells incubated with H. erinaceus extract enhanced the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. However, hericenones C, D and E, constituents of H. erinaceus, failed to promote NGF gene expression in 1321N1 cells. The enhancement of NGF gene expression by H. erinaceus extracts was inhibited by the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. In addition, H. erinaceus extracts induced phosphorylation of JNK and its downstream substrate c-Jun, and increased c-fos expression, suggesting that H. erinaceus promotes NGF gene expression via JNK signaling. Furthermore we examined the efficacy of H. erinaceus in vivo. ddY mice given feed containing 5% H. erinaceus dry powder for 7 d showed an increase in the level of NGF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, H. erinaceus contains active compounds that stimulate NGF synthesis via activation of the JNK pathway; these compounds are not hericenones. PMID:18758067

Mori, Koichiro; Obara, Yutaro; Hirota, Mitsuru; Azumi, Yoshihito; Kinugasa, Satomi; Inatomi, Satoshi; Nakahata, Norimichi

2008-09-01

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Nerve growth factor activates Thy-1 and neurofilament gene transcription in rat PC12 cells  

OpenAIRE

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of neurofilament and Thy-1 genes in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells was examined at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Addition of NGF to cultured PC12 cells produced increases in mRNAs corresponding to the 68 kd neurofilament protein (NF68) and the Thy-1 glycoprotein within 24 h, with maximal effects of some 90- and 45-fold stimulation (relative to ?-actin mRNA) being observed after 12 and 4 days of treatment, ...

Dickson, George; Prentice, Howard; Julien, Jean-pierre; Ferrari, Giovanna; Leon, Alberta; Walsh, Frank S.

1986-01-01

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Early transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces hyperalgesia and decreases activation of spinal glial cells in mice with neuropathic pain.  

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Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, its effectiveness and mechanism of action in reducing neuropathic pain remain uncertain. We investigated the effects of early TENS (starting from the day after surgery) in mice with neuropathic pain, on hyperalgesia, glial cell activation, pain transmission neuron sensitization, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Following nerve injury, TENS and behavioral tests were performed every day. Immunohistochemical, immunoblot, and flow cytometric analysis of the lumbar spinal cord were performed after 8 days. Early TENS reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and decreased the activation of microglia and astrocytes (PTENS at 1 week (TENS-1w) or 2 weeks (TENS-2w) after injury was ineffective in reducing hyperalgesia (mechanical and thermal) or activation of microglia and astrocytes. Early TENS decreased p-p38 within microglia (PTENS relieved hyperalgesia in our mouse model of neuropathic pain by inhibiting glial activation, MAP kinase activation, PKC-?, and p-CREB expression, and proinflammatory cytokines expression, as well as maintenance of spinal opioid receptors. The findings indicate that TENS treatment is more effective when applied as early after nerve injury as possible. PMID:25010326

Matsuo, Hideaki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Watanabe, Shuji; Takeura, Naoto; Sugita, Daisuke; Shimada, Seiichiro; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Baba, Hisatoshi

2014-09-01

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Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and glial cells in the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex following lingual nerve injury.  

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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in the mediation of cellular responses to a variety of signaling molecules. The current study demonstrates phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in each subdivision of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) following lingual nerve injury. Immunohistochemical labeling for phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) or phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was performed in histological sections of the brainstem. A transient increase in the immunoreactivity for p-ERK was found in each subdivision of the TSNC followed by a prolonged increase in the immunoreactivity for p-p38 MAPK after nerve injury. Double immunofluorescence labeling with cell-specific markers revealed that ERK and p38 MAPK were phosphorylated predominantly by OX-42-positive microglia or GFAP-positive astrocytes. Increased immunofluorescence labeling for OX-42 and GFAP indicated that microglia and astrocytes were activated by nerve injury in the TSNC. Activation of MAPKs and glial cells in the rostral subdivisions of the TSNC was comparable with that in the subnucleus caudalis of the trigeminal spinal tract nucleus (Vc). We conclude that differential activation of MAPKs and glial cells in the rostral subdivisions of the TSNC as well as the Vc may have a substantial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:21087641

Terayama, Ryuji; Fujisawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Omura, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Tomosada

2011-02-01

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Vagal nerve stimulation protects against burn-induced intestinal injury through activation of enteric glia cells  

OpenAIRE

The enteric nervous system may have an important role in modulating gastrointestinal barrier response to disease through activation of enteric glia cells. In vitro studies have shown that enteric glia activation improves intestinal epithelial barrier function by altering the expression of tight junction proteins. We hypothesized that severe injury would increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of enteric glial activation. We also sought to define the effects of ...

Costantini, Todd W.; Bansal, Vishal; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Putnam, James G.; Peterson, Carrie Y.; Loomis, William H.; Wolf, Paul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Coimbra, Raul

2010-01-01

9

Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients alongside high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacrificing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to provide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacrifice of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of regeneration in t...

Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard Jp; Reid, Adam J.

2014-01-01

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Detailed characterization of the biological activities of recombinant human nerve growth factor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological activities of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were transfected with human NGF gene were investigated in vitro and in vivo. rhNGF showed the same immunoreactivity as mouse NGF (mNGF) in a highly sensitive two-site enzyme immunoassay system employing mouse monoclonal antibody against mouse beta-NGF (MAb 27/21) for both the primary and the secondary antibodies. In PC12 cells, rhNGF promoted neurite extension and induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with the same potency as mNGF, showing an ED50 of 10-20 ng/mL. In fetal rat septal neurons cultured on a feeder layer of astroglial cells, rhNGF promoted survival and neurite extension as well as an increase in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) content. At a maximal effective concentration of 30 ng/mL, rhNGF promoted a 1.4-, 2.8-, and 4-fold increase in surviving cell number, ACh content, and ChAT activity, respectively. rhNGF was five times more potent than mNGF for the increase in ChAT activity and ACh content showing an ED50 of 0.5 ng/mL, although the maximal response was the same for the two NGFs. Transection of the fimbria-fornix resulted in a loss of AChE-positive cells in the medial septum (MS) and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB). The administration of rhNGF or mNGF (3 or 30 micrograms in gel form) attenuated the loss of AChE-positive cells; rhNGF was as potent as or even more potent than mNGF. Radio frequency lesion of the basal forebrain (BF) including the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) resulted in severe impairment of memory and/or learning in passive avoidance and Morris' water maze tasks. Repeated injection of rhNGF (5 micrograms x 5 over 2 wk) into the lateral ventricle ameliorated the behavioral impairment in the water maze task but not in passive avoidance. rhNGF treatment increased ChAT activity in the frontal cortex and even in other subregions of the cerebral cortex where ChAT activity was not decreased by BF lesion. These results indicate that human NGF can be measured in an enzyme immunoassay system using monoclonal antibody against mNGF (MAb 27/21) and that rhNGF has potent biological activity, comparable to or greater than mNGF, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8466595

Kakihana, M; Kato, K; Fukumoto, H; Fujiwara, E; Iwane, M; Suno, M

1993-01-01

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Nerve growth factor of very high yield and specific activity.  

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Nerve growth factor has been isolated from submaxillary glands of mnature male mice at specific activities about a million times, and in yields of biological activity ten million times, greater than best previous results. The major improvement in the isolation is related to the separation of a highly active tosylarginine methyl esterase present in cruder preparations. The new nerve growth factor may be an entity different from the older one, although no gross differences in the qualitative aspects of their actions are apparent on superficial examination of chick ganglia influenced by them. The neurites which develop from a ganglion in the presence of nerve growth factor are of nearly equal length. The amount of nerve growth factor determines the number of neurites but not the extent of individual development. The amount of the new nerve growth factor which evokes the appearance of a hundred neurites from a single ganglion appears to be about ten molecules. Since each neurite seems to arise from a different neuron each molecule of nerve growth factor must affect several cells. This result can be rationalized by a catalytic mechanism or by indirect action of nerve growth factor through a hypothetical cell which produces a neurite evocator on contact with the molecule of nerve growth factor. PMID:5716137

Schenkein, I; Levy, M; Bueker, E D; Tokarsky, E

1968-02-01

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E2F4 Actively Promotes the Initiation and Maintenance of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Cell Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

E2F transcription factors play a critical role in cell cycle progression through the regulation of genes required for G1/S transition. They are also thought to be important for growth arrest; however, their potential role in the cell differentiation process has not been previously examined. Here, we demonstrate that E2F4 is highly upregulated following the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF), while E2F1, E2F3, and E2F5 are downregulated. Immunoprecipitation a...

Persengiev, Stephan P.; Kondova, Ivanela I.; Kilpatrick, Daniel L.

1999-01-01

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Dynamic regulation of schwann cell enhancers after peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury. PMID:25614629

Hung, Holly A; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Svaren, John

2015-03-13

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Activation of MAPK ERK in peripheral nerve after injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been proposed to mediate neurite outgrowth-promoting effects of several neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the precise activity of ERK during axonal regeneration in vivo remains unclear. Peripheral axotomy has been shown to activate ERK in the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons and associated satellite cells. Nevertheless, whether ERK is also activated in the axons and surrounded Schwann cells which also play a key role in the regeneration process has not been clarified. Results Phosphorylation of ERK in the sciatic nerve in several time-points after crush injury has been examined. Higher phosphorylation of ERK was observed in the proximal and distal nerve stumps compared to the contralateral intact nerve from one day to one month after crush. The activation of ERK was mainly localized in the axons of the proximal segments. In the distal segments, however, active ERK was predominantly found in Schwann cells forming Bungner's bands. Conclusion The findings indicate that ERK is activated in both the proximal and distal nerve stumps following nerve injury. The role of activated ERK in Wallerian degeneration and subsequent regeneration in vivo remains to be elucidated.

Tanomsridejchai N

2006-06-01

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Protective activity of aromatic amines and imines against oxidative nerve cell death  

OpenAIRE

Oxidative stress is a widespread phenomenon in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuronal cell death due to oxidative stress may causally contribute to the pathogeneses of these diseases. Therefore, neuroprotective antioxidants are considered to be a promising approach to slow down disease progression. We have investigated different aromatic amine and imine compounds for neuroprotective antioxidant ...

Moosmann, Bernd; Skutella, Thomas; Beyer, Klaus; Behl, Christian

2001-01-01

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VEGF receptors on PC12 cells mediate transient activation of ERK1/2 and Akt: comparison of nerve growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endostatin are angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules, respectively, that have been implicated in neurogenesis and neuronal survival. Using alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins, we show that the PC12 neuronal cell line contains cell membrane receptors for VEGF but not for endostatin and the collagen XV endostatin homologue. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that proliferating and differentiated PC12 cells express VEGF receptors 1, 2 and neuropilin-1. While no functional effects of VEGF on PC12 cell proliferation and differentiation could be observed, a slight VEGF-induced reduction of caspase-3 activity in differentiated apoptotic PC12 cells was paralleled by transient activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. In direct comparison, nerve growth factor proved to be a strikingly more potent neuroprotective agent than VEGF.

Rychkova Natalia

2006-06-01

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Stem cell salvage of injured peripheral nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously developed a collagen tube filled with autologous skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) for bridging long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Here we present a case report describing a compassionate use of this graft for repairing the polyinjured motor and sensory nerves of the upper arms of a patient. Preclinical assessment was performed with collagen/SDSC implantation in rats after sectioning the sciatic nerve. For the patient, during the 3-year follow-up period, functional recovery of injured median and ulnar nerves was assessed by pinch gauge test and static two-point discrimination and touch test with monofilaments, along with electrophysiological and MRI examinations. Preclinical experiments in rats revealed rescue of sciatic nerve and no side effects of patient-derived SDSC transplantation (30 and 180 days of treatment). In the patient treatment, motor and sensory functions of the median nerve demonstrated ongoing recovery postimplantation during the follow-up period. The results indicate that the collagen/SDSC artificial nerve graft could be used for surgical repair of larger defects in major lesions of peripheral nerves, increasing patient quality of life by saving the upper arms from amputation. PMID:24268028

Grimoldi, Nadia; Colleoni, Federica; Tiberio, Francesca; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Cappellari, Alberto; Costa, Antonella; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Giordano, Rosaria; Spagnoli, Diego; Pluderi, Mauro; Gatti, Stefano; Morbin, Michela; Gaini, Sergio M; Rebulla, Paolo; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

2015-01-01

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Spinal Neurons Activated in Response to Pudendal or Pelvic Nerve Stimulation in Female Rats  

OpenAIRE

The overlapping distribution of spinal neurons activated with either pudendal sensory nerve or pelvic nerve stimulation was examined in the female rat using c-fos immunohistochemistry. Pudendal sensory nerve stimulation resulted in a significant increase in fos-positive cells in the ipsilateral dorsal horn and bilaterally in the medial, lateral and intermediate gray of L5-S1. Pelvic nerve stimulation resulted in significant increases of c-fos immunoreactive nuclei in the ipsilateral dorsal ho...

Wiedey, J.; Alexander, M. Sipski; Marson, L.

2008-01-01

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Induced-pluripotent stem cells seeded acellular peripheral nerve graft as “autologous nerve graft”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hypothesis is that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC derived Schwann cells and/or macrophages can be transplanted into acellular nerve graft in repairing injured nervous system. The efficiency of iPSC seeded acellular nerve graft may mimic the autologous peripheral nerve graft.

Ti-Fei Yuan

2010-01-01

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Nerve growth factor induces changes in (2'-5')oligo(A) synthetase and 2'-phosphodiesterase activities during differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 with Vipera lebetina (snake) nerve growth factor (NGF) induces a rapid increase (from 5 to 25-fold) in the level of (2'-5')oligo(A) synthetase activity and a simultaneous decrease (from 2 to 5-fold) in the activity of 2'-5' A degrading enzymes--2'-phosphodiesterases (2'-PDE). These changes in the enzyme activities led to the significant increase in the intracellular concentration of 2'-5' A. We have found that the serum starvation of PC12 cells causes a 1.5 to 2.0-fold increase in the level of 2'-5' A-synthetase activity, but the activities of 2'-PDE and the intracellular concentration of 2'-5' A remain unaltered. These results show that NGF modulates the activity of (2'-5')oligo(A) enzymes and intracellular concentration of 2'-5' A during the neural differentiation of PC12 cells. PMID:3743655

Saarma, M; Toots, U; Raukas, E; Zhelkovsky, A; Pivazian, A; Neuman, T

1986-09-01

21

Synaptic Activation of Presynaptic Glutamate Transporter Currents in Nerve Terminals  

OpenAIRE

Glutamate uptake by high-affinity transporters is responsible for limiting the activation of postsynaptic receptors and maintaining low levels of ambient glutamate. The reuptake process generates membrane currents, which can be activated by synaptically released glutamate in glial cells and some postsynaptic neurons. However, less is known about presynaptic transporter currents because the small size of synaptic boutons precludes direct recordings. Here, we have recorded from two giant nerve ...

Palmer, Mary J.; Taschenberger, Holger; Hull, Court; Tremere, Liisa; Von Gersdorff, Henrique

2003-01-01

22

Sex, death and the (nerve) cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

Men and women not only look different, but they have different risks of multiple diseases like migraine, neurodegenerative disorders or numerous cancers. Even the nerve cells may die in different ways and exhibit different sensitivity to pro-apoptotic factors. Some of the differences can be explained by the action of sex hormones, but the experiments on four core genotype mouse model, in which XX and XY mice can be of either sex showed that not all differences are due to hormones. An example of a disease with no simple explanation of sex bias is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, a mitochondrial disease with about 4:1 male to female ratio. The apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells forming an optic disc is a proposed mechanism of the disease pathophysiology. The mechanisms causing different sensitivity of the nerve cells of male and female subjects may be responsible for the gender bias in LHON and merit further studies. PMID:22201999

Tonska, Katarzyna; Bartnik, Ewa

2012-01-01

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The differentiation of the newborn nerve cells in oculomotor nuclear after oculomotor nerve injury.  

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Oculomotor nerve injury is a common complication of cranial trauma and craniotomy. For a long time, it has been generally considered that the oculomotor nerve is unable to regenerate and recover functionally after injury. With the development of neuroradiology, microsurgery and neurohistology, it has been reported that the injured oculomotor nerve could be repaired by operation. However, the mechanisms of neural regeneration of the injured oculomotor nerve remain obscure. Therefore, by investigating the differentiation of the newborn nerve cells in oculomotor nuclear after oculomotor nerve injury, the mechanisms of the neural regeneration of the injured oculomotor nerve was studied in the present paper. After animal model establishment, we found that the function of the injured oculomotor nerve could recover at some degree without treatment, at fourth week after the nerve injury. This result confirms that the injured oculomotor nerve per se has the potential to regenerate and repair. At the present study, by BredU stain, BrdU labeling cells were observed in oculomotor nuclear at the fourth week post-operatively. It indicated that the oculomotor nuclear per se has the ability of generating the cells, which will regenerate and differentiate after the nerve injury, without stimulation by exogenous agents. Immunofluorescence double staining was used in this study to show the differentiation of the newborn cells in oculomotor nuclear after oculomotor nerve injury. It is found that they could differentiate into neural progenitor cells, neuronal cells and neuroglial cells. It is suggested that the different differentiation of cells may play a role in the nerve regeneration procedure. PMID:21301911

Yang, Min; Zhu, Ningxi; Meng, Youqiang; Wang, Xuhui; Zhong, Jun; Wan, Liang; Zhang, Wenchuan; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Zhu, Shugan; Li, Shiting

2011-04-01

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Highly Sensitive and Selective Immuno-capture/Electrochemical Assay of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Red Blood Cells: A Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBCs) is a useful biomarker for biomonitoring of exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and chemical nerve agents. In this paper, we reported a new method for AChE activity assay based on selective immuno-capture of AChE from biological samples followed by enzyme activity assay of captured AChE using a disposable electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites (MWCNTs-Au) modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Upon the completion of immunoreaction, the target AChE (including active and inhibited) is captured onto the electrode surface and followed by an electrochemical detection of enzymatic activity in the presence of acetylthiocholine. A linear response is obtained over standard AChE concentration range from 0.1 to 10 nM. To demonstrate the capability of this new biomonitoring method, AChE solutions dosed with different concentration of paraoxon were used to validate the new AChE assay method. AChE inhibition in OP dosed solutions was proportional to its concentration from 0.2 to 50 nM. The new AChE activity assay method for biomonitoring of OP exposure was further validated with in-vitro paraoxon-dosed RBC samples. The established electrochemical sensing platform for AChE activity assay not only avoids the problem of overlapping substrate specificity with esterases by using selective antibody, but also eliminates potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It offers a new approach for sensitive, selective, and rapid AChE activity assay for biomonitoring of exposures to OPs.

Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-09

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Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

2004-01-01

26

Improvement in nerve regeneration through a decellularized nerve graft by supplementation with bone marrow stromal cells in fibrin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acellular nerve grafting is often inferior as well as an inadequate alternative to autografting for the repair of long gaps in peripheral nerves. Moreover, the injection method is not perfect. During the injection of cells, the syringe can destroy the acellular nerve structure and the limited accumulation of seed cells. To resolve this problem, we constructed a nerve graft by acellular nerve grafting. Bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) were affixed with fibrin glue and injected inside or around the graft, which was then used to repair a 15-mm nerve defect in rats. The acellular nerve graft maintained its structure and composition, and its tensile strength was decreased, as determined by two-photon microscopy and a tensile testing device. In vitro, MSCs embedded in fibrin glue survived and secreted growth factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We repaired 15-mm Sprague-Dawley rat sciatic nerve defects using this nerve graft construction, and MSCs injected around the graft helped improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve lesions as determined by functional analysis and histology. Therefore, we conclude that supplying MSCs in fibrin glue around acellular nerves is successful in maintaining the nerve structure and can support nerve regeneration similar to the direct injection of MSCs into the acellular nerve for long nerve defects but may avoid destroying the nerve graft. The technique is simple and is another option for stem cell transplantation. PMID:23128095

Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Ren, Zhiwu; Zhang, Li; Guo, Quanyi; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

2014-01-01

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Chapter 22: Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells for peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical problem, and the development of novel strategies to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration is important. Traumatic events, including motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and falls, lead to significant numbers of peripheral nerve lesions. Traumatic nerve injuries are often associated with life-threatening injuries, which must be treated first. During the delay in nerve repair, the transected nerves undergo Wallerian degeneration. Therefore, delay before surgical treatment is critical, but care must also be taken to ensure that nerve reapposition is performed in a manner that will result in a therapeutic benefit. Peripheral nerve repair after transection injury combined with transplantation of myelin-forming glia cells, for example, Schwann cells (SCs) or olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), may facilitate the regenerative process. Cell-based therapies are being considered in clinical trials for a number of neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. The rationale is that transplanted cells may provide neuroprotection by production of chemokines and neurotrophins or could serve as a replacement therapy. A number of cells derived from adult peripheral tissues for cell therapies are also being actively investigated. These cells include SCs from peripheral nerve, olfactory OECs from the olfactory system, and stromal cells from bone marrow (mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs). In principle, these cells could be derived autologously, and used acutely or expanded in culture and used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review experimental work demonstrating the potential of one of these cells, the OEC, as an experimental tool for promoting recovery in peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19682651

Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Vogt, Peter M

2009-01-01

28

Nerve growth factor modulation of retinal ganglion cell physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophin involved in the development, maintenance and regeneration of mammalian sympathetic and sensory neurons. Additionally, NGF is known to have trophic and differentiating activity on several populations of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and to act as a differentiation factor in the development of the visual cortex. The paramount functions of NGF in the visual system are also highlighted by the presence of this neurotrophin and both its receptors TrkA and p75 in most intra-ocular tissues, including lens, vitreous, choroid, iris, and trabecular meshwork. In the retina, NGF is produced and utilized specifically by retinal ganglion cells (RGC), bipolar neurons and glial cells, and is thought to have crucial protective effects in several disease states. Studies on the role of NGF on RGCs survival following optic nerve transection, ischemic injury, ocular hypertension and glaucoma are discussed in this review. PMID:24501088

Roberti, Gloria; Mantelli, Flavio; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Centofanti, Marco

2014-09-01

29

Reflex effects of aerosolized histamine on phrenic nerve activity.  

OpenAIRE

Studies were conducted in anesthetized, paralyzed dogs on the effect of aerosolized histamine on phrenic nerve activity. The paralyzed dogs were ventilated in phase with their recorded phrenic nerve activity at a constant inspiratory flow-rate, using a cycle-triggered ventilator. Phrenic nerve activity was measured before and during administration of aerosolized histamine while the inspiratory flow-rate and arterial blood gases were kept constant. In addition, before and after histamine, phre...

Pack, A. I.; Hertz, B. C.; Ledlie, J. F.; Fishman, A. P.

1982-01-01

30

Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma  

OpenAIRE

Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms involved in the induction and on-going respiratory impairments associated with non-atopic asthma are unknown and poorly investigated. In the present thesis the involvement of mast cells and nerves in ast...

Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria

2002-01-01

31

Nerve growth factor regulates the expression and activity of p33cdk2 and p34cdc2 kinases in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.  

OpenAIRE

In the absence of serum, nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival and differentiation of the PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line. In the presence of serum, NGF acts primarily as a differentiation factor and negative regulator of cell cycling. To investigate NGF control of cell cycling, we have analyzed the regulation of cyclin dependent kinases during PC12 cell differentiation. NGF treatment leads to a reduction in the steady-state protein levels of p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, two key regulators ...

Buchkovich, K. J.; Ziff, E. B.

1994-01-01

32

GTK, a Src-related tyrosine kinase, induces nerve growth factor-independent neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells through activation of the Rap1 pathway. Relationship to Shb tyrosine phosphorylation and elevated levels of focal adhesion kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 is extensively used as a model for studies of neuronal cell differentiation. These cells develop a sympathetic neuron-like phenotype when cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor. The present study was performed in order to assess the role of mouse GTK (previously named BSK/IYK), a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family, for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. We report that PC12 cells stably overexpressing GTK exhibit a larger fraction of cells with neurites as compared with control cells, and this response is not accompanied by an increased ERK activity. Treatment of the cells with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 did not reduce the GTK-dependent increased in neurite outgrowth. GTK expression induces a nerve growth factor-independent Rap1 activation, probably through altered CrkII signaling. We observe increased CrkII complex formation with p130(Cas), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Shb in PC12-GTK cells. The expression of GTK also correlates with a markedly increased content of FAK, phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Shb, and an association between these two proteins. Transient transfection of GTK-overexpressing cells with RalGDS-RBD or Rap1GAP, inhibitors of the Rap1 pathway, reduces the GTK-dependent neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that GTK participates in a signaling pathway, perhaps involving Shb, FAK and Rap1, that induces neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:10878015

Annerén, C; Reedquist, K A; Bos, J L; Welsh, M

2000-09-15

33

Peripheral nerve injury activates convergent nociceptive input to dorsal horn neurons from neighboring intact nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies demonstrated that peripheral nerve injury induced excessive nociceptive response of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons and such change has been proposed to reflect the development of neuropathic pain state. The aim of this study was to examine the spinal dorsal horn for convergence of nociceptive input to second-order neurons deafferented by peripheral nerve injury. Double immunofluorescence labeling for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed to detect convergent synaptic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons after the saphenous nerve injury. c-Fos expression and the phosphorylation of ERK were induced by noxious heat stimulation of the hindpaw and by electrical stimulation of the injured or uninjured saphenous nerve, respectively. Within the central terminal field of the saphenous nerve, the number of c-Fos protein-like immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) cell profiles was significantly decreased at 3 days and returned to the control level by 14 days after the injury. p-ERK immunoreactive (p-ERK-IR) cell profiles were distributed in the central terminal field of the saphenous nerve, and the topographic distribution pattern and number of such p-ERK-IR cell profiles remained unchanged after the nerve injury. The time course of changes in the number of double-labeled cell profiles was similar to that of c-Fos-IR cell profiles after the injury. These results indicate that convergent primary nociceptive input through neighboring intact nerves contributes to increased responsiveness of spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons. PMID:25600819

Terayama, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Yuya; Kishimoto, Noriko; Maruhama, Kotaro; Mizutani, Masahide; Iida, Seiji; Sugimoto, Tomosada

2015-04-01

34

Recording sympathetic nerve activity chronically in rats: surgery techniques, assessment of nerve activity, and quantification  

OpenAIRE

The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in homeostasis through its direct innervation and functional impact on a variety of end organs. In rats, a number of methods are available to assess sympathetic nervous system function. Traditionally, direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has been restricted to acute, anesthetized preparations or conscious animals within a few days after electrode implantation. However, these approaches provide short-term data in studies desig...

Stocker, Sean D.; Muntzel, Martin S.

2013-01-01

35

Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang,; Peng Zhang

2014-01-01

36

Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4-6 spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly increased. However, the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells significantly decreased in model rats. These findings indicate that sericin protected the sciatic nerve and related nerve cells against injury in a rat type 2 diabetic model by upregulating the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells, and downregulating the expression of neuropeptide Y in spinal ganglion and anterior horn cells. PMID:25206693

Song, Chengjun; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhong, Meirong; Chen, Zhihong

2013-02-25

37

Afferent vagal nerve stimulation resets baroreflex neural arc and inhibits sympathetic nerve activity  

OpenAIRE

It has been established that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) benefits patients and/or animals with heart failure. However, the impact of VNS on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how vagal afferent stimulation (AVNS) impacts baroreflex control of SNA. In 12 anesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats, we controlled the pressure in isolated bilateral carotid sinuses (CSP), and measured splanchnic SNA and arterial pressure (AP). Under a constant CSP, increasin...

Saku, Keita; Kishi, Takuya; Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Murayama, Yoshinori; Kakino, Takamori; Ikeda, Masataka; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

2014-01-01

38

Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation, currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative on-dependent multi-electrode arrays of open design allow the early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices. .

KshitijaGarde

2009-05-01

39

Treadmill exercise suppresses muscle cell apoptosis by increasing nerve growth factor levels and stimulating p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in the soleus of diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise performed regularly for 6 weeks on the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), tyrosine kinase A and p75 receptors, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1,2, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and caspase-3 in the soleus of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) normal control group (NCG; n?=?8), (2) normal exercise group (NEG; n?=?8), (3) diabetes control group (DCG; n?=?8), and (4) diabetes exercise group (DEG; n?=?8). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg dissolved in 0.05 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5). Rats were subjected to treadmill exercise 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The protein level of NGF significantly increased in the NEG and DEG (p?activation in order to suppress apoptotic cell death in the soleus muscle of diabetic rats. PMID:21207218

Chae, Chang-Hun; Jung, Sung-Lim; An, Sang-Hyun; Jung, Chan-Kyoung; Nam, Sang-Nam; Kim, Hyun-Tae

2011-06-01

40

Aucubin promotes neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells and axonal regeneration in sciatic nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aucubin is an iridoid glycoside with a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-algesic as well as anti-tumor activities. Recently, it has been shown that aucubin prevents neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region in rats with diabetic encephalopathy. In addition, it has protective effects on H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. We have shown here that aucubin promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells cultured primarily from the rat embryonic hippocampus. We also investigated whether aucubin facilitates axonal elongation in the injured peripheral nervous system. Aucubin promoted lengthening and thickness of axons and re-myelination at 3 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. These results indicate that administration of aucubin improved nerve regeneration in the rat model of sciatic nerve injury, suggesting that aucubin may be a useful therapeutic compound for the human peripheral nervous system after various nerve injuries. PMID:25258571

Kim, Yong Min; Sim, U-Cheol; Shin, Yongsung; Kim Kwon, Yunhee

2014-09-01

41

Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerveed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

42

Inflammatory stimulation preserves physiological properties of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Axonal injury in the optic nerve is associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and irreversible loss of vision. However, inflammatory stimulation (IS) by intravitreal injection of Pam3Cys transforms RGCs into an active regenerative state enabling these neurons to survive injury and to regenerate axons into the injured optic nerve. Although morphological changes have been well studied, the functional correlates of RGCs transformed either into a de- or regenerating state at a sub-...

Henrike Stutzki; Dietmar Fischer

2014-01-01

43

Motor neuron activation in peripheral nerves using infrared neural stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Localized activation of peripheral axons may improve selectivity of peripheral nerve interfaces. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) employs localized delivery to activate neural tissue. This study investigated INS to determine whether localized delivery limited functionality in larger mammalian nerves. Approach. The rabbit sciatic nerve was stimulated extraneurally with 1875 nm wavelength infrared light, electrical stimulation, or a combination of both. Infrared-sensitive regions (ISR) of the nerve surface and electromyogram (EMG) recruitment of the Medial Gastrocnemius, Lateral Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Tibialis Anterior were the primary output measures. Stimulation applied included infrared-only, electrical-only, and combined infrared and electrical. Main results. 81% of nerves tested were sensitive to INS, with 1.7 ± 0.5 ISR detected per nerve. INS was selective to a single muscle within 81% of identified ISR. Activation energy threshold did not change significantly with stimulus power, but motor activation decreased significantly when radiant power was decreased. Maximum INS levels typically recruited up to 2-9% of any muscle. Combined infrared and electrical stimulation differed significantly from electrical recruitment in 7% of cases. Significance. The observed selectivity of INS indicates that it may be useful in augmenting rehabilitation, but significant challenges remain in increasing sensitivity and response magnitude to improve the functionality of INS.

Peterson, E. J.; Tyler, D. J.

2014-02-01

44

Rapamycin promotes Schwann cell migration and nerve growth factor secretion  

OpenAIRE

Rapamycin, similar to FK506, can promote neural regeneration in vitro. We assumed that the mechanisms of action of rapamycin and FK506 in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration were similar. This study compared the effects of different concentrations of rapamycin and FK506 on Schwann cells and investigated effects and mechanisms of rapamycin on improving peripheral nerve regeneration. Results demonstrated that the lowest rapamycin concentration (1.53 nmol/L) more significantly promoted Schwa...

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Haiwei; Zhang, Kaiming; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Yin, Yixia

2014-01-01

45

Altered neuronal activity patterns in the visual cortex of the adult rat after partial optic nerve crush--a single-cell resolution metabolic mapping study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thallium autometallography (TIAMG) is a novel method for high-resolution mapping of neuronal activity. With this method, we found that a general depression of neuronal activity occurs in response to optic nerve crush (ONC) within the first 2 weeks postinjury in the contralateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as well as in the contralateral primary visual cortex (V1). Interestingly, the neuronal activity recovered thereafter in both brain regions and reached a plateau in the tenth week postinjury in layers IV and V of V1, monocular area (V1m). Several clusters of highly active neurons in V1m were found 6 weeks after ONC in layers IV and V on the side contralateral to the lesion. We reasoned that these clusters appeared due to a reorganization of the corticocolliucular projections. Employing a combination of biotinylated dextran amine retrograde tract tracing from the superior colliculus (SC) with TIAMG in the same animal, we indeed found that the clusters of neurons with high Tl(+) uptake in V1m are spatially in register with those neuronal subpopulations that project to the SC. These data suggest that extensive reorganization plasticity exists in the adult rat visual cortex following ONC. PMID:21940702

Macharadze, Tamar; Pielot, Rainer; Wanger, Tim; Scheich, Henning; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Budinger, Eike; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutz, Michael R

2012-08-01

46

Regulation of autonomic nerve activities by central pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a peptidergic neurotransmitter that is expressed in high levels in nervous systems. Here, we investigated the roles of PACAP in autonomic system regulation by evaluating the changes caused in the autonomic nerve activities after injecting PACAP into the central nervous system (CNS) and examining stress-induced blood glucose changes in PACAP-deficient (PACAP-/-) mice. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), blood pressure, and heart rate were elevated after injecting PACAP into the third cerebral ventricle (3CV). Similarly, other sympathetic nerve activities, including adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA), celiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA), and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA), were accelerated by PACAP injection. In contrast, injecting PACAP into 3CV significantly suppressed parasympathetic nerve activities, including gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) and celiac vagal nerve activity (CVNA). In addition, blood glucose elevations induced by stress, such as immobilization or ether exposure, were disrupted in PACAP-/- mice, although basal glucose levels in mutants were comparable to that in wild-type mice. These results suggest that CNS PACAP regulates autonomic function by maintaining a sympathetic-parasympathetic balance and contributes to peripheral homeostatic maintenance, especially under conditions of stress. PMID:20171991

Tanida, Mamoru; Shintani, Norihito; Morita, Yoshiko; Tsukiyama, Naohiro; Hatanaka, Michiyoshi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Sawai, Hajime; Baba, Akemichi; Nagai, Katsuya

2010-04-01

47

Adenoviral-Mediated Glial Cell Line–Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Transfer Has a Protective Effect on Sciatic Nerve Following Constriction-Induced Spinal Cord Injury  

OpenAIRE

Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microg...

Chou, An-kuo; Yang, Ming-chang; Tsai, Hung-pei; Chai, Chee-yin; Tai, Ming-hong; Kwan, Aij-li; Hong, Yi-ren

2014-01-01

48

Nerve Growth Factor Stimulates Multisite Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Activation of the Atypical Protein Kinase C's via a src Kinase Pathway  

OpenAIRE

Atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are required for nerve growth factor (NGF)-initiated differentiation of PC12 cells. In the present study, we report that PKC-? becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in the membrane coincident with activation posttreatment with nerve growth factor. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PKC-? were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both PP2 and K252a, src and TrkA kinase inhibitors. Purified src was observed to phosphorylate and activate PKC-? in ...

Wooten, Marie W.; Vandenplas, Michel L.; Seibenhener, M. Lamar; Geetha, Thangiah; Diaz-meco, Maria T.

2001-01-01

49

Tissue Engineering the Retinal Ganglion Cell Nerve Fiber Layer  

OpenAIRE

Retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, affect millions of people worldwide and ultimately lead to retinal cell death and blindness. Cell transplantation therapies for photoreceptors demonstrate integration and restoration of function, but transplantation into the ganglion cell layer is more complex, requiring guidance of axons from transplanted cells to the optic nerve head in order to reach targets in the brain. Here we create a biodegradable electrospun (E...

Kador, Karl E.; Montero, Ramon B.; Venugopalan, Praseeda; Hertz, Jonathan; Zindell, Allison N.; Valenzuela, Daniel A.; Uddin, Mohammed S.; Lavik, Erin B.; Muller, Kenneth J.; Andreopoulos, Fotios M.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

50

In vivo MRI monitoring nerve regeneration of acute peripheral nerve traction injury following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the continuous process of nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation using MRI. Materials and methods: 1 week after acute nerve traction injury was established in the sciatic nerve of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, 5 × 105 MSCs and vehicle alone were grafted to the acutely distracted sciatic nerves each in 24 animals. Serial MRI and T1 and T2 measurements of the injured nerves were performed with a 1.5-T scanner and functional recovery was recorded over a 10-week follow-up period, with histological assessments performed at regular intervals. Results: Compared with vehicle control, nerves grafted with MSCs had better functional recovery and showed improved nerve regeneration, with a sustained increase of T1 and T2 values during the phase of regeneration. Conclusion: MRI could be used to monitor the enhanced nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with MSC transplantation, reflected by a prolonged increase in T1 and T2 values of the injured nerves

51

In vivo MRI monitoring nerve regeneration of acute peripheral nerve traction injury following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation  

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Objective: To assess the continuous process of nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation using MRI. Materials and methods: 1 week after acute nerve traction injury was established in the sciatic nerve of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, 5 × 10{sup 5} MSCs and vehicle alone were grafted to the acutely distracted sciatic nerves each in 24 animals. Serial MRI and T1 and T2 measurements of the injured nerves were performed with a 1.5-T scanner and functional recovery was recorded over a 10-week follow-up period, with histological assessments performed at regular intervals. Results: Compared with vehicle control, nerves grafted with MSCs had better functional recovery and showed improved nerve regeneration, with a sustained increase of T1 and T2 values during the phase of regeneration. Conclusion: MRI could be used to monitor the enhanced nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with MSC transplantation, reflected by a prolonged increase in T1 and T2 values of the injured nerves.

Duan, Xiao-Hui, E-mail: duanxiaohui-128@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Cheng, Li-Na, E-mail: kobe10716@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: xinxin110007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: docliujun@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Guo, Ruo-Mi, E-mail: guoruomi-521@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhong, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: enough300@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Wen, Xue-Hua, E-mail: xuehuasuqian@126.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: junshenjun@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China)

2012-09-15

52

Observations on proliferating sheath cells in the regenerating nerves of lizard  

OpenAIRE

The proliferation of sheath cells (Schwann and endoneurium) of growing nerves has been studied by autoradiography after 3~-thymidinead ministration to lizards (Anolis carolinensis and Lampropholis delicata) with regenerating tails. Schwann cells of regenerating nerves derive from the multiplication of resident cells within the growing nerves, but labelled Schwann cells derived from the regenerative blastema also appear to ensheath the new axons. Endoneurium cel...

Alibardi, Lorenzo

1996-01-01

53

Reflex changes in post- and preganglionic sympathetic adrenal nerve activity and postganglionic sympathetic renal nerve activity upon arterial baroreceptor activation and during severe haemorrhage in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to compare pre- (pre-aSNA) and postganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (post-aSNA) and postganglionic renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) in rats during arterial baroreceptor activation and haemorrhage. Adrenal multifibre nerve activity was recorded in chloralose-anaesthetized Wistar rats. To test for pre-aSNA or post-aSNA in adrenal nerves, a ganglionic blocker, trimethaphan (10 mg kg-1), was administered i.v. If the nerve activity in the adrenal nerve decreased or increased the nerve was considered to contain predominantly post- or preganglionic fibres, respectively. In contrast, the renal nerves exhibit an almost pure postganglionic activity. Baroreceptor activity was tested by activation of baroreceptors, with an alpha-receptor agonist, phenylephrine, which was slowly infused (0.5-2 micrograms kg-1 min-1), and to deactivate the baroreceptors the rats were bled down to 50 mmHg for 8 min. The experiments showed that all tested nerve types were baroreceptor dependent. There were no significant differences between the slopes relating nerve activity inhibition to increase in blood pressure (infusion of phenylephrine). During maximal inhibition there was a difference between the rSNA and pre-aSNA, 87 +/- 4%, n = 6, and 68 +/- 6%, n = 10 (P less than 0.01) of the control value, respectively. The maximal inhibition of post-aSNA was 80 +/- 3%, n = 7, of the control value. During haemorrhage there was a difference between the nerve populations. Pre-aSNA responded with a marked increase within 1.5 min (159 +/- 29% of control, n = 7) and was then maintained at that level until retransfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1585814

Carlsson, S; Skarphedinsson, J O; Delle, M; Hoffman, P; Thorén, P

1992-03-01

54

Significance of Conversation between Mast Cells and Nerves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract More and more studies are demonstrating interactions between the nervous system and the immune system. However, the functional relevance of this interaction still remains to be elucidated. Such associations have been found in the intestine between nerves and mast cells as well as between eosinophils and plasma cells. Similar morphologic associations have been demonstrated in the liver, mesentery, urinary bladder, and skin. Unmyelinated axons especially were found to associate with mast cells as well as Langerhans' cells in primate as well as murine skin. Although there are several pathways by which immune cells interact with the nervous system, the focus in this review will be on the interaction between mast cells and nerves.

Kleij Hanneke

2005-06-01

55

Recording sympathetic nerve activity chronically in rats: surgery techniques, assessment of nerve activity, and quantification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in homeostasis through its direct innervation and functional impact on a variety of end organs. In rats, a number of methods are available to assess sympathetic nervous system function. Traditionally, direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has been restricted to acute, anesthetized preparations or conscious animals within a few days after electrode implantation. However, these approaches provide short-term data in studies designed to investigate changes in SNA during chronic disease states. Over the last several years, chronic SNA recording has been pioneered in rabbits and more recently in rats. The purpose of this article is to provide insights and a "how to" guide for chronic SNA recordings in rats based on experiences from two independent laboratories. We will present common methodologies used to chronically record SNA, characteristics and methods to distinguish sympathetic bursts versus electrical artifacts (and provide corresponding audio clips when available), and provide suggestions for analysis and presentation of data. In many instances, these same guidelines are applicable to acute SNA recordings. Using the surgical approaches described herein, both laboratories have been able to chronically record SNA in >50% of rats for a duration >3 wk. The ability to record SNA over the time course of several weeks will, undoubtedly, greatly impact the field of autonomic and cardiovascular physiology. PMID:24014674

Stocker, Sean D; Muntzel, Martin S

2013-11-15

56

Nerve conduction  

Science.gov (United States)

... spinal cord to muscles and sensory receptors. A peripheral nerve is composed of nerve bundles (fascicles) that contain hundreds of individual nerve fibers (neurons). Neurons consist of dendrites, axon, and cell body. The dendrites are the tree- ...

57

In vivo integration of poly(?-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibrous nerve guide seeded with teeth derived stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial nanofiber nerve guides have gained huge interest in bridging nerve gaps and associated peripheral nerve regeneration due to its high surface area, flexibility and porous structure. In this study, electrospun poly (?-caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibrous mats were fabricated, rolled around a copper wire and fixed by medical grade adhesive to obtain a tubular shaped bio-graft, to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve gap in in vivo rat models. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) were transplanted to the site of nerve injury through the nanofibrous nerve guides. In vivo experiments were performed in animal models after creating a sciatic nerve gap, such that the nerve gap was grafted using (i) nanofiber nerve guide (ii) nanofiber nerve guide seeded with SHED (iii) suturing, while an untreated nerve gap remained as the negative control. In vitro cell culture study was carried out for primary investigation of SHED-nanofiber interaction and its viability within the nerve guides after 2 and 16 weeks of implantation time. Walking track analysis, plantar test, electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate functional recovery during nerve regeneration. Vascularization was also investigated by hematoxilin/eosine (H&E) staining. Overall results showed that the SHED seeded on nanofibrous nerve guide could survive and promote axonal regeneration in rat sciatic nerves, whereby the biocompatible PCL/Gel nerve guide with cells can support axonal regeneration and could be a promising tissue engineered graft for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24677613

Beigi, Mohammad-Hossein; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Azadeh, Hamid; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

2014-12-01

58

Hypothalamic stimulation and baroceptor reflex interaction on renal nerve activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basal level of mean renal nerve activity (MRNA-0) measured in anesthetized cats was found to be modified by the additive interaction of hypothalamic and baroceptor reflex influences. Data were collected with the four major baroceptor nerves either intact or cut, and with mean aortic pressure (MAP) either clamped with a reservoir or raised with l-epinephrine. With intact baroceptor nerves, MRNA stayed essentially constant at level MRNA-0 for MAP below an initial pressure P1, and fell approximately linearly to zero as MAP was raised to P2. Cutting the baroceptor nerves kept MRNA at MRNA-0 (assumed to represent basal central neural output) independent of MAP. The addition of hypothalamic stimulation produced nearly constant increments in MRNA for all pressure levels up to P2, with complete inhibition at some level above P2. The increments in MRNA depended on frequency and location of the stimulus. A piecewise linear model describes MRNA as a linear combination of hypothalamic, basal central neural, and baroceptor reflex activity.

