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Sample records for nerve cell activity

  1. Proliferative and Synthetic Activity of Nerve Cells after Combined or Individual Exposure to Hypoxia and Hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregub, P P; Kulikov, V P; Rucheikin, N Yu; Belova, E V; Motin, Yu G

    2015-07-01

    We compared synthetic and proliferative activity of brain cells in rats exposed hypoxia, hypercapnia, or both prior to experimental focal stroke. The mean number of nucleolus organizer regions in penumbra neurons did not change after normobaric hypoxia, but increased after permissive hypercapnia or hypercapnic hypoxia. These data attest to activation of proliferative and synthetic functions in nerve cells, which plays an important role in the neuroprotective mechanisms under conditions of combined exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia. PMID:26201905

  2. Stem Cell Transplantation for Auditory Nerve Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Altschuler, Richard A; O’Shea, K. Sue; Miller, Josef M

    2008-01-01

    The successful function of cochlear prostheses depends on activation of auditory nerve. The survival of auditory nerve neurons, however, can vary widely in candidates for cochlear implants and influence implant efficacy. Stem cells offer the potential for improving the function of cochlear prostheses and increasing the candidate pool by replacing lost auditory nerve. The first phase of studies for stem cell replacement of auditory nerve has examined the in vitro survival and differentiation a...

  3. Stem Cell Transplantation for Auditory Nerve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Richard A.; O’Shea, K. Sue; Miller, Josef M.

    2008-01-01

    The successful function of cochlear prostheses depends on activation of auditory nerve. The survival of auditory nerve neurons, however, can vary widely in candidates for cochlear implants and influence implant efficacy. Stem cells offer the potential for improving the function of cochlear prostheses and increasing the candidate pool by replacing lost auditory nerve. The first phase of studies for stem cell replacement of auditory nerve has examined the in vitro survival and differentiation as well as in vivo differentiation and survival of exogenous embryonic and tissue stem cells placed into scala tympani and/or modiolus. These studies are reviewed and new results on in vivo placement of B-5 mouse embryonic stem cells into scala tympani of the guinea pig cochleae with differentiation into a glutamatergic neuronal phenotype are presented. Research on the integration and connections of stem cell derived neurons in the cochlea is described. Finally, an alternative approach is considered, based on the use of endogenous progenitors rather than exogenous stem cells, with a review of promising findings that have identified stem cell-like progenitors in cochlear and vestibular tissues to provide the potential for auditory nerve replacement. PMID:18585449

  4. Activation of NF-?B in Axons and Schwann cells at Site of Sciatic Nerve Crush and Role in Modulating Axon Regeneration in Adult Rats: Studies with Etanercept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell; Tweed, Christopher; Fernyhough, Paul; Glazner, Gordon W.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing weight of evidence implicates early inflammatory events as inhibitors of functional recovery in both peripheral and central neuropathologies. In this study, we investigated the role of the inflammatory TNF-?/NF-?B axis on events subsequent to sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed that within 6 hours post-crush NF-?B DNA binding activity increased significantly in a 1 cm section of sciatic nerve, centered on the crush site. Immunofluorescent staining for NF-?B subunits verified increased nuclear localization of p50, but not p65 or c-Rel, in Schwann cells, with no evidence of immune cell infiltration. In rats injected s.c. with etanercept, a TNF-? receptor chimera which binds free cytokine, the injury-induced rise in NF-?B DNA-binding activity was inhibited. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed that nuclear localization of NF-?B subunit p50 in Schwann cells was significantly lower in etanercept treated vs. control nerves following nerve injury. Axonal growth determined 3 days after nerve crush with immunofluorescent staining for GAP43 demonstrated that regeneration distance of leading axons from the site of nerve crush was significantly greater in etanercept treated animals than saline-treated controls. These data indicate that TNF-? mediates rapid activation of injury-induced NF-?B DNA binding in Schwann cells, and inhibits post-injury axonal sprouting. PMID:19458540

  5. Neural stem/progenitor cell properties of glial cells in the adult mouse auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hainan; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Panganiban, Clarisse H; Havens, Luke T; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Wegner, Michael; Krug, Edward L; Barth, Jeremy L

    2015-01-01

    The auditory nerve is the primary conveyor of hearing information from sensory hair cells to the brain. It has been believed that loss of the auditory nerve is irreversible in the adult mammalian ear, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. We examined the regenerative potential of the auditory nerve in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy. Following neuronal degeneration, quiescent glial cells converted to an activated state showing a decrease in nuclear chromatin condensation, altered histone deacetylase expression and up-regulation of numerous genes associated with neurogenesis or development. Neurosphere formation assays showed that adult auditory nerves contain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) that were within a Sox2-positive glial population. Production of neurospheres from auditory nerve cells was stimulated by acute neuronal injury and hypoxic conditioning. These results demonstrate that a subset of glial cells in the adult auditory nerve exhibit several characteristics of NSPs and are therefore potential targets for promoting auditory nerve regeneration. PMID:26307538

  6. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation in axons and Schwann cells in experimental sciatic nerve injury and its role in modulating axon regeneration: studies with etanercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell; Tweed, Christopher; Fernyhough, Paul; Glazner, Gordon W

    2009-06-01

    Early inflammatory events may inhibit functional recovery after injury in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. We investigated the role of the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) axis on events subsequent to sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that within 6 hours after crush, NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity increased significantly in a 1-cm section around the crush site. By immunofluorescence staining, there was increased nuclear localization of the NF-kappaB subunits p50 but not p65 or c-Rel in Schwann cells but no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration. In rats injected subcutaneously with etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor receptor chimera that binds free cytokine, the injury-induced rise in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was inhibited, and nuclear localization of p50 in Schwann cells was lowered after the injury. Axonal growth 3 days after nerve crush assessed with immunofluorescence for GAP43 demonstrated that the regeneration distance of leading axons from the site of nerve crush was greater in etanercept-treated animals than in saline-treated controls. These data indicate that tumor necrosis factor mediates rapid activation of injury-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding in Schwann cells and that these events are associated with inhibition of postinjury axonal sprouting. PMID:19458540

  7. Activation of MAPK ERK in peripheral nerve after injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanomsridejchai N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been proposed to mediate neurite outgrowth-promoting effects of several neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the precise activity of ERK during axonal regeneration in vivo remains unclear. Peripheral axotomy has been shown to activate ERK in the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons and associated satellite cells. Nevertheless, whether ERK is also activated in the axons and surrounded Schwann cells which also play a key role in the regeneration process has not been clarified. Results Phosphorylation of ERK in the sciatic nerve in several time-points after crush injury has been examined. Higher phosphorylation of ERK was observed in the proximal and distal nerve stumps compared to the contralateral intact nerve from one day to one month after crush. The activation of ERK was mainly localized in the axons of the proximal segments. In the distal segments, however, active ERK was predominantly found in Schwann cells forming Bungner's bands. Conclusion The findings indicate that ERK is activated in both the proximal and distal nerve stumps following nerve injury. The role of activated ERK in Wallerian degeneration and subsequent regeneration in vivo remains to be elucidated.

  8. Stem cell salvage of injured peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimoldi, Nadia; Colleoni, Federica; Tiberio, Francesca; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Cappellari, Alberto; Costa, Antonella; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Giordano, Rosaria; Spagnoli, Diego; Pluderi, Mauro; Gatti, Stefano; Morbin, Michela; Gaini, Sergio M; Rebulla, Paolo; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a collagen tube filled with autologous skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) for bridging long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Here we present a case report describing a compassionate use of this graft for repairing the polyinjured motor and sensory nerves of the upper arms of a patient. Preclinical assessment was performed with collagen/SDSC implantation in rats after sectioning the sciatic nerve. For the patient, during the 3-year follow-up period, functional recovery of injured median and ulnar nerves was assessed by pinch gauge test and static two-point discrimination and touch test with monofilaments, along with electrophysiological and MRI examinations. Preclinical experiments in rats revealed rescue of sciatic nerve and no side effects of patient-derived SDSC transplantation (30 and 180 days of treatment). In the patient treatment, motor and sensory functions of the median nerve demonstrated ongoing recovery postimplantation during the follow-up period. The results indicate that the collagen/SDSC artificial nerve graft could be used for surgical repair of larger defects in major lesions of peripheral nerves, increasing patient quality of life by saving the upper arms from amputation. PMID:24268028

  9. Segmentation of the retinal optic nerve head using Hough transform and active contour models

    OpenAIRE

    Nanik Suciati; Ari Wijayanti; Handayani Tjandrasa

    2012-01-01

    Optic nerve head is part of the retina where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve. Glaucomatous changes related to loss of the nerve fibers decrease the neuroretinal rim and expand the area and volume of the cup. This study implements  the detection of the optic nerve head in retinal fundus images based on the Hough Transform and Active Contour Models. The process starts with the image enhancement using homomorphic filtering for illumination correction, then proceeds with ...

  10. Activation of NF-?B in Axons and Schwann cells at Site of Sciatic Nerve Crush and Role in Modulating Axon Regeneration in Adult Rats: Studies with Etanercept

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, DARRELL; Tweed, Christopher; Fernyhough, Paul; Glazner, Gordon W.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing weight of evidence implicates early inflammatory events as inhibitors of functional recovery in both peripheral and central neuropathologies. In this study, we investigated the role of the inflammatory TNF-?/NF-?B axis on events subsequent to sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed that within 6 hours post-crush NF-?B DNA binding activity increased significantly in a 1 cm section of sciatic nerve, centered on the crush site. Immu...