Wilson, M. F.; Ninomiya, I.; Franz, G. N.; Judy, W. V.

1971-01-01

59

Phosphotyrosine residues in the nerve-growth-factor receptor (Trk-A). Their role in the activation of inositolphospholipid metabolism and protein kinase cascades in phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

PC12 cells, which lack platelet derived-growth-factor (PDGF) receptors, have been stably transfected with a chimaera consisting of the extracellular domain of the beta-PDGF receptor and the intracellular and transmembrane domains of the nerve-growth-factor receptor Trk-A (termed PT-R). Mutation of the Trk-A residue Tyr490 to phenylalanine prevents the association with Shc, while similar mutations at Tyr751 or Tyr785 are reported to prevent interaction of Trk-A with the p85 subunit of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase and phospholipase C-gamma 1, respectively. The strong and sustained activation of p42 and p44 mitogen-activated-protein kinases induced by PDGF-B/B in PC12/PT-R cells was unaffected by mutation of Tyr785 or Tyr751 to phenylalanine, but was smaller and transient after mutation of Tyr490, and almost abolished by the double mutation of Tyr490 and Tyr785. Mutation of Tyr490 reduced by 70% the PDGF-induced increase in inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activity immunoprecipitated from cell extracts with antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and greatly suppressed the PDGF-induced increase in the intracellular products of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase, while mutation of Tyr751 or Tyr785 had no effect. Mutation of Tyr785 (but not mutation of Tyr490 or Tyr751) abolished PDGF-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mutation of Tyr490, alone or in combination with mutation of Tyr751 and Tyr785, had no effect on the PDGF-induced activation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K). However, the activation of p70S6K by PDGF (or nerve growth factor), but not the activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase, was prevented by two structurally unrelated inhibitors of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase, wortmannin or LY294002. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) the phosphorylation of Tyr490 plays a major role in the activation of inositol phospholipid 3-kinase and formation of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids and confirm that the phosphorylation of Tyr 785 triggers the activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 in vivo. (2) Tyr490 phosphorylation (but not inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activation) is also required for strong and sustained activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase and neuronal differentiation, while the smaller and more transient activation of mitogen-activated-protein kinase, produced by the activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 is insufficient to trigger the neuronal differentiation of PT-R cells. (3) Inositol phospholipid 3-kinase is required for the activation of p70S6K, but only a small increase in inositol phospholipid 3-kinase activity and the level of 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids is required for maximal p70S6K activation. PMID:8529673

Baxter, R M; Cohen, P; Obermeier, A; Ullrich, A; Downes, C P; Doza, Y N

1995-11-15

60

Spermidine promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration in adult mice following optic nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermidine acts as an endogenous free radical scavenger and inhibits the action of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined the effects of spermidine on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a mouse model of optic nerve injury (ONI). Daily ingestion of spermidine reduced RGC death following ONI and sequential in vivo retinal imaging revealed that spermidine effectively prevented retinal degeneration. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) is an evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase and has an important role in ONI-induced RGC apoptosis. We demonstrated that spermidine suppresses ONI-induced activation of the ASK1-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Moreover, production of chemokines important for microglia recruitment was decreased with spermidine treatment and, consequently, accumulation of retinal microglia is reduced. In addition, the ONI-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the retina was inhibited with spermidine treatment, particularly in microglia. Furthermore, daily spermidine intake enhanced optic nerve regeneration in vivo. Our findings indicate that spermidine stimulates neuroprotection as well as neuroregeneration, and may be useful for treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases including glaucoma. PMID:25880087

Noro, T; Namekata, K; Kimura, A; Guo, X; Azuchi, Y; Harada, C; Nakano, T; Tsuneoka, H; Harada, T

2015-01-01

61

Sustained GSK3 activity markedly facilitates nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Promotion of axonal growth of injured DRG neurons improves the functional recovery associated with peripheral nerve regeneration. Both isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3; ? and ?) are phosphorylated and inactivated via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling upon sciatic nerve crush (SNC). However, the role of GSK3 phosphorylation in this context is highly controversial. Here we use knock-in mice expressing GSK3 isoforms resistant to inhibitory PI3K/AKT phosphorylation, and unexpectedly find markedly accelerated axon growth of DRG neurons in culture and in vivo after SNC compared with controls. Moreover, this enhanced regeneration strikingly accelerates functional recovery after SNC. These effects are GSK3 activity dependent and associated with elevated MAP1B phosphorylation. Altogether, our data suggest that PI3K/AKT-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 limits the regenerative outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Therefore, suppression of this internal 'regenerative break' may potentially provide a new perspective for the clinical treatment of nerve injuries. PMID:25078444

Gobrecht, Philipp; Leibinger, Marco; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Fischer, Dietmar

2014-01-01

62

Development of neural crest cells expressing nerve growth factor receptors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study examines the ontogeny of the nerve growth factor receptor of neural crest cells in vitro and the phenotypic nature of the neural crest cells expressing this receptor. /sup 125/I-NGF binding assays and autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques have demonstrated the presence of a subpopulation of quail neural crest cells that express specific NGF receptors after 3-4 days in vitro. This subpopulations represents approximately 28% of the cells in 5-day primary cultures and 30-35% of the cells in secondary cultures; these cells generally exhibited a flattened, phase-dark morphology. Approximately one-third of these cells also labeled with a 2 hr pulse of /sup 3/H thymidine. Catecholamine-containing neural crest cells generally lacked NGF receptors. NGF receptor-positive cells also failed to demonstrate somatostatin-, neuron-specific enolase-, or S-100-like immunoreactivity. Melanocytes do not appear to express NGF receptors. Exogenous nerve growth factor did not influence the morphology or mitotic status of the cells in culture.

Greiner, C.A.

1987-01-01

63

Peripheral nerve regeneration after experimental section in ovine radial and tibial nerves using synthetic nerve grafts, including expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cells: morphological and neurophysiological results.  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard treatment of peripherical nerve injuries with substance gap is to introduce the nerve free extremes in a biodegradable tube which, as a biocamera, allows the continuity of the nerve, promote the neuroconduction and save the lesion from the surrounding fibrosis. However, this procedure has not any direct effect on the neuroregeneration nor to resolve high severe lesions. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can derivate "in vitro" in different lineages, including Schwann cells. Different studies have shown MSC can promote the nerve regeneration in rodents, dogs and primates. Moving to the human clinical application requires the procedure standardization, including the optimal cell dose which we have to use. In the sheep model animal we performed a study of 1 cm. nerve section-ressection and repair with a Neurolac™ biocamera, in whose gap we applied between 30 to 50×10(6) MSC from cancellous bone, all of them selected and cultured with GMP procedures. The results were compared with controls (saline serum ± platelet-rich plasma). We used radial nerve (sensitive) and tibial nerve (motor) from 7 sheep. In the first step we performed the surgical lesion and bone marrow aspiration, and in 3 weeks we performed the surgical repair. 3 sheep were sacrificed in 3 months, and 4 sheep in 6 months. In all surgeries we performed a neurophysiological register. When we obtained the tissue samples, we performed an histological, immunohistiquimical and morphometrical study. The recovery percentage was defined comparing the axonal density from the proximal and distal lesion margins. The 3 months samples results were wrong. In 6 months samples results we observed a significative myelined nervous fibers and conduction increasing, in front of controls, both radial and tibial nerves. These results suggest the MSC application in biodegradable scaffold in nerve injuries promotes good results in terms of regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25384470

Casañas, Joaquim; de la Torre, Jaime; Soler, Francesc; García, Felix; Rodellar, Clementina; Pumarola, Martí; Climent, Jana; Soler, Robert; Orozco, Lluís

2014-10-01

64

Changes in afferent impulse activity of small intestine mesenteric nerves in response to antigen challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sprague-Dawley rats (weight 130-150 g) were sensitized by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg chicken egg albumin with 0.25 ml Freund's adjuvant to stimulate immunoglobulin E antibody production. Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor was used as an indicator of animal sensitization. In acute electrophysiological experiments on sensitized animals, an intra-arterial or intraluminal chicken egg albumin (100 microg) challenge evoked a 10% enhancement of the activity of mesenteric nerves of the small intestine, regardless of the injection site chosen. Afferent nerve activity in control animals was not changed during the chicken egg albumin challenge. Morphometry at the light microscope level showed activation of mast cell degranulation after the antigen challenge to presensitized rats. Intraluminal injections of a stimulator of mast cell degranulation, compound 48/80 (20-30 mg), were found to increase afferent discharges in intact rats. An antagonist of H1 histamine receptors, clemastine, reduced the effect of compound 48/80. The results obtained provide direct evidence for the stimulation of sensory nerve endings by mast cell mediators released during mast cell degranulation. PMID:10625072

Nozdrachev, A D; Akoev, G N; Filippova, L V; Sherman, N O; Lioudyno, M I; Makarov, F N

1999-01-01

65

Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast, but direct comparison of birefringent and 90{sup o} scattering signals has not been reported. New developments in computer and optical technology allow optical recording with higher temporal resolution than could be achieved previously. This has led us to undertake more detailed studies of the biophysical mechanisms underlying these transient changes. Optimization of this technology in conjunction with other technical developments presents a path to noninvasive dynamic clinical observation of optical responses. To conduct these optical recordings, we placed dissected leg, claw and ventral cord nerves from crayfish and lobster in a recording chamber constructed from black Delrin. The chamber consisted of several wells situated perpendicularly to the long axis of the nerve that could beelectrically isolated for stimulating and recording electrical activation, and a window in the center for optical measurements. To measure the birefringence from the nerve, light from a 120W halogen bulb was focused onto the nerve from below the window through a 10X microscope objective and polarized at a 45 degree angle with respect to the long axis of the nerve bundle. A second polarizer turned 90 degrees with respect to the first polarizer was placed on top of the chamber and excluded direct source illumination, passing only birefringent light from the nerve. A large area photodiode placed directly on top of the polarizer detected the magnitude of the birefringent light. To measure light scattered 90 degrees by the nerve, a short length of image conduit placed perpendicularly to the nerve directed large angle scattered light from the nerve to a second photodiode. The output of each photodiode was amplified by a first stage amplifier which produced a DC level output, and was coupled to an AC amplifier (0.3 Hz High Pass) with a gain of 1000 to optimally record changes across time.

Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)

2002-01-01

66

GABA-Activated Chloride Channels in Secretory Nerve Endings  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurotransmitters acting on presynaptic terminals regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. Because of the difficulty of direct electrophysiological recording from small presynaptic terminals, little is known about the ion channels that mediate these actions or about the mechanisms by which transmitter secretion is altered. The patch-clamp technique is used to show that the predominant inhibitory presynaptic neurotransmitter, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), activates a GABA_A receptor and gates a chloride channel in the membranes of peptidergic nerve terminals of the posterior pituitary. The opening of a chloride channel by GABA weakly depolarizes the nerve terminal membrane and blocks action potentials. In this way, GABA limits secretion by retarding the spread of excitation into the terminal arborization.

Zhang, Shuanglin J.; Jackson, Meyer B.

1993-01-01

67

The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Effects of Its Agonist, Pioglitazone, on a Rat Model of Optic Nerve Crush: PPAR? in Retinal Neuroprotection  

OpenAIRE

It has been shown that peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is beneficial for central nervous system injury. However its role on optic nerve injury remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the change of PPAR? expression in rat retina following optic nerve injury and investigated the effect of pioglitazone (Pio), a PPAR? agonist, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) neuroprotection using a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. Our results showed that PPAR? mRNA and ...

Zhu, Juming; Zhang, Junfang; Ji, Min; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Yue; Chen, Chen; Hu, Nan

2013-01-01

68

Stromal cell-derived CCL2 drives neuropathic pain states through myeloid cell infiltration in injured nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve injury involves many persistent neuroinflammatory processes including inflammatory chemokines that control leukocyte trafficking and activate resident cells. Several studies have shown that CCL2 chemokine, a potent attractant of monocytes, and its cognate receptor, CCR2, play a critical role in regulating nociceptive processes during neuropathic pain. However, the role of CCL2 in peripheral leukocyte infiltration-associated neuropathic pain remains poorly understood. In particular, the contribution of individual CCL2-expressing cell populations (i.e. stromal and leukocytes) to immune cell recruitment into the injured nerve has not been established. Here, in preclinical model of peripheral neuropathic pain (i.e. chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve), we have demonstrated that, CCL2 content was increased specifically in nerve fibers. This upregulation of CCL2 correlated with local monocyte/macrophage infiltration and pain processing. Furthermore, sciatic intraneural microinjection of CCL2 in naïve animals triggered long-lasting pain behavior associated with local monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Using a specific CCR2 antagonist and mice with a CCL2 genetic deletion, we have also established that the CCL2/CCR2 axis drives monocyte/macrophage infiltration and pain hypersensitivity in the CCI model. Finally, specific deletion of CCL2 in stromal or immune cells respectively using irradiated bone marrow-chimeric CCI mice demonstrated that stromal cell-derived CCL2 (in contrast to CCL2 immune cell-derived) tightly controls monocyte/macrophage recruitment into the lesion and plays a major role in the development of neuropathic pain. These findings demonstrate that in chronic pain states, CCL2 expressed by sciatic nerve cells predominantly drove local neuro-immune interactions and pain-related behavior through CCR2 signaling. PMID:25449579

Van Steenwinckel, Juliette; Auvynet, Constance; Sapienza, Anaïs; Reaux-Le Goazigo, Annabelle; Combadière, Christophe; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane

2015-03-01

69

Effects of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins on acetylcholine release and motor nerve terminal activity.  

OpenAIRE

1. The effects of the K+ channel blocking toxins, the dendrotoxins, on neuromuscular transmission and motor nerve terminal activity were assessed on frog cutaneous pectoris, mouse diaphragm and mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. Endplate potentials (e.p.ps) and miniature e.p.ps were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes, and nerve terminal spikes were recorded with extracellular electrodes placed in the perineural sheaths of motor nerves. 2. Dendrotoxin from green mamb...

Anderson, A. J.; Harvey, A. L.

1988-01-01

70

Effect of Axon Misdirection on Recovery of Electromyographic Activity and Kinematics after Peripheral Nerve Injury  

OpenAIRE

In this study, patterns of activity in the soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and hindlimb kinematics were evaluated during slope walking in rats after transection and surgical repair either of the entire sciatic nerve (Sci group) or of its two branches separately, the tibial and common fibular nerves (T/CF group). With the latter method, axons from the tibial and common fibular nerves could not reinnervate targets of the other nerve branch after injury, reducing the opportunity ...

Sabatier, Manning J.; To, Bao Ngoc; Nicolini, Jennifer; English, Arthur W.

2011-01-01

71

Peripheral Nerve Repair with Cultured Schwann Cells: Getting Closer to the Clinics  

OpenAIRE

Peripheral nerve injuries are a frequent and disabling condition, which affects 13 to 23 per 100.000 persons each year. Severe cases, with structural disruption of the nerve, are associated with poor functional recovery. The experimental treatment using nerve grafts to replace damaged or shortened axons is limited by technical difficulties, invasiveness, and mediocre results. Other therapeutic choices include the adjunctive application of cultured Schwann cells and nerve conduits to guide axo...

Rodrigues, Maria Carolina O.; Rodrigues, Antonio Antunes; Glover, Loren E.; Voltarelli, Julio; Borlongan, Cesario V.

2012-01-01

72

Active gene repression by the Egr2.NAB complex during peripheral nerve myelination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Egr2/Krox20 transactivator is required for activation of many myelin-associated genes during peripheral nerve myelination by Schwann cells. However, recent work has indicated that Egr2 not only activates genes required for peripheral nerve myelination but may also be involved in gene repression. The NAB (NGFI-A/Egr-binding) corepressors interact with Egr2 and are required for proper coordination of myelin formation. Therefore, NAB proteins could mediate repression of some Egr2 target genes, although direct repression by Egr2 or NAB proteins during myelination has not been demonstrated. To define the physiological role of NAB corepression in gene repression by Egr2, we tested whether the Egr2.NAB complex directly repressed specific target genes. A screen for NAB-regulated genes identified several (including Id2, Id4, and Rad) that declined during the course of peripheral nerve myelination. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the myelinating sciatic nerve was used to show developmental association of both Egr2 and NAB2 on the Id2, Id4, and Rad promoters as they were repressed during the myelination process. In addition, NAB2 represses transcription by interaction with the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase chromatin remodeling complex, and we demonstrate that CHD4 occupies NAB-repressed promoters in a developmentally regulated manner in vivo. These results illustrate a novel aspect of genetic regulation of peripheral nerve myelination by showing that Egr2 directly represses genes during myelination in conjunction with NAB corepressors. Furthermore, repression of Id2 was found to augment activation of Mpz (myelin protein zero) expression. PMID:18456662

Mager, Gennifer M; Ward, Rebecca M; Srinivasan, Rajini; Jang, Sung-Wook; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Svaren, John

2008-06-27

73

Nerve cell response to inhibitors recorded with an aluminum-galliumnitride/galliumnitride field-effect transistor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments based on neuronal cell-transistor couplings were made from some groups during the last years. Pioneering work in this field was carried out by Fromherz and his group (Fromherz, 2003; Schmidtner and Fromherz, 2006). We were interested of the interaction of nerve cells to serine hydrolase inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), monitored by using an aluminum-galliumnitride/galliumnitride (AlGaN/GaN) electrolyte gate field effect transistor (EGFET). The biocompatibility study of our sensor materials with nerve cells shows a proliferation rate of at least 95%. The inhibitors were added to the medium and the source-drain current of the EGFET was recorded as a function of time. The inhibitor was added to the NG108-15 nerve cells growing directly on the sensor surface, resulting in a fast decrease in the drain current, I(DS). Control measurements show that this response is associated with cationic fluxes pumped through ionic channels present in the cellular membrane. The sensor enables analysis of the ion channel activity without cell destruction and simultaneously allows visual observation due to the optical transparency of the sensor material. PMID:22426140

Gebinoga, Michael; Mai, Patrick; Donahue, Mary; Kittler, Mario; Cimalla, Irina; Lübbers, Benedikt; Klett, Maren; Lebedev, Vadim; Silveira, Liele; Singh, Sukhdeep; Schober, Andreas

2012-01-01

74

Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the process of fainting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, and the process of syncope progression will be described with two types of sympathetic change. Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically recorded MSNA and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement have disclose what is going on in the course of progression of the syncope. Vasovagal or neurally mediated syncope, three stages are identified in the course of syncope onset, oscillation, imbalance, and catastrophe phases. The vasovagal syncope is characterized by the sympathoexcitation, followed by vagal overcome via the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Orthostatic syncope is caused by the response failure or lack of sympathetic nerve activity toward the orthostatic challenge followed by the fluid shift, and subsequent cerebral low perfusion. Four causes are considered for the compensatory failure, which triggers the orthostatic syncope; hypovolemia, increased pooling in the lower body, failure to activate the sympathetic activity, and failure of vasoconstriction against sympathetic vasoconstrictive stimulation. Many pathophysiological conditions were described in the viewpoint of 1 exaggerated sympathoexcitation and 2 failure to activate the sympathetic nerve. We conclude that the sympathetic nervous system can control the cardiovascular function, and its failure resulted syncope, however, responses of the system by microneurographically recorded MSNA would determine the pathophysiology of the onset and progression of syncope, explaining the treatment effect that could be achieved by the analysis of this mechanism.

SatoshiIwase

2014-09-01

75

Sympathetic nerve activity and whole body heat stress in humans  

OpenAIRE

We and others have shown that moderate passive whole body heating (i.e., increased internal temperature ?0.7°C) increases muscle (MSNA) and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). It is unknown, however, if MSNA and/or SSNA continue to increase with more severe passive whole body heating or whether these responses plateau following moderate heating. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that MSNA and SSNA continue to increase from a moderate to a more severe heat stress....

Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Crandall, Craig G.

2011-01-01

76

Nerve growth factor-mediated targeting of liposomes to cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor (NGF), modified by biotinylation of carboxyl groups, were used to target the specific binding of liposomes to cultured rat and human cells bearing NGF receptors. Streptavidin was conjugated via peptide bonds to amino groups on liposomes. Biotinylated NGF, but not unmodified NGF, mediated the binding of radiolabeled streptavidin-liposomes to rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in suspension at 40C. In contrast, biotinylated NGF did not increase the binding of hemoglobin-conjugated liposomes tested as a control for specificity. Biotinylated NGF also mediated the specific binding of streptavidin-liposomes containing fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran to PC12 cells and human melanoma HS294 cells. When HS294 cells were incubated at 370C following liposome binding at 40C, the cell-associated fluorescence appeared to become internalized, in that some cells displayed a perinuclear pattern of fluorescence similar to that observed when lysosomes were stained with acridine orange. Trypsin treatment abolished cell-associated fluorescence when cells were held at 40C but did not affect the fluorescence in cells following incubation at 370C. When liposomes containing carboxyfluorescein, a dye that can diffuse out of acidic compartments, were targeted to HS294 cells, incubation at 370C resulted in diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence, suggesting that internalized liposomes encounter lysosomal or prelysosomal organelles

77

Afferent vagal nerve stimulation resets baroreflex neural arc and inhibits sympathetic nerve activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been established that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) benefits patients and/or animals with heart failure. However, the impact of VNS on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how vagal afferent stimulation (AVNS) impacts baroreflex control of SNA. In 12 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we controlled the pressure in isolated bilateral carotid sinuses (CSP), and measured splanchnic SNA and arterial pressure (AP). Under a constant CSP, increasing the voltage of AVNS dose dependently decreased SNA and AP. The averaged maximal inhibition of SNA was -28.0 ± 10.3%. To evaluate the dynamic impacts of AVNS on SNA, we performed random AVNS using binary white noise sequences, and identified the transfer function from AVNS to SNA and that from SNA to AP. We also identified transfer functions of the native baroreflex from CSP to SNA (neural arc) and from SNA to AP (peripheral arc). The transfer function from AVNS to SNA strikingly resembled the baroreflex neural arc and the transfer functions of SNA to AP were indistinguishable whether we perturbed ANVS or CSP, indicating that they likely share common central and peripheral neural mechanisms. To examine the impact of AVNS on baroreflex, we changed CSP stepwise and measured SNA and AP responses with or without AVNS. AVNS resets the sigmoidal neural arc downward, but did not affect the linear peripheral arc. In conclusion, AVNS resets the baroreflex neural arc and induces sympathoinhibition in the same manner as the control of SNA and AP by the native baroreflex. PMID:25194023

Saku, Keita; Kishi, Takuya; Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Murayama, Yoshinori; Kakino, Takamori; Ikeda, Masataka; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

2014-09-01

78

High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

2013-04-01

79

Are Natural Killer Cells Distributed in Relationship to Nerve Fibers in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specialized lymphocytes, called uterine Natural Killer (uNK cells, appear in human and rodent uteri and become abundant at implantation sites during decidualization and early pregnancy. The hallmark of human uNK cells is intense expression of CD56, a neural cell adhesion glycoprotein (NCAM-1 while mature (granulated mouse uNK cells express asialoGM1, a brain ganglioside. Murine uNK cells initiate the normal structural changes induced in maternal spiral arteries by pregnancy but regulation of their recruitment, localization and activation is incompletely understood. To address whether uNK cell distribution is co-localized with nerve fiber distribution, sections of gestation day (gd 6-12 implantation sites from C57BL/6 (B6 mice were studied. Nerve fibers reactive with antibodies to pan neurofilament 150 kD or with tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme restricted to sympathetic fibers, were present the walls of branches from the uterine artery in the mesentery. Reactivity was lost as the vessels crossed the myometrium and entered endometrium/decidua. Periodic Acid Schiff’s reactive uNK cells were absent from the mesentery and enriched in decidua basalis where they transcribed NCAM-1 and associated with non-innervated segments of the uterine arteries, including spiral arteries. These data suggest that the localization and activation of mature uNK cells are unlikely to be neurotransmitter regulated.

A.K. Sheikhi

2007-01-01

80

Activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade after traumatic nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent data have shown that preservation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) after traumatic nerve injury helps to improve functional recovery with surgical repair via matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) blockade. As such, we sought to explore additional pathways that may augment this response. Wnt3a has been shown to inhibit acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering via ?-catenin-dependent signaling in the development of the NMJ. Therefore, we hypothesized that Wnt3a and ?-catenin are associated with NMJ destabilization following traumatic denervation. A critical size nerve defect was created by excising a 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve in mice. Denervated muscles were then harvested at multiple time points for immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot analysis for Wnt3a and ?-catenin levels. Moreover, a novel Wnt/?-catenin transgenic reporter mouse line was utilized to support our hypothesis of Wnt activation after traumatic nerve injury. The expression of Wnt3a mRNA was significantly increased by 2weeks post-injury and remained upregulated for 2months. Additionally, ?-catenin was activated at 2months post-injury relative to controls. Correspondingly, immunohistochemical analysis of denervated transgenic mouse line TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP muscles demonstrated that the number of GFP-positive cells was increased at the motor endplate band. These collective data support that post-synaptic AChRs destabilize after denervation by a process that involves the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. As such, this pathway serves as a potential therapeutic target to prevent the motor endplate degeneration that occurs following traumatic nerve injury. PMID:25743255

Kurimoto, S; Jung, J; Tapadia, M; Lengfeld, J; Agalliu, D; Waterman, M; Mozaffar, T; Gupta, R

2015-05-21

81

The Role Of Cells, Neurotrophins, Extracellular Matrix And Cell Surface Molecules In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Wallerian degeneration is a complicated process whereby axons and myelin sheaths undergo degeneration, and eventually are phagocytosed by macrophages and Schwann cells following nerve damage. Schwann cells proliferate and the endoneural tubes persist. In addition, neurotrophins, neural cell adhesion molecules, cytokines and other soluble factors are upregulated to facilitate regeneration. The important role of cellular components, neurotrophins, and extracellular matrix components, including ...

Naidu, Murali

2009-01-01

82

Electromagnetic fields influence NGF activity and levels following sciatic nerve transection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been shown to increase the rate of nerve regeneration. Transient post-transection loss of target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is one mechanism proposed to signal induction of early nerve regenerative events. We tested the hypothesis that PEMF alter levels of NGF activity and protein in injured nerve and/or dorsal root ganglia (DRG) during the first stages of regeneration (6-72 hr). Rats with a transection injury to the midthigh portion of the sciatic nerve on one side were exposed to PEMF or sham control PEMF for 4 hr/day for different time periods. NGF-like activity was determined in DRG, in 5-mm nerve segments proximal and distal to the transection site and in a corresponding 5-mm segment of the contralateral nonoperated nerve. NGF-like activity of coded tissue samples was measured in a blinded fashion using the chick DRG sensory neuron bioassay. Overall, PEMF caused a significant decrease in NGF-like activity in nerve tissue (P nerve. Unexpectedly, transection was also found to cause a significant (P=0.001) 2-fold increase in DRG NGF-like activity between 6 and 24 hr postinjury in contralateral but not ipsilateral DRG. PEMF also reduced NGF-like activity in DRG, although this decrease did not reach statistical significance. Assessment of the same nerve and DRG samples using ELISA and NGF-specific antibodies confirmed an overall significant (P PEMF-treated nerve tissue, while no decrease was detected in DRG or in nerve samples harvested from PEMF-treated uninjured rats. These findings demonstrate that PEMF can affect growth factor activity and levels, and raise the possibility that PEMF might promote nerve regeneration by amplifying the early postinjury decline in NGF activity. PMID:9972825

Longo, F M; Yang, T; Hamilton, S; Hyde, J F; Walker, J; Jennes, L; Stach, R; Sisken, B F

1999-01-15

83

Central AMP-activated protein kinase affects sympathetic nerve activity in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, or compound C (CC), an AMPK inhibitor, on the activity of sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal gland and kidney in urethane-anesthetized rats to elucidate the role of AMPK in sympathetic nervous system function. We found that an ICV injection of AICAR or CC significantly stimulated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Following this, we examined the role of AMPK on the sympatho-excitation caused by leptin injection. Pretreatment with AICAR or CC eliminated the leptin-induced increase in RSNA, however, neither pretreatment with AICAR or CC affected the leptin-induced increase in ASNA. Our data suggest that AMPK may regulate the sympathetic nerve system, and that the stimulating effect of leptin on sympathetic nerve activity in kidney may depend on central AMPK. PMID:21893163

Tanida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki

2011-10-10

84

Channels active in the excitability of nerves and skeletal muscles across the neuromuscular junction: basic function and pathophysiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the activation of motoneurons and their corresponding muscle cells is essential for interpreting basic neurophysiology in nerves, the heart, and skeletal and smooth muscle. This review article is intended to clarify how channels work in nerves, neuromuscular junctions, and muscle function and what happens when these channels are defective. Highlighting the human diseases that result from defective ion channels is likely to be interesting to students in helping them choose to learn about channel physiology.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

2008-04-11

85

Rat Sciatic Nerve Reconstruction Across a 30 mm Defect Bridged by an Oriented Porous PHBV Tube With Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft  

OpenAIRE

An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into...

Karimi, Mina; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Doostmohamadpour, Jafar; Janfada, Alireza; Montazeri, Arash

2014-01-01

86

Imaging stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings in mouse colon  

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Full Text Available Spinal afferent neurons play a major role in detecting noxious and innocuous stimuli from visceral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, all our understanding about spinal afferents has been obtained from recordings of spinal afferent axons, or cell bodies that lie outside the gut wall, or peripheral organ they innervate. No recordings have been made directly from spinal afferent nerve endings, which is where sensory transduction occurs. We developed a preparation whereby recordings could be made from rectal afferent nerve endings in the colon, to characterize mechanisms underlying sensory transduction. Dorsal root ganglia (L6-S2 were removed from mice, whilst retaining neural continuity with the colon. Fluo-4-AM was used to record from rectal afferent nerve endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle at 36oC. In slack (unstretched preparations of colon, no calcium transients were recorded from spinal afferent endings. However, in response to a maintained increase in circumferential diameter, a maintained discharge of calcium transients occurred simultaneously in multiple discrete varicosities along single axons of rectal afferents in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Stretch-activated calcium transients were resistant to hexamethonium and nifedipine, but were abolished by tetrodotoxin, CPA, BAPTA-AM, cobalt, gadolinium, or replacement of extracellular Na+ with NMDG. In summary, we present a novel preparation in which stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings can be recorded, using calcium imaging. We show that circumferential stretch of the colon activates a maintained discharge of calcium transients simultaneously in varicosities along single rectal afferent endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Non-selective cation channels, TTX-sensitive Na+ channels and both extracellular calcium influx and intracellular Ca2+ stores are required for stretch-activated calcium transients in rectal afferent endings.

NickSpencer

2013-10-01

87

Is the somatotropic axis related to sympathetic nerve activity in healthy ageing men?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the age-related increase in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity remain largely unknown. The decline in growth hormone (GH) secretion and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) with age has been related to several cardiovascular risk factors. Low serum IGF-I levels in severe adult GH deficiency is associated with markedly increased sympathetic nerve activity. This study evaluates whether a relationship between serum IGF-I and sympathetic nerve traff...

Sverrisdo?ttir, Yb; Johannsson, G.; Jungersten, L.; Wallin, Bg; Elam, M.

2001-01-01

88

Immunocytochemical analysis of glial cells in the hypomyelinated optic nerve of the BW mutant rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Browman-Wyse (BW) rat is a mutant with structural defects of the visual system, including a failure of the proximal (retinal) end of the optic nerve to myelinate. This latter abnormality is correlated with an absence of CAII+ oligodendrocytes, but we have previously shown that astrocytes are normally distributed, as judged by morphological characteristics of GFAP+ cells in vivo. We have further examined in vitro the immunohistochemical characteristics of macroglia isolated from the BW optic nerve, either as cell suspensions or after 4 days in culture. Cell cultures derived from the hypomyelinated proximal segment of BW optic nerves contained very few 0-2A progenitor cells (from which oligodendrocytes and cells with the GFAP+/A2B5+ phenotype develop), whereas over 90% of the glia were Schwann cells. A proportion of these few 0-2A progenitor cells differentiated normally after 4 days in vitro into both progeny phenotypes in appropriate media. Accordingly, we conclude that the myelination deficiency in the BW optic nerve could be explained as a failure of 0-2A progenitor cells to populate fully the proximal extremity of the nerve during development. Since most glia isolated from adult optic nerves did not adhere to the culture substrate, we analysed the phenotypes of freshly isolated cells in suspension. Comparing optic nerves of normal adult rats with those of BW mutants, a significantly higher fraction of the GFAP+ cells reacted with A2B5 in cell suspensions of the latter. The double-labelled cells which are present in abnormally high numbers may be the differentiated progeny of 0-2A progenitors in the hypomyelinated segment of nerve. One explanation for these findings is that Schwann cells within the BW nerve induce the differentiation of 0-2A progenitor cells to the GFAP+/A2B5+ phenotype. We investigated this possibility using conditioned medium from cultured Schwann cells which increased tenfold the frequency of GFAP+/A2B5+ cells in normal neonatal rat optic nerve cultures. Oligodendrocyte numbers showed a concomitant decline with increasing concentration of Schwann cell conditioned medium. Hypomyelination in the BW rat optic nerve may therefore arise because Schwann cells, present in the proximal segment of the nerve, not only impede the migration of 0-2A progenitor cells but also release a factor which induces those 0-2A progenitor cells which arrive in the proximal segment of the nerve to differentiate into GFAP+ cells at a critical stage in oligodendrocyte development. PMID:1720450

Chan, C L; Wigley, C B; Wyse, J; Berry, M

1991-09-01

89

Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide conduits in the field of nerve tissue engineering. PMID:25580010

Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

2015-02-20

90

Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine ?-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

91

Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Apoptotic nerve cell death is implicated in the pathogenesis of several devastating neurodegenerative conditions, including glaucoma and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We have devised a noninvasive real-time imaging technique using confocal laser-scanning ophthalmoscopy to visualize single nerve cell apoptosis in vivo, which allows longitudinal study of disease processes that has not previously been possible. Our method utilizes the unique optical properties of the eye, which allow direct microscopic observation of nerve cells in the retina. We have been able to image changes occurring in nerve cell apoptosis over hours, days, and months and show that effects depend on the magnitude of the initial apoptotic inducer in several models of neurodegenerative disease in rat and primate. This technology enables the direct observation of single nerve cell apoptosis in experimental neurodegeneration, providing the opportunity for detailed investigation of fundamental disease mechanisms and the evaluation of interventions with potential clinical applications, together with the possibility of taking this method through to patients.

Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Guo, Li; Luong, Vy; Harding, Glen; Wang, Wei; Jones, Helen E.; Moss, Stephen E.; Sillito, Adam M.; Fitzke, Frederick W.

2004-09-01

92

Implication of Nerve Growth Factor in intestinal mucosal mast cell activity and colonic motor alterations in a model of ovalbumin-induced gut dysfunction in rats  

OpenAIRE

We determined NGF involvement in MMCs and colonic motor alterations in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced gut dysfunction model in rats. Animals received OVA (6 weeks), with/without simultaneous K252a (TrkA antagonist) treatment. MMCs, rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) levels and colonic contractility in vitro were assessed. OVA increased MMC density and RMCPII concentration. Spontaneous contractility was similar in both groups and inhibited by K252a. Carbachol responses were increased by OVA in a K...

Jardi? Pujol, Ferran

2011-01-01

93

Identification of a Peripheral Nerve Neurite Growth-Promoting Activity by Development and Use of an in vitro Bioassay  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective regeneration of severed neuronal axons in the peripheral nerves of adult mammals may be explained by the presence of molecules in situ that promote the effective elongation of neurites. The absence of such molecules in the central nervous system of these animals may underlie the relative inability of axons to regenerate in this tissue after injury. In an effort to identify neurite growth-promoting molecules in tissues that support effective axonal regeneration, we have developed an in vitro bioassay that is sensitive to substrate-bound factors of peripheral nerve that influence the growth of neurites. In this assay, neonatal rat superior cervical ganglion explants are placed on longitudinal cryostat sections of fresh-frozen sciatic nerve, and the regrowing axons are visualized by catecholamine histofluorescence. Axons are found to regenerate effectively over sciatic nerve tissue sections. When ganglia are similarly explanted onto cryostat sections of adult rat central nervous system tissue, however, axonal regeneration is virtually absent. We have begun to identify the molecules in peripheral nerve that promote effective axonal regeneration by examining the effect of antibodies that interfere with the activity of previously described neurite growth-promoting factors. Axonal elongation over sciatic nerve tissue was found to be sensitive to the inhibitory effects of INO (for inhibitor of neurite outgrowth), a monoclonal antibody that recognizes and inhibits a neurite growth-promoting activity from PC-12 cell-conditioned medium. The INO antigen appears to be a molecular complex of laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, a rabbit antiserum that recognizes laminin purified from mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) sarcoma, stains the Schwann cell basal lamina of peripheral nerve, and inhibits neurite growth over purified laminin substrata has no detectable effect on the rate of axonal regeneration in our assay.

Sandrock, Alfred W.; Matthew, William D.

1987-10-01

94

Sericin protects against diabetes-induced injuries in sciatic nerve and related nerve cells?  

OpenAIRE

Sericin from discarded silkworm cocoons of silk reeling has been used in different fields, such as cosmetology, skin care, nutrition, and oncology. The present study established a rat model of type 2 diabetes by consecutive intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (25 mg/kg) streptozotocin. After intragastrical perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly declined, and the expression of neurofilament protein in the sciatic nerve and nerve growth factor in L4–6 spinal g...

Song, Chengjun; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhong, Meirong; Chen, Zhihong

2013-01-01

95

Nogo-A expressed in Schwann cells impairs axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Înjured axons in mammalian peripheral nerves often regenerate successfully over long distances, in contrast to axons in the brain and spinal cord (CNS). Neurite growth-inhibitory proteins, including the recently cloned membrane protein Nogo-A, are enriched in the CNS, in particular in myelin. Nogo-A is not detectable in peripheral nerve myelin. Using regulated transgenic expression of Nogo-A in peripheral nerve Schwann cells, we show that axonal regeneration and functional recovery are impai...

Pot, Caroline; Simonen, Marjo; Weinmann, Oliver; Schnell, Lisa; Christ, Franziska; Stoeckle, Sascha; Berger, Philipp; Ru?licke, Thomas; Suter, Ueli; Schwab, Martin E.

2002-01-01

96

Laser-activated protein solder for peripheral nerve repair  

Science.gov (United States)

A 100 micrometers core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the albumin based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 +/- 5 min. (n equals 20) compared to 23 +/- 9 min. (n equals 10) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 +/- 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 +/- 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study is under way comparing laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. At the time of submission 15 laser soldered nerves and 7 sutured nerves were characterized at 3 months and showed successful regeneration with compound muscle action potentials of 27 +/- 8 mV and 29 +/- 8 mW respectively. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

Trickett, Rodney I.; Lauto, Antonio; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

1995-05-01

97

Epidermal expression of Lgr6 is dependent on nerve endings and Schwann cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Lgr5/6 proteins are stem cell markers in various tissues. However, what determines their restricted expression pattern in these tissues remains unknown. We found that in skin, Lgr6 is not only expressed in the central isthmus, directly above the hair follicle bulge cells as reported previously, but also in the interfollicular epidermis. Lgr6 expression in skin is highly correlated with the innervation sites of cutaneous nerves. In the hair follicle, Lgr6 closely localizes with the surrounding nerve endings and their corresponding Schwann cells throughout the entire hair cycle. Furthermore, ablation of cutaneous nerves leads to degeneration of Schwann cells and diminished expression of Lgr6. Our results demonstrate that the nerve endings/Schwann cells control Lgr6 expression in skin, implying that they play a role in regulation of skin epithelial cells. PMID:24499442

Liao, Xin-Hua; Nguyen, Hoang

2014-01-01

98

Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in peripheral nerve regeneration: anti-MIF antibody induces delay of nerve regeneration and the apoptosis of Schwann cells.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine involved in inflammation and immune responses as well as in cell growth. Although we previously demonstrated the presence of MIF in peripheral nerves, and MIF mRNA expression was up-regulated after axotomy, the role of MIF in nerve injury and regeneration has not been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To examine the potential role of MIF in nerve regeneration, we locally administered an anti-MIF polyclonal anti...

Nishio, Yasuhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Minami, Akio

2002-01-01

99

Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Gradients of GDNF in the Injured Peripheral Nerve: Effects on Nerve Coil Formation, Schwann Cell Maturation and Myelination  

OpenAIRE

Although the peripheral nerve is capable of regeneration, only a small minority of patients regain normal function after surgical reconstruction of a major peripheral nerve lesion, resulting in a severe and lasting negative impact on the quality of life. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival- and outgrowth-promoting effects on motoneurons, but locally elevated levels of GDNF cause trapping of regenerating axons and the formation of nerve coils. This phenomenon...

Eggers, Ruben; Winter, Fred; Hoyng, Stefan A.; Roet, Kasper C. D.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Verhaagen, Joost; Tannemaat, Martijn R.

2013-01-01

100

Laser-activated protein bands for peripheral nerve repair  

Science.gov (United States)

A 100 micrometer core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the protein based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 plus or minus 5 min. (n equals 24) compared to 23 plus or minus 9 min (n equals 13) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 plus or minus 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 plus or minus 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study, with a total of fifty-seven adult male wistar rats, compared laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. Twenty-four laser soldered nerves and thirteen sutured nerves were characterized at three months and showed successful regeneration with average compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of 2.4 plus or minus 0.7 mV and 2.7 plus or minus 0.8 mV respectively. Histopathology of the in vivo study, confirmed the comparable regeneration of axons in laser and suture operated nerves. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Malik, Richard; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

1996-01-01

101

Recording vagal nerve activity for the control of an artificial heart system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring cardiovascular control system information is important in considering the quality of life (QOL) of patients with artificial hearts. Natural heart circulation is controlled by an autonomic nervous system. Therefore, it is desirable to record autonomic nerve activity for the control of artificial heart systems. We directly recorded vagal nerve activity in long-term animal experiments. Six healthy adult goats were anesthetized with halothane inhalation, and thoracotomy was performed with the fourth rib resection during mechanical ventilation. Arterial blood pressure and right and left atrial pressures were continuously monitored with an inserted catheter. Cardiac output was measured by an electromagnetic flow meter attached to the ascending aorta. After the chest was closed, an incision was made in the left neck, and the left vagal nerve was separated. Stainless steel electrodes were inserted into the vagal nerve and fixed by a plasticizer. After the incision was closed, the goats were transferred to a cage and extubated after waking. Vagal nerve activity was measured using hemodynamic parameters when the animals were awake. Our results show that clear observation of autonomic nerve discharge was made through this experimental system for over 1 month. The tonus of the vagal nerve was significantly altered before body motion with hemodynamic changes, suggesting the possibility of prediction. These results suggest that information from autonomic nerves may help to control implantable artificial hearts or ventricular assist devices. PMID:14655737

Yambe, Tomoyuki; Nanka, Shun-suke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Ken-ichi; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

2003-01-01

102

Involvement of the histamine H1 receptor in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The histamine system is involved in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. We used gene-targeted mice to investigate the role of histamine receptors in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptor expression in the superior cervical ganglion, which contains sympathetic nerve cell bodies. We measured the heart rate variability (HRV), the changes in the beat-to-beat heart rate, which is widely used to assess autonomic activity in the heart. H1 blockade attenuated the baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas the heart rate response to H2- and H3-specific blockers was unaffected. l-Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression in the superior cervical ganglion of H1R-null mice was higher than that in WT controls, whereas the enzyme levels in H2R- and H3R-null mice were not significantly different from those in the WT. All mutant mice (H1R-, H2R-, and H3R-null mice) showed normal electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns with little modification in ECG parameters and the expected response to the ?-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Similar to our findings in WT mice, H1 blockade attenuated the baroreflex-mediated heart rate change in H1R-null mice, whereas the heart rate response was unaffected in H2R- and H3R-null mice. The HRV analysis revealed relatively unstable RR intervals, an increased standard deviation of the interbeat interval (SDNN), and low-frequency (LF) component in H1R-null mice compared with the other groups, suggesting that sympathetic nerve activity was altered in H1R-null mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that H1 receptors play a major role in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:25680462

Murakami, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Tadaho; Ohba, Takayoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Sawamura, Daisuke; Kuwasako, Kenji; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Ono, Kyouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko

2015-03-13

103

A local anesthetic, ropivacaine, suppresses activated microglia via a nerve growth factor-dependent mechanism and astrocytes via a nerve growth factor-independent mechanism in neuropathic pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of nociceptive pathways that occurs in the neuropathic pain state. In recent years, spinal glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain, but their participation in the analgesic effects of local anesthetics remains largely unknown. Results Repetitive epidural administration of ropivacaine reduced the hyperalgesia induced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Concomitantly with this analgesia, ropivacaine suppressed the increases in the immunoreactivities of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal spinal cord, as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. In addition, epidural administration of a TrkA-IgG fusion protein that blocks the action of nerve growth factor (NGF, which was upregulated by ropivacaine in the dorsal root ganglion, prevented the inhibitory effect of ropivacaine on microglia, but not astrocytes. The blockade of NGF action also abolished the analgesic effect of ropivacaine on neuropathic pain. Conclusions Ropivacaine provides prolonged analgesia possibly by suppressing microglial activation in an NGF-dependent manner and astrocyte activation in an NGF-independent manner in the dorsal spinal cord. Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, may represent a new approach for glial cell inhibition and, therefore, therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain.

Sakamoto Atsuhiro

2011-01-01

104

Human kidney podocyte cell population as a novel biological target of nerve growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Human podocytes are highly specialized cells with a key role in kidney physiology. Alteration of their structure as a consequence of injury or developmental failure leads to severe renal diseases. Although several studies have tried to elucidate the molecular framework of this cellular system, the functional bases for the maintenance of podocytes in their specialized state to sustain kidney barrier filtration are not completely understood. In this study, the capability of podocytes to produce and secrete the nerve growth factor (NGF) has been demonstrated via a validated in vitro model. During the process of cell differentiation, NGF and its receptors are modulated in human podocytes just as NGF-responsive neurons. Blockade of NGF biological activity results in severe changes of cell morphology. Collectively, our results outline a novel function of the neurotrophin and add a new cellular target in the complex biological framework of NGF. PMID:25347785

Caroleo, Maria Cristina; Carito, Valentina; Pingitore, Attilio; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Perri, Mariarita; Mancuso, Domenico; Russo, Antonio; Cione, Erika

2015-02-01

105

Effect of morphine on sympathetic nerve activity in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

There are conflicting reports for the role of endogenous opioids on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercise in humans. A number of studies have utilized naloxone (an opioid-receptor antagonist) to investigate the effect of opioids during exercise. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine (an opioid-receptor agonist) on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses at rest and during isometric handgrip (IHG). Eleven subjects performed 2 min of IHG (30% maximum) followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) before and after systemic infusion of morphine (0.075 mg/kg loading dose + 1 mg/h maintenance) or placebo (saline) in double-blinded experiments on separate days. Morphine increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; 17 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 2 bursts/min; P < 0.01) and increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.02), but it decreased heart rate (HR; 61 +/- 4 to 59 +/- 3; P < 0.01). However, IHG elicited similar increases for MSNA, MAP, and HR between the control and morphine trial (drug x exercise interaction = not significant). Moreover, responses to PEMI were not different. Placebo had no effect on resting, IHG, and PEMI responses. We conclude that morphine modulates cardiovascular and sympathetic responses at rest but not during isometric exercise.

Carter, Jason R.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

2002-01-01

106

Effects of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins on acetylcholine release and motor nerve terminal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The effects of the K+ channel blocking toxins, the dendrotoxins, on neuromuscular transmission and motor nerve terminal activity were assessed on frog cutaneous pectoris, mouse diaphragm and mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. Endplate potentials (e.p.ps) and miniature e.p.ps were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes, and nerve terminal spikes were recorded with extracellular electrodes placed in the perineural sheaths of motor nerves. 2. Dendrotoxin from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom and toxin I from black mamba (D. polylepis) venom increased the amplitude of e.p.ps by increasing quantal content, and also induced repetitive e.p.ps. 3. Perineural recordings revealed that dendrotoxins could decrease the component of the waveform associated with K+ currents at the nerve terminals, and induce repetitive activation of nerve terminals. 4. In frog motor nerves, dendrotoxins are known to block the fast f1 component of the K+ current at nodes of Ranvier. Blockade of a similar component of the K+ current at motor nerve terminals may be responsible for the effects of these toxins on neuromuscular transmission. 5. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the results obtained from mouse neuromuscular junctions. PMID:2450611

Anderson, A J; Harvey, A L

1988-01-01

107

Involvement of PACAP/ADNP signaling in the resistance to cell death in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas able to grow under conditions of metabolic stress caused by insufficient nutrients or oxygen. Both pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) have glioprotective potential. However, whether PACAP/ADNP signaling is involved in the resistance to cell death in MPNST cells remains to be clarified. Here, we investigated the involvement of this signaling system in the survival response of MPNST cells against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-evoked death both in the presence of normal serum (NS) and in serum-starved (SS) cells. Results showed that ADNP levels increased time-dependently (6-48 h) in SS cells. Treatment with PACAP38 (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) dose-dependently increased ADNP levels in NS but not in SS cells. PAC(1)/VPAC receptor antagonists completely suppressed PACAP-stimulated ADNP increase and partially reduced ADNP expression in SS cells. NS-cultured cells exposed to H(2)O(2) showed significantly reduced cell viability (~50 %), increased p53 and caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation, without affecting ADNP expression. Serum starvation significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced detrimental effects in MPNST cells, which were not further ameliorated by PACAP38. Altogether, these finding provide evidence for the involvement of an endogenous PACAP-mediated ADNP signaling system that increases MPNST cell resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced death upon serum starvation. PMID:22454142

Castorina, Alessandro; Giunta, Salvatore; Scuderi, Soraya; D'Agata, Velia

2012-11-01

108

A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient\\'s needs and resources of the unit.

Henry, F P

2012-06-01

109

Transfer function analysis from arterial baroreceptor afferent activity to renal nerve activity in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vagotomized and anesthetized rabbits, aortic pressure (AP), aortic depressor nerve activity (ANA), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) were simultaneously measured while perturbing AP randomly. To quantitatively characterize the role of the arterial baroreflex system in generating RNA, we determined the transfer function (TF) of the central baroreflex arc from ANA to RNA in the frequency domain (0.02-5 Hz). The magnitude of squared coherence was > 0.5, the phase was close to -180 degrees, and the gain of TF was flat over 0.02-0.3 Hz, indicating that changes in RNA were linearly and instantaneously but inversely related to changes in ANA over this frequency range. Above 0.3 Hz, the coherence was low, suggesting that RNA unrelated to ANA existed in the frequency range. In animals without AP perturbations, power spectrum of RNA resided over 0.2-5 Hz with a broad peak at 1 Hz, which may represent central activity. Our results suggest that over 0.02-0.3 Hz the relationship between arterial baroreceptor afferent nerve activity and RNA is linear and instantaneous but above 0.3 Hz it is not linear possibly due to an interaction between central activity and arterial baroreflex. PMID:8304519

Imaizumi, T; Harasawa, Y; Ando, S; Sugimachi, M; Takeshita, A

1994-01-01

110

Trigeminal nerve involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: value of MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 30-year-old male with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with facial numbness. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia of the left trigeminal nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology showed no atypical cells. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated enlargement and enhancement of intracranial portions of the left trigeminal nerve. The abnormal MR imaging findings almost completely resolved after the chemotherapy. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is not only a useful procedure for the early diagnosis of cranial nerve invasion by leukemia but it might be helpful to follow the changes after the treatment.

Karadag, Demet; Karaguelle, Ayse Tuba; Erden, Ilhan; Erden, Ayse E-mail: erden@ada.net.tr

2002-10-01

111

Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial guidance channels containing Schwann cells can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve over long distances. However, primary Schwann cells are not suitable for autotransplantation. Under specific conditions, skin-derived progenitors can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells. Therefore, adult rat dorsal skin (dermis)-derived progenitors were isolated and induced to differentiate with DMEM/F12 containing B27, neuregulin 1, and forskolin. Immunofluorescence staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the resultant cells were indeed Schwann cells. Artificial guidance channels containing skin-derived progenitors, Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors, or primary Schwann cells were used to bridge 5 mm sciatic nerve defects. Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors significantly promoted sciatic nerve axonal regeneration. The significant recovery of injured rat sciatic nerve function after the transplantation of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was confirmed by electromyogram. The therapeutic effect of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was better than that of skin-derived progenitors. These findings indicate that Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. PMID:25374591

Zhang, Ping; Lu, Xiaocheng; Chen, Jianghai; Chen, Zhenbing

2014-09-15

112

Uptake of 3H-thymidine by the receptor cell populations after injury of the sensory nerve fibres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material of the study was the skin from the beak of two-day ducklings. The investigation was carried out on the 2nd, 5th, 20th and 45th day after the crushing of the sensory nerve fibres entering the capsulated Herbst receptors. Twenty four hours before the biopsy, the ducklings were injected at 6 hours intervals with 3H-thymidine. The number of labelled index in the three cell pupulations, participating in the receptor development was determined. The cells of the subcapsular space of all control animals (with intacted suborbital nerves) have shown the highest labelled index. The index of the capsular perineural cells is about 12 times lower, while the labelled index of the Schwann receptor cells is about 10 times lower. Following the denervation, the labelled index in increasing and reaches its maximum on the 5th postoperative day. The Schwann receptor cells in comparison to the two other cell populations show the most significant deviation during the regeneration (45th day after the intervention). The investigations show that all three cell populations pass through a miotic cycle of innovation. The low labelled index of the Schwann receptors (1-2 labelled cells in 1000) is an indication of a high differentiation. One can assume that their regeneration takes place at the expense of the proper proliferation activity as well as of the differentiation of the Schwann cells from the distal section of the regenerating sensory nerve fibres. Taking into considg sensory nerve fibres. Taking into consideration the high labelled index of the other populations, it seems most probable that their regeneration takes place for the expense of their own cell populations. (A.B.)

113

Coupling of the respiratory rhythm in fish with activity in hypobranchial nerves and with heartbeat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish have a central respiratory pattern generator (CRPG) in the brain stem that initiates activity in a series of cranial nerves innervating respiratory muscles. These nerves burst sequentially in the order of their rostrocaudal distribution in the central nervous system. When respiratory drive is high, this activity spreads caudally to occipital and anterior spinal neurons that project via the hypobranchial nerves to stimulate hypaxial muscles, causing active jaw abduction. The CRPG may also recruit the heart. Fish, like mammals, show respiratory components in the intrinsic variability of heart rate (HRV). Cardiorespiratory synchrony in the dogfish is driven by bursting activity in the cardiac branches of the vagus nerve, which emanates from preganglionic neurons in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus. A respiratory component in HRV is difficult to discriminate in other species, requiring the use of power spectral analysis and the subsequent elimination of aliased components. PMID:17041866

Taylor, E W Ted; Campbell, Hamish A; Levings, Jenny J; Young, Michael J; Butler, Patrick J; Egginton, Stuart

2006-01-01

114

Disruption of lateral olivocochlear neurons with a dopaminergic neurotoxin depresses spontaneous auditory nerve activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurons of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) system project from the auditory brainstem to the cochlea, where they synapse on radial dendrites of auditory nerve fibers. Selective LOC disruption depresses sound-evoked auditory nerve activity in the guinea pig, but enhances it in the mouse. Here, LOC disruption depressed spontaneous auditory nerve activity in the guinea pig. Recordings from single auditory nerve fibers revealed a significantly reduced proportion of fibers with the highest spontaneous firing rates (SRs) and an increased proportion of neurons with lower SRs. Ensemble activity, estimated using round window noise, also decreased after LOC disruption. Decreased spontaneous activity after LOC disruption may be a consequence of reduced tonic release of excitatory transmitters from the LOC terminals in guinea pigs. PMID:25175420

Le Prell, Colleen G; Dolan, David F; Hughes, Larry F; Altschuler, Richard A; Shore, Susan E; Bledsoe, Sanford C

2014-10-17

115

Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.

Lundby, Lilli; MØller, Arne

2011-01-01

116

Expression of trk in MAH cells lacking the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor is sufficient to permit nerve growth factor-induced differentiation to postmitotic neurons.  

OpenAIRE

We have transfected MAH cells, an immortalized sympathoadrenal progenitor cell line, with a plasmid encoding the 140-kDa Trk protein, a nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. NGF promotes neurite outgrowth and proliferation from such cells, indicating that Trk is sufficient to mediate such responses in the absence of significant levels of the endogenous 75-kDa low-affinity NGF receptor (p75). These initial NGF responses are indistinguishable from those evoke...

Verdi, J. M.; Ip, N.; Yancopoulos, G. D.; Anderson, D. J.

1994-01-01

117

Olfactory stimulatory with grapefruit and lavender oils change autonomic nerve activity and physiological function.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes the effects of olfactory stimulation with grapefruit and lavender oils on autonomic nerve activity and physiological function. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of grapefruit oil (GFO) increases the activity of sympathetic nerves that innervate white and brown adipose tissues, the adrenal glands, and the kidneys, decreases the activity of the gastric vagal nerve in rats and mice. This results in an increase in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and blood pressure, and a decrease in food intake. Olfactory stimulation with the scent of lavender oil (LVO) elicits the opposite changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. Olfactory stimulation with scent of limonene, a component of GFO, and linalool, a component of LVO, has similar effects to stimulation with GFO and LVO, respectively. The histamine H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, abolishes all GFO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables, and the hitstamine H3-receptor antagonist, thioperamide, eliminates all LVO-induced changes. Lesions to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and anosmic treatment with ZnSO4 also abolish all GFO- and LVO-induced changes. These findings indicate that limonene and linalool might be the active substances in GFO and LVO, and suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus and histamine are involved in mediating the GFO- and LVO-induced changes in nerve activity and physiological variables. PMID:25002406

Nagai, Katsuya; Niijima, Akira; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru

2014-10-01

118

Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in peripheral nerve regeneration: anti-MIF antibody induces delay of nerve regeneration and the apoptosis of Schwann cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine involved in inflammation and immune responses as well as in cell growth. Although we previously demonstrated the presence of MIF in peripheral nerves, and MIF mRNA expression was up-regulated after axotomy, the role of MIF in nerve injury and regeneration has not been evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To examine the potential role of MIF in nerve regeneration, we locally administered an anti-MIF polyclonal antibody into regenerating rat sciatic nerves using the silicone chamber model. The effect of the anti-MIF antibody on nerve regeneration was evaluated using an axonal reflex test. In addition, we carried out a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemical analysis of the damaged nerve segments with regard to apoptosis-related proteins such as p53 to evaluate the effects of anti- MIF antibodies on apoptosis during the regeneration process. RESULTS: The regeneration length of the nerve in the anti-MIF antibody-treated group was significantly shorter than that in the non-immune rabbit IgG-treated group at weeks 2, 4 and 6 after surgery. TUNEL assay showed that a large number of apoptotic cells, mostly Schwann cells, were observed in the intratubal and distal nerve segments at weeks 4 and 6 after surgery by the anti-MIF antibody treatment. Consistent with these results, Ki-67-positive cells were significantly decreased by the anti-MIF antibody treatment. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that p53 and, to a lesser extent, Fas were more up-regulated in the anti-MIF antibody-treated nerves than in the controls. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that MIF plays an important role in acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and in prevention of Schwann cell apoptosis, mainly through overcoming the apoptotic effect of p53. PMID:12456989

Nishio, Yasuhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Minami, Akio

2002-01-01

119

Nerve growth factor enhances the excitability of rat sensory neurons through activation of the atypical protein kinase C isoform, PKM?  

OpenAIRE

Our previous work showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the excitability of small-diameter capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons by activating the p75 neurotrophin receptor and releasing sphingolipid-derived second messengers. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were used to establish the signaling pathways whereby NGF augments action potential (AP) firing (i.e., sensitization). Inhibition of MEK1/2 (PD-98059), PLC (U-73122, neomycin), or conventional/novel isoforms of PKC (bisindolylma...

Zhang, Y. H.; Kays, J.; Hodgdon, K. E.; Sacktor, T. C.; Nicol, G. D.

2011-01-01

120

Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve conduits are often used in combination with bioactive molecules and stem cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) was immobilized onto the microporous/micropatterned poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits after open air plasma treatment. PLA substrates grafted with chitosan in the presence of a small amount of gold nanoparticles (nano Au) showed a protective effect on the activity of the immobilized FGF1 in vitro. Different conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm critical gap defect in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Axon regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by histology, walking track analysis and electrophysiology. Among different conduits, PLA conduits grafted with chitosan–nano Au and the FGF1 after plasma activation had the greatest regeneration capacity and functional recovery in the experimental animals. When the above conduit was seeded with aligned neural stem cells, the efficacy was further enhanced and it approached that of the autograft group. This work suggested that microporous/micropatterned nerve conduits containing bioactive growth factors may be successfully fabricated by micropatterning techniques, open plasma activation, and immobilization, which, combined with aligned stem cells, may synergistically contribute to the regeneration of the severely damaged peripheral nerve. (paper)

121

Induced maturation of frog mast cells by nerve growth factor during ontogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on ontogenesis of frog mast cells was investigated in vivo by histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. Three groups of tadpoles at various stages of development were used. In the first group, the larvae received i.p. injections of 1 ng NGF/g; the second group received 10 ng NGF/g, while the control group received only the vehicle. The first recognizable mast cells arose symmetrically in the tongue at stage 26 of Witschi's standard table. At stages 26 and 29, the mast cell number in the NGF-injected tadpoles was significantly higher than the control group. From stage 29 onward, the mast cell number rapidly increased in all groups. No significant differences in mast cell number were observed between the control group and the NGF-injected groups at stages 31 and 33. Electron microscopy revealed that at metamorphic climax (stage 33), the mast cells in the NGF-treated groups were more mature than those in the control group. Therefore, nerve growth factor at early stages of tadpole development is likely to induce differentiation of mast cell precursors, while at later stages it is likely to induce maturation of immature mast cells. The close anatomical association between mast cells and perineurium, observed during nerve development, is intriguing. Already in the early stages of nerve development, the mast cells form a network around Schwann cell-axon complexes, together with the perineurial cells. At climax, the mast cells are located between the perineurial layers, suggesting that they may play a role in the tissue-nerve barrier of the perineurium. Nerve growth factor also seems to induce perineurial cell maturation. PMID:14601150

Baccari, Gabriella Chieffi; Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria M; Monteforte, Rossella

2003-12-01

122

Arachidonic acid closes innexin/pannexin channels and thereby inhibits microglia cell movement to a nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Pannexons are membrane channels formed by pannexins and are permeable to ATP. They have been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Innexins, the invertebrate homologues of the pannexins, form innexons. Nerve injury induces calcium waves in glial cells, releasing ATP through glial pannexon/innexon channels. The ATP then activates microglia. More slowly, injury releases arachidonic acid (ArA). The present experiments show that ArA itself reduced the macroscopic m...

Samuels, Stuart E.; Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Junjie; Dahl, Gerhard; Muller, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

123

Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in neurons via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays an important role in regulating many neuronal functions, including excitability, axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. NFAT can be activated by action potential firing or depolarization that leads to Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT and its translocation to the nucleus. Recent data suggest that NFAT and NFAT-dependent functions in neurons can also be potently regulated by NGF and other neurotrophins. However, the mechanisms of NFAT regulation by neurotrophins are not well understood. Here, we show that in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, NGF markedly facilitates NFAT-mediated gene expression induced by mild depolarization. The effects of NGF were not associated with changes in [Ca(2+)]i and were independent of phospholipase C activity. Instead, the facilitatory effect of NGF depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway downstream of the TrkA receptor and on inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a protein kinase known to phosphorylate NFAT and promote its nuclear export. Knockdown or knockout of NFATc3 eliminated this facilitatory effect. Simultaneous monitoring of EGFP-NFATc3 nuclear translocation and [Ca(2+)]i changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons indicated that NGF slowed the rate of NFATc3 nuclear export but did not affect its nuclear import rate. Collectively, our data suggest that NGF facilitates depolarization-induced NFAT activation by stimulating PI3K/Akt signaling, inactivating GSK3?, and thereby slowing NFATc3 export from the nucleus. We propose that NFAT serves as an integrator of neurotrophin action and depolarization-driven calcium signaling to regulate neuronal gene expression. PMID:25231981

Kim, Man-Su; Shutov, Leonid P; Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Lin, Zhihong; Rysted, Jacob E; Ulrich, Jason D; Usachev, Yuriy M

2014-11-01

124

Structure-activity relationship for the reactivators of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agent VX.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve agents such as sarin, VX and tabun are organophosphorus compounds able to inhibit an enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE reactivators and anticholinergics are generally used as antidotes in the case of intoxication with these agents. None from the known AChE reactivators is able to reactivate AChE inhibited by all kinds of nerve agents. In this work, reactivation potency of seventeen structurally different AChE reactivators was tested in vitro and subsequently, relationship between their chemical structure and biological activity was outlined. VX was chosen as appropriate member of the nerve agent family. PMID:22779796

Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Karasova, Jana; Soukup, Ondrej; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Hrabinova, Martina

2013-08-01

125

Hydrogen sulfide is essential for Schwann cell responses to peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) functions as a physiological gas transmitter in both normal and pathophysiological cellular events. H2 S is produced from substances by three enzymes: cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST). In human tissues, these enzymes are involved in tissue-specific biochemical pathways for H2 S production. For example, CBS and cysteine aminotransferase/MST are present in the brain, but CSE is not. Thus, we examined the expression of H2 S production-related enzymes in peripheral nerves. Here, we found that CSE and MST/cysteine aminotransferase, but not CBS, were present in normal peripheral nerves. In addition, injured sciatic nerves in vivo up-regulated CSE in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration (WD); however, CSE was not up-regulated in peripheral axons. Using an ex vivo sciatic nerve explant culture, we found that the inhibition of H2 S production broadly prevented the process of nerve degeneration, including myelin fragmentation, axonal degradation, Schwann cell dedifferentiation, and Schwann cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these results indicate that H2 S signaling is essential for Schwann cell responses to peripheral nerve injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) functions as a physiological gas transmitter in both normal and pathophysiological cellular events. H2 S is produced from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (MST). Here, we found that CSE and MST/CAT were present in normal peripheral nerves. Injured static nerves in vivo up-regulated CSE in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration, but CSE was not up-regulated in peripheral axons. PMID:25123509

Park, Byung Sun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Park, Chan; Yeo, Seung Geun; Huh, Youngbuhm; Jeong, Na Young; Jung, Junyang

2015-01-01

126

Interstitial cells of Cajal in the cynomolgus monkey rectoanal region and their relationship to sympathetic and nitrergic nerves  

OpenAIRE

The morphology of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the circular muscle layer of the cynomolgus monkey internal anal sphincter (IAS) and rectum and their relationship to sympathetic and nitrergic nerves were compared by dual-labeling immunohistochemistry. Contractile studies confirmed that nitrergic nerves participate in neural inhibition in both regions whereas sympathetic nerves serve as excitatory motor nerves only in the IAS. Muscle bundles extended from myenteric to submucosal edge in...

Cobine, C. A.; Hennig, G. W.; Bayguinov, Y. R.; Hatton, W. J.; Ward, S. M.; Keef, K. D.

2010-01-01

127

Axonal and Schwann Cell BACE1 Is Equally Required for Remyelination of Peripheral Nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is being pursued as a therapeutic target for treating patients with Alzheimer's disease because BACE1 is the sole ?-secretase for generating ?-amyloid peptide. Knowledge regarding the other cellular functions of BACE1 is therefore critical for the safe use of BACE1 inhibitors in human patients. BACE1 deficiency in mice causes hypomyelination during development and impairs remyelination in injured sciatic nerves. Since BACE1 is expected to be ubiquitously expressed, we asked whether axonal or Schwann cell BACE1 is required for optimal remyelination. By swapping sciatic nerve segments from BACE1-null mice with the corresponding wild-type nerve segments or vice versa, we tested how a deficiency of BACE1 in Schwann cells or axons affects remyelination. Our results show that BACE1 in axons and Schwann cells is similarly important for remyelination of regenerated axons. Nerve injury induces BACE1 transcription and protein levels are elevated in Schwann cells. Expression of type I neuregulin 1 (Nrg1), rather than type III Nrg1, was induced by Schwann cells, and the abolished Nrg1 cleavage in BACE1-null Schwann cells contributed to decreased remyelination of regenerated axons. Hence, this study is the first to demonstrate the equal importance of axonal and Schwann cell BACE1 for remyelination of injured nerves. PMID:25740511

Hu, Xiangyou; Hu, Jinxuan; Dai, Lu; Trapp, Bruce; Yan, Riqiang

2015-03-01

128

Accessory limb production by nerve-induced cell proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deviation of large limb nerves to a more proximal skin wound yielded a high proportion of accessory limb responses in different age groups of Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotls). In some instances the deviated nerve was positioned on skin previously grafted from an animal of different age and pigmentation from that of the host. Grafts were found not to be a necessary prerequisite for accessory limb induction, but the presence of wound epithelium was required. The rule of distal morphogenesis was expressed in reference to the level at which the nerve was cut, not in reference to the wound site where the accessory actually developed. The upper arm proved to be a more favorable site for accessory limb production than the flank or the leg under the conditions of the present experiments, in which little or no damage was done to the underlying muscles. The orientation of the accessory limb was extremely varied despite the uniformity of the surgical procedure. PMID:3291642

Egar, M W

1988-05-01

129

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome.

Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

2015-01-01

130

Effect of brachial plexus co-activation on phrenic nerve conduction time  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—Diaphragm function can be assessed by electromyography of the diaphragm during electrical phrenic nerve stimulation (ES). Whether phrenic nerve conduction time (PNCT) and diaphragm electrical activity can be reliably measured from chest wall electrodes with ES is uncertain.?METHODS—The diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded using an oesophageal electrode and lower chest wall electrodes during ES in six normal subjects. Two patients...

Luo, Y.; Polkey, M.; Lyall, R.; Moxham, J.

1999-01-01

131

Schwann cell mitochondrial metabolism supports long-term axonal survival and peripheral nerve function  

OpenAIRE

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathies. While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. Here we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. These mice (Tfam-SCKOs) were produc...

Viader, Andreu; Golden, Judith P.; Baloh, Robert H.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

132

Schwann cells reposition a peripheral nerve to isolate it from postembryonic remodeling of its targets  

OpenAIRE

Although much is known about the initial construction of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), less well understood are the processes that maintain the position and connections of nerves during postembryonic growth. Here, we show that the posterior lateral line nerve in zebrafish initially grows in the epidermis and then rapidly transitions across the epidermal basement membrane into the subepidermal space. Our experiments indicate that Schwann cells, which myelinate axons in the PNS, are requ...

Raphael, Alya R.; Perlin, Julie R.; Talbot, William S.

2010-01-01

133

Activation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity  

OpenAIRE

The role of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) A2a adenosine receptors in baroreflex mechanisms is controversial. Stimulation of these receptors releases glutamate within the NTS and elicits baroreflex-like decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas inhibition of these receptors attenuates HR baroreflex responses. In contrast, stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors increases preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity...

Ichinose, Tomoko K.; O Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.

2009-01-01

134

Augmenting peripheral nerve regeneration using stem cells: A review of current opinion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcomes following peripheral nerve injury remain frustratingly poor. The reasons for this are multifactorial, although maintaining a growth permissive environment in the distal nerve stump following repair is arguably the most important. The optimal environment for axonal regeneration relies on the synthesis and release of many biochemical mediators that are temporally and spatially regulated with a high level of incompletely understood complexity. The Schwann cell (SC) has emerged as a key player in this process. Prolonged periods of distal nerve stump denervation, characteristic of large gaps and proximal injuries, have been associated with a reduction in SC number and ability to support regenerating axons. Cell based therapy offers a potential therapy for the improvement of outcomes following peripheral nerve reconstruction. Stem cells have the potential to increase the number of SCs and prolong their ability to support regeneration. They may also have the ability to rescue and replenish populations of chromatolytic and apoptotic neurons following axotomy. Finally, they can be used in non-physiologic ways to preserve injured tissues such as denervated muscle while neuronal ingrowth has not yet occurred. Aside from stem cell type, careful consideration must be given to differentiation status, how stem cells are supported following transplantation and how they will be delivered to the site of injury. It is the aim of this article to review current opinions on the strategies of stem cell based therapy for the augmentation of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25621102

Fairbairn, Neil G; Meppelink, Amanda M; Ng-Glazier, Joanna; Randolph, Mark A; Winograd, Jonathan M

2015-01-26

135

Nerve injury stimulates the secretion of apolipoprotein E by nonneuronal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve trauma initiates significant changes in the composition of proteins secreted by nonneuronal cells. The most prominent of these proteins is a 37-kDa protein, whose expression correlates with the time course of nerve development, degeneration, and regeneration. The authors report that the 37-kDa protein is apolipoprotein E (apoE). They produced a specific antiserum against the 37-kDa protein isolated from previously crushed nerves. This antiserum recognizes a 36-kDa protein in rat serum that they have purified and identified as apoE. The anti-37-kDa antiserum also recognizes apoE on electrophoretic transfer blots of authentic samples of high and very low density lipoproteins. The nerve 37-kDa protein comigrates with apoE by two-dimensional electrophoresis, shares a similar amino acid composition, and reacts with an antiserum against authentic apoE. The purified apoE specifically blocks the immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled 37-kDa protein synthesized by nonneuronal cells. Thus, on the basis of its molecular mass, isoelectric point, amino acid composition, and immunological properties, they conclude that the 37-kDa protein is apoE. They also used light microscopic immunochemistry to localize apoE following nerve injury. They propose that apoE is synthesized by phagocytic cells in response to nerve injury for the purpose of mobilizing lipids produced as a consequence of axon degeneration

136

Mirror-image pain is mediated by nerve growth factor produced from tumor necrosis factor alpha-activated satellite glia after peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mirror-image pain is characterized by mechanical hypersensitivity on the uninjured mirror-image side. Recent reports favor central mechanisms, but whether peripheral mechanisms are involved remains unclear. We used unilateral spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to induce mirror-image pain in rats. On the mirror-image (contralateral) side, we found that satellite glia in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were activated, whereas macrophages/Schwann cells in the DRG and astrocytes/oligodendrocytes/microglia in the dorsal spinal cord were not. Subsequently, an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) was detected in the contralateral DRG, and NGF immunoreactivity was concentrated in activated satellite glia. These phenomena were abolished if fluorocitrate (a glial inhibitor) was intrathecally injected before SNL. Electrophysiological recordings in cultured small DRG neurons showed that exogenous NGF enhanced nociceptor excitability. Intrathecal injection of NGF into naive rats induced long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity, similar to SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. Anti-NGF effectively relieved SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. In the contralateral DRG, the SNL-evoked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) increase, which started later than in the ipsilateral DRG and cerebrospinal fluid, occurred earlier than satellite glial activation and the NGF increase. Intrathecal injection of TNF-? into naive rats not only activated satellite glia to produce extra NGF in the DRG but also evoked mechanical hypersensitivity, which could be attenuated by anti-NGF injection. These results suggest that after SNL, satellite glia in the contralateral DRG are activated by TNF-? that diffuses from the injured side via cerebrospinal fluid, which then activates satellite glia to produce extra NGF to enhance nociceptor excitability, which induces mirror-image pain. PMID:24447514

Cheng, Chau-Fu; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chih-Yang; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Chu, Dachen; Wang, Szu-Yi; Tsaur, Meei-Ling

2014-05-01

137

Selective recovery of fascicular activity in peripheral nerves  

Science.gov (United States)

The peripheral nerves of an amputee's residual limb still carry the information required to provide the robust, natural control signals needed to command a dexterous prosthetic limb. However, these signals are mixed in the volume conductor of the body and extracting them is an unmet challenge. A beamforming algorithm was used to leverage the spatial separation of the fascicular sources, recovering mixed pseudo-spontaneous signals with normalized mean squared error of 0.14 ± 0.10 (n = 12) in an animal model. The method was also applied to a human femoral nerve model using computer simulations and recovered all five fascicular-group signals simultaneously with R2 = 0.7 ± 0.2 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 0 dB. This technique accurately separated peripheral neural signals, potentially providing the voluntary, natural and robust command signals needed for advanced prosthetic limbs.

Wodlinger, B.; Durand, D. M.

2011-10-01

138

Differential activation of nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation in humans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier observations in our lab had indicated that large, time-varying magnetic fields could elicit action potentials that travel in only one direction in at least some of the myelinated axons in peripheral nerves. The objective of this study was to collect quantitative evidence for magnetically induced unidirectional action potentials in peripheral nerves of human subjects. A magnetic coil was maneuvered to a location on the upper arm where physical effects consistent with the creation of unidirectional action potentials were observed. Electromyographic (EMG and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP recordings were then made from a total of 20 subjects during stimulation with the magnetic coil. Results The relative amplitudes of the EMG and SEP signals changed oppositely when the current direction in the magnetic coil was reversed. This effect was consistent with current direction in the coil relative to the arm for all subjects. Conclusion A differential evocation of motor and sensory fibers was demonstrated and indicates that it may be possible to induce unidirectional action potentials in myelinated peripheral nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation.

Olree Kenneth S

2006-07-01

139

Mesenchymal stem cells and their secretome partially restore nerve and urethral function in a dual muscle and nerve injury stress urinary incontinence model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childbirth injures muscles and nerves responsible for urinary continence. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or their secretome given systemically could provide therapeutic benefit for this complex multisite injury. We investigated whether MSCs or their secretome, as collected from cell culture, facilitate recovery from simulated childbirth injury. Age-matched female Sprague-Dawley rats received pudendal nerve crush and vaginal distension (PNC+VD) and a single intravenous (iv) injection of 2 million MSCs or saline. Controls received sham injury and iv saline. Additional rats received PNC+VD and a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of concentrated media conditioned by MSCs (CCM) or concentrated control media (CM). Controls received a sham injury and ip CM. Urethral and nerve function were assessed with leak point pressure (LPP) and pudendal nerve sensory branch potential (PNSBP) recordings 3 wk after injury. Urethral and pudendal nerve anatomy were assessed qualitatively by blinded investigators. Quantitative data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak post hoc tests with P density in the urethra increased and changed in orientation after PNC+VD, with a greater increase in elastic fibers with MSC or CCM. Pudendal nerve fascicles were less dense and irregularly shaped after PNC+VD and had reduced pathology with MSC or CCM. MSC and CCM provide similar protective effects after PNC+VD, suggesting that MSCs act via their secretions in this dual muscle and nerve injury. PMID:25377914

Deng, Kangli; Lin, Dan Li; Hanzlicek, Brett; Balog, Brian; Penn, Marc S; Kiedrowski, Matthew J; Hu, Zhiquan; Ye, Zhangqun; Zhu, Hui; Damaser, Margot S

2015-01-15

140

Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Mediates Nerve Growth Factor-induced Activation of Rap1*  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic AMP(cAMP) are both implicated in neuronal differentiation. Multiple studies indicate that NGF signals to at least a subset of its targets via cAMP, but the link between NGF and cAMP has remained elusive. Here, we have described the use of small molecule inhibitors to differentiate between the two known sources of cAMP in mammalian cells, bicarbonate- and calcium-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) and G protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases. These inhibitors, along with sAC-specific small interfering RNA, reveal that sAC is uniquely responsible for the NGF-elicited rise in cAMP and is essential for the NGF-induced activation of the small G protein Rap1 in PC12 cells. In contrast and as expected, transmembrane adenylyl cyclase-generated cAMP is responsible for Rap1 activation by the G protein-coupled receptor ligand PACAP (pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide). These results identify sAC as a mediator of NGF signaling and reveal the existence of distinct pathways leading to cAMP-dependent signal transduction. PMID:16627466

Stessin, Alexander M.; Zippin, Jonathan H.; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

2011-01-01

141

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro after transfection with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a variety of adult cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is briefly active during differentiation and induces mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into nerve cells. In this study, we cloned human BDNF to generate a recombinant pcDNA3.1(-)-BDNF vector and transfected the vector into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We selected these cells with Geneticin-418 to obtain BDNF-BMSCs, which were induced with retinoic acid to obtain induced BDNF-BMSCs. The transfected cells displayed the typical morphology and surface antigen profile of fibroblasts and were observed to express clusters of differentiation 29, 44, and 90 (observed in matrix and stromal cells), but not clusters of differentiation 31, 34, and 45 (observed in red blood cells and endothelial cells), via flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells secreted more BDNF than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Immunocytochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that non-induced BDNF-BMSCs maintained a higher proliferative capacity and expressed higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nestin, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acid protein than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. An additional increase was observed in the induced BDNF-BMSCs compared to the non-induced BDNF-BMSCs. This expression profile is characteristic of neurocytes. Our data demonstrate that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the BDNF gene can differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro, which may enable the generation of sufficient quantities of nerve-like cells for treatment of neuronal diseases. PMID:25773996

Liu, Qianxu; Cheng, Guangui; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhan, Shujie; Xiong, Binbin; Zhao, Xiaoming

2015-03-01

142

Impact of Chorda Tympani Nerve Injury on Cell Survival, Axon Maintenance, and Morphology of the Chorda Tympani Nerve Terminal Field in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract  

OpenAIRE

Chorda tympani nerve transection (CTX) has been useful to study the relationship between nerve and taste buds in fungiform papillae. This work demonstrated that the morphological integrity of taste buds depends on their innervation. Considerable research focused on the effects of CTX on peripheral gustatory structures, but much less research has focused on the central effects. Here, we explored how CTX affects ganglion cell survival, maintenance of injured peripheral axons, and the chorda tym...

Reddaway, Rebecca B.; Davidow, Andrew W.; Deal, Sarah L.; Hill, David L.

2012-01-01

143

Laser-activated solder weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats  

Science.gov (United States)

A new laser activated solder weld technique is described for the microsurgical repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats. The laser weld technique used an albumin based solder, containing indocyanine cardiogreen, plus an infrared diode laser. Seven animals had inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed using the laser weld technique and these were compared against corresponding unoperated controls plus three cases of nerve section without repair. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the trigeminal ganglion following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed comparable mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated control and laser weld groups with considerable reduction of mean values in cases of nerve section with no repair. Sections of the repaired inferior alveolar nerves, stained with Masson's trichrome, showed no adverse reactions by axons or epineurium to the coagulative repair with the solder and demonstrated regeneration of myelinated axons at the time of sacrifice. In summary a new technique of laser weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve is described which, on initial analysis, appears to be a reliable alternative to traditional techniques.

Curtis, Nigel J.; Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Owen, Earl R.; Walker, D. M.

1997-05-01

144

Renal sympathetic nerve activity is increased in monosodium glutamate induced hyperadipose rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature suggests that both obesity and hypertension are associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity. In the present study we evaluated the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in hyperadipose rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Neonatal Wistar male rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g body weight ID) or equimolar saline (control) for 5 days. At 90th day, all rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.4 g/kg) and prepared for MAP, HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity recordings. The anesthetized MSG rats presented baseline hypertension and increased baseline RSNA compared with control. Our results suggest the involvement of the renal sympathetic nervous system in the physiopathology of the MSG obesity. PMID:22705582

da Silva Mattos, Alexandro Márcio; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Karlen-Amarante, Marlusa; da Cunha, Natália Veronez; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

2012-08-01

145

The efflux of choline from nerve cells: mediation by ionic gradients and functional exchange of choline from glia to neurons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the relationship between ions and the efflux of choline, and suggests the possibility of a balance effect for choline fluxes which is produced and maintained by ioinic gradients. It is also suggested that glial cells may actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve activity, and that they may function as a choline reservoir for neuronal needs. The study shows that neurons and glial cells spontaneously discharge choline into the incubation medium. The exiting choline is essentially of free origin, as can be seen in an illustration provided. Neurons and glial cells had been prelabelled with (14C) choline overnight, and labelled for 15 min with tritium-choline. The higher amount of tritium-choline exiting the cells indicates that it is the freshly labelled choline which is preferentially released. The remaining of (14C) - choline exiting the cells corresponds to the free choline of phospholipid origin which amounts to about one third of the total free choline content

146

Monoclonal antibodies against beta nerve growth factor and their effects on receptor binding and biological activity.  

OpenAIRE

Two hybrid cell lines, MC beta-1 and MC beta-2, secreting monoclonal antibodies against mouse submaxillary gland beta nerve growth factor (beta NGF), were produced by interspecies hybridization of spleen cells from rats immunized with beta NGF and mouse myeloma cells. The antibodies secreted by the two hybridomas are of the IgG1 subclass and bind staphylococcal protein A. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the beta NGF--antibody complex was determined for the MC beta-1 antibodies in sol...

Zimmermann, A.; Sutter, A.; Shooter, E. M.

1981-01-01

147

Reduced spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain after nerve injury in mice lacking all three nitric oxide synthases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO in acute and chronic pain using mice lacking a single NO synthase (NOS gene among the three isoforms: neuronal (nNOS, inducible (iNOS and endothelial (eNOS. However, the precise role of NOS/NO in pain states remains to be determined owing to the substantial compensatory interactions among the NOS isoforms. Therefore, in this study, we used mice lacking all three NOS genes (n/i/eNOS-/-mice and investigated the behavioral phenotypes in a series of acute and chronic pain assays. Results In a model of tissue injury-induced pain, evoked by intraplantar injection of formalin, both iNOS-/-and n/i/eNOS-/-mice exhibited attenuations of pain behaviors in the second phase compared with that in wild-type mice. In a model of neuropathic pain, nerve injury-induced behavioral and cellular responses (tactile allodynia, spinal microglial activation and Src-family kinase phosphorylation were reduced in n/i/eNOS-/-but not iNOS-/-mice. Tactile allodynia after nerve injury was improved by acute pharmacological inhibition of all NOSs and nNOS. Furthermore, in MG-5 cells (a microglial cell-line, interferon-? enhanced NOSs and Mac-1 mRNA expression, and the Mac-1 mRNA increase was suppressed by L-NAME co-treatment. Conversely, the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, markedly increased mRNA expression of Mac-1, interleukin-6, toll-like receptor 4 and P2X4 receptor. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the NOS/NO pathway contributes to behavioral pain responses evoked by tissue injury and nerve injury. In particular, nNOS may be important for spinal microglial activation and tactile allodynia after nerve injury.

Shimokawa Hiroaki

2011-07-01

148

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

149

Lacrimal gland and perioptic nerve lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (2007: 9b)  

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We report a patient presenting with bilateral lacrimal gland involvement and perioptic nerve sheath lesions due to Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) invasion. LCH is a rare multisystemic disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. All organs may be involved with a clinical spectrum ranging from a solitary bone lesion to a severe life-threatening multisystem disease. Osteolytic orbital bone lesions with extension into the adjacent orbital soft tissues have been described. To our knowledge, lacrimal gland involvement has probably been described only once before. Perioptic nerve lesions are also very rare, having been described only three times before. (orig.)