  11. Altered mRNA expression of genes related to nerve cell activity in the fracture callus of older rats: A randomized, controlled, microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Ralph A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time required for radiographic union following femoral fracture increases with age in both humans and rats for unknown reasons. Since abnormalities in fracture innervation will slow skeletal healing, we explored whether abnormal mRNA expression of genes related to nerve cell activity in the older rats was associated with the slowing of skeletal repair. Methods Simple, transverse, mid-shaft, femoral fractures with intramedullary rod fixation were induced in anaesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats at 6, 26, and 52 weeks of age. At 0, 0.4, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after fracture, a bony segment, one-third the length of the femur, centered on the fracture site, including the external callus, cortical bone, and marrow elements, was harvested. cRNA was prepared and hybridized to 54 Affymetrix U34A microarrays (3/age/time point. Results The mRNA levels of 62 genes related to neural function were affected by fracture. Of the total, 38 genes were altered by fracture to a similar extent at the three ages. In contrast, eight neural genes showed prolonged down-regulation in the older rats compared to the more rapid return to pre-fracture levels in younger rats. Seven genes were up-regulated by fracture more in the younger rats than in the older rats, while nine genes were up-regulated more in the older rats than in the younger. Conclusions mRNA of 24 nerve-related genes responded differently to fracture in older rats compared to young rats. This differential expression may reflect altered cell function at the fracture site that may be causally related to the slowing of fracture healing with age or may be an effect of the delayed healing.

  12. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  13. Concurrent maturation of inner hair cell synaptic Ca2+ influx and auditory nerve spontaneous activity around hearing onset in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron B; Jing, Zhizi; Rutherford, Mark A; Frank, Thomas; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2013-06-26

    Hearing over a wide range of sound intensities is thought to require complementary coding by functionally diverse spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), each changing activity only over a subrange. The foundations of SGN diversity are not well understood but likely include differences among their inputs: the presynaptic active zones (AZs) of inner hair cells (IHCs). Here we studied one candidate mechanism for causing SGN diversity-heterogeneity of Ca(2+) influx among the AZs of IHCs-during postnatal development of the mouse cochlea. Ca(2+) imaging revealed a change from regenerative to graded synaptic Ca(2+) signaling after the onset of hearing, when in vivo SGN spike timing changed from patterned to Poissonian. Furthermore, we detected the concurrent emergence of stronger synaptic Ca(2+) signals in IHCs and higher spontaneous spike rates in SGNs. The strengthening of Ca(2+) signaling at a subset of AZs primarily reflected a gain of Ca(2+) channels. We hypothesize that the number of Ca(2+) channels at each IHC AZ critically determines the firing properties of its corresponding SGN and propose that AZ heterogeneity enables IHCs to decompose auditory information into functionally diverse SGNs. PMID:23804089

  14. Improvement of peripheral nerve regeneration by a tissue-engineered nerve filled with ectomesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, X; Zhang, Y-J; Tian, W-D; Jiang, M; Dong, R; Chen, J-W; Jin, Y

    2007-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) originate from the cranial neural crest. They are a potential source of neuronal and Schwann cells (SCs) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) during embryonic development. The third passage of EMSCs enzymatically isolated from the mandibular processes of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in forskolin and bovine pituitary extract for 6 days to generate functional Schwann cell phenotypes. Next, 10-mm defects in the sciatic nerves were bridged with an autograft, tissue-engineered nerve filled with differentiated cells in collagen, or a PLGA conduit alone in 18 rats, and the nerve defects of another four rats were left untreated. The regenerated nerves were evaluated by the sciatic functional index (SFI) monthly and by histological analysis 4 months after grafting. The recovery index of the sciatic nerve improved significantly in the autograft and tissue-engineered nerve groups, both of which were superior to the PLGA group. In animals transplanted with the EMSCs, there was greater regeneration than with conduit alone during the same period of implantation. These results show that when EMSCs are transplanted to a peripheral nerve defect they differentiate into supportive cells that contribute to the promotion of axonal regeneration. PMID:17169530

  15. Effect of active Notch signaling system on the early repair of rat sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hua; Kou, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Peng, Jian-Ping; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2015-12-01

    It is all known that dedifferentiated Schwann cells (SCs) play an important role in neural regeneration, and Notch signaling has complex and extensive regulatory functions in dedifferentiated SCs. So studies have focused on how to improve peripheral nerve repair by regulating proliferation and dedifferentiation in SCs with Notch signaling meloculars.We have found SCs can be activated when adding Recombinant rat jagged1/FC chimera (an activator of the Notch signaling system) in vivo. Compared with that of the control groups, at 4 weeks post-surgery nerve regeneration and functional rehabilitation in the Recombinant rat jagged1/FC chimera group were advanced significantly, and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the regenerated nerves was elevated largely. These results indicated that SCs activated by Notch signaling could promote nerve repair effectively in the early regenerative stage, suggesting the possible clinical application for the treatment of peripheral nerve defects. PMID:24866722

  16. c-Jun Reprograms Schwann Cells of Injured Nerves to Generate a Repair Cell Essential for Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Farraj, Peter J.; Latouche, Morwena; Wilton, Daniel K.; Quintes, Susanne; Chabrol, Elodie; Banerjee, Ambily; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jenkins, Billy; Rahman, Mary; Turmaine, Mark; Wicher, Grzegorz K.; Mitter, Richard; Greensmith, Linda; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The radical response of peripheral nerves to injury (Wallerian degeneration) is the cornerstone of nerve repair. We show that activation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is a global regulator of Wallerian degeneration. c-Jun governs major aspects of the injury response, determines the expression of trophic factors, adhesion molecules, the formation of regeneration tracks and myelin clearance and controls the distinctive regenerative potential of peripheral nerves. A key function of c-Jun is the activation of a repair program in Schwann cells and the creation of a cell specialized to support regeneration. We show that absence of c-Jun results in the formation of a dysfunctional repair cell, striking failure of functional recovery, and neuronal death. We conclude that a single glial transcription factor is essential for restoration of damaged nerves, acting to control the transdifferentiation of myelin and Remak Schwann cells to dedicated repair cells in damaged tissue. PMID:22920255

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium signaling in nerve cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEXEI, VERKHRATSKY.

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle involved in various types of signaling in nerve cells. The ER serves as a dynamic Ca2+ pool being thus involved in rapid signaling events associated with cell stimulation by either electrical (action potential) or chemical (neurotransmitters) [...] signals. This function is supported by Ca2+ release channels (InsP3 and ryanodine receptors) and SERCA Ca2+ pumps residing in the endomembrane. In addition the ER provides a specific environment for the posttranslational protein processing and transport of various molecules towards their final destination. In parallel, the ER acts as a "calcium tunnel," which facilitates Ca2+ movements within the cell by avoiding cytoplasmic routes. Finally the ER appears as a source of numerous signals aimed at the nucleus and involved in long-lasting adaptive cellular responses. All these important functions are controlled by intra-ER free Ca2+ which integrates various signaling events and establishes a link between fast signaling, associated with ER Ca2+ release/uptake, and long-lasting adaptive responses relying primarily on the regulation of protein synthesis. Disruption of ER Ca2+ homeostasis triggers several forms of cellular stress response and is intimately involved in neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death

  18. Segmentation of the retinal optic nerve head using Hough transform and active contour models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Suciati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head is part of the retina where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve. Glaucomatous changes related to loss of the nerve fibers decrease the neuroretinal rim and expand the area and volume of the cup. This study implements  the detection of the optic nerve head in retinal fundus images based on the Hough Transform and Active Contour Models. The process starts with the image enhancement using homomorphic filtering for illumination correction, then proceeds with the removal of blood vessels on the image  to facilitate the subsequent segmentation process. The result of the Hough Transform fitting circle becomes the initial level set for the active contour model. The experimental results show that the implemented segmentation algorithms are capable of segmenting optic nerve head with the average accuracy of 75.56%. 

  19. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  20. Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves

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    Kshitija Garde

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation, currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative on-dependent multi-electrode arrays of open design allow the early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices. .

  1. Receptor-mediated regional sympathetic nerve activation by leptin.

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, W G; Morgan, D. A.; Walsh, S.A.; Mark, A L; Sivitz, W I

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue which acts centrally to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Although leptin increases norepinephrine turnover in thermogenic tissues, the effects of leptin on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity to thermogenic and other tissues are not known. We examined the effects of intravenous leptin and vehicle on sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue, kidney, hindlimb, and adrenal gland in anesthetized Sprague-Da...

  2. Comparison of nerve cell and nerve cell plus Schwann cell cultures, with particular emphasis on basal lamina and collagen formation

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The availability of cultures of normal cells (NCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) with and without fibroblasts has allowed us to investigate the sources of endoneurial and perineurial constituents of peripheral nerve. NCs cultured alone, devoid of ensheathment but healthy in appearance, lack basal lamina and extracellular fibrils. In contrast, when SCs accompany NCs, basal lamina and extracellular fibrils are consistently visible around SCs in outgrowth areas formed de novo in culture. These fibrils...

  3. Combining acellular nerve allografts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells restores sciatic nerve injury better than either intervention alone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Gechen; Ka, Ka; HUANG, WENHUA

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts from bilateral sciatic nerves, and repaired 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats using these grafts and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Experiments were performed in three groups: the acellular nerve allograft bridging group, acellular nerve allograft + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and the acellular nerve allograft + brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone...

  4. In vivo MRI monitoring nerve regeneration of acute peripheral nerve traction injury following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiao-Hui, E-mail: duanxiaohui-128@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Cheng, Li-Na, E-mail: kobe10716@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: xinxin110007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: docliujun@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Guo, Ruo-Mi, E-mail: guoruomi-521@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Zhong, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: enough300@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Wen, Xue-Hua, E-mail: xuehuasuqian@126.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: junshenjun@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To assess the continuous process of nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation using MRI. Materials and methods: 1 week after acute nerve traction injury was established in the sciatic nerve of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, 5 × 10{sup 5} MSCs and vehicle alone were grafted to the acutely distracted sciatic nerves each in 24 animals. Serial MRI and T1 and T2 measurements of the injured nerves were performed with a 1.5-T scanner and functional recovery was recorded over a 10-week follow-up period, with histological assessments performed at regular intervals. Results: Compared with vehicle control, nerves grafted with MSCs had better functional recovery and showed improved nerve regeneration, with a sustained increase of T1 and T2 values during the phase of regeneration. Conclusion: MRI could be used to monitor the enhanced nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with MSC transplantation, reflected by a prolonged increase in T1 and T2 values of the injured nerves.