Herman, M.; Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gool, S. van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Pediactrics, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Ophthalmology, Leuven (Belgium)

2007-12-15

150

[Transplanted epidermal neural crest stem cell in a peripheral nerve gap].  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural crest stem cells originated from hair follicle (epidermal neural crest stem cell, EPI-NCSC) are easy to obtain and have potentials to differentiate into various tissues, which make them eminent seed cells for tissue engineering. EPI-NCSC is now used to repair nerve injury, especially, the spinal cord injury. To investigate their effects on repairing peripheral nerve injury, EPI-NCSC from a GFP-SD rat were primarily cultured on coated dishes and on a poly lactic acid coglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) membrane. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that the initial adhesion rate of EPI-NCSC was 89.7% on PLGA membrane, and the relative growth rates were 89.3%, 87.6%, 85.6%, and 96.6% on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th day respectively. Cell cycles and DNA ploidy analysis demonstrated that cell cycles and proliferation indexes of cultured EPI-NCSC had the same variation pattern on coated dishes and PLGA membrane. Then cultured EPI-NCSC were mixed with equal amount of extracellular matrix and injected into a PLGA conduit to connect a 10 mm surgery excision gap of rat sciatic nerve, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) was used to substitute EPI-NCSC in the control group. After four weeks of transplantation, the defected sciatic nerve achieved a histological restoration, the sensory function of rat hind limb was partly recovered and the sciatic nerve index was also improved. The above results showed that a PLGA conduit filled with EPI-NCSC has a good repair effect on the peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25195250

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jieyuan; Li, Bingcang; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Bin

2014-04-01

151

Effect of an intraduodenal injection of fat on the activities of the adrenal efferent sympathetic nerve and the gastric efferent parasympathetic nerve in urethane-anesthetized rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient information from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain plays a critical role in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis. The autonomic nervous system controls the functions of several tissues to regulate the energy homeostasis of the whole body. Autonomic nerve activity is influenced by environmental or exogenous changes in even a single tissue. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an intraduodenal injection of fat on the activities of the autonomic nerves innervating the adrenal gland and stomach in urethane-anesthetized rats. An intraduodenal injection of corn oil suppressed adrenal efferent sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) and stimulated gastric efferent vagal nerve activity (GVNA). A lipase inhibitor, epsilon-polylysine, coinjected with corn oil completely suppressed the corn oil-induced changes in ASNA and GVNA. Further, an intraduodenal injection of fatty acid (linoleic acid) moderately suppressed ASNA and significantly stimulated GVNA; these results indicate that fat may affect autonomic nerve activity partly through the chemoreception of free fatty acids (FFAs), which are produced during the hydrolysis of fat (corn oil) by a pancreatic lipase, in the intestinal lumen. Furthermore, an intraduodenal injection of an intravenous fat emulsion with the same pH and osmotic pressure as the body fluid affected ASNA and GVNA in a similar manner as corn oil. These results suggest that intraduodenal fat suppresses ASNA and stimulates GVNA partly via the chemoreception of FFAs-the degradation products of fats-in the intestinal lumen. PMID:20362017

Matsumura, Shigenobu; Eguchi, Ai; Kitabayashi, Nobuhide; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Horii, Yuko; Nagai, Katsuya; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

2010-07-01

152

Nerve Growth Factor Stimulates Multisite Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Activation of the Atypical Protein Kinase C's via a src Kinase Pathway  

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Atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are required for nerve growth factor (NGF)-initiated differentiation of PC12 cells. In the present study, we report that PKC-? becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in the membrane coincident with activation posttreatment with nerve growth factor. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PKC-? were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both PP2 and K252a, src and TrkA kinase inhibitors. Purified src was observed to phosphorylate and activate PKC-? in vitro. In PC12 cells deficient in src kinase activity, both NGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PKC-? were also diminished. Furthermore, we demonstrate activation of src by NGF along with formation of a signal complex including the TrkA receptor, src, and PKC-?. Recruitment of PKC-? into the complex was dependent on the tyrosine phosphorylation state of PKC-?. The association of src and PKC-? was constitutive but was enhanced by NGF treatment, with the src homology 3 domain interacting with a PXXP sequence within the regulatory domain of PKC-? (amino acids 98 to 114). Altogether, these findings support a role for src in regulation of PKC-?. Tyrosine 256, 271, and 325 were identified as major sites phosphorylated by src in the catalytic domain. Y256F and Y271F mutations did not alter src-induced activation of PKC-?, whereas the Y325F mutation significantly reduced src-induced activation of PKC-?. The functional relevance of these mutations was tested by determining the ability of each mutant to support TRAF6 activation of NF-?B, with significant impairment by the Y325F PKC-? mutant. Moreover, when the Y352F mutant was expressed in PC12 cells, NGF's ability to promote survival in serum-free media was reduced. In summary, we have identified a novel mechanism for NGF-induced activation of atypical PKC involving tyrosine phosphorylation by c-Src. PMID:11713277

Wooten, Marie W.; Vandenplas, Michel L.; Seibenhener, M. Lamar; Geetha, Thangiah; Diaz-Meco, Maria T.

2001-01-01

153

Axon-Schwann cell interaction in degenerating and regenerating peripheral nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severance of a peripheral nerve stimulates a characteristic sequence of events in the distal stump, including the dissolution of axons and myelin and the proliferation of Schwann cells within their basal lamina. The first part of this thesis employs the cat tibial nerve to examine the relationship between the spatio-temporal pattern of Schwann cell mitosis, loss of the structural and functional properties of axolemma, synthesis of P0, the major myelin glycoprotein, and the clearance of morphological myelin. Induction of S phase was measured by determining the uptake of 3H thymidine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitates following a 3 hour in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringers buffer containing 3H thymidine. Nerve transection stimulated a monophasic increase in 3H thymidine uptake that peaked at 4 days post-transection throughout an 80 mm length of distal stump. Light microscope autoradiography revealed prominent incorporation into Schwann cells of myelinated fibers. Nerve transection also produced dramatic changes in the intrafascicular binding of 3H STX which binds to voltage-sensitive sodium channels STX binding fell precipitously to 20% of normal at 4 days post-transection, concurrent with the peak of 3H thymidine uptake. In conclusion, these studies suggest: (a) Schwann cells divide more or less contemporaneously throughout the distal stump; (b) changes in axons rather than myelin are likely to stimulate the Schwann cell to divide; (c) mitosis regulates other events during Wallerian degeneration, including myelin degeneration and the clearance of sodium channels from nodal axolemma

154

Human beta nerve growth factor obtained from a baculovirus expression system has potent in vitro and in vivo neurotrophic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A baculovirus expression vector, which contains the coding sequences for human prepro (beta) nerve growth factor under control of the viral polyhedrin promoter, was constructed. Upon infection of insect cells with the recombinant virus, mature human beta nerve growth factor (rhNGF) was released into the culture fluid. The mature rhNGF was biologically active since rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were induced to extend neurites upon treatment with this material. This activity was abolished by treating with antiserum prepared against mature mouse beta NGF (mNGF). When compared with mNGF, rhNGF more rapidly elicited the differentiation response in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. In an in vivo assay of cholinergic cell survival, rhNGF was nearly as potent as mNGF in protecting cholinergic neurons from degeneration following a fimbria-fornix lesion. These results show that the baculovirus expression system provides quantities of biologically potent human beta NGF suitable for a comprehensive program of research to ascertain beta NGF's potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:2209779

Barnett, J; Baecker, P; Routledge-Ward, C; Bursztyn-Pettegrew, H; Chow, J; Nguyen, B; Bach, C; Chan, H; Tuszynski, M H; Yoshida, K

1990-10-01

155

Nerve growth factor in the hippocamposeptal system: evidence for activity-dependent anterograde delivery and modulation of synaptic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurotrophins have been implicated in regulating neuronal differentiation, promoting neuronal survival, and modulating synaptic efficacy and plasticity. The prevailing view is that, depending on the target and mode of action, most neurotrophins can be trafficked and released either anterogradely or retrogradely in an activity-dependent manner. However, the prototypic neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), is not thought to be anterogradely delivered. Here we provide the neuroanatomical substrate for an anterograde hippocamposeptal transport of NGF by demonstrating its presence in mouse hippocampal GABAergic neurons and in their hippocamposeptal axons that ramify densely and abut neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB). We also demonstrate an activity-dependent increase in septal NGF levels that is dependent on the pattern of intrahippocampal stimulation. In addition, we show that acute exposure to NGF, via activation of TrkA, attenuates GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents and reduces sensitivity to exogenously applied GABA. These acute actions of NGF display cell type and functional selectivity insofar as (1) they were found in cholinergic, but not GABAergic, MS/DB neurons, and (2) glutamate-mediated excitatory synaptic activity as well as AMPA-activated current responses were unaffected. Our results advocate a novel anterograde, TrkA-mediated NGF signaling in the CNS. PMID:22649248

Guo, Lan; Yeh, Mason L; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Yeh, Hermes H

2012-05-30

156

Transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells promote regeneration of cut adult rat optic nerve axons  

OpenAIRE

Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells into spinal cord lesions promotes regeneration of cut axons into terminal fields and functional recovery. This repair involves the formation of a peripheral nerve-like bridge in which perineurial-like fibroblasts are organized into a longitudinal stack of parallel tubular channels, some of which contain regenerating axons enwrapped by Schwann-like olfactory ensheathing cells. The present study examines whether cut retinal ganglion cell axons will...

Li, Y.; Sauve?, Y.; Li, D.; Lund, R. D.; Raisman, G.

2003-01-01

157

Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats  

OpenAIRE

Artificial guidance channels containing Schwann cells can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve over long distances. However, primary Schwann cells are not suitable for autotransplantation. Under specific conditions, skin-derived progenitors can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells. Therefore, adult rat dorsal skin (dermis)-derived progenitors were isolated and induced to differentiate with DMEM/F12 containing B27, neuregulin 1, and forskolin. Immunofluorescence stain...

Zhang, Ping; Lu, Xiaocheng; Chen, Jianghai; Chen, Zhenbing

2014-01-01

158

Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulate Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves and was significantly greater in the MSC-treated group. The presence of GFP-positive MSCs was detected in the nerves, indicating the long term survival of such cells. Moreover, there was co-localization between MSCs and BNDF immunoreactivity, showing a possible mechanism by which MSCs improve the reactivity of SCs. Myelinated axon counting and morphometric analyses showed that MSC engrafting led to a higher degree of fiber compaction combined with a trend of increased myelin sheath thickness, when compared with other groups. The functional result of MSC engrafting was that the animals showed higher motor function recovery at the seventh and eighth week after lesion. The findings herein show that MSC+FS therapy improves the nerve regeneration process by positively modulating the reactivity of SCs. PMID:25602253

Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Spejo, Aline B; Ferreira, Rui S; Barraviera, Benedito; Duek, Eliana; Carvalho, Juliana L; Góes, Alfredo M; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

2015-03-01

159

Olfactory ensheathing cells: the primary innate immunocytes in the olfactory pathway to engulf apoptotic olfactory nerve debris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The olfactory system is an unusual tissue in which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are continuously replaced throughout the life of mammals. Clearance of the apoptotic ORNs corpses is a fundamental process serving important functions in the regulation of olfactory nerve turnover and regeneration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells that wrap olfactory axons and support their continual regeneration from the olfactory epithelium to the bulb. In the present study, OECs were identified to exist in two different states, resting and reactive, in which resting OECs could be activated by LPS stimulation and functioned as phagocytes for cleaning apoptotic ORNs corpses. Confocal analysis revealed that dead ORNs debris were engulfed by OECs and co-localized with lysosome associated membrane protein 1. Moreover, phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor was identified to express on OECs, which allowed OECs to recognize apoptotic ORNs by binding to PS. Importantly, engulfment of olfactory nerve debris by OECs was found in olfactory mucosa under normal turnover and was significantly increased in the animal model of olfactory bulbectomy, while little phagocytosis by Iba-1-positive microglia/macrophages was observed. Together, these results implicate OEC as a primary innate immunocyte in the olfactory pathway, and suggest a cellular and molecular mechanism by which ORNs corpses are removed during olfactory nerve turnover and regeneration. PMID:23339073

Su, Zhida; Chen, Jingjing; Qiu, Yang; Yuan, Yimin; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Yanling; Liu, Xiujie; Pu, Yingyan; He, Cheng

2013-04-01

160

Immunocytochemical localization of a cell adhesion molecule, integrin alpha5beta1, in nerve growth cones.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well-known that nerve growth cones, the growing tips of nerves, play a central role in determining the direction taken by regenerating peripheral nerves though neurotropism and contact guidance. In order to identify the molecules expressed on growth cones that are responsible for contact guidance, we investigated the possible involvement of integrins as sensors for the extracellular matrix. In cultured rat PC-12i cells and chick dorsal root ganglion cells, we found that integrin alpha5beta1 was concentrated in the filopodia and central regions of the growth cones. These integrin alpha5beta1-rich regions corresponded well with the sites where the growth cones came into contact with and adhered to the extracellular matrix. Integrin alpha5beta1 has been reported to bind with fibronectin in the extracellular matrix. When examined by triple staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we found that the distribution of integrin alpha5beta1 in the growth cones was very similar to that of actin filaments. Integrin alpha5beta1 was also expressed by Schwann cells. On immuno-electron microscopy, integrin alpha5beta1 was also identified in regenerating axons in vivo. These results suggest that integrin alpha5beta1 expressed on growth cones may function as a sensor for the extracellular matrix and Schwann cells, and thus mediate functionally important interactions in the development and regeneration of peripheral nerves. PMID:10542039

Yanagida, H; Tanaka, J; Maruo, S

1999-01-01

161

Maturation-related changes in the pattern of renal sympathetic nerve activity from fetal life to adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) has two main properties, the presence of co-ordinated bursts of activity, indicative of many nerve fibres firing at a similar time, and entrainment of the bursts to the cardiac cycle, due to inhibitory input from baroreceptors to a network of cell groups within the CNS. Although this patterning is used as a 'gold standard' for the identification of successful nerve recordings, the maturation of these basic features of SNA from fetal life to adulthood has not been investigated. Using a telemetry-based nerve amplifier, renal SNA (RSNA) was recorded in preterm (99 ± 1 days gestation; term 147 days) and near-term fetal sheep (119 ± 0 days gestation), without anaesthesia or paralysis, and contrasted with RSNA recorded in adult sheep. All three age groups showed a classic bursting pattern of RSNA and co-ordination of bursts with the cardiac cycle. However, the delay between diastole and the next peak in RSNA was longest in preterm fetuses (319 ± 1 ms), compared with near-term fetuses (250 ± 13 ms), and shortest in the adult sheep (174 ± 38 ms). This was independent of the maturational decrease in heart rate. The near-term fetuses showed a marked but sleep-state-dependent increase in resting RSNA compared with preterm fetuses. Although entrainment with the pressure pulse suggests that the intricate circuitry within the CNS is developed in the preterm fetus, the decrease in the length of the delay suggests continuing maturation of this key feature of RSNA in the last third of gestation and after birth. PMID:20971802

Booth, Lindsea C; Bennet, Laura; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Barrett, Carolyn J; May, Clive N; Gunn, Alistair J; Malpas, Simon C

2011-02-01

162

Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present stud...

Gao Li-Zhi; Wang Kai-Hu; Xie Cong-Jun; Liu Ling; Zhang Ping; Ju Gong

2009-01-01

163

Cilnidipine inhibits the sympathetic nerve activity and improves baroreflex sensitivity in patients with hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-type calcium channel blocker, cilnidipine, is reported not to increase the heart rate in spite of the strong depressor effect. However, it has not been determined whether cilnidipine has the sympatho-inhibitory effects or not. Moreover, the effect of cilnidipine on the baroreflex control has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cilnidipine on sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity, and baroreflex sensitivity. We studied five hypertensive patients treated with 10 mg cilnidipine (10-mg group) and five hypertensive patients treated with 20 mg cilnidipine (20-mg group). Before the treatment and 6 months after the treatment, we measured the blood pressure, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure variability (BPV). After 6 months, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the low-frequency component of systolic BPV expressed in normalized units (LFnuSBP), as the parameter of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly decreased in both groups, and the suppressive effects were stronger in the 20-mg group than in the 10-mg group. The high-frequency component of HRV expressed in normalized units, as the parameter of parasympathetic nerve activity, and BRS were significantly increased in 20-mg group, but not significant in 10-mg group. These results suggest that 6 months treatment with cilnidipine for hypertension has the sympatho-inhibtory effect, and that high-dose cilnidipine improves the parasympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex control in patients with hypertension. PMID:19387900

Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Konno, Satomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

2009-05-01

164

Discharge pattern of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the conscious rat: spectral analysis of integrated activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the periodic characteristics of bursting discharge in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious rats. Employing a discrete fast Fourier transform algorithm, a power spectrum analysis was used to quantify periodicities present in rectified and integrated RSNA whose signal-to-noise ratio in the recordings was greater than six. In conscious rats with intact baroreceptors, RSNA was characterized by four frequency components occurring at about 0.5, 1.5, 6, and 12 Hz, which corresponded to the low-frequency fluctuation of heart rate, respiration, and frequency of heart beat, and its harmonics, respectively. After intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to elicit reflex increases in RSNA and heart rate, the power for the component at 6 Hz followed the changes in heart beat frequency and was significantly increased, while those for the three other components were attenuated or experienced no change. In sino-aortic denervated (SAD) conscious rats, all four components were abolished, and the power spectrum was well fitted by a flat or Lorentzian curve, suggesting an almost random pattern. Only a respiratory-related component, which suggested common central modulation, appeared sporadically for short periods but was absent for the most part. Therefore most of this component together with the low-frequency component was also likely due to the baroreceptor-dependent peripheral modulation. The activity was sorted in 15 subgroups on the basis of spike amplitudes in the RSNA. Each subgroup showed frequency characteristics similar to the whole nerve activity. These results suggest that all periodicity in the RSNA of conscious rats with intact baroreceptors is caused by the baroreceptor input. PMID:11110815

Kunitake, T; Kannan, H

2000-12-01

165

Peripheral Nerve Injuries and Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Axonal Regeneration and Remyelination: Fact or Fiction?  

OpenAIRE

Successful nerve regeneration after nerve trauma is not only important for the restoration of motor and sensory functions, but also to reduce the potential for abnormal sensory impulse generation that can occur following neuroma formation. Satisfying functional results after severe lesions are difficult to achieve and the development of interventional methods to achieve optimal functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is of increasing clinical interest. Olfactory ensheathing cells (O...

Christine Radtke; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

2012-01-01

166

Up-Regulation of NF45 Correlates with Schwann Cell Proliferation After Sciatic Nerve Crush.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear factor (NF)45 (also known as interleukin enhancer-binding factor (ILF)2), is a transcription factor that interacts with NF90 to regulate gene expression. It has long been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. However, the role of NF45 in the process of peripheral nervous system regeneration after injury remains poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of NF45 in a rat sciatic nerve crush model. We detected the up-regulated expression of NF45 in Schwann cell after sciatic nerve crush. What's more, the expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) exhibited a similar tendency with that of NF45. In cell cultures, we observed increased expression of NF45 during the process of TNF-?-induced Schwann cell proliferation, whereas the protein level of p21 was down-regulated. Interference of NF45 led to enhanced expression of p21 and also impaired proliferation of Schwan cells. Taken together, our data implicated that NF45 was up-regulated in the sciatic nerve after crush, which was associated with proliferation of Schwann cell. PMID:25566957

Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Shiran; Xu, Hua; Yan, Shixian; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Yi

2015-05-01

167

Integration of engrafted Schwann cells into injured peripheral nerve: Axonal association and nodal formation on regenerated axons  

OpenAIRE

Transplantation of myelin-forming cells can remyelinate axons, but little is known of the sodium channel organization of axons myelinated by donor cells. Sciatic nerve axons of female wild type mice were transected by a crush injury and Schwann cells (SCs) from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing male mice were transplanted adjacent to the crush site. The male donor cells were identified by GFP fluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Y chromosome. In nerves of G...

Radtke, Christine; Akiyama, Yukinori; Lankford, Karen L.; Vogt, Peter M.; Krause, Diane S.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

2005-01-01

168

Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC), a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or...

João Gabriel Martins Dallo; Bernardo Vergara Reichert; José Benedito Ramos Valladão Júnior; Camila Silva; Bianca Aparecida de Luca; Beatriz de Freitas Azevedo Levy; Gerson Chadi

2007-01-01

169

Nerve Growth Factor Up-regulates the Transcriptional Activity of CBP through Activation of the p42/p44MAPK Cascade  

OpenAIRE

Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) functions as a transcriptional coactivator through interactions with a number of cellular and viral transcription factors. It has been suggested to play a central integrative role in gene regulation. However, little is known about signal cascades that can regulate CBP activity. Here we show that either nerve growth factor (NGF) or cAMP treatment led to enhanced activity of CBP in PC12 cells. The C-terminal glutamine-rich activa...

Latchman, D. S.; Lin, Y. Z.; Chirivia, J. C.

1998-01-01

170

Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Effects on Neuronal Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Crush and Cell Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone marrow-derived cells have been used in different animal models of neurological diseases. We investigated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) injected into the vitreous body in a model of optic nerve injury. Adult (3–5 months old) Lister Hooded rats underwent unilateral optic nerve crush followed by injection of MSC or the vehicle into the vitreous body. Before they were injected, MSC were labeled with a fluorescent dye or with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which allowed us to track the cells in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen and 28 days after injury, the survival of retinal ganglion cells was evaluated by assessing the number of Tuj1- or Brn3a-positive cells in flat-mounted retinas, and optic nerve regeneration was investigated after anterograde labeling of the optic axons with cholera toxin B conjugated to Alexa 488. Transplanted MSC remained in the vitreous body and were found in the eye for several weeks. Cell therapy significantly increased the number of Tuj1- and Brn3a-positive cells in the retina and the number of axons distal to the crush site at 16 and 28 days after optic nerve crush, although the RGC number decreased over time. MSC therapy was associated with an increase in the FGF-2 expression in the retinal ganglion cells layer, suggesting a beneficial outcome mediated by trophic factors. Interleukin-1? expression was also increased by MSC transplantation. In summary, MSC protected RGC and stimulated axon regeneration after optic nerve crush. The long period when the transplanted cells remained in the eye may account for the effect observed. However, further studies are needed to overcome eventually undesirable consequences of MSC transplantation and to potentiate the beneficial ones in order to sustain the neuroprotective effect overtime. PMID:25347773

Mesentier-Louro, Louise Alessandra; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; da Silva-Junior, Almir Jordão; Nascimento-dos-Santos, Gabriel; Gubert, Fernanda; de Figueirêdo, Ana Beatriz Padilha; Torres, Ana Luiza; Paredes, Bruno D.; Teixeira, Camila; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.

2014-01-01

171

Delayed nerve stimulation promotes axon-protective neurofilament phosphorylation, accelerates immune cell clearance and enhances remyelination in vivo in focally demyelinated nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and efficient axon remyelination aids in restoring strong electrochemical communication with end organs and in preventing axonal degeneration often observed in demyelinating neuropathies. The signals from axons that can trigger more effective remyelination in vivo are still being elucidated. Here we report the remarkable effect of delayed brief electrical nerve stimulation (ES; 1 hour @ 20 Hz 5 days post-demyelination) on ensuing reparative events in a focally demyelinated adult rat peripheral nerve. ES impacted many parameters underlying successful remyelination. It effected increased neurofilament expression and phosphorylation, both implicated in axon protection. ES increased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and promoted node of Ranvier re-organization, both of which coincided with the early reappearance of remyelinated axons, effects not observed at the same time points in non-stimulated demyelinated nerves. The improved ES-associated remyelination was accompanied by enhanced clearance of ED-1 positive macrophages and attenuation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in accompanying Schwann cells, suggesting a more rapid clearance of myelin debris and return of Schwann cells to a nonreactive myelinating state. These benefits of ES correlated with increased levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the acute demyelination zone, a key molecule in the initiation of the myelination program. In conclusion, the tremendous impact of delayed brief nerve stimulation on enhancement of the innate capacity of a focally demyelinated nerve to successfully remyelinate identifies manipulation of this axis as a novel therapeutic target for demyelinating pathologies. PMID:25310564

McLean, Nikki A; Popescu, Bogdan F; Gordon, Tessa; Zochodne, Douglas W; Verge, Valerie M K

2014-01-01

172

Delayed Nerve Stimulation Promotes Axon-Protective Neurofilament Phosphorylation, Accelerates Immune Cell Clearance and Enhances Remyelination In Vivo in Focally Demyelinated Nerves  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and efficient axon remyelination aids in restoring strong electrochemical communication with end organs and in preventing axonal degeneration often observed in demyelinating neuropathies. The signals from axons that can trigger more effective remyelination in vivo are still being elucidated. Here we report the remarkable effect of delayed brief electrical nerve stimulation (ES; 1 hour @ 20 Hz 5 days post-demyelination) on ensuing reparative events in a focally demyelinated adult rat peripheral nerve. ES impacted many parameters underlying successful remyelination. It effected increased neurofilament expression and phosphorylation, both implicated in axon protection. ES increased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and promoted node of Ranvier re-organization, both of which coincided with the early reappearance of remyelinated axons, effects not observed at the same time points in non-stimulated demyelinated nerves. The improved ES-associated remyelination was accompanied by enhanced clearance of ED-1 positive macrophages and attenuation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in accompanying Schwann cells, suggesting a more rapid clearance of myelin debris and return of Schwann cells to a nonreactive myelinating state. These benefits of ES correlated with increased levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the acute demyelination zone, a key molecule in the initiation of the myelination program. In conclusion, the tremendous impact of delayed brief nerve stimulation on enhancement of the innate capacity of a focally demyelinated nerve to successfully remyelinate identifies manipulation of this axis as a novel therapeutic target for demyelinating pathologies. PMID:25310564

McLean, Nikki A.; Popescu, Bogdan F.; Gordon, Tessa; Zochodne, Douglas W.; Verge, Valerie M. K.

2014-01-01

173

Epidermal expression of Lgr6 is dependent on nerve endings and Schwann cells  

OpenAIRE

Lgr5/6 proteins are stem cell markers in various tissues. However, what determines their restricted expression pattern in these tissues remains unknown. We found that in skin, Lgr6 is not only expressed in the central isthmus, directly above the hair follicle bulge cells as reported previously, but also in the interfollicular epidermis. Lgr6 expression in skin is highly correlated with the innervation sites of cutaneous nerves. In the hair follicle, Lgr6 closely localizes with the surrounding...

Liao, Xin-hua; Nguyen, Hoang

2014-01-01

174

Nerve Growth Factor Receptor TrkA, a New Receptor in Insulin Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells*  

Science.gov (United States)

TrkA is a cell surface transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor (NGF). TrkA has an NPXY motif and kinase regulatory loop similar to insulin receptor (INSR) suggesting that NGF?TrkA signaling might overlap with insulin?INSR signaling. During insulin or NGF stimulation TrkA, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), INSR (and presumably other proteins) forms a complex in PC12 cells. In PC12 cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of INSR and IRS-1 is dependent upon the functional TrkA kinase domain. Moreover, expression of TrkA kinase-inactive mutant blocked the activation of Akt and Erk5 in response to insulin or NGF. Based on these data, we propose that TrkA participates in insulin signaling pathway in PC12 cells. PMID:23749991

Geetha, Thangiah; Rege, Shraddha D.; Mathews, Salome E.; Meakin, Susan O.; White, Morris F.; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

2013-01-01

175

Effect of axon misdirection on recovery of electromyographic activity and kinematics after peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, patterns of activity in the soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and hindlimb kinematics were evaluated during slope walking in rats after transection and surgical repair either of the entire sciatic nerve (Sci group) or of its two branches separately, the tibial and common fibular nerves (T/CF group). With the latter method, axons from the tibial and common fibular nerves could not reinnervate targets of the other nerve branch after injury, reducing the opportunity for misdirection. Activity in the TA shifted from the swing phase in intact rats to nearly the entire step cycle in both injured groups. Since these changes occur without misdirection of regenerating axons, they are interpreted as centrally generated. Sol activity was changed from reciprocal to that of TA in intact rats to coactivate with TA, but only in the Sci group rats. In the T/CF group rats, Sol activity was not altered from that observed in intact rats. Despite effects of injury that limited foot movements, hindlimb kinematics were conserved during downslope walking in both injury groups and during level walking in the T/CF group. During level walking in the Sci group and during upslope walking in both groups of injured rats, the ability to compensate for the effects of the nerve injury was less effective and resulted in longer limb lengths held at more acute angles throughout the step cycle. Changes in limb movements occur irrespective of axon misdirection and reflect compensatory changes in the outputs of the neural circuits that drive locomotion. PMID:21411964

Sabatier, Manning J; To, Bao Ngoc; Nicolini, Jennifer; English, Arthur W

2011-01-01

176

Selective and independent activation of four motor fascicles using a four contact nerve-cuff electrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Any one of the four motor nerves in the cat sciatic nerve could be activated selectively and independently, from threshold to saturation, using a self-sizing spiral cuff electrode containing four radially placed monopolar contacts. These studies were carried out in nine adult cats with acute implants. Of the 36 possible fascicles, 23 fascicles could be activated selectively with current stimuli applied to a single contact and ten of the remaining fascicles could be activated selectively with current stimuli applied to two contacts, "field steering." In three experiments, time constraints precluded attempting selective activation through "field steering" techniques. In eight of the ten cases where "field steering" was used, a positive and a negative current source (anodic steering) were required to achieve the desired fascicle and in the remaining two cases, two negative current sources (cathodic steering) were required. The relative distance from the electrode contacts to each fascicle was well correlated to the order in which each fascicle was activated. In seven experiments, carried out in two animals, selective activation was verified by collision block techniques. The results of these experiments support the hypothesis that selective and independent activation of any of four motor fascicles in the cat sciatic nerve is possible using a four contact self-sizing spiral cuff electrode. Furthermore, in a more general case, these results support the concept of a "tunable" electrode that is capable of "steering" the excitation from an undesirable location to a preferred location. PMID:15218938

Tarler, Matthew D; Mortimer, J Thomas

2004-06-01

177

Investigation of Schwann cell behaviour on RGD-functionalised bioabsorbable nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current commercially available nerve conduits fail to support nerve regeneration gaps larger than 30 mm in length due to the simple intra-luminal design of these conduits which are unable to biomimic the native neural environment. There is, therefore, a major clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which can stimulate neuronal cell proliferation and migration, and facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical sized defects. In this study, we aimed to investigate Schwann cell (SC) behaviour seeded on the bioabsorbable version of the nanocomposite material, POSS modified poly (caprolactone) urea urethane (PCL), functionalised with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Successful synthesis of RGD peptide as well as the chemical structure of POSS-PCL nanocomposite film was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cell viability assay and morphological assessment were performed to investigate the cytocompatibility of the fabricated constructs. Successful immobilisation of RGD peptide onto the nanocomposite surface was confirmed by water contact angle, Brilliant Blue (BB) staining and thin layer chromatography. Both POSS-PCL and RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite scaffolds supported SC attachment, proliferation and morphological differentiation, important aspects for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, a significant increase in SC process length and morphological differentiation towards maturation was observed on the cells grown on RGD-POSS-PCL film. RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite demonstrated a significant improvement in SCs spreading and its integrin-dependent process outgrowth (P<0.05). Conduits made by POSS-nanocomposite may be suitable for the next generation of commercially available conduit required to meet current clinical demand in peripheral nerve regeneration and repair as they are currently undergoing in vivo preclinical study. PMID:24503165

Sedaghati, Tina; Jell, Gavin; Seifalian, Alexander

2014-05-25

178

Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp....

Pan Hung-Chuan; Yang Dar-Yu; Ho Shu-Peng; Sheu Meei-Ling; Chen Chung-Jung; Hwang Shiaw-Min; Chang Ming-Hong; Cheng Fu-Chou

2009-01-01

179

Hirschsprungs disease: Is there a relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To define the topography of mast cells and their numbers in cases of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD and non-HD, assess neural hypertrophy using imaging software and to study the relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers.METHODS: HE stained sections of 32 cases of chronic constipation in the age group of 0-14 years were reviewed for ganglion cells. AChE staining was performed on frozen sections of colonic and rectal biopsies. Based on their findings cases were divided into HD and non-HD and mast cells stained by toluidine blue were evaluated. Image analysis by computerized software was applied to S-100 stained sections for assessment of neural hypertrophy.RESULTS: Difference between number of mast cells in HD group (mean = 36.44 and in non-HD group (mean = 14.79 was statistically significant. Image analysis morphometry on S-100 stained sections served as a useful adjunct. The difference between number, size, and perimeter of the nerve fibers between HD and non-HD group was statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Mast cells are significantly increased in HD and their base line values are much higher in Indian children than that reported in Western literature. Their role in HD needs further research. Morphometry of S-100 stained nerve fibers is a useful adjunct to conventional methods for diagnosis of HD.

Amit Kumar Yadav, Kiran Mishra, Anup Mohta, Sarla Agarwal

2009-03-01

180

Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

2004-09-01

181

Mental stress elicits sustained and reproducible increases in skin sympathetic nerve activity  

OpenAIRE

Mental stress (MS) is a known trigger of myocardial infarction and sudden death. By activating the sympathetic nervous system, MS may have deleterious effect on the cardiovascular system but this process is not completely understood. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the effect of MS on skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). The secondary aim was to determine the reproducibility of SSNA to MS within a given day and ?1 week later. Ten subjects (26 ± 1 year) performed two bouts ...

Muller, Matthew D.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

2013-01-01

182

Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation: Signaling Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Consequences in Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part by inducing hypertension. One factor linking excess fat mass to cardiovascular diseases may be the sympathetic cardiovascular actions of leptin. Initial studies of leptin showed it regulates appetite and enhances energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Further study, however, demonstrated leptin also causes sympathetic excitation to the kidney that, in turn, increase...

Rahmouni, Kamal

2010-01-01

183

Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and the columns of aligned dADSCs in the aligned collagen matrix supported and guided neurite extension in vitro. EngNT-dADSC sheets were rolled to form peripheral nerve repair constructs that were implanted within NeuraWrap conduits to bridge a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. After 8 weeks regeneration was assessed using immunofluorescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy and compared to empty conduit and nerve graft controls. The proportion of axons detected in the distal stump was 3.5 fold greater in constructs containing EngNT-dADSC than empty tube controls. Our novel combination of technologies that can organise autologous therapeutic cells within an artificial tissue construct provides a promising new cellular biomaterial for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:25453954

Georgiou, Melanie; Golding, Jon P; Loughlin, Alison J; Kingham, Paul J; Phillips, James B

2015-01-01

184

Large A-fiber activity is required for microglial proliferation and p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord: different effects of resiniferatoxin and bupivacaine on spinal microglial changes after spared nerve injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After peripheral nerve injury, spontaneous ectopic activity arising from the peripheral axons plays an important role in inducing central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Recent evidence indicates that activation of spinal cord microglia also contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. In particular, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in spinal microglia is required for the development of mechanical allodynia. However, activity-dependent activation of microglia after nerve injury has not been fully addressed. To determine whether spontaneous activity from C- or A-fibers is required for microglial activation, we used resiniferatoxin (RTX to block the conduction of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 positive fibers (mostly C- and A?-fibers and bupivacaine microspheres to block all fibers of the sciatic nerve in rats before spared nerve injury (SNI, and observed spinal microglial changes 2 days later. Results SNI induced robust mechanical allodynia and p38 activation in spinal microglia. SNI also induced marked cell proliferation in the spinal cord, and all the proliferating cells (BrdU+ were microglia (Iba1+. Bupivacaine induced a complete sensory and motor blockade and also significantly inhibited p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. In contrast, and although it produced an efficient nociceptive block, RTX failed to inhibit p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. Conclusion (1 Blocking peripheral input in TRPV1-positive fibers (presumably C-fibers is not enough to prevent nerve injury-induced spinal microglial activation. (2 Peripheral input from large myelinated fibers is important for microglial activation. (3 Microglial activation is associated with mechanical allodynia.

Decosterd Isabelle

2009-09-01

185

Differential responses in post- and pre-ganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and renal sympathetic nerve activity after injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and insulin in rats.  

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The aim of the study was to compare pre-ganglionic adrenal nerve activity (pre-aSNA) to post-ganglionic adrenal nerve activity (post-aSNA) in rats after administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, 500 mg kg-1, i.v.), which mimicks a central hypoglycaemia or to the response in pre-aSNA and post-aSNA to hypoglycaemia after injection of insulin (5U). Renal postganglionic sympathetic nerve recordings (rSNA) in a separate group was used as a reference. Adrenal or renal multifibre nerve activity was recorded in chloralose-anaesthetized Wistar-rats. Trimethaphan, a short-lasting ganglionic blocker, was administered i.v. (10 mg kg-1) in order to test for pre- or post-aSNA in the adrenal nerves. The adrenal nerves was considered to contain predominantly post or preganglionic fibres, respectively if the nerve activity in the adrenal nerve decreased (post-aSNA) or increased (pre-aSNA). In contrast, all renal nerves showed almost a pure postganglionic activity. Post-aSNA responded with a tendency to increase after the 2-DG injection. The highest value (percentage change from control) 5 min after injection was 12 +/- 9%. The pre-aSNA increased with values of 99 +/- 52% at 3 min and 86 +/- 31% at 5 min (percentage change from control). The activity in the rSNA was only slightly decreased after the injection of 2-DG when compared to pre-drug control activity. There was a significant difference between the pre-aSNA vs. post-aSNA at 1 min (P less than 0.05), 3 min (P less than 0.01) and 5 min (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1636445

Carlsson, S; Skarphedinsson, J O; Delle, M; Hoffman, P; Thorén, P

1992-06-01

186

Central interaction between reflex responses to activity in aortic nerve A- and C-fibres.  

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The question of whether or not activity in myelinated (A) and non-myelinated (C) afferents in a baroreceptor nerve shows interaction of their reflex effects, was investigated in 10 anesthetized rabbits. The central end of the cut left aortic nerve was stimulated by two sets of electrodes, one for selective high-frequency excitation of A-fibres (A-stimulation) and one for low-frequency activation of C- (and A-) fibres by another pulse generator (C-stimulation). The pulse rates in C-stimulations were too low to evoke reflex effects via A-fibres. The hypotensive response to combined stimulations of A- and C-fibres (AC-stimulation) was found to exceed the sum of responses to separate A- and C-stimulations in 21 of 22 stimulation series. For sympathetic activity to the kidney, a greater than additive effect was observed in 16 of 24 series (P = 0.08), while in 6 of the series, the responses were equal. Median values of the ratio AC/(A + C) were 1.28 for the reflex changes in pressure and 1.11 for the effects on renal nerve activity. Similarly, C-stimulation, which in comparison to A-stimulation affected sympathetic activity relatively more than blood pressure, in 13 of 16 series (P = 0.01) produced a greater sympathetic inhibition when added to a background of A-fibre activity than when alone. These results suggest that a synergistic interaction exists between central effects of afferent discharge in aortic nerve A- and C-fibres. PMID:7211414

Aars, H

1980-11-01

187

Diving and exercise: The interaction of trigeminal receptors and muscle metaboreceptors on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.  

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Swimming involves muscular activity and submersion, creating a conflict of autonomic reflexes elicited by the trigeminal receptors and skeletal muscle afferents. We sought to determine the autonomic cardiovascular responses to separate and concurrent stimulation of the trigeminal cutaneous receptors and metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex). In eight healthy men (30 ± 2 yr) muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), femoral artery blood flow (duplex Doppler ultrasonography), and femoral vascular conductance (femoral artery blood flow/MAP) were assessed during the following three experimental conditions: 1) facial cooling (trigeminal nerve stimulation), 2) postexercise ischemia (PEI; muscle metaboreflex activation) following isometric handgrip, and 3) trigeminal nerve stimulation with concurrent PEI. Trigeminal nerve stimulation produced significant increases in MSNA total activity (?347 ± 167%) and MAP (?21 ± 5%) and a reduction in femoral artery vascular conductance (?-17 ± 9%). PEI also evoked significant increases in MSNA total activity (?234 ± 83%) and MAP (?36 ± 4%) and a slight nonsignificant reduction in femoral artery vascular conductance (?-9 ± 12%). Trigeminal nerve stimulation with concurrent PEI evoked changes in MSNA total activity (?341 ± 96%), MAP (?39 ± 4%), and femoral artery vascular conductance (?-20 ± 9%) that were similar to those evoked by either separate trigeminal nerve stimulation or separate PEI. Thus, excitatory inputs from the trigeminal nerve and metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents do not summate algebraically in eliciting a MSNA and cardiovascular response but rather exhibit synaptic occlusion, suggesting a high degree of convergent inputs on output neurons. PMID:25527781

Fisher, James P; Fernandes, Igor A; Barbosa, Thales C; Prodel, Eliza; Coote, John H; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio L; Vianna, Lauro C

2015-03-01

188

Alterations in neurofilaments content and calpains activity of sciatic nerve of carbon disulfide-treated rats.  

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Chronic exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) can induce polyneuropathy in occupational worker and experimental animals, but underlying mechanism for CS2 neurotoxicity is currently unknown. In the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The rats in two experimental groups were treated with CS2 by gavage at dosages of 300 and 500 mg/kg per day, respectively, five times per week for 12 weeks. The contents of neurofilament triplet proteins (NF-H, NF-M, NF-L) and two calpain isoforms (m-calpain and u-calpain) in sciatic nerves were determined by immunoblotting. In the meantime, the mRNA levels of NF-H, NF-M and NF-L in spinal cords were quantified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the total activity of calpains in sciatic nerves was measured by fluorescence assay. Results showed that the contents of NF-M and NF-L in CS2-treated rats sciatic nerves increased significantly except NF-M in low dose group. The contents and activity of m-calpain and u-calpain in sciatic nerve also demonstrated a significant elevation. Furthermore, the levels of mRNA expression of NFH, NFM and NFL genes were up-regulated consistently in spinal cords of treated rats. These findings suggested that CS2 intoxication was associated with the disruption of neurofilaments homeostasis and activiation of calpains in rat sciatic nerves, which might be involved in the development of CS2-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:19165470

Song, Fuyong; Zhang, Cuili; Wang, Qingshan; Zeng, Tao; Xie, Keqin

2009-06-01

189

Axon-Schwann cell interaction in degenerating and regenerating peripheral nerve  

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Severance of a peripheral nerve stimulates a characteristic sequence of events in the distal stump, including the dissolution of axons and myelin and the proliferation of Schwann cells within their basal lamina. The first part of this thesis employs the cat tibial nerve to examine the relationship between the spatio-temporal pattern of Schwann cell mitosis, loss of the structural and functional properties of axolemma, synthesis of P/sub 0/, the major myelin glycoprotein, and the clearance of morphological myelin. Induction of S phase was measured by determining the uptake of /sup 3/H thymidine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitates following a 3 hour in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringers buffer containing /sup 3/H thymidine. Nerve transection stimulated a monophasic increase in /sup 3/H thymidine uptake that peaked at 4 days post-transection throughout an 80 mm length of distal stump. Light microscope autoradiography revealed prominent incorporation into Schwann cells of myelinated fibers. Nerve transection also produced dramatic changes in the intrafascicular binding of /sup 3/H STX which binds to voltage-sensitive sodium channels STX binding fell precipitously to 20% of normal at 4 days post-transection, concurrent with the peak of /sup 3/H thymidine uptake. In conclusion, these studies suggest: (a) Schwann cells divide more or less contemporaneously throughout the distal stump; (b) changes in axons rather than myelin are likely to stimulate the Schwann cell to divide; (c) mitosis regulates other events during Wallerian degeneration, including myelin degeneration and the clearance of sodium channels from nodal axolemma.

Pellegrino, R.G.

1984-01-01

190

Nerve growth factor modulates the activation status and fast axonal transport of ERK 1/2 in adult nociceptive neurones.  

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Mature dorsal root ganglion cells respond to neurotrophins, and the intracellular signalling pathways activated by neurotrophins have been characterized in vitro. We have now used immunocytochemistry and Western blots to examine the expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK) in rat dorsal root ganglion cells in vivo, using antisera to total (tERK) and phosphorylated (pERK) forms. This has revealed a number of novel findings. tERK immunoreactivity is present in most dorsal root ganglion cells but is expressed most strongly in small (nociceptive) cells and, surprisingly, is absent in a population of large cells that expressed trkB or trkC but mainly lack p75(NTR) immunoreactivity. In contrast pERK is prominent in a few trkA cells and in satellite glial cells, and is further increased by NGF treatment. tERK and pERK both undergo fast anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, indicated by accumulation at a sciatic nerve ligature, and NGF reduces the level of retrograde pERK transport. PMID:11520179

Averill, S; Delcroix, J D; Michael, G J; Tomlinson, D R; Fernyhough, P; Priestley, J V

2001-08-01

191

Differential arterial baroreflex regulation of renal, lumbar, and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumbar (LSNA), renal (RSNA), or adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) is most commonly used as an index of sympathetic nerve activity in investigations of arterial baroreflex control in the rat. Although differential regulation of sympathetic outputs to different organs has been extensively studied, no direct and simultaneous comparisons of the full range of baroreflex reactivity have been described for these sympathetic outputs. Therefore, we compared steady-state sigmoidal baroreflex stimulus-response curves (via phenylephrine-nitroprusside infusion) for RSNA recorded simultaneously with LSNA or ASNA in urethan-chloralose-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Characteristics of the baroreflex curves differed significantly between all three sympathetic outputs. ASNA exhibited the greatest range of baroreflex regulation, the highest upper level of activity, and the widest distribution of the gain over a broad range of mean arterial pressure (MAP). RSNA exhibited greater gain than LSNA. LSNA showed the smallest range and maximal inhibition in comparison to other sympathetic outputs. However, all three nerves responded similarly to baroreflex stimulation and unloading in the range in MAP close to the operating point. We conclude that baroreflex regulation of sympathetic activity shows wide regional variability in gain, range, and maximal inhibition. Therefore, the entire stimulus-response relationship should be considered in comparing regional sympathetic responses. PMID:9756527

Scislo, T J; Augustyniak, R A; O'Leary, D S

1998-10-01

192

An immortalized human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell line for in vitro permeability studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solute and macromolecular transport studies may elucidate nutritional requirements and drug effects in healthy and diseased peripheral nerves. Endoneurial endothelial cells are specialized microvascular cells that form the restrictive blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) are difficult to isolate, limiting their widespread availability for biomedical research. We developed a simian virus-40 large T-antigen (SV40-LTA) immortalized human BNB cell line via stable transfection of low passage pHEndECs and observed continuous growth in culture for >45 population doublings. As observed with pHEndECs, the immortalized BNB endothelial cells were Ulex Europaeus agglutinin-1-positive and endocytosed low density lipoprotein, but lost von Willebrand factor expression. Glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT), large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1), creatine transporter (CRT), and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) mRNA expression were retained at all passages with loss of alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression after passages 16-20. Compared with an SV40-LTA immortalized human blood-brain barrier endothelial cell line, there was increased ?-GT protein expression, equivalent expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT-3), MCT-1, and LAT-1, and reduced expression of AP, CRT, and P-gp by the BNB cell line at passage 20. Further studies demonstrated lower transendothelial electrical resistance (~181 vs. 191 ? cm(2)), equivalent permeability to fluoresceinated sodium (4.84 vs. 4.39 %), and lower permeability to fluoresceinated high molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (0.39 vs. 0.52 %) by the BNB cell line. This cell line retained essential molecular and biophysical properties suitable for in vitro peripheral nerve permeability studies. PMID:23104242

Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

2013-03-01

193

Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter  

OpenAIRE

Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial ...

Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth H.; Davis, Michael J.; Fadel, Paul J.

2013-01-01

194

Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity induced by central hyperosmolality  

OpenAIRE

The contribution of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in mediating central hyperosmolality-induced increases of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) was assessed in anesthetized rats. Solutions of graded NaCl concentration (150, 375, and 750 mM) were injected (150 ?l) into the forebrain vascular supply via an internal carotid artery (ICA). Time-control experiments (n = 6) established that ICA NaCl injections produced short-latency, transient incre...

Shi, Peng; Stocker, Sean D.; Toney, Glenn M.

2007-01-01

195

Identification and characterization of mRNAs regulated by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells.  

OpenAIRE

Differential screening of cDNA libraries was used to detect and prepare probes for mRNAs that are regulated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells by long-term (2-week) treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). In response to NGF, PC12 cells change from a chromaffin cell-like to a sympathetic-neuron-like phenotype. Thus, one aim of this study was to identify NGF-regulated mRNAs that may be associated with the attainment of neuronal properties. Eight NGF-regulated mRNAs are described. Five of thes...

Leonard, D. G.; Ziff, E. B.; Greene, L. A.

1987-01-01

196

Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation  

OpenAIRE

The vertebrate retina contains seven major neuronal and glial cell types in an interconnected network that collects, processes and sends visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal neuron differentiation is thought to require both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, yet few intrinsic gene products have been identified that direct this process. Math5 (Atoh7) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is specifically expressed by mouse retinal progenitors. M...

Brown, Nadean L.; Patel, Sima; Brzezinski, Joseph; Glaser, Tom

2001-01-01

197

Retinal Ganglion Cell Death and Optic Nerve Degeneration by Genetic Ablation in Adult Mice  

OpenAIRE

Despite the magnitude of the problem, no effective treatments exist to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve degeneration from occurring in diseases affecting the human eye. Animal models currently available for developing treatment strategies suffer from cumbersome procedures required to induce RGC death or rely on mutations that induce defects in developing retinas rather than in mature retinas of adults. Our objective was to develop a robust genetically engineered adult...

Cho, Jang-hyeon; Mu, Xiuqian; Wang, Steven W.; Klein, William H.

2008-01-01

198

Human muscle sympathetic nerve activity and plasma noradrenaline kinetics in space  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight alterations. We tested the hypotheses that exposure to microgravity reduces sympathetic neural outflow and impairs sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress. We measured heart rate, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity and plasma noradrenaline spillover and clearance, in male astronauts before, during (flight day 12 or 13) and after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Measurements were made during supine rest and orthostatic stress, as simulated on Earth and in space by 7 min periods of 15 and 30 mmHg lower body suction. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) heart rates before lower body suction were similar pre-flight and in flight. Heart rate responses to -30 mmHg were greater in flight (from 56 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 beats min(-1)) than pre-flight (from 56 +/- 4 at rest to 62 +/- 4 beats min(-1), P activity was increased above pre-flight levels (by 10-33 %) in the same three subjects in whom noradrenaline spillover and clearance were increased. The sympathetic response to 30 mmHg lower body suction was at pre-flight levels or higher in each subject (35 pre-flight vs. 40 bursts min(-1) in flight). No astronaut experienced presyncope during lower body suction in space (or during upright tilt following the Neurolab mission). We conclude that in space, baseline sympathetic neural outflow is increased moderately and sympathetic responses to lower body suction are exaggerated. Therefore, notwithstanding hypovolaemia, astronauts respond normally to simulated orthostatic stress and are able to maintain their arterial pressures at normal levels.

Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Levine, Benjamin D.; Robertson, Rose Marie; Cox, James F.; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Ray, Chester A.; Buckey, Jay C Jr; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Costa, Fernando; Holt, Carol; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Robertson, David

2002-01-01

199

Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

Gao Li-Zhi

2009-12-01

200

The fusion of bone-marrow-derived proinsulin-expressing cells with nerve cells underlies diabetic neuropathy  

OpenAIRE

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. Here we show that, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents with neuropathy, a subpopulation of bone-marrow-derived cells marked by proinsulin expression migrates to and fuses with neurons in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG), resulting in neuronal dysfunction and accelerated apoptosis. The absence or presence of proinsulin expression, which identifies the fusion cells, and not the disease state (n...

Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Fujimiya, Mineko; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Oi, Jiro; Hara, Manami; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Hitoshi; Chan, Lawrence

2005-01-01

201

Cooperative roles of BDNF expression in neurons and Schwann cells are modulated by exercise to facilitate nerve regeneration  

OpenAIRE

After peripheral nerve injury, neurotrophins play a key role in the regeneration of damaged axons which can be augmented by exercise, although the distinct roles played by neurons and Schwann cells are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the requirement for the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in neurons and Schwann cells, for the regeneration of peripheral axons after injury. Common fibular or tibial nerves in thy-1-YFP-H mice were cut bilaterally and repaired using a...

Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; Xu, Mei; Cucoranu, Delia; Chmielewski, Sarah; Holmes, Tiffany; Lau, Kelly; Bassell, Gary J.; English, Arthur W.

2012-01-01

202

A 21-kDa surface protein of Mycobacterium leprae binds peripheral nerve laminin-2 and mediates Schwann cell invasion  

OpenAIRE

Nerve damage is the hallmark of Mycobacterium leprae infection, which results from M. leprae invasion of the Schwann cell of the peripheral nervous system. We have recently shown that the laminin-2 isoform, specially the G domain of laminin ?2 chain, on the Schwann cell–axon unit serves as an initial neural target for M. leprae. However, M. leprae surface molecules that mediate bacterial invasion of peripheral nerves are entirely unknown. By using human ?2 laminins as a probe, a major 28-...

Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Ng, Vincent; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Fischetti, Vincent A.; Rambukkana, Anura

1999-01-01

203

Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration in WldS transgenic rats after optic nerve crush and lens injury  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background We have previously shown that the slow Wallerian degeneration mutation, whilst delaying axonal degeneration after optic nerve crush, does not protect retinal ganglion cell (RGC) bodies in adult rats. To test the effects of a combination approach protecting both axons and cell bodies we performed combined optic nerve crush and lens injury, which results in both enhanced RGC survival as well as axon regeneration past the lesion site in wildtype animals. Results As previously...

Lorber, Barbara; Tassoni, Alessia; Bull, Natalie D.; Moschos, Marilita M.; Martin, Keith R.

2012-01-01

204

Solvent-cast PCL films support the regeneration of NG108-15 nerve cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects over a short distance (10-20mm) could benefit from the development of novel biomaterials. Bio-degradable and bio-compatible materials are being pursued to replace the currently used nerve autografts. We hypothesize that physical properties, particularly surface texture, could have substantial effects on the hydrophilicity of some synthetic polymers and subsequently the compatibility of them with cells. In this study, poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) films have been cast using four solvents from different chemical families and evaluated for their suitability and potential use as a nerve conduit substratum. The following solvents: dichloromethane (DCM, Halocarbon), methyl acetate (MA, Ester), tetrahydrofuran (THF, Ether) and acetic acid (AA, organic acid) were used to produce PCL films. The physical properties of these PCL films, average surface roughness (Ra) and wettability were measured. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were applied to obtain information on the surface texture. Motor neuron-like NG108-15 cells were used as a model to evaluate the biocompatibility of the films. It was found that same polymer when processed using different solvents could produce materials with markedly different physical and biochemical properties. Importantly, all PCL films were supportive for the growth and differentiation of NG108-15 cells.

Sun, Mingzhu; Downes, Sandra

2007-07-01

205

Enhancement of Median Nerve Regeneration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment in an Absorbable Conduit: Improvement of Peripheral Nerve Morphology with Enlargement of Somatosensory Cortical Representation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN, 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1, electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in 3 groups: MN Intact (n=4, PCL-Only (n=3 and PCL+MSC (n=3. Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group or without (PCL-Only group injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to 5 animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383±390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively than the PCL-Only group (2,226±575 fibers; 1.6 mm2. In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

João G Franca

2014-10-01

206

Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. PMID:25145652

Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

2015-01-01

207

Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

1987-01-01

208

Activation of endothelin A-receptors contributes to the impaired responsiveness of renal mechanosensory nerves in congestive heart failure  

OpenAIRE

Increasing renal pelvic pressure results in PGE2-mediated release of substance P leading to increases in afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and natriuresis: renorenal reflex response. The renorenal reflexes are impaired in congestive heart failure (CHF). Impairment of the renorenal reflexes may contribute to the increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and sodium retention in CHF. Endothelin (ET)-1contributes to the pathological changes in cardiac and renal function in CHF. Therefore, we ...

Kopp, Ulla C.; Cicha, Michael Z.; Jones, Susan Y.

2010-01-01

209

MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

2014-05-15

210

MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

211

The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization and homing are critical to the development of an anti-thrombosis and anti-stenosis tissue-engineered blood vessel. The growth and activation of blood vessels are supported by nerves. We investigated whether nerve growth factors (NGF) can promote EPCs mobilization and endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In vitro, NGF promoted EPCs to form more colonies, stimulated human EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells, and significantly enhanced EPCs migration. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that NGF treatment increased the number of EPCs in the peripheral circulation of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the treatment of human EPCs with NGF facilitated their homing into wire-injured carotid arteries after injection into mice. Decellularized rat blood vessel matrix was incubated with EDC cross-linked collagen and bound to NGF protein using the bifunctional coupling agent N-succinmidyl3-(2-pyridyldit-hio) propionate (SPDP). The NGF-bound tissue-engineered blood vessel was implanted into rat carotid artery for 1 week and 1 month. NGF-bound blood vessels possessed significantly higher levels of endothelialization and patency than controls did. These results demonstrated that NGF can markedly increase EPCs mobilization and homing to vascular grafts. Neurotrophic factors such as NGF have a therapeutic potential for the construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo. PMID:20006381

Zeng, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Li, Li; Mi, Jianhong; Xu, Shangcheng; Wen, Can; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Sun, Jiansen; Ying, Dajun; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Xiaosong; Zhu, Chuhong

2010-03-01

212

Nerve growth factor nonresponsive pheochromocytoma cells: altered internalization results in signaling dysfunction  

OpenAIRE

Variant rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells which fail to respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) (PC12nnr5) (Green, S. H., R. E. Rydel, J. L. Connoly, and L. A. Greene. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 102:830-843) bind NGF at both high and low affinity sites. Although still undefined at the molecular level, these have been referred to as type I (high) and type II (low) receptors. They are apparently composed of two membrane-bound proteins, p75 and the protooncogene trk, both of which bind NGF, and apparently...

1992-01-01

213

The Role of Hypothalamic mTORC1 Signaling in Insulin Regulation of Food Intake, Body Weight, and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Male Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus. PMID:25574706

Muta, Kenjiro; Morgan, Donald A; Rahmouni, Kamal

2015-04-01

214

Nerve growth factor receptor TrkA signaling in breast cancer cells involves Ku70 to prevent apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nerve growth factor (NGF)-tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA plays a critical role in various neuronal and non-neuronal cell types by regulating cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. In breast cancer cells, TrkA stimulation results in the activation of cellular growth, but downstream signaling largely remains to be described. Here we used a proteomics-based approach to identify partners involved in TrkA signaling in breast cancer cells. Wild type and modified TrkA chimeric constructs with green fluorescent protein were transfected in MCF-7 cells, and co-immunoprecipitated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE before nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Several TrkA putative signaling partners were identified among which was the DNA repair protein Ku70, which is increasingly reported for its role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Physiological interaction of Ku70 with endogenous TrkA was induced upon NGF stimulation in non-transfected cells, and co-localization was observed with confocal microscopy. Mass spectrometry analysis and Western blotting of phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates demonstrated the induction of Ku70 tyrosine phosphorylation upon NGF stimulation. Interestingly no interaction between TrkA and Ku70 was detected in PC12 cells in the absence or presence of NGF, suggesting that it is not involved in the initiation of neuronal differentiation. In breast cancer cells, RNA interference indicated that whereas Ku70 depletion had no direct effect on cell survival, it induced a strong potentiation of apoptosis in TrkA-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, TrkA signaling appears to be proapoptotic in the absence of Ku70, and this protein might therefore play a role in the long time reported ambivalence of tyrosine kinase receptors that can exhibit both anti- and eventually proapoptotic activities. PMID:17617666

Com, Emmanuelle; Lagadec, Chann; Page, Adeline; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Slomianny, Christian; Spencer, Ambre; Hammache, Djilali; Rudkin, Brian B; Hondermarck, Hubert

2007-11-01

215

Effect of SIRT1 regulating cholesterol synthesis in repairing retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the repair mechanism associated with cholesterol synthesis regulated by silent information regulator 1(SIRT1in rat model of optic nerve damage. METHODS: Preparation of optic nerve damage in 70 rats was randomly divided into normal group(10 rats, resveratrol treatment group(experimental group 30 ratsand PBS buffer control group(30 rats. The experimental group and control group was further divided into 3 subgroups(each group 10 rats, respectively. After 7, 14, 21d injected resveratrol or PBS, optic nerve injury were observed, then the rats were sacrificed. Retina was segregated; the surviving retinal ganglion cell(RGCswas counted. Dissection of optic nerve, cholesterol content of them were tested; RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and HMGCR; Western blot assay was used to test the protein expression levels of SIRT1, cholesterol regulatory element binding protein 2(SREBP2and HMGCR. RESULTS: The numbers of RGCs and cholesterol levels of rat model with optic nerve injury decreased significantly(PPPPCONCLUSION: Up-regulating the expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and down-regulating HMGCR by resveratrol could repair the injury of optic nerve through promoting the synthesis of cholesterol in neurons and retinal ganglion cells in the repair process. SIRT1 may be as a promising new target for treatment on optic nerve damage.

Yan Zhang

2014-10-01

216

Selective neural activation in a histologically derived model of peripheral nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a general term for therapeutic methods that use electrical stimulation to aid or replace lost ability. For FES systems that communicate with the nervous system, one critical component is the electrode interface through which the machine-body information transfer must occur. In this paper, we examine the influence of inhomogeneous tissue conductivities and positions of nodes of Ranvier on activation of myelinated axons for neuromuscular control as a function of electrode configuration. To evaluate these effects, we developed a high-resolution bioelectric model of a fascicle from a stained cross-section of cat sciatic nerve. The model was constructed by digitizing a fixed specimen of peripheral nerve, extruding the image along the axis of the nerve, and assigning each anatomical component to one of several different tissue types. Electrodes were represented by current sources in monopolar, transverse bipolar, and longitudinal bipolar configurations; neural activation was determined using coupled field-neuron simulations with myelinated axon cable models. We found that the use of an isotropic tissue medium overestimated neural activation thresholds compared with the use of physiologically based, inhomogeneous tissue medium, even after controlling for mean impedance levels. Additionally, the positions of the cathodic sources relative to the nodes of Ranvier had substantial effects on activation, and these effects were modulated by the electrode configuration. Our results indicate that physiologically based tissue properties cause considerable variability in the neural response, and the inclusion of these properties is an important component in accurately predicting activation. The results are used to suggest new electrode designs to enable selective stimulation of small diameter fibers.

Butson, Christopher R.; Miller, Ian O.; Normann, Richard A.; Clark, Gregory A.

2011-06-01

217

The Impact of Motor and Sensory Nerve Architecture on Nerve Regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Sensory nerve autografting is the standard of care for injuries resulting in a nerve gap. Recent work demonstrates superior regeneration with motor nerve grafts. Improved regeneration with motor grafting may be a result of the nerve’s Schwann cell basal lamina tube size. Motor nerves have larger SC basal lamina tubes, which may allow more nerve fibers to cross a nerve graft repair. Architecture may partially explain the suboptimal clinical results seen with sensory nerve grafting techniques...

Moradzadeh, Arash; Borschel, Gregory H.; Luciano, Janina P.; Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Hayashi, Ayato; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2008-01-01

218

nm23 influences proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells in response to nerve growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nm23 genes codify nucleoside diphosphate kinases, which have been shown to be involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. We have demonstrated previously that the association between the Nm23-M1 protein and cytoskeletal beta-tubulin correlates with cell differentiation. It is known that microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins are fundamental elements regulating neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of nm23 to influence nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation. To this end, we have altered PC12 intracellular levels of nm23-M1 by means of sense and antisense transfections. In the presence of nerve growth factor, overexpression of nm23 delays cell cycle transition, rapidly induces neurite outgrowth, and increases the expression of neurofilament and microtubule proteins. On the contrary, down-regulation of nm23 enhances cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation. These findings indicate that neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation can be modulated by nm23 expression levels. PMID:8959337

Gervasi, F; D'Agnano, I; Vossio, S; Zupi, G; Sacchi, A; Lombardi, D

1996-12-01

219

Nerve-mediated contractile and electrical activity of the guinea-pig choledocho-duodenal junction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intrinsic motor innervation of the guinea-pig choledocho-duodenal junction was investigated by recording the contractile and intracellular electrical activity of smooth muscle from different regions of this tissue. Electrical transmural nerve stimulation evoked phasic contractions in rings of muscle from the ampulla (0.45 s-1) and tonic contractions in rings of muscle from the choledochal sphincter. Intracellular microelectrode recordings from muscle strips from these two regions revealed that excitatory junction potentials (peak amplitude 7 mV) evoked by transmural nerve stimulation were more conspicuous in muscle strips from the choledochal sphincter, but inhibitory junction potentials (peak amplitude 13 mV) were of larger amplitude in muscle strips from the ampulla. Contractions and membrane depolarization evoked by transmural nerve stimulation were sensitive to 1.4 microM atropine and abolished by 3.1 microM tetrodotoxin. Histological studies on the choledocho-duodenal junction also revealed that the distribution of smooth muscle was non-uniform along the tissue. These results suggest that the two regions may have different functions in the motility of the choledocho-duodenal junction. PMID:2632634

Vongalis, F; Bywater, R A; Taylor, G S

1989-12-30

220

Long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with nerve cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death  

OpenAIRE

Long-term administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, can inhibit the survival of newly generated cells, but its effect on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus remain poorly understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot methods to weekly detect the biological behaviors of nerve cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice that received intraperitoneal administration ...

Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Cho, Jeong-hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-chul; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kang, Il-jun; Won, Moo-ho

2014-01-01

221

Nerve growth factor in the hippocamposeptal system: Evidence for activity-dependent anterograde delivery and modulation of synaptic activity  

OpenAIRE

Neurotrophins have been implicated in regulating neuronal differentiation, promoting neuronal survival, and modulating synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Depending on the target and mode of action, the prevailing view is that most neurotrophins can be trafficked and released either anterogradely or retrogradely in an activity-dependent manner. However, the prototypic neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), is not thought to be anterogradely delivered. Here we provide the neuroanatomical subst...

Guo, Lan; Yeh, Mason L.; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C.; Johnson-venkatesh, Erin M.; Yeh, Hermes H.

2012-01-01

222

ErbB2 signaling in Schwann cells is mostly dispensable for maintenance of myelinated peripheral nerves and proliferation of adult Schwann cells after injury  

OpenAIRE

Neuregulin/erbB signaling is critically required for survival and proliferation of Schwann cells as well as for establishing correct myelin thickness of peripheral nerves during development. In this study, we investigated whether erbB2 signaling in Schwann cells is also essential for the maintenance of myelinated peripheral nerves and for Schwann cell proliferation and survival after nerve injury. To this end, we used inducible Cre-loxP technology using a PLP-CreERT2 allele to ablate erbB2 in...

Atanasoski, S.; Scherer, S. S.; Sirkowski, E.; Leone, D.; Garratt, A. N.; Birchmeier, C.; Suter, U.

2006-01-01

223

Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase Mediates Nerve Growth Factor-induced Activation of Rap1*  

OpenAIRE

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic AMP(cAMP) are both implicated in neuronal differentiation. Multiple studies indicate that NGF signals to at least a subset of its targets via cAMP, but the link between NGF and cAMP has remained elusive. Here, we have described the use of small molecule inhibitors to differentiate between the two known sources of cAMP in mammalian cells, bicarbonate- and calcium-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) and G protein-regulat...

Stessin, Alexander M.; Zippin, Jonathan H.; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

2006-01-01

224

Myelination and nodal formation of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers following transplantation of acutely prepared olfactory ensheathing cells  

OpenAIRE

Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome. Mechanisms suggested to account for this functional improvement include axonal regeneration, remyelination and neuroprotection. OECs transplanted into transected peripheral nerve have been shown to modify peripheral axonal regeneration and functional outcome. However, little is known of the detailed integration of OECs at the transplantation site in peripheral nerve. To addre...

Dombrowski, Mary A.; Sasaki, Masanori; Lankford, Karen L.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Radtke, Christine

2006-01-01

225

Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-?B protects from optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is an acute, demyelinating neuropathy of the optic nerve often representing the first appreciable symptom of multiple sclerosis. Wallerian degeneration of irreversibly damaged optic nerve axons leads to death of retinal ganglion cells, which is the cause of permanent visual impairment. Although the specific mechanisms responsible for triggering these events are unknown, it has been suggested that a key pathological factor is the activation of immune-inflammatory processes secondary to leukocyte infiltration. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence to support such a causal role for infiltrating peripheral immune cells in the etiopathology of optic neuritis. Methods To dissect the contribution of the peripheral immune-inflammatory response versus the CNS-specific inflammatory response in the development of optic neuritis, we analyzed optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells pathology in wild-type and GFAP-I?B?-dn transgenic mice, where NF-?B is selectively inactivated in astrocytes, following induction of EAE. Results We found that, in wild-type mice, axonal demyelination in the optic nerve occurred as early as 8?days post induction of EAE, prior to the earliest signs of leukocyte infiltration (20?days post induction. On the contrary, GFAP-I?B?-dn mice were significantly protected and showed a nearly complete prevention of axonal demyelination, as well as a drastic attenuation in retinal ganglion cell death. This correlated with a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, as well as a prevention of NAD(PH oxidase subunit upregulation. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that astrocytes, not infiltrating immune cells, play a key role in the development of optic neuritis and that astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity is dependent on activation of a transcriptional program regulated by NF-?B. Hence, interventions targeting the NF-?B transcription factor in astroglia may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis.

Brambilla Roberta

2012-09-01

226

Brain changes in Alzheimer's disease patients with implanted encapsulated cells releasing nerve growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

New therapies with disease-modifying effects are urgently needed for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nerve growth factor (NGF) protein has demonstrated regenerative and neuroprotective effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in animal studies. In addition, AD patients treated with NGF have previously shown improved cognition, EEG activity, nicotinic binding, and glucose metabolism. However, no study to date has analyzed brain atrophy in patients treated with NGF producing cells. In this study we present MRI results of the first clinical trial in patients with AD using encapsulated NGF biodelivery to the basal forebrain. Six AD patients received the treatment during twelve months. Patients were grouped as responders and non-responders according to their twelve-months change in MMSE. Normative values were created from 131 AD patients from ADNI, selecting 36 age- and MMSE-matched patients for interpreting the longitudinal changes in MMSE and brain atrophy. Results at baseline indicated that responders showed better clinical status and less pathological levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A?1-42. However, they showed more brain atrophy, and neuronal degeneration as evidenced by higher CSF levels of T-tau and neurofilaments. At follow-up, responders showed less brain shrinkage and better progression in the clinical variables and CSF biomarkers. Noteworthy, two responders showed less brain shrinkage than the normative ADNI group. These results together with previous evidence supports the idea that encapsulated biodelivery of NGF might have the potential to become a new treatment strategy for AD with both symptomatic and disease-modifying effects. PMID:25147108

Ferreira, Daniel; Westman, Eric; Eyjolfsdottir, Helga; Almqvist, Per; Lind, Göran; Linderoth, Bengt; Seiger, Ake; Blennow, Kaj; Karami, Azadeh; Darreh-Shori, Taher; Wiberg, Maria; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Wahlberg, Lars; Eriksdotter, Maria

2015-01-01

227

BNIP3 regulates AT101 [(-)-gossypol] induced death in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive Schwann cell-derived sarcomas and are the leading cause of mortality in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Current treatment modalities have been largely ineffective, resulting in a high rate of MPNST recurrence and poor five-year patient survival. This necessitates the exploration of alternative chemotherapeutic options for MPNST patients. This study sought to assess the cytotoxic effect of the BH3-mimetic AT101 [(-)-gossypol] on MPNST cells in vitro and to identify key regulators of AT101-induced MPNST cell death. We found that AT101 caused caspase-independent, non-apoptotic MPNST cell death, which was accompanied by autophagy and was mediated through HIF-1? induced expression of the atypical BH3-only protein BNIP3. These effects were mediated by intracellular iron chelation, a previously unreported mechanism of AT101 cytotoxicity. PMID:24824755

Kaza, Niroop; Kohli, Latika; Graham, Christopher D; Klocke, Barbara J; Carroll, Steven L; Roth, Kevin A

2014-01-01

228

Cells of origin in the embryonic nerve roots for NF1-associated plexiform neurofibroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a tumor-predisposing genetic disorder. Plexiform neurofibromas are common NF1 tumors carrying a risk of malignant transformation, which is typically fatal. Little is known about mechanisms mediating initiation and identity of specific cell type that gives rise to neurofibromas. Using cell-lineage tracing, we identify a population of GAP43(+) PLP(+) precursors in embryonic nerve roots as the cells of origin for these tumors and report a non-germline neurofibroma model for preclinical drug screening to identify effective therapies. The identity of the tumor cell of origin and facility for isolation and expansion provides fertile ground for continued analysis to define factors critical for neurofibromagenesis. It also provides unique approaches to develop therapies to prevent neurofibroma formation in NF1 patients. PMID:25446898

Chen, Zhiguo; Liu, Chiachi; Patel, Amish J; Liao, Chung-Ping; Wang, Yong; Le, Lu Q

2014-11-10

229

Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity by low-frequency physiological activation of the vestibular utricle in awake humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently showed that selective stimulation of one set of otolithic organs-those located in the utricle, sensitive to displacement in the horizontal axis-causes a marked entrainment of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). Here, we assessed whether muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is similarly modulated. MSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 awake subjects, seated (head vertical, eyes closed) on a motorised platform. Slow sinusoidal accelerations-decelerations (±4 mG) were applied in the X (antero-posterior) or Y (medio-lateral) direction at 0.08 Hz. Cross-correlation analysis revealed partial entrainment of MSNA: vestibular modulation was 32 ± 3 % for displacements in the X-axis and 29 ± 3 % in the Y-axis; these were significantly smaller than those evoked in SSNA (97 ± 3 and 91 ± 5 %, respectively). For each sinusoidal cycle, there were two peaks of modulation-one associated with acceleration as the platform moved forward or to the side and one associated with acceleration in the opposite direction. We believe the two peaks reflect inertial displacement of the stereocilia within the utricle during sinusoidal acceleration, which evokes vestibulosympathetic reflexes that are expressed as vestibular modulation of MSNA as well as of SSNA. The smaller vestibular modulation of MSNA can be explained by the dominant modulation of MSNA by the arterial baroreceptors. PMID:23852323

Hammam, Elie; Kwok, Kenny; Macefield, Vaughan G

2013-09-01

230

Extraction of control signals from a mixture of source activity in the peripheral nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracting physiological signals to control external devices such as prosthetics is a field of research that offers great hope for patients suffering from disabilities. In this paper, we present an algorithm for isolating control signals from peripheral nerve cuff recordings. The algorithm is able to extract individual control signals from a mixture of source signal activity while maximizing SNR and minimizing cross-talk between the control signals. Based on fast independent component analysis FICA and an adaptation of Champagne, the proposed algorithm is tested against previously published results obtained using beamforming techniques in an acute preparation of rabbits. Preliminary results demonstrate an improvement in performance. PMID:23366549

Tang, Y; Wodlinger, B; Durand, D M

2012-01-01

231

Activation of glia and microglial p38 MAPK in medullary dorsal horn contributes to tactile hypersensitivity following trigeminal sensory nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glial activation is known to contribute to pain hypersensitivity following spinal sensory nerve injury. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which glial cell activation in medullary dorsal horn (MDH) would contribute to tactile hypersensitivity following inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve transection (IAMNT). Activation of microglia and astrocytes was monitored at 2 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days using immunohistochemical analysis with OX-42 and GFAP antibodies, respectively. Tactile hypersensitivity was significantly increased at 1 day, and this lasted for 28 days after IAMNT. Microglial activation, primarily observed in the superficial laminae of MDH, was initiated at 1 day, maximal at 3 days, and maintained until 14 days after IAMNT. Astrocytic activation was delayed compared to that of microglia, being more profound at 7 and 14 days than at 3 days after IAMNT. Both tactile hypersensitivity and glial activation appeared to gradually reduce and then return to the basal level by 60 days after IAMNT. There was no significant loss of trigeminal ganglion neurons by 28 days following IAMNT, suggesting that degenerative changes in central terminals of primary afferents might not contribute to glial activation. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, reduced microglial activation, inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in microglia, and significantly attenuated the development of pain hypersensitivity in this model. These results suggest that glial activation in MDH plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain and activation of p38 MAPK in hyperactive microglia contributes to pain hypersensitivity in IAMNT model. PMID:16495005

Piao, Zheng Gen; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Park, Chul Kyu; Hong, Jin Pyo; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung Joong; Lee, Seungbok; Park, Kyungpyo; Kim, Joong Soo; Oh, Seog Bae

2006-04-01

232

Sympathetic nerve discharge is coupled to muscle cell pH during exercise in humans.  

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We used phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to probe the cellular events in contracting muscle that initiate the reflex stimulation of sympathetic outflow during exercise. In conscious humans, we performed 31P-NMR on exercising forearm muscle and simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve to determine if the activation of MSNA is coupled to muscle pH, an index of glycolysis, or to the concentrations (II) of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) which are modulators of mitochondrial respiration. During both static and rhythmic handgrip, the onset of sympathetic activation in resting muscle coincided with the development of cellular acidification in active muscle. Furthermore, increases in MSNA were correlated closely with decreases in intracellular pH but dissociated from changes in phosphocreatine [( PCr]), [Pi], and [ADP]. The principal new conclusion is that activation of muscle sympathetic outflow during exercise in humans is coupled to the cellular accumulation of protons in contracting muscle. PMID:3170747

Victor, R G; Bertocci, L A; Pryor, S L; Nunnally, R L

1988-10-01

233

Axonal regeneration and remyelination evaluation of chitosan/gelatin-based nerve guide combined with transforming growth factor-?1 and Schwann cells.  

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Despite efforts in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, it is difficult to achieve a functional recovery following extended peripheral nerve lesions. Even if artificial nerve conduit, cell components and growth factors can enhance nerve regeneration, integration in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration remains yet to be explored. For this study, we used chitosan/gelatin nerve graft constructed with collagenous matrices as a vehicle for Schwann cells and transforming growth factor-?1 to bridge a 10-mm gap of the sciatic nerve and explored the feasibility of improving regeneration and reinnervation in rats. The nerve regeneration was assessed with functional recovery, electrophysiological test, retrograde labeling, and immunohistochemistry analysis during the post-operative period of 16 weeks. The results showed that the internal sides of the conduits were compact enough to prevent the connective tissues from ingrowth. Nerve conduction velocity, average regenerated myelin area, and myelinated axon count were similar to those treated with autograft (p > 0.05) but significantly higher than those bridged with chitosan/gelatin nerve graft alone (p < 0.05). Evidences from retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry analysis are further provided in support of improving axonal regeneration and remyelination. A designed graft incorporating all of the tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration may provide great progress in tissue engineering for nerve repair. PMID:23740553

Nie, Xin; Deng, Manjing; Yang, Maojin; Liu, Luchuan; Zhang, Yongjie; Wen, Xiujie

2014-01-01

234

Distribution of elements in rat peripheral axons and nerve cell bodies determined by x-ray microprobe analysis  

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X-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine concentrations (millimoles of element per kilogram dry weight) of Na, P, Cl, K, and Ca in cellular compartments of frozen, unfixed sections of rat sciatic and tibial nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Five compartments were examined in peripheral nerve (axoplasm, mitochondria, myelin, extraaxonal space, and Schwann cell cytoplasm), and four were analyzed in DRG nerve cell bodies (cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, and nucleolus). Each morphological compartment exhibited characteristic concentrations of elements. The extraaxonal space contained high concentrations of Na, Cl, and Ca, whereas intraaxonal compartments exhibited lower concentrations of these elements but relatively high K contents. Nerve axoplasm and axonal mitochondria had similar elemental profiles, and both compartments displayed proximodistal gradients of decreasing levels of K, Cl, and, to some extent, Na. Myelin had a selectively high P concentration with low levels of other elements. The elemental concentrations of Schwann cell cytoplasm and DRG were similar, but both were different from that of axoplasm, in that K and Cl were markedly lower whereas P was higher. DRG cell nuclei contained substantially higher K levels than cytoplasm. The subcellular distribution of elements was clearly shown by color-coded images generated by computer-directed digital x-ray imaging. The results of this study demonstrate characteristic elemental distributions for each anatomical compartment, which doubtless reflect nerve cell structure and function.

LoPachin, R.M. Jr.; Lowery, J.; Eichberg, J.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.; Cartwright, J. Jr.; Saubermann, A.J.

1988-09-01

235

Radioautographic characterization of a serotonin-accumulating nerve cell group in adult rat hypothalamus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intensely labeled nerve cell bodies were identified by radioautography within the pars ventralis of nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami (hdv), following intraventricular perfusion with 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated serotonin [3H]5-HT in adult rats pretreated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This selective reaction, which involved approximately 1000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, was unaltered by concomitant administration of 10-3 M non-radioactive norepinephrine, and was absent after intraventricular injection of 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated norepinephrine. The 3H-labeled 5-HT nerve cell bodies were loosely grouped within the inner and caudal half of the hdv, and appeared morphologically similar to the unreactive neurons among which they were interspersed. Within the same region, numerous labeled axonal varicosities were also detected which were never found in synaptic contact with the reactive cells. If the 3H-labeled 5-HT neurons endogenous 5-HT, they might constitute an intrinsic source of 5-HT innervation in the adult rat hypothalamus. (Auth.)

236

[Relations between autonomic dysfunction and skin sympathetic nerve activity in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a microneurographical assessment].  

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We investigated the skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) in 4 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (CBS) using microneurography. All patients showed transient hypertension, tachycardia and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis in the acute phase of illness, but these symptoms disappeared in the chronic phase. Microelectrode recordings of SSNA performed at the median nerve in the acute phase when hypertension, tachycardia and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis were present and then in the recovery phase. In the acute phase, the level of SSNA was significantly higher than the control levels obtained from 16 healthy subjects, while in the chronic recovery phase the SSNA showed no significant difference from that of the control. The correlation between the SSNA and corresponding changes in the sweat rate and skin blood flow was kept constant both in the acute phase and chronic phase. These findings suggest that the sympathetic nerve dysfunction observed in the acute phase of GBS is partly the consequence of hyperactivity of the skin sympathetic nerve. PMID:8821492

Yamamoto, K; Sobue, G; Iwase, S; Mano, T; Mitsuma, T

1995-10-01

237

A cell type-specific allele of the POU gene Oct-6 reveals Schwann cell autonomous function in nerve development and regeneration  

OpenAIRE

While an important role for the POU domain transcription factor Oct-6 in the developing peripheral nerve has been well established, studies into its exact role in nerve development and regeneration have been hampered by the high mortality rate of newborn Oct-6 mutant animals. In this study we have generated a Schwann cell-specific Oct-6 allele through deletion of the Schwann cell-specific enhancer element (SCE) in the Oct-6 locus. Analysis...

Ghazvini, M.; Mandemakers, W. J.; Jaegle, M. M.; Piirsoo, M.; Koutsourakis, M.; Smit, X.; Meijer, D. N.; Driegen, M. J. F.; Grosveld, F. G.

2002-01-01

238

Changes in sensory activity of ocular surface sensory nerves during allergic keratoconjunctivitis.  

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Peripheral neural mechanisms underlying the sensations of irritation, discomfort, and itch accompanying the eye allergic response have not been hitherto analyzed. We explored this question recording the changes in the electrical activity of corneoconjunctival sensory nerve fibers of the guinea pig after an ocular allergic challenge. Sensitization was produced by i.p. ovalbumin followed by repeated application in the eye of 10% ovalbumin on days 14 to 18. Blinking and tearing rate were measured. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked (mechanical, thermal, chemical) impulse activity was recorded from mechanonociceptor, polymodal nociceptor and cold corneoscleral sensory afferent fibers. After a single (day 14) or repeated daily exposures to the allergen during the following 3 to 4days, tearing and blinking rate increased significantly. Also, sensitization was observed in mechanonociceptors (transient reduction of mechanical threshold only on day 14) and in polymodal nociceptors (sustained enhancement of the impulse response to acidic stimulation). In contrast, cold thermoreceptors showed a significant decrease in basal ongoing activity and in the response to cooling. Treatment with the TRPV1 and TRPA1 blockers capsazepine and HC-030031 reversed the augmented blinking. Only capsazepine attenuated tearing rate increase and sensitization of the polymodal nociceptors response to CO2. Capsazepine also prevented the decrease in cold thermoreceptor activity caused by the allergic challenge. We conclude that changes in nerve impulse activity accompanying the ocular allergic response, primarily mediated by activation of nociceptor's TRPV1 and to a lesser degree by activation of TRPA1 channels, explain the eye discomfort sensations accompanying allergic episodes. PMID:23867735

Acosta, M Carmen; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

2013-11-01

239

Expression profiling and Ingenuity biological function analyses of interleukin-6- versus nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The major goal of the study was to compare the genetic programs utilized by the neuropoietic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the neurotrophin (NT Nerve Growth Factor (NGF for neuronal differentiation. Results The designer cytokine Hyper-IL-6 in which IL-6 is covalently linked to its soluble receptor s-IL-6R as well as NGF were used to stimulate PC12 cells for 24 hours. Changes in gene expression levels were monitored using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. We found different expression for 130 genes in IL-6- and 102 genes in NGF-treated PC12 cells as compared to unstimulated controls. The gene set shared by both stimuli comprises only 16 genes. A key step is upregulation of growth factors and functionally related external molecules known to play important roles in neuronal differentiation. In particular, IL-6 enhances gene expression of regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A; 1084-fold, regenerating islet-derived 3 beta (REG3B/PAPI; 672-fold, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15; 80-fold, platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA; 69-fold, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH; 30-fold, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; 20-fold and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 5-fold. NGF recruits GDF15 (131-fold, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; 101-fold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 89-fold. Both stimuli activate growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43 indicating that PC12 cells undergo substantial neuronal differentiation. Moreover, IL-6 activates the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA; 20-fold and early growth response 1 (Egr1/Zif268; 3-fold known to play key roles in neuronal differentiation. Ingenuity biological function analysis revealed that completely different repertoires of molecules are recruited to exert the same biological functions in neuronal differentiation. Major sub-categories include cellular growth and differentiation, cell migration, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, small molecule biochemistry aiming at changing intracellular concentrations of second messengers such as Ca2+ and cAMP as well as expression of enzymes involved in posttranslational modification of proteins. Conclusion The current data provide novel candidate genes involved in neuronal differentiation, notably for the neuropoietic cytokine IL-6. Our findings may also have impact on the clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Local application of a designer cytokine such as H-IL-6 with drastically enhanced bioactivity in combination with NTs may generate a potent reparative microenvironment.

Dimitriades-Schmutz Beatrice

2009-02-01

240

Crosstalk between delta opioid receptor and nerve growth factor signaling modulates neuroprotection and differentiation in rodent cell models.  

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Both opioid signaling and neurotrophic factor signaling have played an important role in neuroprotection and differentiation in the nervous system. Little is known about whether the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways will affect neuroprotection and differentiation. Previously, we found that nerve growth factor (NGF) could induce expression of the delta opioid receptor gene (Oprd1, dor), mainly through PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling in PC12h cells. In this study, using two NGF-responsive rodent cell model systems, PC12h cells and F11 cells, we found the delta opioid neuropeptide [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin (DADLE)-mediated neuroprotective effect could be blocked by pharmacological reagents: the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, MAPK inhibitor PD98059, and Trk inhibitor K252a, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that DADLE activated both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways in the two cell lines. siRNA Oprd1 gene knockdown experiment showed that the upregulation of NGF mRNA level was inhibited with concomitant inhibition of the survival effects of DADLE in the both cell models. siRNA Oprd1 gene knockdown also attenuated the DADLE-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12h cells as well as phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt in PC12h and F11 cells, respectively. These data together strongly suggest that delta opioid peptide DADLE acts through the NGF-induced functional G protein-coupled Oprd1 to provide its neuroprotective and differentiating effects at least in part by regulating survival and differentiating MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in NGF-responsive rodent neuronal cells. PMID:24152443

Sen, Dwaipayan; Huchital, Michael; Chen, Yulong L

2013-01-01

241

Crosstalk between Delta Opioid Receptor and Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Modulates Neuroprotection and Differentiation in Rodent Cell Models  

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Full Text Available Both opioid signaling and neurotrophic factor signaling have played an important role in neuroprotection and differentiation in the nervous system. Little is known about whether the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways will affect neuroprotection and differentiation. Previously, we found that nerve growth factor (NGF could induce expression of the delta opioid receptor gene (Oprd1, dor, mainly through PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling in PC12h cells. In this study, using two NGF-responsive rodent cell model systems, PC12h cells and F11 cells, we found the delta opioid neuropeptide [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin (DADLE-mediated neuroprotective effect could be blocked by pharmacological reagents: the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, MAPK inhibitor PD98059, and Trk inhibitor K252a, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that DADLE activated both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways in the two cell lines. siRNA Oprd1 gene knockdown experiment showed that the upregulation of NGF mRNA level was inhibited with concomitant inhibition of the survival effects of DADLE in the both cell models. siRNA Oprd1 gene knockdown also attenuated the DADLE-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12h cells as well as phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt in PC12h and F11 cells, respectively. These data together strongly suggest that delta opioid peptide DADLE acts through the NGF-induced functional G protein-coupled Oprd1 to provide its neuroprotective and differentiating effects at least in part by regulating survival and differentiating MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in NGF-responsive rodent neuronal cells.

Dwaipayan Sen

2013-10-01

242

A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents  

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A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (kr2) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro kr2 decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 (r2 as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (kr2 · [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation toidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy

243

Progressive ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice is variable and asymmetric  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the retina, characterized by the degeneration of axons in the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. DBA/2J inbred mice develop chronic hereditary glaucoma and are an important model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and novel therapeutic interventions designed to attenuate the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Although the genetics of this disease in these mice are well characterized, the etiology of its progression, particularly with respect to retinal degeneration, is not. We have used two separate labeling techniques, post-mortem DiI labeling of axons and ganglion cell-specific expression of the ?Geo reporter gene, to evaluate the time course of optic nerve degeneration and ganglion cell loss, respectively, in aging mice. Results Optic nerve degeneration, characterized by axon loss and gliosis is first apparent in mice between 8 and 9 months of age. Degeneration appears to follow a retrograde course with axons dying from their proximal ends toward the globe. Although nerve damage is typically bilateral, the progression of disease is asymmetric between the eyes of individual mice. Some nerves also exhibit focal preservation of tracts of axons generally in the nasal peripheral region. Ganglion cell loss, as a function of the loss of ?Geo expression, is evident in some mice between 8 and 10 months of age and is prevalent in the majority of mice older than 10.5 months. Most eyes display a uniform loss of ganglion cells throughout the retina, but many younger mice exhibit focal loss of cells in sectors extending from the optic nerve head to the retinal periphery. Similar to what we observe in the optic nerves, ganglion cell loss is often asymmetric between the eyes of the same animal. Conclusion A comparison of the data collected from the two cohorts of mice used for this study suggests that the initial site of damage in this disease is to the axons in the optic nerve, followed by the subsequent death of the ganglion cell soma.