  5. In vivo MRI monitoring nerve regeneration of acute peripheral nerve traction injury following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the continuous process of nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation using MRI. Materials and methods: 1 week after acute nerve traction injury was established in the sciatic nerve of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, 5 × 105 MSCs and vehicle alone were grafted to the acutely distracted sciatic nerves each in 24 animals. Serial MRI and T1 and T2 measurements of the injured nerves were performed with a 1.5-T scanner and functional recovery was recorded over a 10-week follow-up period, with histological assessments performed at regular intervals. Results: Compared with vehicle control, nerves grafted with MSCs had better functional recovery and showed improved nerve regeneration, with a sustained increase of T1 and T2 values during the phase of regeneration. Conclusion: MRI could be used to monitor the enhanced nerve regeneration in acute peripheral nerve traction injury treated with MSC transplantation, reflected by a prolonged increase in T1 and T2 values of the injured nerves

  6. The nerve growth factor precursor proNGF exhibits neurotrophic activity but is less active than mature nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Yu, Guanhua; Michalski, Bernadeta; Mathew, Silvy; Colquhoun, Amy; Ross, Gregory M; Coughlin, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neuronal survival and differentiation and stimulates neurite outgrowth. NGF is synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which undergoes post-translational processing to generate mature beta-NGF. It has been assumed that, in vivo, NGF is largely processed into the mature form and that mature NGF accounts for the biological activity. However, we recently showed that proNGF is abundant in CNS tissues whereas mature NGF is undetectable, suggesting that proNGF has biological functions beyond its role as a precursor. To determine whether proNGF exhibits biological activity, we mutagenized the precursor-processing site and expressed unprocessed, cleavage-resistant proNGF protein in insect cells. Survival and neurite outgrowth assays on murine superior cervical ganglion neurons and PC12 cells indicated that proNGF exhibits neurotrophic activity similar to mature 2.5S NGF, but is approximately fivefold less active. ProNGF binds to the high-affinity receptor, TrkA, as determined by cross-linking to PC12 cells, and is also slightly less active than mature NGF in promoting phosphorylation of TrkA and its downstream signaling effectors, Erk1/2, in PC12 and NIH3T3-TrkA cells. These data, coupled with our previous report that proNGF is the major form of NGF in the CNS, suggest that proNGF could be responsible for much of the biological activity normally attributed to mature NGF in vivo. PMID:15086515

  7. Electroactive biocompatible materials for nerve cell stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Liang, Youlong; Gui, Qingyuan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, great efforts have been developed for neurobiologists and neurologists to restore nervous system functions. Recently much attention has been paid to electrical stimulation (ES) of the nervous system as a potential way to repair it. Various conductive biocompatible materials with good electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and long-term ES or electrical stability have been developed as the substrates for ES. In this review, we summarized different types of materials developed in the purpose for ES of nervous system, including conducting polymers, carbon nanomaterials and composites from conducting polymer/carbon nanomaterials. The present review will give our perspective on the future research directions for further investigation on development of ES particularly on the nerve system.

  8. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 ?L/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  9. Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden mimics the neuritogenic activity of nerve growth factor via MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in PC-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Syntyche Ling-Sing; Eik, Lee-Fang; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    The traditional application of the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (tiger's milk mushroom) by the indigenous folks as tonic and remedy to treat a variety of ailments has been documented in Malaysia. Indigenous communities claimed to have consumed the decoction to boost their alertness during hunting. Mental alertness is believed to be related to neuronal health and neuroactivity. In the present study, the cell viability and neuritogenic effects of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts, and crude polysaccharides on rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were studied. Interestingly, the hot aqueous extract exhibited neuritogenic activity comparable to NGF in PC-12 cells. However, the extracts and crude polysaccharides stimulated neuritogenesis without stimulating the production of NGF in PC-12 cells. The involvements of the TrkA receptor and MEK/ERK1/2 pathway in hot aqueous extract-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by Trk (K252a) and MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) inhibitors. There was no significant difference in protein expression in NGF- and hot aqueous extract-treated cells for both total and phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK. The neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells stimulated by hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts, and crude polysaccharides of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium mimicking NGF activity via the MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway is reported for the first time. PMID:26542212

  10. Fingolimod induces the transition to a nerve regeneration promoting Schwann cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, André; Beyer, Felix; Tzekova, Nevena; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is mainly attributed to the plastic behavior of Schwann cells. Upon loss of axons, these cells trans-differentiate into regeneration promoting repair cells which provide trophic support to regrowing axons. Among others, activation of cJun was revealed to be involved in this process, initiating the stereotypic pattern of Schwann cell phenotype alterations during Wallerian degeneration. Nevertheless, the ability of Schwann cells to adapt and therefore the nerve's potential to regenerate can be limited in particular after long term denervation or in neuropathies leading to incomplete regeneration only and thus emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Here we stimulated primary neonatal and adult rat Schwann cells with Fingolimod/FTY720P and investigated its impact on the regeneration promoting phenotype. FTY720P activated a number of de-differentiation markers including cJun and interfered with maturation marker and myelin expression. Functionally, FTY720P treated Schwann cells upregulated growth factor expression and these cells enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that FTY720P application supports the generation of a repair promoting cellular phenotype and suggest that Fingolimod could be used as treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and diseases. PMID:25957629

  11. Bilateral peripheral neural activity observed in vivo following unilateral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Deepak; Behera, Subrat; Jacobs, Kathleen E.; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a surrogate method to measure calcium content in nervous system since manganese physiologically follows calcium. Manganese is detectable in MRI and therefore visualizes structures and cell populations that actively regulate calcium. Since calcium is actively recruited for the transmission of action potentials, our purpose is to validate manganese-enhanced MRI for detection of changes in lumbar nerves related to nociception. A neuropathic ...

  12. Tirasemtiv amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Richard; Saikali, Khalil G; Chou, Willis; Russell, Alan J; Chen, Michael M; Vijayakumar, Vipin; Stoltz, Randall R; Baudry, Stephane; Enoka, Roger M; Morgans, David J.; Wolff, Andrew A; Malik, Fady I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we tested the hypothesis that tirasemtiv, a selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium, could amplify the response of muscle to neuromuscular input in humans. Methods: Healthy men received tirasemtiv and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover design. The deep fibular nerve was stimulated transcutaneously to activate the tibialis anterior muscle and produce dorsiflexion of the foot. The force–freque...

  13. Activity-dependent, homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release from auditory nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngodup, Tenzin; Goetz, Jack A; McGuire, Brian C; Sun, Wei; Lauer, Amanda M; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A

    2015-05-19

    Information processing in the brain requires reliable synaptic transmission. High reliability at specialized auditory nerve synapses in the cochlear nucleus results from many release sites (N), high probability of neurotransmitter release (Pr), and large quantal size (Q). However, high Pr also causes auditory nerve synapses to depress strongly when activated at normal rates for a prolonged period, which reduces fidelity. We studied how synapses are influenced by prolonged activity by exposing mice to constant, nondamaging noise and found that auditory nerve synapses changed to facilitating, reflecting low Pr. For mice returned to quiet, synapses recovered to normal depression, suggesting that these changes are a homeostatic response to activity. Two additional properties, Q and average excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitude, were unaffected by noise rearing, suggesting that the number of release sites (N) must increase to compensate for decreased Pr. These changes in N and Pr were confirmed physiologically using the integration method. Furthermore, consistent with increased N, endbulbs in noise-reared animals had larger VGlut1-positive puncta, larger profiles in electron micrographs, and more release sites per profile. In current-clamp recordings, noise-reared BCs had greater spike fidelity even during high rates of synaptic activity. Thus, auditory nerve synapses regulate excitability through an activity-dependent, homeostatic mechanism, which could have major effects on all downstream processing. Our results also suggest that noise-exposed bushy cells would remain hyperexcitable for a period after returning to normal quiet conditions, which could have perceptual consequences. PMID:25944933

  14. Nano-scale Topographical Studies on the Growth Cones of Nerve Cells using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkaya, Goksel; Zhong, Lei; Rehder, Vincent; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2009-11-01

    Nerve cells are the fundamental units which are responsible for intercommunication within the nervous system. The neurites, fibrous cable-like extensions for information delivery, of nerve cells are tipped by highly motile sensory structures known as the growth cones which execute important functions; neural construction, decision making and navigation during development and regeneration of the nervous system. The highly dynamic subcomponents of the growth cones are important in neural activity. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most powerful microscopy technique which is capable of imaging without conductivity constraint and in liquid media. AFM providing nano-scale topographical information on biological structures is also informative on the physical properties such as: elasticity, adhesion, and softness. This contribution focuses on AFM analysis of the growth cones of the nerve cells removed from the buccal ganglion of Helisoma trivolvis. The results of nano-scale topography and softness analysis on growth cone central domain, filopodia and overlying lamellopodium (veil) are presented. The subcomponents of the growth cones of different nerve cells are compared to each other. The results of the analysis are linked to the mechanical properties and internal molecular density distribution of the growth cones.

  15. Schwann cells direct peripheral nerve regeneration through the Netrin-1 receptors, DCC and Unc5H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Christine A; Christie, Kimberly J; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A; Singh, Bhagat; Singh, Vandana; Thomas, Dorothy; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2011-10-01

    In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) promote nerve regeneration by the secretion of trophic support molecules and the establishment of a supportive growth matrix. Elucidating factors that promote SC outgrowth following nerve injury is an important strategy for improving nerve regeneration. We identified the Netrin-1 receptors, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) and Uncoordinated (Unc)5H2 as SC receptors that influence nerve regeneration by respectively promoting or inhibiting SC outgrowth. Significantly, we show both DCC and Unc5H2 receptors are distributed within SCs. In adult nerves, DCC is localized to the paranodes and Schmidt-Lantermann incisures of myelinating SCs, as well as along unmyelinated axons. After axotomy, DCC is prominently expressed in activated SCs at the regenerating nerve front. In contrast, Unc5H2 receptor is robustly distributed in myelinating SCs of the intact nerve and it is found at low levels in the SCs of the injury site. Local in vivo DCC siRNA mRNA knockdown at the growing tip of an injured nerve impaired SC activation and, in turn, significantly decreased axon regeneration. This forced DCC inhibition was associated with a dramatic reciprocal upregulation of Unc5H2 in the remaining SCs. Local Unc5H2 knockdown at the injury site, however, facilitated axon regrowth, indicating it has a role as an intrinsic brake to peripheral nerve regeneration. Our findings demonstrate that in adult peripheral nerves, SCs respond to DCC and Unc5H2 signaling, thereby promoting or hindering axon outgrowth and providing a novel mechanism for SC regulation during nerve regeneration. PMID:21656855

  16. Nerve growth factor promoter activity revealed in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaja, Michael D; Smithson, Laura J; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury. PMID:21456011

  17. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using...

  18. Genetically modified canine Schwann cells--In vitro and in vivo evaluation of their suitability for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitte, Ruth; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M; Schenk, Henning; Flieshardt, Cornelia; Grothe, Claudia; Haastert, Kirsten

    2010-02-15

    After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells (SC) guarantee for a regeneration-promoting milieu and are crucially involved in axonal regeneration. For extended nerve defects, bridging with an autologous nerve transplant is the gold standard therapy. Artificial biohybrid nerve transplants which combine a synthetic conduit with autologous SC genetically modified to express regeneration-promoting proteins may provide an alternative therapy to autotransplantation. The dog seems to be an ideal translational animal model for new treatment strategies. In the present study, utilizing a new transfection protocol, we transplanted enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adult canine SC (cSC) into a 5mm epineural pouch in the sciatic nerve of adult rats (n=9). The epineurial pouch technique serves as proof of principle to follow the fate of the transplanted cSC for up to 14 days after surgery. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed survival and integration of EGFP-expressing cSC into the regenerating host nerve tissue. We demonstrate that transplanted cSC contribute to the formation of bands of Büngner and are located in close vicinity to growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expressing regenerating nerve fibers. This provides first evidence that transplanted genetically modified Schwann cells do successfully integrate into the host tissue where they could actively contribute to the regeneration process. PMID:19962404

  19. AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE MODULATION OF BARORECEPTOR ACTIVITY AFTER ANTIDROMIC STIMULATION OF AORTIC DEPRESSOR NERVE IN VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Valter J. Santana-Filho; Davis, Greg J; Castania, Jaci A.; Ma, Xiuying; Salgado, Helio C; Abboud, Francois M.; Fazan, Rubens; Chapleau, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the sensory nerve endings of nonmyelinated C-fiber afferents evokes release of autocrine/paracrine factors that cause localized vasodilation, neurogenic inflammation, and modulation of sensory nerve activity. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of antidromic electrical stimulation on afferent baroreceptor activity in vivo, and investigate the role of endogenous prostanoids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mediating changes in nerve activity. Baroreceptor activity ...

  20. Effect of Axon Misdirection on Recovery of Electromyographic Activity and Kinematics after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Manning J. Sabatier; To, Bao Ngoc; Nicolini, Jennifer; English, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, patterns of activity in the soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and hindlimb kinematics were evaluated during slope walking in rats after transection and surgical repair either of the entire sciatic nerve (Sci group) or of its two branches separately, the tibial and common fibular nerves (T/CF group). With the latter method, axons from the tibial and common fibular nerves could not reinnervate targets of the other nerve branch after injury, reducing the opportunity ...

  1. Effects of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins on acetylcholine release and motor nerve terminal activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A.J.; Harvey, A L

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of the K+ channel blocking toxins, the dendrotoxins, on neuromuscular transmission and motor nerve terminal activity were assessed on frog cutaneous pectoris, mouse diaphragm and mouse triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations. Endplate potentials (e.p.ps) and miniature e.p.ps were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes, and nerve terminal spikes were recorded with extracellular electrodes placed in the perineural sheaths of motor nerves. 2. Dendrotoxin from green mamb...

  2. Nestin-expressing hair follicle-accessible pluripotent stem cells for nerve and spinal cord repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle, discovered by our laboratory, have been shown to be able to form neurons and other nonfollicle cell types. We have shown that the nestin-expressing stem cells from the hair follicle can effect the repair of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. The hair follicle stem cells differentiate into neuronal and glial cells after transplantation to the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord, and enhance injury repair and locomotor recovery. We have termed these cells hair follicle-accessible pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. When the excised hair follicle with its nerve stump was placed in Gelfoam 3D histoculture, HAP stem cells grew and extended the hair follicle nerve which consisted of ?III-tubulin-positive fibers with F-actin expression at the tip. These findings indicate that ?III-tubulin-positive fibers elongating from the whisker follicle sensory nerve stump were growing axons. The growing whisker sensory nerve was highly enriched in HAP stem cells, which appeared to play a major role in its elongation and interaction with other nerves in 3D Gelfoam histoculture, including the sciatic nerve, the trigeminal nerve, and the trigeminal nerve ganglion. Our results suggest that a major function of the HAP stem cells in the hair follicle is for growth of the follicle sensory nerve. HAP stem cells have critical advantages over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells in that they are highly accessible, require no genetic manipulation, are nontumorigenic, and do not present ethical issues for regenerative medicine. PMID:25766743

  3. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  4. Cancer Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived from Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Spyra, Melanie; Kluwe, Lan; Hagel, Christian; Panse, Jens; Kurtz, Andreas; Mautner, Victor Felix; Demestre, Maria; Nguyen, Rosalyn T.; Rabkin, Samuel David

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine whether or not cancer stem cells exist in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Cells of established lines, primary cultures and freshly dissected tumors were cultured in serum free conditions supplemented with epidermal and fibroblast growth factors. From one established human MPNST cell line, S462, cells meeting the criteria for cancer stem cells were isolated. Clonal spheres were obtained, which could be passaged multiple times. Enrichment of stem cel...

  5. Fibroblast-derived tenascin-C promotes Schwann cell migration through ?1-integrin dependent pathway during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanhu; Yu, Bin; Gu, Yun; Zhou, Songlin; Qian, Tianmei; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Guohui; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration requires precise coordination and dynamic interaction among various types of cells in the tissue. It remains unclear, however, whether the cellular crosstalk between fibroblasts and Schwann cells (SCs) is related to phenotype modulation of SCs, a critical cellular process after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, microarray analysis revealed that a total of 6,046 genes were differentially expressed in the proximal nerve segment after sciatic nerve transection in rats, and bioinformatics analysis further identified tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, as a key gene regulator. TNC was abundantly produced by nerve fibroblasts accumulating at the lesion site, rather than by SCs as usually expected. TNC significantly promoted SC migration without effects on SC proliferation in primary culture. In co-culture of fibroblasts and SCs, inhibition of TNC expression either by siRNA transfection or antibody blockade could suppress SC migration, while TNC-stimulated SC migration was mediated by TNC binding to ?1-integrin receptor in SCs through activation of Rac1 effectors. The in vivo evidence showed that exogenous TNC protein enhanced SC migration and axonal regrowth. Our results highlight that TNC-mediated cellular interaction between fibroblasts and SCs may regulate SC migration through ?1-integrin-dependent pathway during peripheral nerve regeneration. GLIA 2016;64:374-385. PMID:26497118

  6. Imaging stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings in mouse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NickSpencer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal afferent neurons play a major role in detecting noxious and innocuous stimuli from visceral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, all our understanding about spinal afferents has been obtained from recordings of spinal afferent axons, or cell bodies that lie outside the gut wall, or peripheral organ they innervate. No recordings have been made directly from spinal afferent nerve endings, which is where sensory transduction occurs. We developed a preparation whereby recordings could be made from rectal afferent nerve endings in the colon, to characterize mechanisms underlying sensory transduction. Dorsal root ganglia (L6-S2 were removed from mice, whilst retaining neural continuity with the colon. Fluo-4-AM was used to record from rectal afferent nerve endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle at 36oC. In slack (unstretched preparations of colon, no calcium transients were recorded from spinal afferent endings. However, in response to a maintained increase in circumferential diameter, a maintained discharge of calcium transients occurred simultaneously in multiple discrete varicosities along single axons of rectal afferents in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Stretch-activated calcium transients were resistant to hexamethonium and nifedipine, but were abolished by tetrodotoxin, CPA, BAPTA-AM, cobalt, gadolinium, or replacement of extracellular Na+ with NMDG. In summary, we present a novel preparation in which stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings can be recorded, using calcium imaging. We show that circumferential stretch of the colon activates a maintained discharge of calcium transients simultaneously in varicosities along single rectal afferent endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Non-selective cation channels, TTX-sensitive Na+ channels and both extracellular calcium influx and intracellular Ca2+ stores are required for stretch-activated calcium transients in rectal afferent endings.