Janssen Katherine T

2006-10-01

244

Disrupted Schwann cell–axon interactions in peripheral nerves of mice with altered L1-integrin interactions  

OpenAIRE

The cell adhesion molecule L1 is important for peripheral nerve development. Mice lacking the 6th Ig domain of L1 (L1-6D mice) lose L1 homophilic binding and RGD dependent L1-integrin binding [Itoh, K., Cheng, L., Kamei, Y., Fushiki, S., Kamiguchi, H., Gutwein, P., Stoeck, A., Arnold, B., Altevogt, P., Lemmon, V., 2004. Brain development in mice lacking L1-L1 homophilic adhesion. J. Cell Biol. 165, 145–154]. We examined the ultrastructure of sciatic nerves from L1-6D at postnatal day 7 and ...

Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki; Arnold, Bernd; Altevogt, Peter; Lemmon, Vance

2005-01-01

245

Combination of fibrin-agarose hydrogels and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration  

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Objective. The objective was to study the effectiveness of a commercially available collagen conduit filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone or with fibrin-agarose hydrogels containing autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Approach. A 10 mm gap was created in the sciatic nerve of 48 rats and repaired using saline-filled collagen conduits or collagen conduits filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone (acellular conduits) or with hydrogels containing ADMSCs (ADMSC conduits). Nerve regeneration was assessed in clinical, electrophysiological and histological studies. Main results. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes were more favorable with ADMSC conduits than with the acellular or saline conduits, evidencing a significant recovery of sensory and motor functions. Histological analysis showed that ADMSC conduits produce more effective nerve regeneration by Schwann cells, with higher remyelination and properly oriented axonal growth that reached the distal areas of the grafted conduits, and with intensely positive expressions of S100, neurofilament and laminin. Extracellular matrix was also more abundant and better organized around regenerated nerve tissues with ADMSC conduits than those with acellular or saline conduits. Significance. Clinical, electrophysiological and histological improvements obtained with tissue-engineered ADMSC conduits may contribute to enhancing axonal regeneration by Schwann cells.

Carriel, Víctor; Garrido-Gómez, Juan; Hernández-Cortés, Pedro; Garzón, Ingrid; García-García, Salomé; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

2013-04-01

246

The search of the target of promotion: Phenylbenzoate esterase activities in hen peripheral nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Certain esterase inhibitors, such as carbamates, phosphinates and sulfonyl halides, do not cause neuropathy as some organophosphates, but they may exacerbate chemical or traumatic insults to axons. This phenomenon is called promotion of axonopathies. Given the biochemical and toxicological characteristics of these compounds, the hypothesis was made that the target of promotion is a phenyl valerate (PV) esterase similar to neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the target of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. However, attempts to identify a PV esterase in hen peripheral nerve have been, so far, unsuccessful. We tested several esters, other than PV, as substrates of esterases from crude homogenate of the hen peripheral nerve. The ideal substrate should be poorly hydrolysed by NTE but extensively by enzyme(s) that are insensitive to non-promoters, such as mipafox, and sensitive to promoters, such as phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). When phenyl benzoate (PB) was used as substrate, about 65% of total activity was resistant to the non-promoter mipafox (up to 0.5 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0), that inhibits NTE and other esterases. More than 90% of this resistant activity was sensitive to the classical promoter PMSF (1 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0) with an IC50 of about 0.08 mM (20 min, pH 8.0). On the contrary, the non-promoter p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride caused only about 10% inhibition at 0.5 mM. Several esterase inhibitors including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbam including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbamate, di-n-butyl dichlorovinyl phosphate and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, were tested both in vitro and in vivo for inhibition of this PB activity. Mipafox-resistant PMSF-sensitive PB esterase activity(ies) was inhibited by promoters but not by non promoters and neuropathic compounds

247

Isometric handgrip training reduces arterial pressure at rest without changes in sympathetic nerve activity  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether isometric handgrip (IHG) training reduces arterial pressure and whether reductions in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) mediate this drop in arterial pressure. Normotensive subjects were assigned to training (n = 9), sham training (n = 7), or control (n = 8) groups. The training protocol consisted of four 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) separated by 5-min rest periods. Training was performed four times per week for 5 wk. Subjects' resting arterial pressure and heart rate were measured three times on 3 consecutive days before and after training, with resting MSNA (peroneal nerve) recorded on the third day. Additionally, subjects performed IHG exercise at 30% of MVC to fatigue followed by muscle ischemia. In the trained group, resting diastolic (67 +/- 1 to 62 +/- 1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (86 +/- 1 to 82 +/- 1 mmHg) significantly decreased, whereas systolic arterial pressure (116 +/- 3 to 113 +/- 2 mmHg), heart rate (67 +/- 4 to 66 +/- 4 beats/min), and MSNA (14 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 2 bursts/min) did not significantly change following training. MSNA and cardiovascular responses to exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia were unchanged by training. There were no significant changes in any variables for the sham training and control groups. The results indicate that IHG training is an effective nonpharmacological intervention in lowering arterial pressure.

Ray, C. A.; Carrasco, D. I.

2000-01-01

248

Vestibular modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during sinusoidal linear acceleration in supine humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utricle and saccular components of the vestibular apparatus preferentially detect linear displacements of the head in the horizontal and vertical planes, respectively. We previously showed that sinusoidal linear acceleration in the horizontal plane of seated humans causes a pronounced modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), supporting a significant role for the utricular component of the otolithic organs in the control of blood pressure. Here we tested the hypothesis that the saccule can also play a role in blood pressure regulation by modulating lower limb MSNA. Oligounitary MSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 12 subjects, laying supine on a motorized platform with the head aligned with the longitudinal axis of the body. Slow sinusoidal linear accelerations-decelerations (peak acceleration ±4 mG) were applied in the rostrocaudal axis (which predominantly stimulates the saccule) and in the mediolateral axis (which also engages the utricle) at 0.08 Hz. The modulation of MSNA in the rostrocaudal axis (29.4 ± 3.4%) was similar to that in the mediolateral axis (32.0 ± 3.9%), and comparable to that obtained by stimulation of the utricle alone in seated subjects with the head vertical. We conclude that both the saccular and utricular components of the otolithic organs play a role in the control of arterial pressure during postural challenges. PMID:25346657

Hammam, Elie; Bolton, Philip S; Kwok, Kenny; Macefield, Vaughan G

2014-01-01

249

Acute optic neuritis: retinal ganglion cell loss precedes retinal nerve fiber thinning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optic neuritis (ON) causes axonal loss as reflected by thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and can be tracked by optical coherence tomography (OCT) about 6 months after ON onset, when swelling of optic nerve head (ONH) has vanished. Changes of macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness provide another window to track the disease process in ON. GCL thinning over time in relation to RNFL change after ON remains elusive. Using OCT, we followed 4 patients with acute unilateral isolated ON for more than 9 months. A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was established in all 4 patients. First follow-up was 2-3 weeks after ON onset, and thereafter every 2-3 months. RNFL swelling peaked during first month after acute ON, followed by rapidly reduced swelling (pseudoatrophy) during following 2 months, and thereafter successively vanished 6 months after ON onset. GCL thinning was observed 1-3 months after ON onset, i.e. already during optic disk swelling and before real RNFL thinning. The results imply that quantifying GCL thickness provides opportunities to monitor early axonal loss and ON-to-MS progression, and facilitates distinguishing real atrophy from pseudoatrophy of RNFL after acute ON. PMID:25311917

Huang-Link, Yu-Min; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Lindehammar, Hans

2015-04-01

250

Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure  

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Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity. Therefore, leptin is emerging as a major contributor to the hypertensive state observed in obesity. Sympathetic control of blood pressure is maintained principally by autonomic reflex control circuits in the caudal brainstem. The rostral ventral-lateral medulla (RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers to sympathetic preganglionic neurons to regulate sympathetic control over resistance vessels and blood pressure. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that neurons in the ventral lateral medulla express leptin receptors (ObRb. Our present study using pseudo-rabies multi-synaptic retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemical methods revealed that neurons within the RVLM that send sympathetic projections to the kidney express leptin receptors. Acute microinjection of leptin (1 and 3µg; 40nL into the RVLM evoked a significant increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. When the 3µg dose of leptin was preceded with a leptin antagonist, (SLAN-4; 1ng, it attenuated the cardiovascular response of leptin. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin’s actions within the RVLM may influence blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

MariaJBarnes

2014-08-01

251

Effect of an exo-polysaccharide from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus on enhancement of growth and differentiation of rat adrenal nerve cells  

OpenAIRE

It was found that an exo-biopolymer (M.W. 1,000,000, molar ratio of 1.5:1.7:1.2:0.6:0.9, glucose:galactose:xylose:mannose:fructose, purity 99%) purified from the liquid culture broth of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enhanced the growth of rat adrenal nerve cells. The polymer also improved the extension of the neurites of PC12 cell. Its efficacy was found to be higher than those from known nerve growth factors such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Nerve Factor (BDNF). The effect of...

Park, Young Shik; Lee, Hyun Soo; Won, Moo Ho; Lee, Jin Ha; Lee, Shin Young; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2002-01-01

252

Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of 125I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that 125I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with 125I-NGF. 125I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter, about 60% of the cell-bound 125I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and 125I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to spes concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action

253

Cell cycle phase-specific surface expression of nerve growth factor receptors TrkA and p75NTR  

OpenAIRE

Expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) was found to vary at the surface of PC12 cells in a cell cycle phase-specific manner. This was evidenced by using flow cytometric and microscopic analysis of cell populations labeled with antibodies to the extracellular domains of both receptors. Differential expression of these receptors also was evidenced by biotinylation of surface proteins and Western analysis, using antibodies specific for the extracellular domains o...

Urdiales, Jose? Luis; Becker, Elena; Marti?n-zanca, Dionisio

1998-01-01

254

BioPEGylation of polyhydroxybutyrate promotes nerve cell health and migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the superior suitability of Polyhydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol hybrid polymers biosynthesised by Cupriavidus necator over PHB as biomaterials for tissue engineering. Incorporation of PEG106 (DEG) during PHB biosynthesis reduced crystallinity, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity while improving mechanical properties. In vitro olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) proliferation was enhanced by cultivation on PHB-b-DEG films. Cultivation on PHB and PHB-b-DEG films showed no cytotoxic responses and cell viability and membrane integrity was sustained. PHB-b-DEG films promoted OECs entering into the DNA replication (S) phase and mitotic (G2-M) phase during the cell growth cycle and apoptosis was low. This study also confirmed an association between the level of neurite-outgrowth inhibitory protein (Nogo) and receptor pair Ig-like receptor B (PirB) expression and cell proliferation, both being down-regulated in cells grown on hybrid films when compared with PHB and asynchronous growth. Thus, DEG-terminated PHB-based biomaterials have great potential as biological scaffolds supporting nerve repair. PMID:24299034

Chan, Rodman T H; Russell, Robert A; Marçal, Helder; Lee, Terry H; Holden, Peter J; Foster, L John R

2014-01-13

255

Nerve growth induces 5-HT sub 3 recognition sites in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, nerve growth factor (7S NGF) induced the expression of recognition sites that bind the specific 5-HT{sub 3} antagonist (S-) ({sup 3}H) zacopride. Culturing PC12 cells for 8-12 days in the presence of 50 ng/ml NGF increased the density (B{sub max}) of (S-) ({sup 3}H) zacopride binding sites in cell membranes (0-100,000 x g fraction) from 0 to 105 fmoles/mg protein. This binding exhibited high affinity for (S-) ({sup 3}H) zacopride (K{sub d}=0.8 nM), was specific (>95%), and was inhibited by 5-HT{sub 3} compounds with a rank of potency (quipazine>ICS 205-930 > GR38032F > BRL 24924{approx}MDL 72222 > phenylbiguanide {le} seroton-in > 2-methyl-serotonin > metoclopramide) which was distinct from neuroblastoma cells. Thus, NGF-differentiated PC12 cells possess a 5-HT{sub 3} receptor and should be useful to investigate its regulation and biochemical mechanism of action.

Gordon, J.C.; Rowland, H.C. (A.H. Robins Research Laboratories, Richmond, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

256

Exposure to TMT odor affects adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and behavioral consequences in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The odor of 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a synthetic compound isolated from fox feces, induces various emotional behavioral and stress responses. Here we examined the effect of TMT on behavioral responses and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) in rats. TMT increased freezing behavior, defensive-burying and defensive-attack, and decreased exploration, grooming and approach behaviors. On the other hand, butyric acid (BA), a pungent but non-predatory odor, increased defensive-burying only. TMT increased ASNA strongly, whereas the effects of BA increased ASNA extremely weakly. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the histaminergic H1-receptor antagonist diphenhydramine eliminated the effects of TMT on ASNA. These findings suggest that TMT odor affects autonomic neurotransmission via histaminergic neurons. Exposure to TMT odor likely regulates the controlling autonomic function and output to a motor system simultaneously, evoking behavioral stress responses. PMID:20595033

Horii, Yuko; Nikaido, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Katsuya; Nakashima, Toshihiro

2010-12-25

257

Interaction of the vestibular system and baroreflexes on sympathetic nerve activity in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is altered by vestibular otolith stimulation. This study examined interactive effects of the vestibular system and baroreflexes on MSNA in humans. In study 1, MSNA was measured during 4 min of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at either -10 or -30 mmHg with subjects in prone posture. During the 3rd min of LBNP, subjects lowered their head over the end of a table (head-down rotation, HDR) to engage the otolith organs. The head was returned to baseline upright position during the 4th min. LBNP increased MSNA above baseline during both trials with greater increases during the -30-mmHg trial. HDR increased MSNA further during the 3rd min of LBNP at -10 and -30 mmHg (Delta32% and Delta34%, respectively; P humans. These studies indicate that the vestibulosympathetic reflex may help defend against orthostatic challenges in humans by increasing sympathetic outflow.

Ray, C. A.

2000-01-01

258

Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full [...] antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

R.V., Tiradentes; J.G.P., Pires; N.F., Silva; A.G., Ramage; C.H., Santuzzi; H.A., Futuro Neto.

2014-07-01

259

Expression of TrkA confers neuron-like responsiveness to nerve growth factor on an immortalized hypothalamic cell line.  

OpenAIRE

The result of nerve growth factor (NGF) actions depends upon the cells in which it signals. To define how signaling is influenced by cellular context, it would be useful to examine cells committed to different fates or cells of a single type at different developmental stages. Interest in NGF actions on neurons of the central nervous system led us to examine GT1-1 cells, an immortalized hypothalamic cell line. GT1-1 cells demonstrated neuronal properties but were unresponsive to NGF and other ...

Zhou, J.; Holtzman, D. M.; Weiner, R. I.; Mobley, W. C.

1994-01-01

260

Positive Effects of bFGF Modified Rat Amniotic Epithelial Cells Transplantation on Transected Rat Optic Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve. Methods A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF) by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA) and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining. Results The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Conclusions AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury. PMID:25734497

Xie, Jia-Xin; Feng, Yu; Yuan, Jian-Min; You, Zhen-Dong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Lu, Chang-Lin; Xu, Jia-Jun

2015-01-01

261

Differential activation of adrenal, renal, and lumbar sympathetic nerves following stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under acute and chronic conditions, the sympathetic nervous system can be activated in a differential and even selective manner. Activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) has been implicated in differential control of sympathetic outputs based on evidence primarily in the cat. Although several studies indicate that differential control of sympathetic outflow occurs in other species, only a few studies have addressed whether the RVLM is capable of producing varying patterns of sympathetic activation in the rat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether activation of the RVLM results in simultaneous and differential increases in preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), renal (RSNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activities. In urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats, pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA were recorded simultaneously in all animals. Microinjections of selected concentrations and volumes of glutamate increased pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA concurrently and differentially. Pre-ASNA and RSNA (in most cases) exhibited greater increases compared with LSNA on a percentage basis. By varying the volume or location of the glutamate microinjections, we also identified individual examples of differential and selective activation of these nerves. Decreases in arterial pressure or bilateral blockade of RVLM GABA(A) receptors also revealed differential activation, with the latter having a 3- to 4-fold greater effect on sympathetic activity. Our data provide evidence that activation of the rat RVLM increases renal, lumbar, and preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activities concurrently, differentially, and, in some cases, selectively. PMID:21346240

Mueller, Patrick J; Mischel, Nicholas A; Scislo, Tadeusz J

2011-05-01

262

Lumbosacral metastatic extradural Merkel cell carcinoma causing nerve root compression--case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 63-year-old man presented with a rare metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) involving the lumbosacral spine and causing nerve root compression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an extradural soft tissue mass at the L5-S1 levels. The tumor was subtotally removed and chemotherapy was administered, but he died of multiple metastases from the primary epigastric tumor. Lumbosacral metastatic epidural tumor can manifest as lumbar disc disease symptoms, but MR imaging can non-invasively and rapidly reveal the presence of spinal epidural tumor and any extension to the spinal canal. Extradural MCC metastasis in the lumbosacral area should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radicular symptoms caused by disc herniation. PMID:11944594

Turgut, Mehmet; Gökpinar, Deniz; Barutça, Sabri; Erku?, Muhan

2002-02-01

263

Evaluation of nerve cell toxicity in vitro by electrophysiological and biochemical methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute toxicity of the first nine standard chemicals in the Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity Tests (MEIC) programme was evaluated in the NG108-15 neuroblastoma cell line by monitoring changes in cell resting membrane potential (RMP) and by using the MTT assay to measure cell viability. Cells were differentiated with dibutyryl-cAMP and then exposed to different concentrations of the chemicals for 1 hr or 24 hr. At each concentration and time point, RMPs were measured from about 30 differentiated cells and MTT assays were performed on parallel cultures. IC(50) values were obtained from linear regression analysis. The results showed that the IC(50)s from MTT assays correlated closely with those from RMP measurements (r = 0.983 for 1 hr exposure; r = 0.933 for 24 hr exposure). IC(50)s of amitriptyline and diazepam were 0.1-1.9 mm; alcoholic compounds (isopropanol, ethylene glycol, ethanol and methanol) had IC(50)s from 121.5 mm to 3731.9 mm; paracetamol, aspirin and ferrous sulphate had intermediate cytotoxicity (IC(50) 2.6-53.5 mm). IC(50)s decreased markedly with increased exposure time. RMP is expected to be a sensitive indicator of the health of nerve cells; however, its measurement in a large number of cells is laborious. MTT assays are rapid, and the close correlation between IC(50)s in the two types of assay suggests that MTT assays could be used to evaluate cytotoxicity in neuronal cells in vitro. PMID:20732200

Xie, K; Harvey, A L

1993-05-01

264

Sacral nerve stimulation increases activation of the primary somatosensory cortex by anal canal stimulation in an experimental model.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Sacral and posterior tibial nerve stimulation may be used to treat faecal incontinence; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether sensory activation of the cerebral cortex by anal canal stimulation was increased by peripheral neuromodulation.

Griffin, K M

2011-08-01

265

Sympathetic nerve activity can be estimated from skin conductance responses — A comment on Henderson et al. (2012)?  

OpenAIRE

A recent paper by Henderson et al. (2012) claimed that skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) can not be retrieved from skin conductance responses (SCR). Here, I argue that this claim is not supported by the literature, and comment on contemporary approaches of estimating SSNA from SCR using biophysical models.

Bach, Dominik R.

2014-01-01

266

Effect of Atorvastatin vs. Rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in non-diabetic patients with dilated cardiomyopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of statin therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have not previously been evaluated. To compare the effects of lipophilic atorvastatin and hydrophilic rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 63 stable outpatients with DCM, who were already receiving standard therapy for CHF, were randomized to atorvastatin (n=32) or rosuvastatin (n=31). We evaluated cardiac sympathetic nerve activity by cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and after 6 months of treatment. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. In the rosuvastatin group, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction or plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after 6 months of treatment. In contrast, the atorvastatin group showed a significant increase in the delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio (2.18±0.4 vs. 2.36±0.4, P<0.0001), and the washout rate was significantly decreased (34.8±5.7 vs. 32.6±6.3%, P=0.0001) after 6 months of treatment compared with the baseline values. The plasma NT-proBNP level was also significantly decreased (729±858 vs. 558±747 pg/ml, P=0.0139). Lipophilic atorvastatin but not hydrophilic rosuvastatin improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with DCM. (author) patients with DCM. (author)

267

Laser Doppler instrument to investigate retinal neural activity-induced changes in optic nerve head blood flow  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundus camera-based instrument to investigate increased retinal neuronal activity effect on optic nerve blood flow is described. It incorporates (a) near infrared fundus illumination and observation, (b) near infrared laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF), (c) pupil position monitoring and (d) delivery of visual stimuli. Two types of stimulation are currently used: diffuse heterochromatic and chromatic luminance flicker generated by light emitting diodes, and contrast reversal pattern displayed on a video monitor. Recordings of the changes in the LDF parameters (blood velocity, volume and flow) from the optic nerve in response to these stimuli illustrate the potential of the technique.

Logean, Eric; Geiser, Martial H.; Riva, Charles E.

2005-03-01

268

Activation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex mechanisms is controversial. Stimulation of these receptors releases glutamate within the NTS and elicits baroreflex-like decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas inhibition of these receptors attenuates HR baroreflex responses. In contrast, stimulation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors increases preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA), and the depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses are not markedly affected by sinoaortic denervation and blockade of NTS glutamatergic transmission. To elucidate the role of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex function, we compared full baroreflex stimulus-response curves for HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA (intravenous nitroprusside/phenylephrine) before and after bilateral NTS microinjections of selective adenosine A(2a) receptor agonist (CGS-21680; 2.0, 20 pmol/50 nl), selective A(2a) receptor antagonist (ZM-241385; 40 pmol/100 nl), and nonselective A(1) + A(2a) receptor antagonist (8-SPT; 1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats. Activation of A(2a) receptors decreased the range, upper plateau, and gain of baroreflex-response curves for RSNA, whereas these parameters all increased for pre-ASNA, consistent with direct effects of the agonist on regional sympathetic activity. However, no resetting of baroreflex-response curves along the MAP axis occurred despite the marked decreases in baseline MAP. The antagonists had no marked effects on baseline variables or baroreflex-response functions. We conclude that the activation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors differentially alters baroreflex control of HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA mostly via non-baroreflex mechanism(s), and these receptors have virtually no tonic action on baroreflex control of these sympathetic outputs. PMID:19202001

Ichinose, Tomoko K; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

2009-04-01

269

Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins are differentially expressed in murine dorsal root ganglia: modulation by peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) play an important role in neurite outgrowth and axon guidance; however, little is known about its role in nerve regeneration after injury. Here, we studied the expression of srGAPs in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection (SNT) using morphometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicated that srGAP1 and srGAP3, but not srGAP2, were expressed in normal adult DRG. Following unilateral SNT, elevated mRNA and protein levels of srGAP1 and srGAP3 were detected in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral L(3-4) DRGs from day 3 to day 14. Immunohistochemical results showed that srGAP1 and srGAP3 were largely expressed in subpopulations of DRG neurons in naïve DRGs. However, after SNT, srGAP3 in neurons was significantly increased in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral DRGs, which peaked at day 7 to day 14. Interestingly, DRG neurons with strong srGAP3 labeling also coexpressed Robo2 after peripheral nerve injury. These results suggest that srGAPs are differentially expressed in murine DRG and srGAP3 are the predominant form. Moreover, srGAP3 may participate in Slit-Robo signaling in response to peripheral nerve injury or the course of nerve regeneration. PMID:22271578

Chen, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Zhao, Jiu-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Dan; Zheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Fang; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yi, Xi-Nan

2012-04-01

270

Design, synthesis, and potent antiepileptic activity with latent nerve rehabilitation of novel ?-aminobutyric acid derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to design and synthesize novel ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives with the combination of aspirin (ASA) of nerve rehabilitative pharmacophores so as to develop multifunctional drugs useful in the treatment of neurological disorders. Twenty-four novel esters and amides of 1a were synthesized, biologically evaluated for antiepileptic activity with the model of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and tested for their capacity of penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with HPLC. The distribution of 8a, ASA freed by 8a, 7c, and ASA freed by 7c within 24 h in brain tissue was measured. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established and the data of Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) showed good results. With ED50 values of 0.3684-0.5199 mmol/kg, LD50 1.1487-1.3944 mmol/kg, and therapeutic index (TI) 2.65-3.15, compounds 8a, 3b, 4b, 6c, and 7c exhibited better antiepileptic activities in multiples of 0.3 to 2.2 against the control sodium valproate (VPA). Most importantly, 8a and 7c exhibited excellent antiepileptic activities with TI values of 3.15 and 3.12, respectively. PMID:25047422

He, Dian; Ma, Jing; Shi, Xiuxiao; Zhao, Chunyan; Hou, Meng; Guo, Qingxin; Ma, Shangxian; Li, Xiaojun; Zhao, Peicheng; Liu, Wenhu; Yang, Zhuqing; Mou, Jianping; Song, Pengfei; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jing

2014-01-01

271

Patterns of lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic nerve cells of superior cervical ganglion in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Considering available literature lipofuscin is a classical age pigment of postmitotic cells, and a consistently recognized phenomenon in humans and animals. Lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic for nerve cells that are postmitotic. This research was focused on lipofuscin accumulation in ganglionic cells (GC (postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies of superior cervical ganglion in humans during ageing. Methods. We analysed 30 ganglions from cadavers ranging from 20 to over 80 years of age. As material the tissue samples were used from the middle portion of the ganglion, which was separated from the surrounding tissue by the method of macrodissection. The tissue samples were routinely fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin for classical histological analysis, then three consecutive (successive sections 5 ?m thick were made and stained with hematoxylin and eosin method (HE, silver impregnation technique by Masson Fontana and trichrome stain by Florantin. Results. Immersion microscopy was used to analyse patterns of lipofuscin accumulation during ageing making possible to distinguish diffuse type (lipofuscin granules were irregularly distributed and non-confluent, unipolar type (lipofuscin granules were grouped at the end of the cell, bipolar type (lipofuscin granules were concentrated at the two opposite ends of a cell with the nucleus in between at the center of a cell, annular type (lipofuscin granules were in the shape of a complete or incomplete ring around the nucleus and a cell completely filled with lipofuscin (two subtypes distinguishing, one with visible a nucleus, and the other with invisible one. Even at the age of 20 there were cells with lipofuscin granules accumulated in diffuse way, but in smaller numbers; the GC without lipofuscin were dominant. Growing older, especially above 60 years, all of the above mentioned patterns of lipofuscin accumulation were present with the evident increase in cells completely filled with lipofuscin, but cells without lipofuscin were also present even in the oldest persons. Conclusion. Lipofuscin is present in all periods of ageing with a different intensity of accumulation. GC without the pigment, diffusely distributed, as well as very rare cells with a unipolar type of lipofuscin distribution are characteristic for the age of 20- 60 years. In the age above 60 years, except the cells without pigment and diffuse accumulation type, there are also bipolar and annular types and forms in which cells are completely filled with lipofuscin granules.

Živkovi? Vladimir

2008-01-01

272

Zhangfei induces the expression of the nerve growth factor receptor, trkA, in medulloblastoma cells and causes their differentiation or apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor-the tropomyosin related kinase A (trkA)-regulate many neuronal functions including the correct development of sensory neurons during embryogenesis, the survival of sensory neurons and the differentiation and apoptosis of neuronal tumours. Zhangfei is a transcriptional factor that is expressed in differentiated neurons. Since we could detect Zhangfei in mature neurons but not in neuronal tumour cells, we hypothesised that ectopic expression of the protein in medulloblastoma cells may induce the differentiation of these cells. We show that in ONS-76 medulloblastoma cells, resveratrol, an inducer of apoptosis and differentiation, increased the expression of Zhangfei, trkA and Early Growth Response Gene 1 (Egr1), a gene normally activated by NGF-trkA signalling. ONS-76 cells stopped growing soon after treatment with resveratrol. While the induction of Zhangfei in resveratrol-treated cells was modest albeit consistent, the infection of actively growing medulloblastoma cells with an adenovirus vector expressing Zhangfei mimicked some of the effects of resveratrol. Ectopically expressed Zhangfei in ONS-76 cells led to the increased expression of trkA and Egr1, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1), and caused ONS-76 cells to display markers of apoptosis. UW228, another medulloblastoma cell-line, was also susceptible to the suppressive effects of resveratrol and Zhangfei. In contrast, while resveratrol suppressed the growth of human diploid fibroblasts (MRC5), Zhangfei had relatively little effect on these cells. PMID:18719857

Valderrama, Ximena; Rapin, Noreen; Verge, Valerie M K; Misra, Vikram

2009-01-01

273

Epithelial skirt and bulge of human facial vellus hair follicles and associated Merkel cell-nerve complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many morphological variations of bulge areas, such as knob-like swellings, were found in extracted human facial vellus hairs. In anagen vellus hair of the face bulge areas including these knobs had a band-like dense aggregation of CAM5.2 (K8, 52.5 kDa) reactive Merkel cells. In telogen hair the bulge became indistinguishable from the clubbed or regressed end of the follicle but Merkel cells continued to be abundant. The epithelial hood at sebaceous gland level showed most commonly a skirt-like structure but variations were also observed; these were bamboo joints, tulip flower, and long apron configurations. Merkel cells were found sparsely in these structures. Palisading stockade-like nerve endings were observed surrounding the follicular epithelium under the skirt and around the bulge areas including the knobs. Merkel cells were sparse in the follicular segment corresponding to the attachment of stockade nerve endings. PMID:8379686

Narisawa, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kohda, H

1993-01-01

274

Analysis of congenital hypomyelinating Egr2Lo/Lo nerves identifies Sox2 as an inhibitor of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination  

OpenAIRE

Egr2 is a transcription factor required for peripheral nerve myelination in rodents, and mutations in Egr2 are associated with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) in humans. To further study its role in myelination, we generated mice harboring a hypomorphic Egr2 allele (Egr2Lo) that survive for up to 3 weeks postnatally, a period of active myelination in rodents. These Egr2Lo/Lo mice provided the opportunity to study the molecular effects of Egr2 deficiency on Schwann cell biology, an...

Le, Nam; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Wang, James Y. T.; Araki, Toshiyuki; Schmidt, Robert E.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2005-01-01

275

Peripheral nerve reconstruction with epsilon-caprolactone conduits seeded with vasoactive intestinal peptide gene-transfected mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Attempts have been made to improve nerve conduits in peripheral nerve reconstruction. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with neuroprotective, trophic and developmental regulatory actions, in peripheral nerve regeneration in a severe model of nerve injury that was repaired with nerve conduits. Approach. The sciatic nerve of each male Wistar rat was transected unilaterally at 10 mm and then repaired with Dl-lactic-?-caprolactone conduits. The rats were treated locally with saline, with the VIP, with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) or with ASCs that were transduced with the VIP-expressing lentivirus. The rats with the transected nerve, with no repairs, were used as untreated controls. At 12 weeks post-surgery, we assessed their limb function by measuring the ankle stance angle and the percentage of their muscle mass reduction, and we evaluated the histopathology, immunohistochemistry and morphometry of the myelinated fibers. Main results. The rats that received a single injection of VIP-expressing ASCs showed a significant functional recovery in the ankle stance angle (p = 0.049) and a higher number of myelinated fibers in the middle and distal segments of the operated nerve versus the other groups (p = 0.046). Significance. These results suggest that utilization of a cellular substrate, plus a VIP source, is a promising method for enhancing nerve regeneration using Dl-lactic-?-caprolactone conduits and that this method represents a potential useful clinical approach to repairing peripheral nerve damage.

Hernández-Cortés, P.; Toledo-Romero, M. A.; Delgado, M.; Sánchez-González, C. E.; Martin, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; O'Valle, F.

2014-08-01

276

Microtubules and Microfilaments in Fixed and Permeabilized Cells are Selectively Decorated by Nerve Growth Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

A specific antibody against nerve growth factor (NGF) and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy have been used to follow the in vitro binding of NGF to cells made permeable to large molecules. All cells tested, both target (sensory neurons and PC12 cells) and nontarget (3T3, BKH 2I, C6 glioma cells), revealed a decoration of cytoskeletal structures which on the basis of their form, reactivity with antibodies, and sensitivity to specific drugs may be identified as microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs). The decoration of either structure depends on the fixation and permeabilization conditions: MFs, in the form of stress fibers, are stained by NGF when the plasma membrane is permeabilized with methanol/acetone; MTs become intensely stained when the plasma membrane is solubilized with a nonionic detergent in the presence of a MT-stabilizing medium. The two procedures do not affect the staining of these structures with specific antibodies. Binding of 125I-labeled NGF to PC12 cells was not competitively inhibited by a 100-fold excess of several positively charged proteins but it was markedly decreased in the presence of DNase I. 125I-Labeled NGF interacted with MTs and F-actin (fixed with paraformaldehyde) in a range of concentrations similar to that used for their cellular localization with NGF-anti-NGF. Our studies show that the specificity and affinity of NGF binding to MTs and MFs is in the range of that of antibodies against tubulin and actin. The possible relevance of these findings to the mechanism of action of NGF in target cells is discussed.

Nasi, S.; Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Marchisio, P. C.; Calissano, P.

1982-02-01

277

Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. ? Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. ? The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. ? The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

278

Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9?cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. PMID:24970043

Skorupska, El?bieta; Rychlik, Micha?; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, W?odzimierz

2014-10-01

279

Nerves and Anesthesia: A physics perspective on medicine  

CERN Document Server

We present a recent theory for nerve pulse propagation and anesthesia and argue that both nerve activity and the action of anesthetics can be understood on the basis of simple physical laws. It was found experimentally that biological membranes melt from a solid state to a liquid state just below physiological temperature. Such melting processes have a profound influence on the physical properties of cell membranes. They make it possible for mechanical pulses (solitons) to travel along nerve axons. In these pulses, a region of solid phase travels in the liquid nerve membrane. These pulses display many properties associated with the action potential in nerves. Both general and local anesthetics lower melting temperatures of membranes. Thus, they make it more difficult to excite the nerve membrane. Since hydrostatic pressure increases melting temperatures, it counteracts anesthesia. This theory has the virtue of providing a simple explanation of the famous Meyer-Overton correlation, which states that the effect...

Heimburg, Thomas

2014-01-01

280

Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perinatal taurine excess or deficiency influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal rat chow with 3% ?-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS), or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed with normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8-10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low- (0.3-0.5 Hz) and high-frequency (0.5-4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve, and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3-4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very-low-frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in adult male rats. PMID:23392929

Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

2013-01-01

281

Stress promotes development of ovarian cysts in rats: the possible role of sympathetic nerve activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of the sympathetic innervation precedes the induction of polycystic ovaries in rats given estradiol valerate (EV). The mechanism of induction by EV may thus involve both direct and neurogenic components. We tested this hypothesis using a combined cold and restraint stress to induce an increase in sympathetic tone, including that of the ovarian sympathetic nerves. Three weeks after the start of stress we found: 1. An increase in the content of norepinephrine (NE) in the celiac ganglion. 2. An increase in the release of NE from the ovary. 3. An unchanged NE uptake by the ovary. 4. An unchanged content of NE in the ovary. The ovarian content of neuropeptide Y (NPY) (colocalized with NE) was significantly decreased. These results suggest that NE synthesis and its secretion are increased during this period and correlate with the increase in secretion of androgens and estradiol, the development of precystic follicles, and a decrease in the ovulatory rate. After 11 wk, NE release had returned to control values, whereas the ovarian NE content had risen significantly, suggesting a maintained high rate of NE synthesis. In the ovary, NPY contents, steroid secretion, morphology, and ovulation had returned to the control state. These results suggest the participation of an extraovarian factor that might act locally to control the release of NE from the ovary, and further support the hypothesis that increased sympathetic activity plays a role in the development and maintenance of ovarian cysts. PMID:9741836

Paredes, A; Gálvez, A; Leyton, V; Aravena, G; Fiedler, J L; Bustamante, D; Lara, H E

1998-06-01

282

Long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with nerve cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, can inhibit the survival of newly generated cells, but its effect on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus remain poorly understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot methods to weekly detect the biological behaviors of nerve cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice that received intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine for 4 weeks. Expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN; a neuronal marker) and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration) was also detected. After scopolamine treatment, mouse hippocampal neurons did not die, and Ki-67 (a marker for proliferating cells)-immunoreactive cells were reduced in number and reached the lowest level at 4 weeks. Doublecortin (DCX; a marker for newly generated neurons)-immunoreactive cells were gradually shortened in length and reduced in number with time. After scopolamine treatment for 4 weeks, nearly all of the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newly generated cells were located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, but they did not migrate into the granule cell layer. Few mature BrdU/NeuN double-labeled cells were seen in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death. PMID:25422633

Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kang, Il-Jun; Won, Moo-Ho

2014-10-01

283

Regeneração de nervos periféricos: terapia celular e fatores neurotróficos / Peripheral nerve regeneration: cell therapy and neurotrophic factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Traumatismos em nervos periféricos resultam na perda de função do órgão inervado e raramente apresentam recuperação sem a intervenção cirúrgica. Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas são passíveis de serem empregadas para o reparo nervoso. Dentre elas, ressalta-se o uso da técnica de tubulização, podendo ser [...] acrescentados fatores com capacidade regenerativa na câmara. A terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos surgem como uma alternativa para estimular e auxiliar a regeneração de nervos periféricos. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer um levantamento e uma análise de estudos experimentais e clínicos, quanto aos resultados obtidos, que utilizam a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos como ferramentas para otimizar o processo de regeneração. Os artigos utilizados são oriundos de bases de dados científicas LILACS e Medline, através de pesquisas realizadas no PubMed e SciELO. Artigos sobre o uso de células-tronco, células de Schwann, fatores de crescimento, colágeno, laminina e plasma rico em plaquetas no reparo de nervos periféricos foram sintetizados ao longo da revisão. Com base nos diversos estudos pode-se concluir que a utilização de células-tronco derivadas de diferentes fontes apresentam resultados promissores na regeneração nervosa, pois estas possuem capacidade de diferenciação neuronal, demonstrando, assim, resultados funcionais eficazes. O uso de tubos acrescidos de elementos bioativos com liberação controlada também otimiza o reparo nervoso, promovendo uma maior mielinização e crescimento axonal dos nervos periféricos. Outro tratamento promissor é o uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, que, além de liberar fatores de crescimento importantes no reparo nervoso, ainda serve como um carreador para fatores exógenos estimulando a proliferação de células específicas no reparo de nervo periférico. Abstract in english Peripheral nerve trauma results in functional loss in the innervated organ, and recovery without surgical intervention is rare. Many surgical techniques can be used for nerve repair. Among these, the tubulization technique can be highlighted: this allows regenerative factors to be introduced into th [...] e chamber. Cell therapy and tissue engineering have arisen as an alternative for stimulating and aiding peripheral nerve regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review was to provide a survey and analysis on the results from experimental and clinical studies that used cell therapy and tissue engineering as tools for optimizing the regeneration process. The articles used came from the LILACS, Medline and SciELO scientific databases. Articles on the use of stem cells, Schwann cells, growth factors, collagen, laminin and platelet-rich plasma for peripheral nerve repair were summarized over the course of the review. Based on these studies, it could be concluded that the use of stem cells derived from different sources presents promising results relating to nerve regeneration, because these cells have a capacity for neuronal differentiation, thus demonstrating effective functional results. The use of tubes containing bioactive elements with controlled release also optimizes the nerve repair, thus promoting greater myelination and axonal growth of peripheral nerves. Another promising treatment is the use of platelet-rich plasma, which not only releases growth factors that are important in nerve repair, but also serves as a carrier for exogenous factors, thereby stimulating the proliferation of specific cells for peripheral nerve repair.

Alessandra Deise, Sebben; Martina, Lichtenfels; Jefferson Luis Braga da, Silva.

284

Comparison of Longitudinal In Vivo Measurements of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Retinal Ganglion Cell Density after Optic Nerve Transection in Rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To determine the relationship between longitudinal in vivo measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density after unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT). Methods Nineteen adult Brown-Norway rats were studied; N?=?10 ONT plus RGC label, N?=?3 ONT plus vehicle only (sans label), N?=?6 sham ONT plus RGC label. RNFLT was measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at baseline then weekly for 1 month. RGCs were labeled by retrograde transport of fluorescently conjugated cholera toxin B (CTB) from the superior colliculus 48 hours prior to ONT or sham surgery. RGC density measurements were obtained by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) at baseline and weekly for 1 month. RGC density and reactivity of microglia (anti-Iba1) and astrocytes (anti-GFAP) were determined from post mortem fluorescence microscopy of whole-mount retinae. Results RNFLT decreased after ONT by 17% (p<0.05), 30% (p<0.0001) and 36% (p<0.0001) at weeks 2, 3 and 4. RGC density decreased after ONT by 18%, 69%, 85% and 92% at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 (p<0.0001 each). RGC density measured in vivo at week 4 and post mortem by microscopy were strongly correlated (R?=?0.91, p<0.0001). In vivo measures of RNFLT and RGC density were strongly correlated (R?=?0.81, p<0.0001). In ONT- CTB labeled fellow eyes, RNFLT increased by 18%, 52% and 36% at weeks 2, 3 and 4 (p<0.0001), but did not change in fellow ONT-eyes sans CTB. Microgliosis was evident in the RNFL of the ONT-CTB fellow eyes, exceeding that observed in other fellow eyes. Conclusions In vivo measurements of RNFLT and RGC density are strongly correlated and can be used to monitor longitudinal changes after optic nerve injury. The strong fellow eye effect observed in eyes contralateral to ONT, only in the presence of CTB label, consisted of a dramatic increase in RNFLT associated with retinal microgliosis. PMID:25393294

Choe, Tiffany E.; Abbott, Carla J.; Piper, Chelsea; Wang, Lin; Fortune, Brad

2014-01-01

285

Long term recovery of median nerve repair using laser-activated chitosan adhesive films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sutures remain the standard peripheral nerve repair technique, whether applied directly or indirectly to nerve tissue. Unfortunately, significant postoperative complications can result, such as inflammation, neuroma formation and foreign body reactions. Photochemical-tissue-bonding (PTB) using rose Bengal (RB) integrated into a chitosan bioadhesive is an alternative nerve repair device that removes the need for sutures. Rats were arranged into three groups: RB-chitosan adhesives-repair, end-to-end epineural suture-repair (surgical standard) and sham laser-irradiated control. Groups were compared through histological assessment, electrophysiological recordings and grip motor strength. RB-chitosan adhesive repaired nerves displayed comparable results when compared to the standard suture-repair based on histological and electrophysiological findings. Functionally, RB-chitosan adhesive was associated with a quicker and more pronounced recovery of grip force when compared to the suture-repair. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24132983

Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Stoodley, Marcus A; Shaikh, Sumaiya; Mahns, David A; Lauto, Antonio

2015-03-01

286

Hypoglossal motor nerve activity elicited by taste and thermal stimuli applied to the tongue in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single unit activity of hypoglossal motor nerve fibers which innervate the tongue muscles was recorded in lightly anesthetized non-decerebrate and acute decerebrate rats. The pattern of responses to taste and thermal stimuli applied to the tongue surface was classified into 4 types. The type 1 response is characterized by short-lasting rhythmic burst discharges, the type 2 consists of both the rhythmic burst and tonic discharges, the type 3 is long-lasting tonic discharges and the type 4 shows short-lasting burst or short-lasting tonic discharges. In non-decerebrate rats, most of the fibers (93%) showed no or a few spontaneous firings. Sucrose and NaCl were the most effective stimulants, and 70-80% of the fibers showed the type 1 response to these stimuli, sucrose and NaCl, and HCl and quinine produced a similar response profile, respectively. In decerebrate rats, however, about 21% of fibers showed a highly regular spontaneous firing (about 30 Hz). Rhythmic burst responses (types 1 and 2) were not induced, and thermal (especially cold) stimulation elicited much better responses than the taste stimuli. HCl and quinine, but not sucrose and NaCl, produced a similar response profile. These characteristic properties of the response in acute decerebrate rats may in part be attributed to inactivation of a 'rhythmic center' in the brain stem. PMID:7083027

Yamamoto, T; Fujiwara, T; Matsuo, R; Kawamura, Y

1982-04-22

287

Arbitrary units are a composite and useful measure of muscle sympathetic nerve activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In humans, the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) signal is challenging to detect, record and analyze. Several methods exist that attempt to capture the latent construct of MSNA. We directly compared the performance of five MSNA parameters: burst frequency, burst incidence, median burst amplitude, arbitrary units (AU) and fractal dimension (FD). The MSNA signal was recorded in 33 subjects for ?30 min before, during and after the application of a graded cold pressor test stimulus at 18 °C, 10 °C and 2 °C in random order with an adequate wash-out period. Using coefficient of variation, Shannon's entropy and principal component analysis, we observed that these five parameters defined two physical and conceptual domains of MSNA—frequency and amplitude. Since AU combines information from both these domains, we observed that it explained maximum inter-subject and inter-experimental segment variation. FD did not explain the inter-subject variability and was identified as a unique parameter in the factor analysis. Epidemiological studies that attempt to quantify MSNA may consistently use AU as the parameter for quantification of MSNA

288

Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial (BA), common femoral (CFA) and popliteal (PA) arteries to account for regional differences in vascular function. In 20 young men, MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), conduit artery diameter, and shear rate (SR) were continuously measured during 20-min periods of supine rest. Spike-triggered averaging was used to characterize beat-by-beat changes in each variable for 15 cardiac cycles following all MSNA bursts, and a peak response was calculated. Diameter increased to a similar peak among the BA (+0.14 ± 0.02%), CFA (+0.17 ± 0.03%), and PA (+0.18 ± 0.03%) following MSNA bursts (all P bursts (P bursts were heterogeneous between arteries and did not appear to systematically alter diameter responses. Thus, in contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts do not directly influence conduit arteries with local vasoconstriction or changes in shear, but rather induce a systemic pressor response that appears to passively increase conduit artery diameter. PMID:23832696

Fairfax, Seth T; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C; Holwerda, Seth H; Davis, Michael J; Fadel, Paul J

2013-09-15

289

Quantifying sympathetic nerve activity: problems, pitfalls and the need for standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the first recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) early last century, numerous methods for presentation of the resulting data have developed. In this paper, we discuss the common ways of describing SNA and their application to chronic recordings. Suggestions on assessing the quality of SNA are made, including the use of arterial pressure wave-triggered averages and nasopharyngeal stimuli. Calculation of the zero level of the SNA signal from recordings during ganglionic blockade, the average level between bursts and the minimum of arterial pressure wave-triggered averages are compared and shown to be equivalent. The use of normalization between zero and maximal SNA levels to allow comparison between groups is discussed. We recommend that measured microvolt levels of integrated SNA be presented (with the zero/noise level subtracted), along with burst amplitude and frequency information whenever possible. We propose that standardization of the quantifying/reporting of SNA will allow better comparison between disease models and between research groups and ultimately allow data to be more reflective of the human situation. PMID:19700515

Guild, Sarah-Jane; Barrett, Carolyn J; McBryde, Fiona D; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Head, Geoffrey A; Burke, Sandra L; Malpas, Simon C

2010-01-01

290

Acute effects of arterial baroreflex on sympathetic nerve activity and plasma norepinephrine concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arterial pressure (AP) elevates as a logarithmic function of exogenously administered dose of norepinephrine (NE). In contrast, AP is nearly linearly correlated with efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during acute baroreflex intervention. The present study aimed at quantifying the relationship between SNA and plasma NE concentration during acute baroreflex intervention. Carotid sinus regions were isolated from systemic circulation in five Wistar Kyoto rats, and carotid sinus pressure was changed among 60, 100, 120, 140, and 180 mm Hg every 2 min. Arterial blood (0.2 ml) was obtained at each pressure level for plasma NE measurement. Maximum AP and minimum AP were 153.34 ± 6.28 and 67.31 ± 4.92 mm Hg, respectively, in response to pressure perturbation. Plasma NE correlated linearly with SNA for individual animal data (slope: 0.957 ± 0.090 pg · ml(-1) · %(-1), intercept: 46.57 ± 7.22 pg/ml, r(2): ranged from 0.923 to 0.992) and also for group averaged data (NE = 0.956 × SNA + 47.97, r(2 )= 0.982). Blockade of neuronal NE uptake by intravenous desipramine (1 mg/kg) administration increased the slope (2.966 ± 0.686 pg · ml(-1) · %(-1), P reflect changes in SNA, it may also overestimate the sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system when neuronal NE uptake is impaired systemically. PMID:25458434

Kawada, Toru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Shuji; Sata, Yusuke; Turner, Michael J; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Sugimachi, Masaru

2014-12-01

291

Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity induced by central hyperosmolality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) in mediating central hyperosmolality-induced increases of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) was assessed in anesthetized rats. Solutions of graded NaCl concentration (150, 375, and 750 mM) were injected (150 mul) into the forebrain vascular supply via an internal carotid artery (ICA). Time-control experiments (n = 6) established that ICA NaCl injections produced short-latency, transient increases of renal SNA (RSNA) and mean ABP (MAP) (P OVLT. Involvement of OVLT in responses to ICA NaCl was assessed by recording RSNA and MAP responses before and 15 min after electrolytic lesion of the OVLT (n = 6). Before lesion, NaCl injections increased RSNA and MAP (P OVLT (50 pmol in 50 nl) (n = 6). Before muscimol, hypertonic NaCl increased RSNA, lumbar SNA (LSNA), and MAP (P OVLT (n = 6) and muscimol lateral to OVLT (n = 5) each failed to alter responses to ICA NaCl. We conclude that OVLT neurons contribute to sympathoexcitation by central hyperosmolality. PMID:17898124

Shi, Peng; Stocker, Sean D; Toney, Glenn M

2007-12-01

292

Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 ± 2 to 97 ± 3 mmHg, P GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 ± 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 ± 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

2014-04-15

293

Histochemical localisation of mitochondrial enzyme activity in human optic nerve and retina  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To demonstrate the quantitative distribution of mitochondrial enzymes within the human optic nerve and retina in relation to the pathogenesis of ophthalmic disease.?METHODS—Enucleations were performed at the time of multiple organ donation and the optic nerve and peripapillary retina immediately excised en bloc and frozen. Reactivities of the mitochondrial enzymes cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase were demonstrated in serial cryostat sections using specific histochem...

Andrews, R.; Griffiths, P.; Johnson, M.; Turnbull, D

1999-01-01

294

Neuroglial ATP release through innexin channels controls microglial cell movement to a nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are attracted to sites of injury. The injury releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space, activating the microglia, but the full mechanism of release is not known. In glial cells, a family of physiologically regulated unpaired gap junction channels called innexons (invertebrates) or pannexons (vertebrates) located in the cell membrane is permeable to ATP. Innexons, but not pannexons, also pair to make gap juncti...

Samuels, Stuart E.; Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Dahl, Gerhard; Muller, Kenneth J.

2010-01-01

295

Effects of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on neural cell adhesion molecule in rats with lumbar nerve root compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM in neuromuscular junctions during nerve regeneration in rats with lumbar nerve root compression. Methods: The rats with lumbar nerve root compression were given Yiqi Huayu Recipe for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively. The distribution of N-CAM in neuromuscular junctions of soleus muscle in rats was examined with immunohistochemical method and confocal laser scanning microscopy technique. The acetylcholine receptor (AChR was visualized with fluorescein-conjugated ?-bungarotoxin (?-BTX. The overlap areas of N-CAM and AChR sites were measured with NIH image technique.Results: The aggregates, sprouts and extensions of N-CAM in the neuromuscular junctions and the overlap areas of N-CAM and AChR sites in the Yiqi Huayu Recipe-treated group were all better improved than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: The expression of N-CAM is regulated according to the state of innervation for muscles. Yiqi Huayu Recipe may accelerate this nerve regeneration process.

Chong-Jian ZHOU

2006-03-01

296

DNA Methyltransferase 3b Regulates Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Differentiation of PC12 Cells by Recruiting Histone Deacetylase 2  

OpenAIRE

To elucidate the role of epigenetic reprogramming in cell- or tissue-specific differentiation, we explored the role of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 (pheochromocytoma) cells into neuronal cells. The mRNA and protein levels of de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b increased, whereas those of Dnmt3a and Dnmt1 decreased, during NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Dnmt3b localized in the nucleus, as well as in the growing neurites. When the ...

Bai, Shoumei; Ghoshal, Kalpana; Datta, Jharna; Majumder, Sarmila; Yoon, Sung Ok; Jacob, Samson T.

2005-01-01

297

Nerve growth factor receptors on PC12 cells: ligand-induced conversion from low- to high-affinity states.  

OpenAIRE

The pheochromocytoma PC12 cell possesses specific cell surface receptors that bind nerve growth factor (NGF) with two different affinities. The rate of dissociation of NGF from the higher affinity receptor is slower than from the lower affinity receptor; this rate is reduced to essentially zero at low temperature, allowing the extent of high-affinity binding to be determined. When NGF is added to PC12 cells, only low-affinity binding is observed. After a short lag period, high-affinity bindin...

Landreth, G. E.; Shooter, E. M.

1980-01-01

298

Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

Pan Hung-Chuan

2009-08-01

299

Nerve growth factor modulates the expression and secretion of ?-amyloid precursor protein through different mechanisms in PC12 cells  

OpenAIRE

The ?-amyloid protein, component of the senile plaques found in Alzheimer brains is proteolytically derived from the ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a larger membrane-associated protein that is expressed in both neural and nonneural cells. Overexpression of APP might be one of the mechanisms that more directly contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease. The APP gene expression is regulated by a number of cellular mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF) and other ligands ...

Villa, Ana; Latasa, Mari?a Jesu?s; Pascual, A?ngel

2001-01-01

300

Crosstalk between Delta Opioid Receptor and Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Modulates Neuroprotection and Differentiation in Rodent Cell Models  

OpenAIRE

Both opioid signaling and neurotrophic factor signaling have played an important role in neuroprotection and differentiation in the nervous system. Little is known about whether the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways will affect neuroprotection and differentiation. Previously, we found that nerve growth factor (NGF) could induce expression of the delta opioid receptor gene (Oprd1, dor), mainly through PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling in PC12h cells. In this study, using two NGF-responsiv...

Dwaipayan Sen; Michael Huchital; Chen, Yulong L.

2013-01-01

301

Cell type-specific Nogo-A gene ablation promotes axonal regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nogo-A is a well-known myelin-enriched inhibitory protein for axonal growth and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Besides oligodendrocytes, our previous data revealed that Nogo-A is also expressed in subpopulations of neurons including retinal ganglion cells, in which it can have a positive role in the neuronal growth response after injury, through an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we analyzed the opposite roles of glial versus neuronal Nogo-A in the injured visual system. To this aim, we created oligodendrocyte (Cnp-Cre(+/-)xRtn4/Nogo-A(flox/flox)) and neuron-specific (Thy1-Cre(tg+)xRtn4(flox/flox)) conditional Nogo-A knock-out (KO) mouse lines. Following complete intraorbital optic nerve crush, both spontaneous and inflammation-mediated axonal outgrowth was increased in the optic nerves of the glia-specific Nogo-A KO mice. In contrast, neuron-specific deletion of Nogo-A in a KO mouse line or after acute gene recombination in retinal ganglion cells mediated by adeno-associated virus serotype 2.Cre virus injection in Rtn4(flox/flox) animals decreased axon sprouting in the injured optic nerve. These results therefore show that selective ablation of Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes and myelin in the optic nerve is more effective at enhancing regrowth of injured axons than what has previously been observed in conventional, complete Nogo-A KO mice. Our data also suggest that neuronal Nogo-A in retinal ganglion cells could participate in enhancing axonal sprouting, possibly by cis-interaction with Nogo receptors at the cell membrane that may counteract trans-Nogo-A signaling. We propose that inactivating Nogo-A in glia while preserving neuronal Nogo-A expression may be a successful strategy to promote axonal regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25257170

Vajda, F; Jordi, N; Dalkara, D; Joly, S; Christ, F; Tews, B; Schwab, M E; Pernet, V

2015-02-01

302

A technique for estimating activity in whole nerve trunks applied to the cervical sympathetic trunk, in the rabbit  

OpenAIRE

The changes in sympathetic outflow may be evaluated from the amplitude of the antidromic compound action potential (ACAP) according to the collision technique described by Douglas and Ritchie (Douglas, W.W. and Ritchie J.M., A technique for recording functional activity in specific groups of medullated and non-medullated fibers in whole nerve trunks. J. Physiol., 138(1957) 19-30). This technique was revised, taking into account the depressant action exerted by antidromic stimulation on sympat...

Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

1999-01-01

303

Abnormal sympathetic nerve activity in women exposed to cigarette smoke: a potential mechanism to explain increased cardiac risk  

OpenAIRE

In women, cardiac deaths attributable to tobacco exposure have reached the same high levels as men. Normally, sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) fluctuates according to the menstrual phase, but in habitual smokers, SNA levels remain constant. Our purpose is to extend these observations to other groups of women exposed to tobacco smoke and to explore potential mechanisms. We hypothesize that women exposed to secondhand smoke, but not former smokers, have nonfluctuating SNA compared with never sm...

Middlekauff, Holly R.; Park, Jeanie; Agrawal, Harsh; Gornbein, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

304

Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise  

OpenAIRE

The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exercise have been widely studied, as have the autonomic effects of imagined and observed exercise. However, the effects of observed exercise in the first person have not been documented, nor have direct recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) been obtained during observed or imagined exercise. The aim of the current study was to measure blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, skin blood flow, sweat release and muscle sympathetic ...

RachaelBrown; VaughanGMacefield

2013-01-01

305

Hepatic nerve growth factor induced by iron overload triggers defenestration in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fenestrations of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) play important roles in the exchange of macromolecules, solutes, and fluid between blood and surrounding liver tissues in response to hepatotoxic drugs, toxins, and oxidative stress. As excess iron is a hepatotoxin, LSECs may be affected by excess iron. In this study, we found a novel link between LSEC defenestration and hepatic nerve growth factor (NGF) in iron-overloaded mice. By Western blotting, NGF was highly expressed, whereas VEGF and HGF were not, and hepatic NGF mRNA levels were increased according to digital PCR. Immunohistochemically, NGF staining was localized in hepatocytes, while TrkA, an NGF receptor, was localized in LSECs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed LSEC defenestration in mice overloaded with iron as well as mice treated with recombinant NGF. Treatment with conditioned medium from iron-overloaded primary hepatocytes reduced primary LSEC fenestrations, while treatment with an anti-NGF neutralizing antibody or TrkA inhibitor, K252a, reversed this effect. However, iron-loaded medium itself did not reduce fenestration. In conclusion, iron accumulation induces NGF expression in hepatocytes, which in turn leads to LSEC defenestration via TrkA. This novel link between iron and NGF may aid our understanding of the development of chronic liver disease. PMID:25460199

Addo, Lynda; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masayo; Toki, Yasumichi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Sasaki, Katsunori; Ohtake, Takaaki; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

2015-01-01

306

Toxicogenomic studies of human neural cells following exposure to organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent VX.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 ?M of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity. PMID:23440544

Gao, Xiugong; Lin, Hsiuling; Ray, Radharaman; Ray, Prabhati

2013-05-01

307

Nerve growth factor eye drops improve visual acuity and electrofunctional activity in age-related macular degeneration: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a severe disease affecting visual function in the elderly. Currently available surgical and medical options do not guarantee a significant impact on the outcome of the disease. We describe the effects of nerve growth factor eye drop treatment in a 94 years [...] old female with ARMD, whose visual acuity was progressively worsening in spite of previous surgical and medical treatments. NGF eye drops improved visual acuity and electrofunctional parameters as early as 3 months after initiation of treatment. These results are in line with previous reports on a neuroprotective effect of NGF on retinal cells and on NGF eye drops bioavailability in the retina and optic nerve. No side effects were observed after five years of follow-up, suggesting that topical NGF treatment may be a safe and effective therapy for ARMD.

Alessandro, Lambiase; Marco, Coassin; Paola, Tirassa; Flavio, Mantelli; Luigi, Aloe.

2009-12-01

308

Cavernous nerve reconstitution with the use of bone marrow stem cells and erectile function evaluation: an experimental animal study  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of adult stem cells from bone marrow of rats in the regeneration of cavernous nerve, taking the return of erectile function as a parameter in animals subjected to the apomorphine-induced test of erection. Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar-EPM rats, aged between nine and ten weeks, and weighing approximately 250 g were used. They were randomly divided into four study Groups containing 12 animals each, as follows: Group I: surgical exposure of the cavernous nerves bilaterally without injury; Group II: bilateral surgical injury of the cavernous nerve of approximately 3 mm, without reconstruction; Group III: bilateral surgical injury of the cavernous nerves of approximately 3 mm, and bilateral reconstruction with silicone guiding tubes containing saline solution inside; Group IV: bilateral surgical injury of the cavernous nerves of approximately 3 mm, and bilateral reconstruction with silicone guiding tubes filled with adult stem cells. Four weeks after surgery, the animals were injected with apomorphine for induction of erection. Rresults: In Group I there was complete erectile response in all animals (100% – 12 out of 12. On the other hand, none of the animals in Group II presented erection after the use of apomorphine. Five of the twelve animals of Group III (41.7% and nine of the 12 animals of Group IV (75% had erections after the stimulus. When we compared the frequency of restoration of erection in the four Groups, Group IV was shown to have a similar performance to Group I (p = 0.217, while Group III animals had a frequency of erections inferior to those in Group I (p = 0.005. Moreover, comparison of results of Groups III and IV versus Group II showed that the frequency of erections was statistically higher in the first two Groups (p = 0.037 and p < 0.001, respectively. Finally, Group IV presented a tendency to a larger number of erections when compared to Group III (75 versus 41.7% but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.098. Cconclusion: This study shows that adult stem cells from bone marrow, filling silicone guiding tubes, may promote the regeneration of cavernous nerves and restore erectile function in an animal model.

Oskar Grau Kaufmann

2009-12-01

309

Neurofibromin specific antibody differentiates malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) from other spindle cell neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) derive from the Schwann cell or perineurial cell lineage and occur either sporadically or in association with the tumor syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). MPNST often pose a diagnostic challenge due to their frequent lack of pathognomonic morphological or immunohistochemical features. Mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene are found in all NF1-associated and many sporadic MPNST. The presence of NF1 mutation may have the potential to differentiate MPNST from several morphologically similar neoplasms; however, mutation detection is hampered by the size of the gene and the lack of mutational hot spots. Here we describe a newly developed monoclonal antibody binding to the C-terminus of neurofibromin (clone NFC) which was selected for optimal performance in routinely processed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. NFC immunohistochemistry revealed loss of neurofibromin in 22/25 (88 %) of NF1-associated and 26/61 (43 %) of sporadic MPNST. There was a strong association of neurofibromin loss with deletions affecting the NF1 gene (P NFC staining showed loss of neurofibromin in 2/8 myxofibrosarcomas, 2/12 (16 %) pleomorphic liposarcomas, 1/16 (6 %) leiomyosarcomas, and 4/28 (14 %) unclassified undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas. However, loss of neurofibromin was not observed in 22 synovial sarcomas, 27 schwannomas, 23 solitary fibrous tumors, 14 low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas, 50 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, 27 myxoid liposarcomas, 13 angiosarcomas, 9 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, and 7 epitheloid sarcomas. Immunohistochemistry using antibody NFC may substantially facilitate sarcoma research and diagnostics. PMID:24464231

Reuss, David E; Habel, Antje; Hagenlocher, Christian; Mucha, Jana; Ackermann, Ulrike; Tessmer, Claudia; Meyer, Jochen; Capper, David; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Mautner, Victor; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Schittenhelm, Jens; Hartmann, Christian; Hagel, Christian; Katenkamp, Kathrin; Petersen, Iver; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; von Deimling, Andreas

2014-04-01

310

Pro-nerve Growth Factor Induces Autocrine Stimulation of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion through Tropomyosin-related Kinase A (TrkA) and Sortilin Protein*  

Science.gov (United States)

The precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF) has been described as a biologically active polypeptide able to induce apoptosis in neuronal cells, via the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR and the sortilin receptor. Herein, it is shown that proNGF is produced and secreted by breast cancer cells, stimulating their invasion. Using Western blotting and mass spectrometry, proNGF was detected in a panel of breast cancer cells as well as in their conditioned media. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated an overproduction of proNGF in breast tumors, when compared with benign and normal breast biopsies, and a relationship to lymph node invasion in ductal carcinomas. Interestingly, siRNA against proNGF induced a decrease of breast cancer cell invasion that was restored by the addition of non-cleavable proNGF. The activation of TrkA, Akt, and Src, but not the MAP kinases, was observed. In addition, the proNGF invasive effect was inhibited by the Trk pharmacological inhibitor K252a, a kinase-dead TrkA, and siRNA against TrkA sortilin, neurotensin, whereas siRNA against p75NTR and the MAP kinase inhibitor PD98059 had no impact. These data reveal the existence of an autocrine loop stimulated by proNGF and mediated by TrkA and sortilin, with the activation of Akt and Src, for the stimulation of breast cancer cell invasion. PMID:22128158

Demont, Yohann; Corbet, Cyril; Page, Adeline; Ataman-Önal, Yasemin; Choquet-Kastylevsky, Genevieve; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Hondermarck, Hubert

2012-01-01

311

C6 glioma cell-conditioned medium induces neurite outgrowth and survival of rat chromaffin cells in vitro: comparison with the effects of nerve growth factor.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of medium conditioned by rat C6 glioma cells (C6-CM) on the survival, neurite formation, and catecholamine content of adrenal medullary cells in culture were investigated and compared with the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF). Adrenal medullary cells were isolated from 10-day-old rats and the proportions of surviving and neurite-extending cells were determined after 8 days in culture. In the presence of C6-CM virtually all seeded cells survived and 50% developed neuritic proce...

Unsicker, K.; Vey, J.; Hofmann, H. D.; Mu?ller, T. H.; Wilson, A. J.

1984-01-01

312

Immuno-localization of vesicular acetylcholine transporter in mouse taste cells and adjacent nerve fibers: indication of acetylcholine release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetylcholine (ACh) is well established as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in various organs. Previously, it has been shown by Ogura (J Neurophysiol 87:2643-2649, 2002) that in both physiological and immunohistochemical studies the muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor is present in taste receptor cells. However, it has not been determined if ACh is released locally from taste receptor cells and/or surrounding nerve fibers. In this study we investigated the sites of ACh release in mouse taste tissue using the antisera against vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), a key element of ACh-containing vesicles. Our data show that VAChT-immunoreactivity is present in many taste receptor cells, including cells expressing the transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). In taste cells, VAChT-immunoreactivity was colocalized with the immunoreactivity to choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT), which synthesizes ACh. Additionally, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was detected in the taste cells of BAC-transgenic mice, in which eGFP was placed under the control of endogenous ChAT transcriptional regulatory elements (ChAT(BAC)-eGFP mice). Furthermore, many ChAT-immunolabeled taste cells also reacted to an antibody against the vesicle-associated membrane protein synaptobrevin-2. These data suggest that ACh-containing vesicles are present in taste receptor cells and ACh release from taste cells may play a role in autocrine and/or paracrine cell-to-cell communication. In addition, certain nerve fibers surrounding or within taste buds were immunoreactive for the VAChT antibody. Some of these fibers were also immunolabeled with antibody against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a marker for trigeminal peptidergic fibers. Thus, functions of taste receptor cells could be modulated by trigeminal fibers via ACh release as well. PMID:17704949

Ogura, Tatsuya; Margolskee, Robert F; Tallini, Yvonne N; Shui, Bo; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Lin, Weihong

2007-10-01

313

Elevated expression of CAPON and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the sciatic nerve of rats following constriction injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been implicated in peripheral nerve lesions and regeneration. The CAPON adaptor protein interacts with the PDZ domain of nNOS, helping to regulate nNOS activity at post-synaptic sites in neurones, but it is not known whether its expression is altered in sciatic nerves after chronic nerve constriction injury. In the present study, the spatiotemporal expression of CAPON was determined in chronically constricted rat sciatic nerves. Similar to the level of protein expression, CAPON mRNA was significantly up-regulated for almost 5weeks following sciatic nerve injury. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that increased CAPON was found mainly in S-100-positive Schwann cells. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an interaction between CAPON and nNOS in Schwann cells and the interaction was enhanced in injured sciatic nerves. CAPON may be involved in peripheral nerve regeneration through regulation of nNOS activity. PMID:20202870

Cui, Zhiming; Lv, Qingshan; Yan, Meijuan; Cheng, Chun; Guo, Zhiqin; Yang, Junling; Chen, Mengling; Xia, Yinyin; Zhang, Li; Shen, Aiguo

2011-03-01

314

Quantal potential fields around individual active zones of amphibian motor-nerve terminals.  

OpenAIRE

The release of a quantum from a nerve terminal is accompanied by the flow of extracellular current, which creates a field around the site of transmitter action. We provide a solution for the extent of this field for the case of a quantum released from a site on an amphibian motor-nerve terminal branch onto the receptor patch of a muscle fiber and compare this with measurements of the field using three extracellular electrodes. Numerical solution of the equations for the quantal potential fiel...

Bennett, M. R.; Farnell, L.; Gibson, W. G.; Macleod, G. T.; Dickens, P.

2000-01-01

315

Sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of nerve growth factor and the disappearance of nerve growth factor from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell culture medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been developed. The method is based on the unique property of the lanthanides for delayed fluorescence, which reduces substantially the endogenous fluorescence of biological substances, because the excitation of the sample and detection of the fluorescence signal are separated in time and in wavelength. Using the europium-conjugated antibodies to the NGF from Vipera lebetina (snake) venom and to the beta NGF from mouse submandibular gland in a solid-phase quantitative two-site fluoroimmunoassay, we obtained a maximal sensitivity of 10 pg/ml (0.38 pM)for mouse NGF and 40 pg/ml (1.2 pM) for snake NGF. Using this method, we investigated the disappearance of NGF from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell culture medium. Mouse beta NGF (5-10 ng/ml) disappeared completely after 12 h of incubation, whereas snake NGF was not substantially internalized even after 48 h. PMID:2668420

Arumäe, U; Neuman, T; Sinijärv, R; Saarma, M

1989-08-15

316

Investigation of developmentally regulated membrane proteins in muscle and nerve cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The developmental regulation of membrane glycoproteins in muscle and nerve cells has been studied. One of these glycoproteins, designated 5B4 antigen, is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (5B4) in rat brain neurons. On immunoblots of fetal rat brain membranes, 5B4 stains a diffuse band with an M/sub r/ of 180-250 kilodalton (kd). Prior digestion of such membranes with a bacteriophage-encoded endoneuraminidase specific for ?-2,8-linked poly(sialic acid) results in a shift in the form of the antigen to two sharp bands of 140 and 180 kd. In adult brain, 5B4 recognizes a pair of sharp bands of M/sub r/ 140 and 180 kd, which are neither sensitive to endo-neuraminidase digestion nor recognized by H.46. V8 peptide maps of the enzymatically iodinated 140 kd adult antigen and the 140 kd endo-neuraminidase digested fetal antigen are identical. These results demonstrate that the polypeptide backbone of the adult and fetal forms of the 5B4 antigen are similar, and that the observed microheterogeneity in the native fetal antigen is due to polysialation. Membrane glycoproteins are through to play an essential role in myoblast fusion during muscle development. In order to identify such glycoproteins, L6 myoblasts were labeled with 3H-N-acetylglucosamine and 3H-mannose during several stages of differentiation. The effects of various inhibitors of fusion of protein expression were also studied. After identifying membrane glycoproteins whose developming membrane glycoproteins whose developmental regulation coincides with myoblast fusion, it is important to establish their role in the fusion process, possibly through reconstitution into phospholipid membrane vesicles (liposomes)

317

Apoptosis of sensory neurons and satellite cells after sciatic nerve transection in C57BL/6J mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The rate of axonal regeneration, after sciatic nerve lesion in adult C57BL/6J mice, is reduced when compared to other isogenic strains. It was observed that such low regeneration was not due just to a delay, since neuronal death was observed. Two general mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necro [...] sis, may be involved. By using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique, we demonstrated that a large number of sensory neurons, as well as satellite cells found in the dorsal root ganglia, were intensely labeled, thus indicating that apoptotic mechanisms were involved in the death process. Although almost no labeled neurons or satellite cells were observed one week after transection, a more than ten-fold increase in TUNEL labeling was detected after two weeks. The results obtained with the C57BL/6J strain were compared with those of the A/J strain, which has a much higher peripheral nerve regeneration potential. In A/J mice, almost no labeling of sensory neurons or satellite cells was observed after one or two weeks, indicating the absence of neuronal loss. Our data confirm previous observations that approximately 40% of C57BL/6J sensory neurons die after sciatic nerve transection, and indicate that apoptotic events are involved. Also, our observations reinforce the hypothesis that the low rate of axonal regeneration occurring in C57BL/6J mice may be the result of a mismatch in the timing of the neurons need for neurotrophic substances, and production of the latter by non-neuronal cells in the distal stump.

A.L.R., Oliveira.

2001-03-01

318

Apoptosis of sensory neurons and satellite cells after sciatic nerve transection in C57BL/6J mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rate of axonal regeneration, after sciatic nerve lesion in adult C57BL/6J mice, is reduced when compared to other isogenic strains. It was observed that such low regeneration was not due just to a delay, since neuronal death was observed. Two general mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, may be involved. By using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL technique, we demonstrated that a large number of sensory neurons, as well as satellite cells found in the dorsal root ganglia, were intensely labeled, thus indicating that apoptotic mechanisms were involved in the death process. Although almost no labeled neurons or satellite cells were observed one week after transection, a more than ten-fold increase in TUNEL labeling was detected after two weeks. The results obtained with the C57BL/6J strain were compared with those of the A/J strain, which has a much higher peripheral nerve regeneration potential. In A/J mice, almost no labeling of sensory neurons or satellite cells was observed after one or two weeks, indicating the absence of neuronal loss. Our data confirm previous observations that approximately 40% of C57BL/6J sensory neurons die after sciatic nerve transection, and indicate that apoptotic events are involved. Also, our observations reinforce the hypothesis that the low rate of axonal regeneration occurring in C57BL/6J mice may be the result of a mismatch in the timing of the neurons need for neurotrophic substances, and production of the latter by non-neuronal cells in the distal stump.

Oliveira A.L.R.

2001-01-01

319

Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL)...

Yan Qiongjiao; Yin Yixia; Li Binbin

2012-01-01

320

Differential control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity by NTS A2a and P2x purinoceptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of adenosine A2a and ATP P2x purinoceptors in the subpostremal nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) via microinjection of the selective agonists CGS-21680 and alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP), respectively, elicits large dose-dependent decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate, differential regional vasodilation, and differential inhibition of regional sympathetic outputs. With marked hypotensive hemorrhage, preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA) increases, whereas renal (RSNA) and postganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (post-ASNA) decrease. In this setting, adenosine levels in the brain stem increase. Therefore, we investigated whether stimulation of specific purinoceptors in the NTS may evoke differential sympathetic responses. RSNA was recorded simultaneously with pre-ASNA or post-ASNA in chloralose-urethan-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. CGS-21680 (2 and 20 pmol in 50 nl) inhibited RSNA and post-ASNA, whereas pre-ASNA increased markedly. alpha,beta-MeATP (25 and 100 pmol in 50 nl) inhibited all sympathetic outputs. Sinoaortic denervation plus vagotomy markedly prolonged the responses to P2x-purinoceptor stimulation. Glutamate (100 pmol in 50 nl) caused differential inhibition of all sympathetic outputs similar to that evoked by alpha,beta-MeATP. We conclude that NTS A2a-purinoceptor activation evokes differential sympathetic responses similar to those observed during hemorrhage, whereas P2x-purinoceptor and glutamate-receptor activation evokes differential inhibition of sympathetic outputs similar to arterial baroreflex responses. PMID:9843813

Scislo, T J; O'Leary, D S

1998-12-01

321

SIRT1 Activating Compounds Reduce Oxidative Stress and Prevent Cell Death in Neuronal Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activation of SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, prevents retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss in optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease. While SIRT1 deacetylates numerous protein targets, downstream mechanisms of SIRT1 activation mediating this neuroprotective effect are unknown. SIRT1 increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress in muscle and other cells, and oxidative stress occurs in neuronal degeneration. We examined whether SIRT1 activators reduce oxidative stress and promote mitochondrial function in neuronal cells. Oxidative stress, marked by reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, was induced in RGC-5 cells by serum deprivation, or addition of doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide, and resulted in significant cell loss. SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRTAW04 reduced ROS levels, and promoted cell survival in RGC-5 cells as well as primary RGC cultures. Effects were blocked by SIRT1 siRNA. SIRT1 activators also increased expression of succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial enzyme, and promoted deacetylation of PGC-1?, a co-enzyme involved in mitochondrial function. Results show SIRT1 activators prevent cell loss by reducing oxidative stress and promoting mitochondrial function in a neuronal cell line. Results suggest SIRT1 activators can mediate neuroprotective effects during optic neuritis by these mechanisms, and they have the potential to preserve neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases that involve oxidative stress.

KennethSShindler

2012-12-01

322

Implantation of neural stem cells embedded in hyaluronic acid and collagen composite conduit promotes regeneration in a rabbit facial nerve injury model  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in artificial scaffolds for peripheral nerve injuries draws much attention. NSCs were ex-vivo expanded in hyaluronic acid (HA)-collagen composite with neurotrophin-3, and BrdU-labeled NSCs conduit was implanted onto the ends of the transected facial nerve of rabbits. Electromyography demonstrated a progressive decrease of current threshold and increase of voltage amplitude in de-innervated rabbits after implantation for one, four, eight an...

Sun Chong; Tsang Kam; Wei Yue; Zhang Han; Li Jin; Huang Hua; Cui Fu; An Yi

2008-01-01

323

Carnosic acid, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), promotes synthesis of nerve growth factor in T98G human glioblastoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a factor vital for the growth and functional maintenance of nerve tissue. The authors found that a rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract enhanced the production of NGF in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that carnosic acid and carnosol, which are major components of the rosemary extract, were able to promote markedly enhanced synthesis of NGF. PMID:14600414

Kosaka, Kunio; Yokoi, Toshio

2003-11-01

324

Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells transfected with the NGF receptor cDNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (NGFR) cDNA was transfected into a neuroblastoma cell line (HTLA 230) which does not express a functional NGF-NGFR signal transduction cascade. Short-term treatment of stably transfected cells (98-3) expressing membrane-bound NGF receptor molecules resulted in a cell cycle-dependent, transient expression of the c-fos gene upon treatment with NGF, suggesting the presence of functional high-affinity NGFR. Extensive outgrowth of neurites and cessation of DNA synthesis occurred in transfectants grown on an extracellular matrix after long-term treatment with NGF, suggesting terminal differentiation. Our data support the idea that introduction of a constitutively expressed NGFR cDNA into cells with neuronal background results in the assembly of a functional NGF-NGFR signal cascade in a permissive extracellular environment

325

ATP Release through Lysosomal Exocytosis from Peripheral Nerves: The Effect of Lysosomal Exocytosis on Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration after Nerve Injury  

OpenAIRE

Studies have shown that lysosomal activation increases in Schwann cells after nerve injury. Lysosomal activation is thought to promote the engulfment of myelin debris or fragments of injured axons in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration. However, a recent interpretation of lysosomal activation proposes a different view of the phenomenon. During Wallerian degeneration, lysosomes become secretory vesicles and are activated for lysosomal exocytosis. The lysosomal exocytosis triggers adeno...

Jung, Junyang; Jo, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Hyunseob; Jeong, Na Young

2014-01-01

326

INCREASED CARDIAC SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY IN HEART FAILURE IS NOT DUE TO DESENSITIZATION OF THE ARTERIAL BAROREFLEX  

OpenAIRE

Increased sympathetic drive to the heart worsens prognosis in heart failure, but the level of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) has been assessed only by indirect methods, which do not permit testing whether its control by arterial baroreceptors is defective. To do this, CSNA was measured directly in 16 female sheep, 8 of which had been ventricularly paced at 200–220 beats/min for 4–6 weeks, until their ejection fraction fell to between 35 and 40%. Recording electrodes were surgic...

Watson, A. M. D.; Hood, S. G.; Ramchandra, R.; Mcallen, R. M.; May, C. N.

2007-01-01

327

Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

2006-12-01

328

Casein kinase II regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in spinal cords and pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity and phosphorylation in the spinal cord are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity and central sensitization associated with neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms underlying increased NMDAR activity in neuropathic pain conditions remain poorly understood. Here we show that peripheral nerve injury induces a large GluN2A-mediated increase in NMDAR activity in spinal lamina II, but not lamina I, neurons. However, NMDAR currents in spinal dorsal horn neurons are not significantly altered in rat models of diabetic neuropathic pain and resiniferatoxin-induced painful neuropathy (postherpedic neuralgia). Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases or protein kinase C has little effect on NMDAR currents potentiated by nerve injury. Strikingly, casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors normalize increased NMDAR currents of dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. In addition, inhibition of calcineurin, but not protein phosphatase 1/2A, augments NMDAR currents only in control rats. CK2 inhibition blocks the increase in spinal NMDAR activity by the calcineurin inhibitor in control rats. Furthermore, nerve injury significantly increases CK2? and CK2? protein levels in the spinal cord. In addition, inhibition of CK2 or CK2? knockdown at the spinal level substantially reverses pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury. Our study indicates that neuropathic pain conditions with different etiologies do not share the same mechanisms, and increased spinal NMDAR activity is distinctly associated with traumatic nerve injury. CK2 plays a prominent role in the potentiation of NMDAR activity in the spinal dorsal horn and may represent a new target for treatments of chronic pain caused by nerve injury. PMID:24898266

Chen, Shao-Rui; Zhou, Hong-Yi; Byun, Hee Sun; Chen, Hong; Pan, Hui-Lin

2014-08-01

329

Expression profiling and Ingenuity biological function analyses of interleukin-6- versus nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The major goal of the study was to compare the genetic programs utilized by the neuropoietic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the neurotrophin (NT) Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) for neuronal differentiation. Results The designer cytokine Hyper-IL-6 in which IL-6 is covalently linked to its soluble receptor s-IL-6R as well as NGF were used to stimulate PC12 cells for 24 hours. Changes in gene expression levels were monitored using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. We found diffe...

Dimitriades-Schmutz Beatrice; März-Weiss Pia; Certa Ulrich; Bedoucha Marc; Walker Gaby; Kunz Dieter; Otten Uwe

2009-01-01

330

Nerve growth factor promotes breast cancer angiogenesis by activating multiple pathways.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Although several anti-angiogenic therapies have been approved in the treatment of cancer, the survival benefits of such therapies are relatively modest. Discovering new molecules and/or better understating signaling pathways of angiogenesis is therefore essential for therapeutic improvements. The objective of the present study was to determine the involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in breast cancer angiogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Results We show...

Adriaenssens Eric; Romon Rodrigue; Lagadec Chann; Germain Emmanuelle; Hondermarck Hubert; Le Bourhis Xuefen

2010-01-01

331

A discrete group of melanin containing cells are coincident with a major reorganization of retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve of Xenopus.  

OpenAIRE

Further investigations into the abrupt reorganization of axons in the proximal optic nerve of the frog Xenopus are presented. This reorganization reverses the radial, age-related organization of the projection. At the site of axon divergence a discrete group of melanin-producing astrocytes occurs, which are coincident with the reorganization. These cells are identified as astrocytes by their ultrastructure, and by staining in vitro with an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In an at...

Taylor, Js

1993-01-01

332

More actors, different play: sphenoethmoid cell intimately related to the maxillary nerve canal and cavernous sinus apex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sphenoid sinus is one of the most morphologically variable and surgically important structures of the skull base. Located below the sella turcica, neighbored by parasellar regions, such as the orbital apex, pterygopalatine fossa and lateral sellar region (cavernous sinus), it is clinically related to these and surgically relevant as corridor for various approaches. Moreover, at the sphenoethmoidal junction, important variations occur, most of these related to the presence of the Onodi cells and the intrasinusal protrusions of the optic nerve. That is why any identified and previously undescribed morphological variation at that level must be added to the well-established protocols, clinical and surgical. During a retrospective CT study of the sphenoid sinus anatomical features a previously unreported morphology was encountered and is reported here. It refers to a unilateral sphenoethmoid cell (SEC), Onodi-positive, not only overriding the superior aspect of the sphenoid but also its lateral side to get intimately related to the maxillary nerve. As that SEC expanded medially to the cavernous sinus apex, it altered the usual endosinusal morphological correlations and also added itself within the limits of the Mullan's triangle. It appears so that such postero-infero-lateral extended pneumatization of an Onodi cell alters the surgical landmarks and also can blur clinical pictures, by adding maxillary and pterygopalatine signs and symptoms. PMID:21892542

S?ndulescu, M; Rusu, M C; Ciobanu, Iulia Camelia; Ilie, Angela; Jianu, Adelina Maria

2011-01-01

333

Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de cél [...] ulas nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e íleo (P>0,05), exceto as células argirófilas no jejuno (P Abstract in english The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of n [...] ervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05), except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05). No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.

Gláucia M., Freitas-Ribeiro; Cláudio C., Fonseca; Sirlene S.R., Sartori; Alan, Loures-Ribeiro; Clóvis A., Neves.

2012-09-01

334

Voltage-activated Calcium Currents in Octopus Cells of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus  

OpenAIRE

Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K+ conductance (gKL) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (g...

Bal, Ramazan; Oertel, Donata

2007-01-01

335

The effects of functional magnetic nanotubes with incorporated nerve growth factor in neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this in vitro study the efficiency of magnetic nanotubes to bind with nerve growth factor (NGF) and the ability of NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes to release the bound NGF are investigated using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). It is found that functional magnetic nanotubes with NGF incorporation enabled the differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons exhibiting growth cones and neurite outgrowth. Microscope observations show that filopodia extending from neuron growth cones were in close proximity to the NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes, at times appearing to extend towards or into them. These results show that magnetic nanotubes can be used as a delivery vehicle for NGF and thus may be exploited in attempts to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease with neurotrophins. Further neurite outgrowth can be controlled by manipulating magnetic nanotubes with external magnetic fields, thus helping in directed regeneration.

Xie Jining; Chen Linfeng; Varadan, Vijay K [Nanomaterials and Nanotubes Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Yancey, Justin; Srivatsan, Malathi [Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, State University, AR 72467 (United States)], E-mail: jxie@uark.edu, E-mail: msrivatsan@astate.edu

2008-03-12

336

The effects of functional magnetic nanotubes with incorporated nerve growth factor in neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this in vitro study the efficiency of magnetic nanotubes to bind with nerve growth factor (NGF) and the ability of NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes to release the bound NGF are investigated using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). It is found that functional magnetic nanotubes with NGF incorporation enabled the differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons exhibiting growth cones and neurite outgrowth. Microscope observations show that filopodia extending from neuron growth cones were in close proximity to the NGF-incorporated magnetic nanotubes, at times appearing to extend towards or into them. These results show that magnetic nanotubes can be used as a delivery vehicle for NGF and thus may be exploited in attempts to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease with neurotrophins. Further neurite outgrowth can be controlled by manipulating magnetic nanotubes with external magnetic fields, thus helping in directed regeneration

337

Identification of novel target genes of nerve growth factor (NGF in human mastocytoma cell line (HMC-1 (V560G c-Kit by transcriptome analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve growth factor (NGF is a potent growth factor that plays a key role in neuronal cell differentiation and may also play a role in hematopoietic differentiation. It has been shown that NGF induced synergistic action for the colony formation of CD34 positive hematopoietic progenitor cells treated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1, or stem cell factor (SCF. However, the exact role of NGF in hematopoietic system is unclear. It is also not clear whether NGF mediated signals in hematopoietic cells are identical to those in neuronal cells. Results To study the signal transduction pathways induced by NGF treatment in hematopoietic cells, we utilized the mastocytoma cell line HMC-1(V560G c-Kit which expresses the NGF receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkA, as well as the constitutively activated SCF receptor, V560G c-Kit, which can be inhibited completely by treatment with the potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib. NGF rescues HMC-1(V560G c-Kit cells from imatinib mediated cell death and promotes proliferation. To examine the NGF mediated proliferation and survival in these cells, we compared the NGF mediated upregulated genes (30 and 120 min after stimulation to the downregulated genes by imatinib treatment (downregulation of c-Kit activity for 4 h by transcriptome analysis. The following conclusions can be drawn from the microarray data: Firstly, gene expression profiling reveals 50% overlap of genes induced by NGF-TrkA with genes expressed downstream of V560G c-Kit. Secondly, NGF treatment does not enhance expression of genes involved in immune related functions that were down regulated by imatinib treatment. Thirdly, more than 55% of common upregulated genes are involved in cell proliferation and survival. Fourthly, we found Kruppel-like factor (KLF 2 and Smad family member 7 (SMAD7 as the NGF mediated novel downstream genes in hematopoietic cells. Finally, the downregulation of KLF2 gene enhanced imatinib induced apoptosis. Conclusion NGF does not induce genes which are involved in immune related functions, but induces proliferation and survival signals in HMC-1(V560G c-Kit cells. Furthermore, the current data provide novel candidate genes, KLF2 and SMAD7 which are induced by NGF/TrkA activation in hematopoietic cells. Since the depletion of KLF2 causes enhanced apoptosis of HMC-1(V560G c-Kit, KLF2 may play a role in the NGF mediated survival signal.