  7. Biological Activity of Nerve Growth Factor Precursor Is Dependent upon Relative Levels of Its Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Raheleh; Ioannou, Maria S.; Coughlin, Michael D.; Pagadala, Promila; Neet, Kenneth E.; Clewes, Oliver; Allen, Shelley J.; Dawbarn, David; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced as a precursor called pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF), which is secreted by many tissues and is the predominant form of NGF in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease brain, cholinergic neurons degenerate and can no longer transport NGF as efficiently, leading to an increase in untransported NGF in the target tissue. The protein that accumulates in the target tissue is proNGF, not the mature form. The role of this precursor is controversial, and both neurotrophic and apoptotic activities have been reported for recombinant proNGFs. Differences in the protein structures, protein expression systems, methods used for protein purification, and methods used for bioassay may affect the activity of these proteins. Here, we show that proNGF is neurotrophic regardless of mutations or tags, and no matter how it is purified or in which system it is expressed. However, although proNGF is neurotrophic under our assay conditions for primary sympathetic neurons and for pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, it is apoptotic for unprimed PC12 cells when they are deprived of serum. The ratio of tropomyosin-related kinase A to p75 neurotrophin receptor is low in unprimed PC12 cells compared with primed PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons, altering the balance of proNGF-induced signaling to favor apoptosis. We conclude that the relative level of proNGF receptors determines whether this precursor exhibits neurotrophic or apoptotic activity. PMID:19389705

  8. Biological activity of nerve growth factor precursor is dependent upon relative levels of its receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Raheleh; Ioannou, Maria S; Coughlin, Michael D; Pagadala, Promila; Neet, Kenneth E; Clewes, Oliver; Allen, Shelley J; Dawbarn, David; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced as a precursor called pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF), which is secreted by many tissues and is the predominant form of NGF in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease brain, cholinergic neurons degenerate and can no longer transport NGF as efficiently, leading to an increase in untransported NGF in the target tissue. The protein that accumulates in the target tissue is proNGF, not the mature form. The role of this precursor is controversial, and both neurotrophic and apoptotic activities have been reported for recombinant proNGFs. Differences in the protein structures, protein expression systems, methods used for protein purification, and methods used for bioassay may affect the activity of these proteins. Here, we show that proNGF is neurotrophic regardless of mutations or tags, and no matter how it is purified or in which system it is expressed. However, although proNGF is neurotrophic under our assay conditions for primary sympathetic neurons and for pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, it is apoptotic for unprimed PC12 cells when they are deprived of serum. The ratio of tropomyosin-related kinase A to p75 neurotrophin receptor is low in unprimed PC12 cells compared with primed PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons, altering the balance of proNGF-induced signaling to favor apoptosis. We conclude that the relative level of proNGF receptors determines whether this precursor exhibits neurotrophic or apoptotic activity. PMID:19389705

  9. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  10. Effects of charybdotoxin, a blocker of Ca2+-activated K+ channels, on motor nerve terminals.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A.J.; Harvey, A L; Rowan, E G; Strong, P N

    1988-01-01

    1. The contribution of Ca2+-activated K+ currents (IK,Ca) to the control of electrical excitability of motor nerve terminals and the control of acetylcholine release was assessed by studying the effects of the specific K(Ca) channel blocking toxins charybdotoxin and apamin. Electrical activity of the terminal regions of motor nerves was assessed by extracellular recording from an electrode placed in the perineural sheaths of nerves in the mouse triangularis sterni and frog cutaneous pectoris ...

  11. Sympathetic nerve activity and simulated diving in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Ackerman, Michael J; Kuniyoshi, Fatima Sert; Accurso, Valentina; Davison, Diane; Amin, Raouf S; Somers, Virend K

    2014-04-01

    The goal of our study was to develop a simple and practical method for simulating diving in humans using facial cold exposure and apnea stimuli to measure neural and circulatory responses during the stimulated diving reflex. We hypothesized that responses to simultaneous facial cold exposure and apnea (simulated diving) would be synergistic, exceeding the sum of responses to individual stimuli. We studied 56 volunteers (24 female and 32 male), average age of 39 years. All subjects were healthy, free of cardiovascular and other diseases, and on no medications. Although muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and vascular resistance increased markedly during both early and late phases of simulated diving, significant reductions in heart rate were observed only during the late phase. Total MSNA during simulated diving was greater than combined MSNA responses to the individual stimuli. We found that simulated diving is a powerful stimulus to sympathetic nerve traffic with significant bradycardia evident in the late phase of diving and eliciting synergistic sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Our data provide insight into autonomic triggers that could help explain catastrophic cardiovascular events that may occur during asphyxia or swimming, such as in patients with obstructive sleep apnea or congenital long QT syndrome. PMID:24368150

  12. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-10-15

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 10(6) cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group). Twelve weeks after implantation, toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group. Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25538751

  13. Optic Nerve Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Mutahir A; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Riaz, Khalid; Abdulmoniem, Reham

    2015-09-01

    Metastatic involvement of the optic nerve or its sheath is very rare (1.3 - 3%). The most common malignancies reported to metastasize to the optic nerve or its sheath are breast, lung, kidney, bladder, gastric and colorectal cancers. Carcinoma of uterine cervix metastatic to optic nerve and optic nerve sheath is extremely rare and is associated with grave prognosis due to underlying high tumor burden. Here in, we report a 61-year Saudi woman who was treated with concurrent chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of cervix FIGO IVA6 months back. She presented with pain and progressive visual loss in the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enhanced solid mass of the intraorbital optic nerve consistent with optic nerve sheath meningioma. Immunostaining (CK5/6, CAM 5.2, p63 and p16) confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. PMID:26374369

  14. Hirschsprung’s disease: Is there a relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers?

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Kiran; Mohta, Anup; Agarwal, Sarla

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To define the topography of mast cells and their numbers in cases of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) and non-HD, assess neural hypertrophy using imaging software and to study the relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers.

  15. Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells Promote Nerve Growth in Long-Term 3-Dimensional Gelfoam®-Supported Histoculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mii, Sumiyuki; Uehara, Fuminari; Yano, Shuya; Tran, Benjamin; Miwa, Shinji; Hiroshima, Yukihiro; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; HOFFMAN, ROBERT M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that hair follicles contain multipotent stem cells which express nestin. The nestin-expressing cells form the hair follicle sensory nerve. In vitro, the nestin-expressing hair follicle cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, the sciatic nerve was excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice). The ND-GFP cells of the sciatic nerve were also found to be...

  16. Involvement of Hypothalamic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation

    OpenAIRE

    TANIDA, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, leptin released from the white adipose tissue acts on the central nervous system to control feeding behavior, cardiovascular function, and energy metabolism. Central leptin activates sympathetic nerves that innervate the kidney, adipose tissue, and some abdominal organs in rats. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential in the intracellular signaling pathway involving the activation of leptin receptors (ObRb). We investigated the potential of AMPK?2 in the sympathetic effec...

  17. Characterization of voltage-activated ionic currents in the GnRH-containing terminalis nerve in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luoxiu; Li, Lei

    2011-01-01

    The terminalis nerve (TN) is in a class of cranial nerves that plays important roles in animal development, physiology and behavior. Here, we report a study on the characterization of voltage-activated ionic currents in GnRH-containing TN cells in zebrafish. The experiments were performed using acutely dissociated TN cells from the transgenic zebrafish Tg (GnRH-3::GFP). In the transgenic zebrafish, the TN cells express GFP under the transcriptional control of the zebrafish GnRH-3 promoter. In all of the GnRH-containing TN cells examined, we recorded both low-voltage-activated (LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current (I(Ca)). The characteristics of the I(Ca) were similar to those described in other zebrafish cell types. However, the distribution patterns of the currents in the GnRH-containing TN cells were different in comparison to the distribution of the currents in other cell types. In addition, we characterized TTX-sensitive sodium current (I(Na)) and 4AP-sensitive and TEA-resistant potassium current (I(K)). The characteristics of voltage-activated I(Na) and I(K) in the GnRH-containing TN cells were similar to those described in other zebrafish cell types. Together, the data from this study revealed the electrophysiological properties of the GnRH-containing TN cells, thereby providing insight on the regulatory mechanisms of TN-signaling in animal physiology. PMID:20951681

  18. Tetramethylpyrazine protects Schwann cells from ischemia-like injury and increases cell survival in cold ischemic rat nerves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ming-Ming, Yang; Wei, Huang; Dian-Ming, Jiang.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrametilpirazina (TMP), o principal componente do extrato de Ligusticum wallichi Franchat (erva chinesa), apresenta propriedades neuroprotetoras na isquemia. Nesse estudo, avaliamos seus efeitos protetores nas células de Schwann (SC), cultivando-as na presença de condições de depleção de oxigênio [...] da glicose (OGD) e medindo a sobrevivência dos nervos de ratos isquêmicos pelo resfriamento. No modelo de lesão isquêmica em SC induzida por OGD, demonstramos que o tratamento com TMP não somente reduziu as perdas de viabilidade celular induzida por OGD, a morte celular, a apoptose de SC dose-dependente e inibiu a liberação de LDH, mas, também, suprimiu a infra-regulação do Vcl-2 e a supra-regulação de Bax e caspase-3, e inibiu a consequente ativação da caspase-3. No modelo de nervo isquêmico por resfriamento, observamos que a exposição prolongada ao resfriamento por quatro semanas estava, marcadamente, associada com a ausência de SC, com o decréscimo da viabilidade celular e a apoptose em segmentos de nervo incubados na solução da Universidade de Wisconsin apenas. Entretanto, a TMP atenuou o dano no segmento do nervo preservando SC e antagonizando a diminuição da viabilidade da fibra nervosa e o aumento das células TUNEL-positiva de modo dose-dependente. De forma conjunta, nossos resultados indicam que o TMP não só fornece efeitos protetores em um modelo de dano semelhante à isquemia de SC de ratos cultivados pela regulação de BCl-2, Bax e caspase 3, mas, também, aumenta a sobrevivência celular e suprime a apoptose no modelo de isquemia por resfriamento por exposição prolongada por quatro semanas. Então, TMP pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica eficaz para prevenir doenças isquêmicas do sistema nervoso periférico e melhora a armazenagem do nervo periférico. Abstract in english Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a major active ingredient of Ligusticum wallichi Franchat extract (a Chinese herb), exhibits neuroprotective properties in ischemia. In this study, we assessed its protective effects on Schwann cells (SCs) by culturing them in the presence of oxygen glucose deprivation (OG [...] D) conditions and measuring cell survival in cold ischemic rat nerves. In the OGD-induced ischemic injury model of SCs, we demonstrated that TMP treatment not only reduced OGD-induced cell viability losses, cell death, and apoptosis of SCs in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited LDH release, but also suppressed OGD-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3, as well as inhibited the consequent activation of caspase-3. In the cold ischemic nerve model, we found that prolonged cold ischemic exposure for four weeks was markedly associated with the absence of SCs, a decrease in cell viability, and apoptosis in preserved nerve segments incubated in University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) alone. However, TMP attenuated nerve segment damage by preserving SCs and antagonizing the decrease in nerve fiber viability and increase in TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that TMP not only provides protective effects in an ischemia-like injury model of cultured rat SCs by regulating Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, but also increases cell survival and suppresses apoptosis in the cold ischemic nerve model after prolonged ischemic exposure for four weeks. Therefore, TMP may be a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for preventing peripheral nervous system ischemic diseases and improving peripheral nerve storage.

  19. Regeneration of the auditory nerve - a cell transplantation study

    OpenAIRE

    Palmgren, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Since in mammals, the hair cells or the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the inner ear do not regenerate, damage to these cells is an irreversible process. Presently the only aid for patients with severe to profound hearing impairment due to damaged hair cells is a cochlear implant (CI). A CI converts sound to electrical signals that stimulate the SGNs via an electrode that is implanted into the cochlea. Hence, for a successful outcome the CI is dependant on the activation ...

  20. Human amnion tissue injected with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells repairs damaged sciatic nerves in rats?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dehua; Wang, Changhui; Shan, Wei; Zeng, Ruixia; Fang, Yan; Wang, Pan

    2012-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, incorporated into an amnion carrier tubes, were assessed for nerve regeneration potential in a rat nerve defect model. Damaged nerves were exposed to human amnion carriers containing either human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (cell transplantation group) or saline (control group). At 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after cell implantation, the sciatic functional index was higher in the cell transplantation group compared with the control group. Furth...

  1. Trigeminal nerve involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Demet; Karaguelle, Ayse Tuba; Erden, Ilhan; Erden, Ayse E-mail: erden@ada.net.tr

    2002-10-01

    A 30-year-old male with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with facial numbness. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia of the left trigeminal nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology showed no atypical cells. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated enlargement and enhancement of intracranial portions of the left trigeminal nerve. The abnormal MR imaging findings almost completely resolved after the chemotherapy. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is not only a useful procedure for the early diagnosis of cranial nerve invasion by leukemia but it might be helpful to follow the changes after the treatment.

  2. Trigeminal nerve involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: value of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-year-old male with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with facial numbness. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia of the left trigeminal nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology showed no atypical cells. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated enlargement and enhancement of intracranial portions of the left trigeminal nerve. The abnormal MR imaging findings almost completely resolved after the chemotherapy. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is not only a useful procedure for the early diagnosis of cranial nerve invasion by leukemia but it might be helpful to follow the changes after the treatment

  3. A local anesthetic, ropivacaine, suppresses activated microglia via a nerve growth factor-dependent mechanism and astrocytes via a nerve growth factor-independent mechanism in neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Atsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of nociceptive pathways that occurs in the neuropathic pain state. In recent years, spinal glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain, but their participation in the analgesic effects of local anesthetics remains largely unknown. Results Repetitive epidural administration of ropivacaine reduced the hyperalgesia induced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Concomitantly with this analgesia, ropivacaine suppressed the increases in the immunoreactivities of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal spinal cord, as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. In addition, epidural administration of a TrkA-IgG fusion protein that blocks the action of nerve growth factor (NGF, which was upregulated by ropivacaine in the dorsal root ganglion, prevented the inhibitory effect of ropivacaine on microglia, but not astrocytes. The blockade of NGF action also abolished the analgesic effect of ropivacaine on neuropathic pain. Conclusions Ropivacaine provides prolonged analgesia possibly by suppressing microglial activation in an NGF-dependent manner and astrocyte activation in an NGF-independent manner in the dorsal spinal cord. Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, may represent a new approach for glial cell inhibition and, therefore, therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain.

  4. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Secretomes of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura-Wakayama, Yukiko; Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Ogata, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Hibi, Hideharu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral nerve regeneration across nerve gaps is often suboptimal, with poor functional recovery. Stem cell transplantation-based regenerative therapy is a promising approach for axon regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve injury; however, the mechanisms remain controversial and unclear. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells promote tissue regeneration through a paracrine mechanism. We investigated the effects of conditioned media derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In vitro, SHED-CM-treated Schwann cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation, migration, and the expression of neuron-, extracellular matrix (ECM)-, and angiogenesis-related genes. SHED-CM stimulated neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and increased cell viability. Similarly, SHED-CM enhanced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay. In vivo, a 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap model was bridged by silicon conduits containing SHED-CM or serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Light and electron microscopy confirmed that the number of myelinated axons and axon-to-fiber ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the SHED-CM group at 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. The sciatic functional index (SFI) and gastrocnemius (target muscle) wet weight ratio demonstrated functional recovery. Increased compound muscle action potentials and increased SFI in the SHED-CM group suggested sciatic nerve reinnervation of the target muscle and improved functional recovery. We also observed reduced muscle atrophy in the SHED-CM group. Thus, SHEDs may secrete various trophic factors that enhance peripheral nerve regeneration through multiple mechanisms. SHED-CM may therefore provide a novel therapy that creates a more desirable extracellular microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26154068

  5. Effects of leptin on sympathetic nerve activity in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald A; Despas, Fabien; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-09-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has emerged as an important regulator of regional sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) with pathophysiological implications in obesity. Genetically engineered mice are useful to understand the molecular pathways underlying the SNA responses evoked by leptin. However, so far the effect of leptin on direct SNA in mice has been studied under general anesthesia. Here, we examined the sympathetic responses evoked by leptin in conscious mice. Mice were instrumented, under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, with renal or lumbar SNA recordings using a thin (40 gauge) bipolar platinum-iridium wire. The electrodes were exteriorized at the nape of the neck and mice were allowed (5 h) to recover from anesthesia. Interestingly, the reflex increases in renal and lumbar SNA caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension was higher in the conscious phase versus the anesthetized state, whereas the increase in both renal and lumbar SNA evoked by leptin did not differ between anesthetized or conscious mice. Next, we assessed whether isoflurane anesthesia would yield a better outcome. Again, the SNP-induced increase in renal SNA and baroreceptor-renal SNA reflex were significantly elevated in the conscious states relative to isoflurane-anesthetized phase, but the renal SNA response induced by leptin in the conscious states were qualitatively comparable to those evoked above. Thus, despite improvement in sympathetic reflexes in conscious mice the sympathetic responses evoked by leptin mimic those induced during anesthesia. PMID:26381017

  6. A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, F P

    2012-06-01

    Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient\\'s needs and resources of the unit.

  7. Radiosensitizing activity and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administered KU-2285 in peripheral nerve tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a clinical trial in which a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer was administered repeatedly, the dose-limiting toxicity was found to be peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, the in vivo radiosensitizing activity of KU-2285 in combination with radiation dose fractionation, and the pharmacokinetics of cumulative dosing of KU-2285 in the peripheral nerves were examined. The ability of three nitroimidazoles, misonidazole (MISO), etanidazole (SR-2508) and KU-2285, to sensitize SCCVII tumors to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-200 mg/kg. Single radiation doses or two different fractionation schedules (6 Gy/fractions x three fractions/48 h or 5 Gy/fractions x five fractions/48 h) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo/in vitro colony assay. The pharmacokinetics in the sciatic nerves were undertaken, when KU-2285 or etanidazole were injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg intravenously one, two, three, or four times at 2-h intervals. At less than 100 mg/kg, KU-2285 sensitized SCCVII tumors more than MISO and SR-2508 by fractionated irradiation. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in the peripheral nerves showed that the apparent biological half-life of SR-2508 increased with the increases in the number of administrations, whereas that of KU-2285 became shorter. Since most clinical radiotherapy is given in small multiple fractions, KU-2285 appears to be a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer that could be useful in such regimens, and that poses no risk of chronic peripheral neurotoxicity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerve conduits are often used in combination with bioactive molecules and stem cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) was immobilized onto the microporous/micropatterned poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits after open air plasma treatment. PLA substrates grafted with chitosan in the presence of a small amount of gold nanoparticles (nano Au) showed a protective effect on the activity of the immobilized FGF1 in vitro. Different conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm critical gap defect in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Axon regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by histology, walking track analysis and electrophysiology. Among different conduits, PLA conduits grafted with chitosan–nano Au and the FGF1 after plasma activation had the greatest regeneration capacity and functional recovery in the experimental animals. When the above conduit was seeded with aligned neural stem cells, the efficacy was further enhanced and it approached that of the autograft group. This work suggested that microporous/micropatterned nerve conduits containing bioactive growth factors may be successfully fabricated by micropatterning techniques, open plasma activation, and immobilization, which, combined with aligned stem cells, may synergistically contribute to the regeneration of the severely damaged peripheral nerve. (paper)

  9. Relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and aortic wave reflection characteristics in young men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Darren P.; Curry, Timothy B; Joyner, Michael J.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with higher levels of aortic wave reflection and aortic blood pressure. Recent evidence suggests a link between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and indices of arterial stiffness. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine 1) the relationship between resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity and characteristics of aortic pressure wave reflection, and 2) the influence of sex on these relationships. In forty-four subjects (23F/21M; 25 ± 1 years...