Dittrich-Breiholz Oliver

2011-04-01

338

Mitochondrial alarmins released by degenerating motor axon terminals activate perisynaptic Schwann cells  

Science.gov (United States)

An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c. These molecules activate isolated primary Schwann cells, Schwann cells cocultured with neurons and at neuromuscular junction in vivo through the MAPK pathway. We propose that this inter- and intracellular signaling is involved in triggering the regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals affected by other forms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25605902

Duregotti, Elisa; Negro, Samuele; Scorzeto, Michele; Zornetta, Irene; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Montecucco, Cesare; Rigoni, Michela

2015-01-01

339

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare soft tissue sarcomas of ectomesenchymal origin. The World Health Organization coined the term MPNST to replace previous heterogeneous and often confusing terminology, such as "malignant schwannoma," "malignant neurilemmoma," "neurogenic sarcoma," and "neurofibrosarcoma." Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arise from major or minor peripheral nerve branches or sheaths of peripheral nerve fibers, and are derived from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. The Schwann cell is thought to be the major contributor to the formation of benign as well as malignant neoplasms of the nerve sheath. While this fact remains essentially true, the identity of cell of origin of the MPNST remains elusive, and has not yet been conclusively identified. It has been suggested that these tumors may have multiple cell line origins. In this review, the authors discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of MPNSTs. PMID:17613203

Gupta, Gaurav; Maniker, Allen

2007-01-01

340

Pre- and postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity during induced hypotension with adenosine or sodium nitroprusside in the anesthetized rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adenosine (AD)-induced hypotension on preganglionic adrenal (aSNA) and postganglionic renal (rSNA) sympathetic nerve activity. rSNA (n = 10) and aSNA (n = 6) were recorded together with mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. In each experiment, hypotension was induced by equihypotensive doses of AD (0.03-2.0 mg.kg-1.min-1) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (1-10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1). SNP induced a progressive reflex tachycardia and a reflex increase in rSNA to levels 159 +/- 35% above control at a MAP reduction of 55% of the normotensive control value. Equipotent doses of AD induced a decrease in HR and significantly less pronounced reflex increase in rSNA. The maximal increase in rSNA with AD was 55 +/- 19% at a MAP reduction of 30%. At higher infusions rates of AD, rSNA progressively declined toward the normotensive control values. However, AD elicited a progressive increase in preganglionic aSNA that was not significantly different from the increase seen during SNP infusion. It is concluded that AD-induced hypotension is associated with a suppression of postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity caused by an inhibition of ganglionic neurotransmission. PMID:2833134

Delle, M; Ricksten, S E; Delbro, D

1988-04-01

341

Peptide immunoreactive nerves and cells of the guinea pig gall bladder and biliary pathways.  

OpenAIRE

Using the methods of immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay, five peptides (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P, somatostatin, met-enkephalin, and bombesin) have been found in the gall bladder and the biliary tracts of guinea pig and each of them possesses a characteristic distribution pattern. Networks of nerves containing each peptide were found in the smooth muscle, around blood vessels and, occasionally, in the lamina propria. The distribution of the peptide immunoreact...

Cai, W.; Gu, J.; Huang, W.; Mcgregor, G. P.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.; Polak, J. M.

1983-01-01

342

Stichopin-containing nerves and secretory cells specific to connective tissues of the sea cucumber  

OpenAIRE

Stichopin, a 17-amino acid peptide isolated from a sea cucumber, affects the stiffness change of the body-wall catch connective tissues and the contraction of the body-wall muscles. The localization of stichopin in sea cucumbers was studied by indirect immunohistochemistry using antiserum against stichopin. Double staining was performed with both stichopin antiserum and 1E11, the monoclonal antibody specific to echinoderm nerves. A stichopin-like immunoreactivity (stichopin-LI) was exclusivel...

Tamori, Masaki; Saha, Apurba Kumar; Matsuno, Akira; Noskor, Sukumar Chandra; Koizumi, Osamu; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Yoko; Motokawa, Tatsuo

2007-01-01

343

Development and characterization of a novel human in vitro blood-nerve barrier model using primary endoneurial endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are phenotypic and functional differences between vascular endothelium from different tissues and between microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells (ECs) from the same tissue. Relatively little is known about the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB). We report the development of an in vitro BNB model using primary human endoneurial ECs freshly isolated and purified from decedent sciatic nerves via endoneurial stripping, connective tissue enzymatic digestion, and density centrifugation. Primary human endoneurial ECs are spindle shaped and contact inhibited. They rapidly differentiate to form capillary-like networks and microvessels, bind Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin 1 lectin, express von Willebrand factor, and endocytose acetylated low-density lipoprotein. They also express specific transport and cellular adhesion molecules and tight junction proteins, consistent with cells that form a highly restrictive endothelial barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. When cultured on collagen-coated transwell inserts, the primary human endoneurial ECs develop an in vitro BNB with high transendothelial electrical resistances (160 Omega x cm(2); maximal 12 days after seeding) and low solute permeability coefficient to fluoresceinated high-molecular weight (70 kDa) dextran (2.75 x 10(-3) cm/minute). This in vitro BNB model retains essential known or expected characteristics of the human BNB and has many potential applications for studies of solute, macromolecule, microbial, virus, and leukocyte interactions with this highly specialized endothelial barrier. PMID:20010300

Yosef, Nejla; Xia, Robin H; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

2010-01-01

344

High sensitivity recording of afferent nerve activity using ultra-compliant microchannel electrodes: an acute in vivo validation  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroprostheses interfaced with transected peripheral nerves are technological routes to control robotic limbs as well as convey sensory feedback to patients suffering from traumatic neural injuries or degenerative diseases. To maximize the wealth of data obtained in recordings, interfacing devices are required to have intrafascicular resolution and provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) recordings. In this paper, we focus on a possible building block of a three-dimensional regenerative implant: a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel electrode capable of highly sensitive recordings in vivo. The PDMS 'micro-cuff' consists of a 3.5 mm long (100 µm × 70 µm cross section) microfluidic channel equipped with five evaporated Ti/Au/Ti electrodes of sub-100 nm thickness. Individual electrodes have average impedance of 640 ± 30 k? with a phase angle of -58 ± 1 degrees at 1 kHz and survive demanding mechanical handling such as twisting and bending. In proof-of-principle acute implantation experiments in rats, surgically teased afferent nerve strands from the L5 dorsal root were threaded through the microchannel. Tactile stimulation of the skin was reliably monitored with the three inner electrodes in the device, simultaneously recording signal amplitudes of up to 50 µV under saline immersion. The overall SNR was approximately 4. A small but consistent time lag between the signals arriving at the three electrodes was observed and yields a fibre conduction velocity of 30 m s-1. The fidelity of the recordings was verified by placing the same nerve strand in oil and recording activity with hook electrodes. Our results show that PDMS microchannel electrodes open a promising technological path to 3D regenerative interfaces.

Minev, Ivan R.; Chew, Daniel J.; Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Fawcett, James W.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

2012-04-01

345

Determining the oxidation states of manganese in PC12 and nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive brain Mn can produce toxicity with symptoms resembling parkinsonism. This syndrome, called "manganism," correlates with loss of dopamine in the striatum and cell death in the striatum and globus pallidus. A common hypothesis is that cell damage in Mn toxicity is caused by oxidation of important cell components by Mn3+. Determination of the amount of Mn3+ present, under a range of conditions, in neuronal cells and brain mitochondria represents an important step in evaluating the "damage through oxidation by Mn3+ hypothesis." In an earlier paper we used X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to determine the amount of Mn2+ and Mn3+ in brain mitochondria under a range of conditions. Here we extend the study to investigate the evidence for formation of Mn3+ through oxidation of Mn2+ by ROS in PC12 cells and in PC12 cells induced with nerve growth factor (NGF) to display a phenotype more like that of neurons. Although the results suggest that very small amounts of Mn3+ might be present at low Mn levels, probably in Mn superoxide dismutase, Mn3+ is not stabilized by complex formation in these cells and therefore does not accumulate to detectable amounts. PMID:15964508

Gunter, Karlene K; Aschner, Michael; Miller, Lisa M; Eliseev, Roman; Salter, Jason; Anderson, Katie; Hammond, Sean; Gunter, Thomas E

2005-07-15

346

Quantitative Evaluation of Median Nerve Motor Function in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Using Load Cell : Correlation with Clinical, Electrodiagnostic, and Ultrasonographic Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Major complaints of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are sensory components. However, motor deficit also impedes functional status of hand. Contrary to evaluation of sensory function, the objective, quantitative evaluation of median nerve motor function is not easy. The motor function of median was evaluated quantitatively using load cell and its correlation with findings of electrodiagnostic study (EDS) was evaluated. Methods Objective motor function of median nerve was evaluated by load cell and personal computer-based measurement system. All of the measurement was done in patients diagnosed as having idiopathic CTS by clinical features and EDS findings. The strength of thumb abduction and index finger flexion was measured in each hand three times, and the average value was used to calculate thumb index ratio (TIR). The correlation of TIR with clinical, EDS, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated. Results The TIR was evaluated in 67 patients (119 hands). There were 14 males and 53 females, mean age were 57.6 years (range 28 to 81). The higher preoperative nerve conductive studies grade of the patients, the lower TIR was observed [ptest). TIR were significantly lower in patients with severe median nerve swelling in ultrasonography (p=0.042, ANOVA). Conclusion Measurements of median nerve motor function using load cell is a valuable evaluation tool in CTS. It might be helpful in detecting subclinical motor dysfunction before muscle atrophy develops. PMID:24278653

Kim, Dong Hwan; Park, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang Hyung; Son, Young-Je; Chung, Gih Sung

2013-01-01

347

Nasal-Type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-cell Neurolymphomatosis Confined to the Lumbar Nerve Roots: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neurolymphomatosis refers to lymphoma that has infiltrated the peripheral nervous system and this is the least common clinical presentation of nervous system lymphoma. Most neurolymphomatosis is due to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and most patients show lymphomatous infiltration in the meninges and brain parenchyma, in addition to peripheral nervous system involvement. We diagnosed a case of neurolymphomatosis that was confined to the right 4th and 5th lumbar nerve roots without involvement of the meninges or brain parenchyma in a patient with the nasal-type extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. We made this diagnosis based on the MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings and the clinical manifestations

348

A Cell Line Producing Recombinant Nerve Growth Factor Evokes Growth Responses in Intrinsic and Grafted Central Cholinergic Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat ? nerve growth factor (NGF) gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and cotransfected with a plasmid conferring resistance to neomycin into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. From this transfection a stable cell line was selected that contains several hundred copies of the rat NGF gene and produces excess levels of recombinant NGF. Such genetically modified cells were implanted into the rat brain as a probe for in vivo effects of NGF on central nervous system neurons. In a model of the cortical cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease, we demonstrate a marked increase in the survival of, and fiber outgrowth from, grafts of fetal basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as well as stimulation of fiber formation by intact adult intrinsic cholinergic circuits in the cerebral cortex. Adult cholinergic interneurons in intact striatum also sprout vigorously toward implanted fibroblasts. Our results suggest that this model has implications for future treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Ernfors, Patrik; Ebendal, Ted; Olson, Lars; Mouton, Peter; Stromberg, Ingrid; Persson, Hakan

1989-06-01

349

Effect of a centrally-acting muscle relaxant, eperisone hydrochloride, on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sympatho-modulating effects of eperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, on microneurographically recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA) were analyzed in human volunteers. A single dose of 300 mg of eperisone was orally administered to 19 healthy subjects aged between 19 and 27, and effects on 1) spontaneous MSA in 30 degrees head-up tilted position, 2) resting MSA and responsiveness to standing, 3) exercise-induced enhancement of MSA were observed. Eperisone has a sympatho-suppressive action in resting skeletal muscles, but has no effect on MSA in actively contracting muscles, e.g. standing, hand-gripping. The sympatho-suppressive effect of eperisone may be related to the drug-induced increase of blood low in the resting skeletal muscles; also it may be one more mechanism through which the drug can exert its muscle relaxant action. PMID:1338431

Iwase, S; Mano, T; Saito, M; Ishida, G

1992-01-01

350

Jugular venous overflow of noradrenaline from the brain: a neurochemical indicator of cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve activity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel neurochemical method was applied for studying the activity of sympathetic nerves in the human cerebral vascular system. The aim was to investigate whether noradrenaline plasma kinetic measurements made with internal jugular venous sampling reflect cerebrovascular sympathetic activity. A database was assembled of fifty-six healthy subjects in whom total body noradrenaline spillover (indicative of whole body sympathetic nervous activity), brain noradrenaline spillover and brain lipophlic noradrenaline metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenolglycol (DHPG) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)) overflow rates were measured. These measurements were also made following ganglion blockade (trimethaphan, n = 6), central sympathetic inhibition (clonidine, n = 4) and neuronal noradrenaline uptake blockade (desipramine, n = 13) and in a group of patients (n = 9) with pure autonomic failure (PAF). The mean brain noradrenline spillover and brain noradrenaline metabolite overflow in healthy subjects were 12.5 +/- 1.8, and 186.4 +/- 25 ng min(-1), respectively, with unilateral jugular venous sampling for both. Total body noradrenaline spillover was 605.8 ng min(-1) +/- 34.4 ng min(-1). As expected, trimethaphan infusion lowered brain noradrenaline spillover (P = 0.03), but perhaps surprisingly increased jugular overflow of brain metabolites (P = 0.01). Suppression of sympathetic nervous outflow with clonidine lowered brain noradrenaline spillover (P = 0.004), without changing brain metabolite overflow (P = 0.3). Neuronal noradrenaline uptake block with desipramine lowered the transcranial plasma extraction of tritiated noradrenaline (P = 0.001). The PAF patients had 77% lower brain noradrenaline spillover than healthy recruits (P = 0.06), indicating that in them sympathetic nerve degeneration extended to the cerebral circulation, but metabolites overflow was similar to healthy subjects (P = 0.3). The invariable discordance between noradrenline spillover and noradrenaline metabolite overflow from the brain under these different circumstances indicates that the two measures arise from different sources, i.e. noradrenaline spillover originates from the cerebral vasculature outside the blood-brain barrier, and the noradrenaline metabolites originate primarily from brain noradrenergic neurons. We suggest that measurements of transcranial plasma noradrenaline spillover have utility as a method for assessing the sympathetic nerve activity of the cerebral vasculature Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/1

Mitchell, D.A.; Lambert, G.

2009-01-01

351

Effects of anserine on the renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in urethane-anesthetized rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that central injection of L-carnosine (beta-alynyl-L-histidine), dipeptide synthesized in mammalian muscles, affects renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, using urethane-anesthetized rats, we examined the dose-dependent effects of intravenous (IV) injection of various doses of anserine, dipeptide of similar structure to L-carnosine, on RSNA, BP and heart rate (HR). We found that injection of a low dose of anserine (1 microg) significantly suppressed RSNA, BP and HR. Conversely, a high dose (1000 microg) of anserine significantly elevated RSNA, BP and HR. Pretreatment with lateral cerebral ventricular (LCV) injection of thioperamide, a histaminergic H(3)-receptor antagonist, eliminated the effects of a low dose of anserine on RSNA, BP and HR. LCV injection of diphenhydramine, a histaminergic H(1)-receptor antagonist, abolished the effects of a high dose of anserine on RSNA, BP and HR. These findings suggest that anserine affects RSNA, BP and HR in a dose-dependent manner, and that the histaminergic nerve may be involved in the dose-different effects of anserine in rats. PMID:19537934

Tanida, M; Shen, J; Kubomura, D; Nagai, K

2010-01-01

352

Influence of Transplantation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Acute Injury Motor Function of the Spinal Cord and Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor of the Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose to research the therapeutic affect of the allograft of Bones Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs on the acute injury of the spinal nerve of the rat. Method: Take 1 Westar healthy rat, collect the bone marrow, adopt the adherence method to separate BMSCs and culture and mark them, cultivate the BMSCs culture solution with the cell population of about 5H104 ?L-1 for transplantation. Establish 40 westar rat models with the acute injury of the spinal cord, which shall be divided as the transplantation group and the control group, 20 pieces for each group. After a week of injury, inject BMSCs slowly to the injury center of the rat's spinal cord, inject the physiological saline to the control group and observe and inspect the rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function and the protein expression of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF of the rats of two groups. Result: The rehabilitation efficacy of the hind limb function of the transplantation group is obvious better than that of the control group after 3-8 weeks of injury and the difference is of significance (p<0.05. Kill two groups of rats after 8 weeks and it is found that the transplantation group is obviously higher than the control group through inspection of the protein expression of NGF and BDNF. The difference is of significance (p<0.05. Conclusion the allograft of BMSCs can remarkably improve the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rats with acute injury of the spinal nerve, which is possibly related with that the transplantation of BMSCs can promote the regeneration and repair of the rat's spinal nerves. It is proven through the NGF and BDNF protein expression data from the experiment of the transplantation group and the control group that BMSCs transplantation can improve the expression of some NGF of the rats with spinal nerve injury. These nerve factors are beneficial for regeneration, growth and repair of the injured nerve tissue cells, so as to further confirm that the rehabilitation of the lower limb motor function of the rat's with acute injury of the spinal nerve thanks to the induced regeneration, growth and repair of the spinal nerve cells by BMSCs transplantation.

Zhen Li

2013-01-01

353

Mechanism of sphingosine 1-phosphate- and lysophosphatidic Acid-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and eosinophil chemoattractant in nerve cells.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act via G-protein coupled receptors S1P(1-5) and LPA(1-3) respectively, and are implicated in allergy. Eosinophils accumulate at innervating cholinergic nerves in asthma and adhere to nerve cells via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were used as an in vitro cholinergic nerve cell model. The G(i) coupled receptors S1P(1), S1P(3), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3) were expressed on IMR-32 cells. Both S1P and LPA induced ERK phosphorylation and ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, with differing time courses. LPA also induced ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of the eosinophil chemoattractant, CCL-26. The eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induced ERK-dependent up-regulation of transcription of S1P(1), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3), providing the situation whereby eosinophil granule proteins may enhance S1P- and\\/or LPA- induced eosinophil accumulation at nerve cells in allergic conditions.

Costello, Richard W

2011-05-01

354

Mechanism of sphingosine 1-phosphate- and lysophosphatidic Acid-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and eosinophil chemoattractant in nerve cells.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act via G-protein coupled receptors S1P(1-5) and LPA(1-3) respectively, and are implicated in allergy. Eosinophils accumulate at innervating cholinergic nerves in asthma and adhere to nerve cells via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were used as an in vitro cholinergic nerve cell model. The G(i) coupled receptors S1P(1), S1P(3), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3) were expressed on IMR-32 cells. Both S1P and LPA induced ERK phosphorylation and ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, with differing time courses. LPA also induced ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of the eosinophil chemoattractant, CCL-26. The eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induced ERK-dependent up-regulation of transcription of S1P(1), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3), providing the situation whereby eosinophil granule proteins may enhance S1P- and\\/or LPA- induced eosinophil accumulation at nerve cells in allergic conditions.

Costello, Richard W

2012-02-01

355

Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons and Differentiated Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In Vitro Co-culture Model to Study Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, located in the intervertebral foramina of the spinal column, can be used to create an in vitro system facilitating the study of nerve regeneration and myelination. The glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SC), are key facilitators of these processes; it is therefore crucial that the interactions of these cellular components are studied together. Direct contact between DRG neurons and glial cells provides additional stimuli sensed by specific membrane receptors, further improving the neuronal response. SC release growth factors and proteins in the culture medium, which enhance neuron survival and stimulate neurite sprouting and extension. However, SC require long proliferation time to be used for tissue engineering applications and the sacrifice of an healthy nerve for their sourcing. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) differentiated into SC phenotype are a valid alternative to SC for the set-up of a co-culture model with DRG neurons to study nerve regeneration. The present work presents a detailed and reproducible step-by-step protocol to harvest both DRG neurons and ASC from adult rats; to differentiate ASC towards a SC phenotype; and combines the two cell types in a direct co-culture system to investigate the interplay between neurons and SC in the peripheral nervous system. This tool has great potential in the optimization of tissue-engineered constructs for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:25742570

de Luca, Alba C.; Faroni, Alessandro; Reid, Adam J.

2015-01-01

356

Dorsal root ganglia neurons and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells: an in vitro co-culture model to study peripheral nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, located in the intervertebral foramina of the spinal column, can be used to create an in vitro system facilitating the study of nerve regeneration and myelination. The glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SC), are key facilitators of these processes; it is therefore crucial that the interactions of these cellular components are studied together. Direct contact between DRG neurons and glial cells provides additional stimuli sensed by specific membrane receptors, further improving the neuronal response. SC release growth factors and proteins in the culture medium, which enhance neuron survival and stimulate neurite sprouting and extension. However, SC require long proliferation time to be used for tissue engineering applications and the sacrifice of an healthy nerve for their sourcing. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) differentiated into SC phenotype are a valid alternative to SC for the set-up of a co-culture model with DRG neurons to study nerve regeneration. The present work presents a detailed and reproducible step-by-step protocol to harvest both DRG neurons and ASC from adult rats; to differentiate ASC towards a SC phenotype; and combines the two cell types in a direct co-culture system to investigate the interplay between neurons and SC in the peripheral nervous system. This tool has great potential in the optimization of tissue-engineered constructs for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:25742570

de Luca, Alba C; Faroni, Alessandro; Reid, Adam J

2015-01-01

357

Human placental eXpanded (PLX) mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells confer neuroprotection to nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells exposed to ischemia by secretion of IL-6 and VEGF.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenchymal stem cells are potent candidates in stroke therapy due to their ability to secrete protective anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of human placental mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells (PLX) using an established ischemic model of nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reperfusion. Under optimal conditions, 2 × 10? PLX cells, added in a trans-well system, conferred 30-60% neuroprotection to PC12 cells subjected to ischemic insult. PC12 cell death, measured by LDH release, was reduced by PLX cells or by conditioned medium derived from PLX cells exposed to ischemia, suggesting the active release of factorial components. Since neuroprotection is a prominent function of the cytokine IL-6 and the angiogenic factor VEGF165, we measured their secretion using selective ELISA of the cells under ischemic or normoxic conditions. IL-6 and VEGF165 secretion by co-culture of PC12 and PLX cells was significantly higher under ischemic compared to normoxic conditions. Exogenous supplementation of 10 ng/ml each of IL-6 and VEGF165 to insulted PC12 cells conferred neuroprotection, reminiscent of the neuroprotective effect of PLX cells or their conditioned medium. Growth factors as well as co-culture conditioned medium effects were reduced by 70% and 20% upon pretreatment with 240 ng/ml Semaxanib (anti VEGF165) and/or 400 ng/ml neutralizing anti IL-6 antibody, respectively. Therefore, PLX-induced neuroprotection in ischemic PC12 cells may be partially explained by IL-6 and VEGF165 secretion. These findings may also account for the therapeutic effects seen in clinical trials after treatment with these cells. PMID:25450973

Lahiani, Adi; Zahavi, Efrat; Netzer, Nir; Ofir, Racheli; Pinzur, Lena; Raveh, Shani; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Yavin, Ephraim; Lazarovici, Philip

2015-02-01

358

Structural and functional association between substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves and accessory cells in the rat dental pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defense mechanisms of the dentin/pulp complex involve a variety of biological systems in which immunocompetent cells, the nervous system, and the vascular supply play important roles. In the present study, pulpal accessory cells were examined regarding (i) their structural relationship to nerves and (ii) how the functional capacities of these cells were affected by neuropeptides. Micro-anatomic association was investigated in the normal rat molar pulp with the use of double-immunofluorescence staining and dual-channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. Examinations of confocal laser scanning microscopic images from single focal planes revealed the presence of apparent contacts between thin, varicose nerve fibers and immunocompetent cells, indicating proximity between these two structures. The close associations were most frequently observed in the para-odontoblastic region of the coronal pulp, where more than 70% of class II antigen-expressing (OX6+) cells showed proximity to nerve fibers immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide. The corresponding figure for substance P was about 50%. ED2+ macrophages closely associated with nerves were less frequently observed. Functional studies conducted in vitro demonstrated that 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol/L of substance P significantly increased (p < 0.05), while 10(-7) to 10(-6) mol/L of calcitonin gene-related peptide suppressed (p < 0.01) proliferation of purified T-lymphocytes stimulated with sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A in the presence of rat incisor pulpal cells as accessory cells. These data suggest that pulpal sensory nerve fibers and their products may have an influence upon the immune defense of the dental pulp. PMID:9390474

Okiji, T; Jontell, M; Belichenko, P; Dahlgren, U; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlström, A

1997-12-01

359

Delayed Nerve Stimulation Promotes Axon-Protective Neurofilament Phosphorylation, Accelerates Immune Cell Clearance and Enhances Remyelination In Vivo in Focally Demyelinated Nerves  

OpenAIRE

Rapid and efficient axon remyelination aids in restoring strong electrochemical communication with end organs and in preventing axonal degeneration often observed in demyelinating neuropathies. The signals from axons that can trigger more effective remyelination in vivo are still being elucidated. Here we report the remarkable effect of delayed brief electrical nerve stimulation (ES; 1 hour @ 20 Hz 5 days post-demyelination) on ensuing reparative events in a focally demyelinated adult rat per...

Mclean, Nikki A.; Popescu, Bogdan F.; Gordon, Tessa; Zochodne, Douglas W.; Verge, Valerie M. K.

2014-01-01

360

c-Jun activation in Schwann cells protects against loss of sensory axons in inherited neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathy. It is generally due to heterozygous inheritance of a partial chromosomal duplication resulting in over-expression of PMP22. A key feature of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is secondary death of axons. Prevention of axonal loss is therefore an important target of clinical intervention. We have previously identified a signalling mechanism that promotes axon survival and prevents neuron death in mechanically injured peripheral nerves. This work suggested that Schwann cells respond to injury by activating/enhancing trophic support for axons through a mechanism that depends on upregulation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells, resulting in the sparing of axons that would otherwise die. As c-Jun orchestrates Schwann cell support for distressed neurons after mechanical injury, we have now asked: do Schwann cells also activate a c-Jun dependent neuron-supportive programme in inherited demyelinating disease? We tested this by using the C3 mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. In line with our previous findings in humans with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, we found that Schwann cell c-Jun was elevated in (uninjured) nerves of C3 mice. We determined the impact of this c-Jun activation by comparing C3 mice with double mutant mice, namely C3 mice in which c-Jun had been conditionally inactivated in Schwann cells (C3/Schwann cell-c-Jun(-/-) mice), using sensory-motor tests and electrophysiological measurements, and by counting axons in proximal and distal nerves. The results indicate that c-Jun elevation in the Schwann cells of C3 nerves serves to prevent loss of myelinated sensory axons, particularly in distal nerves, improve behavioural symptoms, and preserve F-wave persistence. This suggests that Schwann cells have two contrasting functions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: on the one hand they are the genetic source of the disease, on the other, they respond to it by mounting a c-Jun-dependent response that significantly reduces its impact. Because axonal death is a central feature of much nerve pathology it will be important to establish whether an axon-supportive Schwann cell response also takes place in other conditions. Amplification of this axon-supportive mechanism constitutes a novel target for clinical intervention that might be useful in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and other neuropathies that involve axon loss. PMID:25216747

Hantke, Janina; Carty, Lucy; Wagstaff, Laura J; Turmaine, Mark; Wilton, Daniel K; Quintes, Susanne; Koltzenburg, Martin; Baas, Frank; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R

2014-11-01

361

Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Family Proteins and c-jun Signaling in Injury-induced Schwann Cell Plasticity  

OpenAIRE

Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nerves myelinate axons during postnatal development to allow saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Well-organized structures of myelin sheathes are maintained throughout life unless nerves are insulted. After peripheral nerve injury, unidentified signals from injured nerves drive SC dedifferentiation into an immature state. Dedifferentiated SCs participate in axonal regeneration by producing neurotrophic factors and removing degenerating nerve debris. I...

Lee, Hye Jeong; Shin, Yoon Kyung; Park, Hwan Tae

2014-01-01

362

Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

2015-04-30

363

TRPM8 on mucosal sensory nerves regulates colitogenic responses by innate immune cells via CGRP.  

Science.gov (United States)

TRPM8 is the molecular sensor for cold; however, the physiological role of TRPM8+ neurons at mucosal surfaces is unclear. Here we evaluated the distribution and peptidergic properties of TRPM8+ fibers in naive and inflamed colons, as well as their role in mucosal inflammation. We found that Trpm8(-/-) mice were hypersusceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and that Trpm8(-/-) CD11c+ DCs (dendritic cells) showed hyperinflammatory responses to toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. This was phenocopied in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor-deficient mice, but not in substance P receptor-deficient mice, suggesting a functional link between TRPM8 and CGRP. The DSS phenotype of CGRP receptor-deficient mice could be adoptively transferred to wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that CGRP suppresses the colitogenic activity of bone marrow-derived cells. TRPM8+ mucosal fibers expressed CGRP in human and mouse colon. Furthermore, neuronal CGRP contents were increased in colons from naive and DSS-treated Trpm8(-/-) mice, suggesting deficient CGRP release in the absence of TRPM8 triggering. Finally, treatment of Trpm8(-/-) mice with CGRP reversed their hyperinflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that TRPM8 signaling in mucosal sensory neurons is indispensable for the regulation of innate inflammatory responses via the neuropeptide CGRP.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.82. PMID:25269705

de Jong, P R; Takahashi, N; Peiris, M; Bertin, S; Lee, J; Gareau, M G; Paniagua, A; Harris, A R; Herdman, D S; Corr, M; Blackshaw, L A; Raz, E

2014-10-01

364

Vestibular modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity by the utricle during sub-perceptual sinusoidal linear acceleration in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the capacity for the vestibular utricle to modulate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during sinusoidal linear acceleration at amplitudes extending from imperceptible to clearly perceptible. Subjects (n = 16) were seated in a sealed room, eliminating visual cues, mounted on a linear motor that could deliver peak sinusoidal accelerations of 30 mG in the antero-posterior direction. Subjects sat on a padded chair with their neck and head supported vertically, thereby minimizing somatosensory cues, facing the direction of motion in the anterior direction. Each block of sinusoidal motion was applied at a time unknown to subjects and in a random order of amplitudes (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mG), at a constant frequency of 0.2 Hz. MSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into muscle fascicles of the common peroneal nerve. Subjects used a linear potentiometer aligned to the axis of motion to indicate any perceived movement, which was compared with the accelerometer signal of actual room movement. On average, 67% correct detection of movement did not occur until 6.5 mG, with correct knowledge of the direction of movement at ~10 mG. Cross-correlation analysis revealed potent sinusoidal modulation of MSNA even at accelerations subjects could not perceive (1.25-5 mG). The modulation index showed a positive linear increase with acceleration amplitude, such that the modulation was significantly higher (25.3 ± 3.7%) at 30 mG than at 1.25 mG (15.5 ± 1.2%). We conclude that selective activation of the vestibular utricle causes a pronounced modulation of MSNA, even at levels well below perceptual threshold, and provides further evidence in support of the importance of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in human cardiovascular control. PMID:24504198

Hammam, Elie; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Wong, Kwok-Shing; Kwok, Kenny; Macefield, Vaughan G

2014-04-01

365

Nerve growth factor rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 by a kinase activity associated with the product of the trk protooncogene.  

OpenAIRE

Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons. The molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to NGF are poorly understood, but two clues have emerged recently. First, NGF rapidly stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several unidentified proteins in the NGF-responsive pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 [Maher, P. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6788-6791]. Second, the protein-tyrosine kinase encoded by the protooncogene trk (p140t...

Vetter, M. L.; Martin-zanca, D.; Parada, L. F.; Bishop, J. M.; Kaplan, D. R.

1991-01-01

366

Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits  

OpenAIRE

The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin....

Prior, Larissa J.; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A.; Davern, Pamela J.; Burke, Sandra L.; Montani, Jean-pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A.

2010-01-01

367

Inter-dependent regulation of afferent renal nerve activity and renal function: Role of TRPV1, NK1 and CGRP receptors  

OpenAIRE

Our previous studies have shown that the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expressed in the renal pelvis leads to an increase in ipsilateral afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and contralateral renal excretory function, but the molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 action are largely unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of receptors of neurokinin 1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by endogenously released substance P (SP) or C...

Xie, Chaoqin; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Wang, Donna H.

2008-01-01

368

Thioredoxins 1 and 2 protect retinal ganglion cells from pharmacologically induced oxidative stress, optic nerve transection and ocular hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative damage has been implicated in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after optic nerve transection (ONT) and during glaucomatous neuropathy. Here, we analyzed the expression and cell protective role of thioredoxins (TRX), key regulators of the cellular redox state, in RGCs damaged by pharmacologically induced oxidative stress, ONT and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The endogenous level of thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) and thioredoxin-2 (TRX2) in RGCs after axotomy and in RGC-5 cells after glutamate/buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment showed upregulation of TRX2, whereas no significant change was observed in TRX1 expression. The increased level TRX-interacting protein (TXNIP) in the retinas was observed 2 and 5 weeks after IOP elevation. TRX1 level was decreased at 2 weeks and more prominently at 5 weeks after IOP increase. No change in TRX2 levels in response to IOP change was observed. Overexpression of TRX1 and TRX2 in RGC-5 treated with glutamate/BSO increased the cell survival by 2- and 3-fold 24 and 48 h after treatment, respectively. Overexpression of these proteins in the retina increased the survival of RGCs by 35 and 135% 7 and 14 days after ONT, respectively. In hypertensive eyes, RGC loss was approximately 27% 5 weeks after IOP elevation compared to control. TRX1 and TRX2 overexpression preserved approximately 45 and 37% of RGCs, respectively, that were destined to die due to IOP increase. PMID:20238036

Munemasa, Yasunari; Kwong, Jacky M K; Kim, Seok H; Ahn, Jae H; Caprioli, Joseph; Piri, Natik

2010-01-01

369

Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device, capable of local delivery of NGF. The clinical device, named NsG0202, houses an NGF-secreting cell line (NGC-0295), which is derived from a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, stably genetically modified to secrete NGF. Bioactivity and correct processing of NGF was confirmed in vitro. NsG0202 devices were implanted in the basal forebrain of Göttingen minipigs and the function and retrievability were evaluated after 7 weeks, 6 and 12 months. All devices were implanted and retrieved without associated complications. They were physically intact and contained a high number of viable and NGF-producing NGC-0295 cells after explantation. Increased NGF levels were detected in tissue surrounding the devices. The implants were well tolerated as determined by histopathological brain tissue analysis, blood analysis, and general health status of the pigs. The NsG0202 device represents a promising approach for treating the cognitive decline in AD patients.

Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P

2010-01-01

370

Heparin modulation of the neurotropic effects of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and nerve growth factor on PC12 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF and bFGF, respectively) induce neurite outgrowth from the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. The neurites induced by these three factors are stable for up to a month in cell culture in the continued presence of any of the above growth factors. bFGF (ED50 = 30 pg/ml) is 800 fold more potent in stimulating neurite outgrowth than aFGF (ED50 = 25 ng/ml) and 260 fold more potent than NGF (ED50 = 8 ng/ml). While the neurotropic activities of aFGF and NGF are potentiated by heparin, that of bFGF is both partially inhibited or stimulated, depending upon the concentration of bFGF. Radioreceptor binding experiments show that aFGF and bFGF bind to a common binding site on the PC12 cell surface. Affinity labeling studies demonstrate a single receptor with an apparent molecular weight of 145,000 daltons, which corresponds to the high molecular weight receptor identified in BHK-21 cells. NGF does not appear to compete with aFGF or bFGF for binding to the receptor. Heparin blocked the binding of bFGF to the receptor but had only a small inhibitory effect on the binding of aFGF to the receptor. Thus, it appears that heparin inhibition of the neurotropic effects of bFGF occurs, at least in part, by impairing the interaction of bFGF with the receptor, while having little effect on that of aFGF. The stimulatory effects of heparin on the neurotropic activity of aFGF, bFGF, and NGF may occur through a site notbFGF, and NGF may occur through a site not associated with the respective cellular receptor for the growth factors

371

Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

1985-05-01

372

Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

Masuria B.L

1999-01-01

373

Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis  

OpenAIRE

A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

Masuria B.L; Batra A; Kothiwala R.K; Khuller R; Singhi M.K

1999-01-01

374

Depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells increases severity of mechanical allodynia and significantly alters systemic cytokine levels following peripheral nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system, such as peripheral nerve injury. The immune system, and in particular the adaptive T cell response, plays a key role in mediating such pain. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a small subpopulation of inhibitory T cells that prevent autoimmunity, limit immunopathology and maintain immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of conditional depletion of Treg cells on mechanical allodynia and serum cytokines in mice with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, an animal model of neuropathic pain. We demonstrate that CCI induced the infiltration of small numbers of Treg cells within effected neuronal tissue. Utilising the transgenic DEREG (DEpletion of REGulatory T cells) mice, we confirmed effective depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells by diphtheria toxin injections. Following CCI we observed a transient, though significant, increase in pain hypersensitivity for Treg-depleted DEREG mice compared to non-Treg-depleted mice. Analysis of systemic cytokine levels demonstrated significant changes in serum cytokine expression profiles. In particular, we observed significant increases in systemic concentration of RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5, and significant decreases in IL-12 and IFN-? in nerve-injured Treg-depleted DEREG mice. Further analysis indicated a substantial increase in the serum concentration of IL-12p40 as a direct result of Treg cell depletion. These results suggest that depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells promote nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity, partially by inducing altered systemic concentrations of cytokines, which may act to regulate neuropathic pain. PMID:25461400

Lees, Justin G; Duffy, Samuel S; Perera, Chamini J; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

2015-02-01

375

Transients in global Ca2+ concentration induced by electrical activity in a giant nerve terminal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant nerve terminals offer a unique opportunity to learn about dynamic changes in intracellular global Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) because this quantity can be measured precisely with indicator dyes and the composition of the intra-terminal ionic milieu can be controlled. We review here recent literature on [Ca(2+)]i signalling in the calyx of Held and discuss what these measurements can tell us about endogenous Ca(2+) buffers and Ca(2+) extrusion mechanisms. We conclude that in spite of the favourable experimental conditions, some unresolved questions still remain regarding absolute values for the Ca(2+)-binding ratio, the affinity of the basic fixed buffer and the Ca(2+) affinities of the major endogenous Ca(2+) binding proteins. Uncertainties about some of these presynaptic properties, including the roles of Mg(2+) and ATP (as a Mg(2+) buffer), however, extend to the point that mechanisms controlling the decay of [Ca(2+)]i signals in unperturbed terminals may have to be reconsidered. PMID:23529127

Neher, Erwin; Taschenberger, Holger

2013-07-01

376

Monoclonal antibodies to the cell surface and a soluble form of the human nerve growth factor receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monoclonal antibodies (designated IIIG5, VIID1, VIIIC8, and XIF1) have been produced that bind to the human nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R) as well as to a soluble, truncated form of the receptor (NGF-Rt). The antibodies were generated against partially purified NGF-Rt from the conditioned medium of E9b cells, a transfected mouse fibroblast cell line (Ltk-) that expresses large numbers of the low affinity form of the human NGF-R on its cell surface. Hybridomas were screened by radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) and by immunoprecipitation of solubilized cell surface receptor covalently cross-linked to 125I-NGF. Four positive lines were cloned by limiting dilution and were found to secrete monoclonal antibodies of the IgGl,k subclass. All monoclonal antibodies bound to both NGF-R and NGF-Rt. Two monoclonal antibodies (VIID1, XIF1) immunoblotted the NGF-R from E9b cell preparations resolved on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. The antibodies immunoprecipitated NGF-R from both E9b cells and from SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The monoclonal antibodies bound to monkey (rhesis and cynomolgus) NGF-Rt, but did not cross-react with NGF-R from chick or rat. Results of antibody competition studies demonstrated that three antibodies bound to a similar or overlapping epitope on the NGF-Rt and one monoclonal antibody (IIIG5) recognized a distinct receptor epitope. Antibodies that bound to different sites on the receptor were used different sites on the receptor were used to develop a sensitive 2-site RISA. The 2-site RISA can be used to rapidly quantitate NGF-R and NGF-Rt in large numbers of biological samples in the absence of added 125I-labeled NGF

377

Are Natural Killer Cells Distributed in Relationship to Nerve Fibers in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus?  

OpenAIRE

Specialized lymphocytes, called uterine Natural Killer (uNK) cells, appear in human and rodent uteri and become abundant at implantation sites during decidualization and early pregnancy. The hallmark of human uNK cells is intense expression of CD56, a neural cell adhesion glycoprotein (NCAM-1) while mature (granulated) mouse uNK cells express asialoGM1, a brain ganglioside. Murine uNK cells initiate the normal structural changes induced in maternal spiral arteries by pregnancy but regulation ...

Sheikhi, A. K.; Tayade, C.; Paffaro, V. A.; Croy, B. A.

2007-01-01

378

Patterned substrates and methods for nerve regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Micropatterned substrates and methods for fabrication of artificial nerve regeneration conduits and methods for regenerating nerves are provided. Guidance compounds or cells are seeded in grooves formed on the patterned substrate. The substrates may also be provided with electrodes to provide electrical guidance cues to the regenerating nerve. The micropatterned substrates give physical, chemical, cellular and/or electrical guidance cues to promote nerve regeneration at the cellular level.

Mallapragada, Surya K.; Heath, Carole; Shanks, Howard; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija

2004-01-13

379

Anesthetic induction agents, sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex sensitivity: a study in rabbits comparing thiopental, propofol and etomidate.  

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Full Text Available The mechanisms of arterial hypotension following intravenous anesthetic induction agents are multifactorial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of thiopental, propofol and etomidate on hemodynamics, sympathetic outflow and arterial baroreflex sensitivity using not only neuraxis-intact but also totally baro-denervated rabbits. A total of 60 rabbits was anesthetized with urethane, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with oxygen in nitrogen (FiO2 0.5. The left renal sympathetic nerve was isolated and placed on a bipolar electrode to record renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. Thirty animals underwent a surgical preparation of total baroreceptor denervation. Bolus injections of an anesthesia induction dose of thiopental 4 mg/kg and twice the induction dose of propofol 4 mg/kg significantly decreased RSNA to the same extent (19.4+/-6.7 and 19.7+/-5.2% reduction, mean +/- SEM and mean arterial pressure (MAP also to the same extent (19.5+/-4.6 and 22.1+/-3.1% reduction in the neuraxis-intact animals. RSNA was increased (34.5+/-6% without reduction of MAP by an induction dose of etomidate, 0.3 mg/kg. Sympathetic barosensitivity was attenuated even 10 min after thiopental at 4 mg/kg or propofol at 4 mg/kg (68% and 54% of control, respectively. Propofol at 2 mg/kg (induction dose and etomidate at 0.6 mg/kg decreased RSNA and MAP only in the baro-denervated animals. It was found from the barosensitivity study that patients can be hemodynamically unstable even though blood pressure has returned to normal after thiopental and propofol administration. Data suggest that etomidate can even stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and increase sympathetic outflow. It was also clearly found from the baro-denervated animal study that thiopental was stronger than propofol in directly suppressing sympathetic outflow at the induction dose.

Aono H

2001-08-01

380

Blockade of plasma membrane calcium pumping ATPase isoform I impairs nerve growth factor-induced neurite extension in pheochromocytoma?cells  

OpenAIRE

Numerous lines of evidence indicate that calcium signaling is essential for nerve growth factor (NGF)-directed neuronal cell differentiation. We report here that blocking production of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 1 (PMCA1) in PC6 cells with antisense RNA impairs their ability to extend normal neurites in response to NGF. This result does not appear to be due to loss in NGF signaling as NGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of erk1 and erk2, as well as ...

Brandt, Paul?C; Sisken, Jesse?E; Neve, Rachael?L; Vanaman, Thomas?C

1996-01-01

381

Supramolecular assembly of biological molecules purified from bovine nerve cells: from microtubule bundles and necklaces to neurofilament networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the completion of the human genome project, the biosciences community is beginning the daunting task of understanding the structures and functions of a large number of interacting biological macromolecules. Examples include the interacting molecules involved in the process of DNA condensation during the cell cycle, and in the formation of bundles and networks of filamentous actin proteins in cell attachment, motility and cytokinesis. In this proceedings paper we present examples of supramolecular assembly based on proteins derived from the vertebrate nerve cell cytoskeleton. The axonal cytoskeleton in vertebrate neurons provides a rich example of bundles and networks of neurofilaments, microtubules (MTs) and filamentous actin, where the nature of the interactions, structures, and structure-function correlations remains poorly understood. We describe synchrotron x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical imaging data, in reconstituted protein systems purified from bovine central nervous system, which reveal unexpected structures not predicted by current electrostatic theories of polyelectrolyte bundling, including three-dimensional MT bundles and two-dimensional MT necklaces

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