  10. The plasminogen activator system modulates sympathetic nerve function

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ulrich; Machida, Takuji; Vorlova, Sandra; Strickland, Sidney; Levi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons synthesize and release tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). We investigated whether t-PA modulates sympathetic activity. t-PA inhibition markedly reduced contraction of the guinea pig vas deferens to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and norepinephrine (NE) exocytosis from cardiac synaptosomes. Recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) induced exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE release from cardiac synaptosomes and cultured neuroblastoma cells; this was a plasmin-independent effect but wa...

  11. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M; Laughter, Melissa R; Lee, David J; Lee, Young M; Freed, Curt R; Park, Daewon

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension. PMID:26071111

  12. A nerve guidance conduit with topographical and biochemical cues: potential application using human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip M.; Laughter, Melissa R.; Lee, David J.; Lee, Young M.; Freed, Curt R.; Park, Daewon

    2015-06-01

    Despite major advances in the pathophysiological understanding of peripheral nerve damage, the treatment of nerve injuries still remains an unmet medical need. Nerve guidance conduits present a promising treatment option by providing a growth-permissive environment that 1) promotes neuronal cell survival and axon growth and 2) directs axonal extension. To this end, we designed an electrospun nerve guidance conduit using a blend of polyurea and poly-caprolactone with both biochemical and topographical cues. Biochemical cues were integrated into the conduit by functionalizing the polyurea with RGD to improve cell attachment. Topographical cues that resemble natural nerve tissue were incorporated by introducing intraluminal microchannels aligned with nanofibers. We determined that electrospinning the polymer solution across a two electrode system with dissolvable sucrose fibers produced a polymer conduit with the appropriate biomimetic properties. Human neural stem cells were cultured on the conduit to evaluate its ability to promote neuronal growth and axonal extension. The nerve guidance conduit was shown to enhance cell survival, migration, and guide neurite extension.

  13. Involvement of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in leptin-induced sympathetic nerve activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, leptin released from the white adipose tissue acts on the central nervous system to control feeding behavior, cardiovascular function, and energy metabolism. Central leptin activates sympathetic nerves that innervate the kidney, adipose tissue, and some abdominal organs in rats. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential in the intracellular signaling pathway involving the activation of leptin receptors (ObRb). We investigated the potential of AMPK?2 in the sympathetic effects of leptin using in vivo siRNA injection to knockdown AMPK?2 in rats, to produce reduced hypothalamic AMPK?2 expression. Leptin effects on body weight, food intake, and blood FFA levels were eliminated in AMPK?2 siRNA-treated rats. Leptin-evoked enhancements of the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney, brown and white adipose tissues were attenuated in AMPK?2 siRNA-treated rats. To check whether AMPK?2 was specific to sympathetic changes induced by leptin, we examined the effects of injecting MT-II, a melanocortin-3 and -4 receptor agonist, on the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney and adipose tissue. MT-II-induced sympatho-excitation in the kidney was unchanged in AMPK?2 siRNA-treated rats. However, responses of neural activities involving adipose tissue to MT-II were attenuated in AMPK?2 siRNA-treated rats. These results suggest that hypothalamic AMPK?2 is involved not only in appetite and body weight regulation but also in the regulation of sympathetic nerve discharges to the kidney and adipose tissue. Thus, AMPK might function not only as an energy sensor, but as a key molecule in the cardiovascular, thermogenic, and lipolytic effects of leptin through the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:23418591

  14. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J.; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Hoving, Julian J.A.; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a ‘bridge’ of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as “tracks” to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  15. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E; Hoving, Julian J A; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C

    2015-08-27

    The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a 'bridge' of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as "tracks" to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  16. Early gene regulation by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells: induction of an interferon-related gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirone, F; Shooter, E M

    1989-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces the chromaffin cell line PC12 to differentiate into cells with many of the properties of sympathetic neurons. We investigated the early differentiative phase and identified a gene, PC4, rapidly and transiently induced by NGF in PC12 cells. PC4 cDNA is homologous to the partial sequence of a putative mouse beta-interferon and encodes a protein related to a lymphokine, the rat gamma-interferon protein. Nonetheless, PC4 appears devoid of antiviral activity. PC4 ...

  17. Evaluation of Na+/K+ pump function following repetitive activity in mouse peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    After conduction of prolonged trains of impulses the increased Na+/K+ pump activity leads to hyperpolarization. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to investigate the Na+/K+ pump function in peripheral nerve by measuring the decrease in excitability during activity-dependent hyperpolarization. Acute electrophysiological investigations were carried out in seven adult mice. Nerve excitability was evaluated by tracking the change in threshold current after 5 min of 100 Hz stimulation of the tibial nerve at ankle. We developed a threshold tracking system that allowed us to follow several excitability measures simultaneously from the evoked plantar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and sciatic compound nerve action potential (CNAP). Three minutes after repetitive supramaximal stimulation maximal CMAP and CNAP amplitudes recovered but the threshold was increased approximately 40% for motor axons approximately 34% for axons generating CNAP. The threshold recovered with a rate of 3.8%/minute thatwas similar for nerve and motor responses. By tracking the effect of polarizing currents we found evidence of activity dependent hyperpolarization, and our data suggest that the observed threshold change after repetitive stimulation of the mouse tibial nerve is an indicator of the Na+/K+ pump function in vivo. Evaluation of activity-dependent hyperpolarization may be an important indicator of axonal ability to cope with Na+ load.

  18. Regulating Schwann cells growth by chitosan micropatterning for peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Zhao, Xueying; Zhang, Luzhong; Wang, Caiping; Shi, Yunwei; Yang, Yumin

    2014-08-01

    To address the effect of chitosan micropatterning on nerve regeneration, two sizes of parallel microstripes of chitosan are fabricated on the surface of coverslips using a micromodeling method. The morphology of the prepared polydimethylsiloxane stamps and chitosan micropatterning is observed by scanning electron microscopy and the wettability of the prepared micropatterning is evaluated using water contact-angle measurements. Schwann cell (SC) culture is used to evaluate the effect of chitosan micropatterning on cell behavior. The results show that the stripe-like chitosan micropatterning can be successfully fabricated on coverslip surfaces. SCs on 30/30??m chitosan micropatterning shows the most obvious cell orientation. Moreover, the secretion of nerve growth factor by SCs indicate that the chitosan micropatterning has no negative influence on the normal physiological function of the cells. Thus, the study suggests that chitosan micropatterning can induce and regulate the growth of SCs well, which may have potential application in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24757089

  19. Effect on pancreatic beta cells and nerve cells by low let x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured pancreatic beta cells and nerve cells, it is given normal condition of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 11.1 mM glucose and hyperglycemia condition of 1% FBS, 30 mM glucose. For low LET X-ray irradiated with 0.5 Gy/hr dose-rate(total dose: 0.5 to 5 Gy). Survival rates were measured by MTT assay. When non irradiated, differentiated in the pancreatic beta cells experiment is hyperglycemia conditions survival rate compared to normal conditions survival rate seemed a small reduction. However increasing the total dose of X-ray, the survival rate of normal conditions decreased slightly compared to the survival rate of hyperglycemia conditions, the synergistic effect was drastically reduced. When non irradiated, undifferentiated in the nerve cells experiment is hyperglycemia conditions survival rate compared to normal conditions survival rate seemed a large reduction. As the cumulative dose of X-ray normal conditions and hyperglycemia were all relatively rapid cell death. But the rate of decreased survivals by almost parallel to the reduction proceed and it didn't show synergistic effect

  20. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediate prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    Stretton, D; Miura, M.; Belvisi, M. G.; Barnes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Activation of several receptors, including mu-opioid, alpha 2-adrenergic, and neuropeptide Y receptors, inhibits excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) neural responses in airways, which were mediated by the release of peptides from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. This raises the possibility of a common inhibitory mechanism, which may be related to an increase in K+ conductance in sensory nerves. To examine this hypothesis, we have studied whether K(+)-channel blockers inhibit the...

  1. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was found with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel grafts than with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grafts and the autologous nerve grafts.

  2. Three dimensional analysis of Schwann cells associated with unmyelinated nerve fibres in human sural nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, F.; Behse, F.

    1980-01-01

    In a cross section the profile of one or several unmyelinated axons is embraced by profiles of one or several Schwann cells, all surrounded by a basal lamina. Reconstructions demonstrate that this complex structure is the result of overlap and regrouping of contiguous Schwann cells and only to a lesser extent to branching of Schwann cells. More than half the 36 Schwann cells reconstructed did not branch within the 200 micrometer analysed, and one fourth had two branches. Notwithstanding the r...

  3. Electrophysiological study in the infraorbital nerve of the rat: Spontaneous and evoked activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlbarracIn, A L [Catedra de Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Av. Roca 2200, PC 4000 (Argentina); Farfan, F D [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, PC 4000 (Argentina); Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, PC 4000 (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this work we present some studies in the afferent nerve of the rat vibrissae. Studies on spontaneous activity (SA) in this sensorial system are of long data. Nevertheless, SA recordings in the nerve of a single vibrissa have not been made until present. In this work, we use an algorithm based on signal decomposition with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyse the discharges of two nerves. The action potentials of both nerves were detected and the firing rates were calculated. These results suggest that the firing rate of one vibrissa innervation is low considering that this nerve contains hundred of fibers. In addition, we present preliminary studies suggesting important effects of the hair shaft length in the afferent discharge during the vibrissae movements. The experiments consisted in recording the nerve activity after the vibrissae were sectioned at two different levels. The results showed important differences in the signal energy contents. It suggests that the hair shaft length would produce a differential activation of the mechanoreceptors located in the vibrissae follicle.

  4. Electrophysiological study in the infraorbital nerve of the rat: Spontaneous and evoked activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present some studies in the afferent nerve of the rat vibrissae. Studies on spontaneous activity (SA) in this sensorial system are of long data. Nevertheless, SA recordings in the nerve of a single vibrissa have not been made until present. In this work, we use an algorithm based on signal decomposition with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyse the discharges of two nerves. The action potentials of both nerves were detected and the firing rates were calculated. These results suggest that the firing rate of one vibrissa innervation is low considering that this nerve contains hundred of fibers. In addition, we present preliminary studies suggesting important effects of the hair shaft length in the afferent discharge during the vibrissae movements. The experiments consisted in recording the nerve activity after the vibrissae were sectioned at two different levels. The results showed important differences in the signal energy contents. It suggests that the hair shaft length would produce a differential activation of the mechanoreceptors located in the vibrissae follicle

  5. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2) Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3) how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4) and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED. PMID:25999359

  6. Mirror-image pain is mediated by nerve growth factor produced from tumor necrosis factor alpha-activated satellite glia after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chau-Fu; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chih-Yang; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Chu, Dachen; Wang, Szu-Yi; Tsaur, Meei-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Mirror-image pain is characterized by mechanical hypersensitivity on the uninjured mirror-image side. Recent reports favor central mechanisms, but whether peripheral mechanisms are involved remains unclear. We used unilateral spinal nerve ligation (SNL) to induce mirror-image pain in rats. On the mirror-image (contralateral) side, we found that satellite glia in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were activated, whereas macrophages/Schwann cells in the DRG and astrocytes/oligodendrocytes/microglia in the dorsal spinal cord were not. Subsequently, an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) was detected in the contralateral DRG, and NGF immunoreactivity was concentrated in activated satellite glia. These phenomena were abolished if fluorocitrate (a glial inhibitor) was intrathecally injected before SNL. Electrophysiological recordings in cultured small DRG neurons showed that exogenous NGF enhanced nociceptor excitability. Intrathecal injection of NGF into naive rats induced long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity, similar to SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. Anti-NGF effectively relieved SNL-evoked mirror-image pain. In the contralateral DRG, the SNL-evoked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) increase, which started later than in the ipsilateral DRG and cerebrospinal fluid, occurred earlier than satellite glial activation and the NGF increase. Intrathecal injection of TNF-? into naive rats not only activated satellite glia to produce extra NGF in the DRG but also evoked mechanical hypersensitivity, which could be attenuated by anti-NGF injection. These results suggest that after SNL, satellite glia in the contralateral DRG are activated by TNF-? that diffuses from the injured side via cerebrospinal fluid, which then activates satellite glia to produce extra NGF to enhance nociceptor excitability, which induces mirror-image pain. PMID:24447514

  7. Uptake of 3H-thymidine by the receptor cell populations after injury of the sensory nerve fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material of the study was the skin from the beak of two-day ducklings. The investigation was carried out on the 2nd, 5th, 20th and 45th day after the crushing of the sensory nerve fibres entering the capsulated Herbst receptors. Twenty four hours before the biopsy, the ducklings were injected at 6 hours intervals with 3H-thymidine. The number of labelled index in the three cell pupulations, participating in the receptor development was determined. The cells of the subcapsular space of all control animals (with intacted suborbital nerves) have shown the highest labelled index. The index of the capsular perineural cells is about 12 times lower, while the labelled index of the Schwann receptor cells is about 10 times lower. Following the denervation, the labelled index in increasing and reaches its maximum on the 5th postoperative day. The Schwann receptor cells in comparison to the two other cell populations show the most significant deviation during the regeneration (45th day after the intervention). The investigations show that all three cell populations pass through a miotic cycle of innovation. The low labelled index of the Schwann receptors (1-2 labelled cells in 1000) is an indication of a high differentiation. One can assume that their regeneration takes place at the expense of the proper proliferation activity as well as of the differentiation of the Schwann cells from the distal section of the regenerating sensory nerve fibres. Taking into consideration the high labelled index of the other populations, it seems most probable that their regeneration takes place for the expense of their own cell populations. (A.B.)

  8. Computation of induced electric field for the sacral nerve activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induced electric field/current in the sacral nerve by stimulation devices for the treatment of bladder overactivity is investigated. Implanted and transcutaneous electrode configurations are considered. The electric field induced in the sacral nerve by the implanted electrode is largely affected by its surrounding tissues, which is attributable to the variation in the input impedance of the electrode. In contrast, the electric field induced by the transcutaneous electrode is affected by the tissue conductivity and anatomical composition of the body. In addition, the electric field induced in the subcutaneous fat in close proximity of the electrode is comparable with the estimated threshold electric field for pain. These computational findings explain the clinically observed weakness and side effect of each configuration. For the transcutaneous stimulator, we suggest that the electrode contact area be increased to reduce the induced electric field in the subcutaneous fat. (paper)

  9. Computation of induced electric field for the sacral nerve activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Takagi, Airi; Shimada, Takuo

    2013-11-01

    The induced electric field/current in the sacral nerve by stimulation devices for the treatment of bladder overactivity is investigated. Implanted and transcutaneous electrode configurations are considered. The electric field induced in the sacral nerve by the implanted electrode is largely affected by its surrounding tissues, which is attributable to the variation in the input impedance of the electrode. In contrast, the electric field induced by the transcutaneous electrode is affected by the tissue conductivity and anatomical composition of the body. In addition, the electric field induced in the subcutaneous fat in close proximity of the electrode is comparable with the estimated threshold electric field for pain. These computational findings explain the clinically observed weakness and side effect of each configuration. For the transcutaneous stimulator, we suggest that the electrode contact area be increased to reduce the induced electric field in the subcutaneous fat.

  10. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promote peripheral nerve repair via paracrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yuan Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs represent a promising young-state stem cell source for cell-based therapy. hUCMSC transplantation into the transected sciatic nerve promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery. To further clarify the paracrine effects of hUCMSCs on nerve regeneration, we performed human cytokine antibody array analysis, which revealed that hUCMSCs express 14 important neurotrophic factors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, neurotrophin-3, basic fibroblast growth factor, type I collagen, fibronectin and laminin were highly expressed. Treatment with hUCMSC-conditioned medium enhanced Schwann cell viability and proliferation, increased nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in Schwann cells, and enhanced neurite growth from dorsal root ganglion explants. These findings suggest that paracrine action may be a key mechanism underlying the effects of hUCMSCs in peripheral nerve repair.

  11. Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Ping; Lu, Xiaocheng; Chen, Jianghai; CHEN, ZHENBING

    2014-01-01

    Artificial guidance channels containing Schwann cells can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve over long distances. However, primary Schwann cells are not suitable for autotransplantation. Under specific conditions, skin-derived progenitors can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells. Therefore, adult rat dorsal skin (dermis)-derived progenitors were isolated and induced to differentiate with DMEM/F12 containing B27, neuregulin 1, and forskolin. Immunofluorescence stain...

  12. Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Bart N

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is increasingly recognised that the immune and nervous systems are closely integrated to optimise defence systems within the lung. In this commentary, the contribution of various neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin to the regulation of T cell activation is discussed. These neuropeptides are released not only from nerve endings but also from inflammatory immune cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells, eosinophils and mast cells. On release they can exert both direct stimulatory and inhibitory effects on T cell activation and also indirect effects through their influence on the recruitment and activation of professional antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Neuropeptides should therefore be included in the conceptual framework of the immune regulation of T cell function by dendritic cells.

  13. The rate of diffusion of Ca2+ and Ba2+ in a nerve cell body.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasi, E.; Tillotson, D

    1985-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed to directly measure the diffusion rate of Ca2+ and some other ions in nerve cell bodies, using pulsed ionophoretic injections and an optical microprobe to record locally absorbance changes of the dye arsenazo III. We report here that Ca2+ and Ba2+ diffuse at approximately the same rate in nerve soma cytoplasm, having effective diffusion coefficients in the range of 7-12 X 10(-7) cm2/s, while identical measurements conducted in an electrolytic solution...

  14. Simultaneous cell death in the trigeminal ganglion and in ganglion neurons present in the oculomotor nerve of the bovine fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolami, R; Lucchi, M L; Callegari, E; Barazzoni, A M; Costerbosa, G L; Scapolo, P A

    1990-01-01

    A well-developed ganglion and scattered ganglion cells are present in the intracranial portion of the oculomotor nerve during the first half of fetal life in the ox. In the second half of fetal life a dramatic reduction of the ganglion cells associated with the oculomotor nerve occurs because of spontaneous cell death. Concomitantly, the same phenomenon of cell death is found in the trigeminal ganglion, especially in its rostromedial portion. Free degenerating perikarya can be found in the ca...

  15. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediate prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, D; Miura, M; Belvisi, M G; Barnes, P J

    1992-02-15

    Activation of several receptors, including mu-opioid, alpha 2-adrenergic, and neuropeptide Y receptors, inhibits excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) neural responses in airways, which were mediated by the release of peptides from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. This raises the possibility of a common inhibitory mechanism, which may be related to an increase in K+ conductance in sensory nerves. To examine this hypothesis, we have studied whether K(+)-channel blockers inhibit the effects of neuromodulators of sensory nerves in guinea pig bronchi by using selective K(+)-channel blockers. Charybdotoxin (ChTX; 10 nM), which blocks large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel function, completely blocked and reversed the inhibitory effects of a mu-opioid agonist, neuropeptide Y, and an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist on excitatory NANC responses. Neither inhibitors of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (BRL 31660 or glibenclamide, both at 10 microM) nor an inhibitor of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels (apamin; 0.1 microM) were effective. This suggests that ChTX-sensitive K(+)-channel activation may be a common mechanism for the prejunctional modulation of sensory nerves in airways. This may have important implications for the control of neurogenic inflammation. PMID:1371356

  16. Hirschsprungs disease: Is there a relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Yadav, Kiran Mishra, Anup Mohta, Sarla Agarwal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To define the topography of mast cells and their numbers in cases of Hirschsprung’s disease (HD and non-HD, assess neural hypertrophy using imaging software and to study the relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers.METHODS: HE stained sections of 32 cases of chronic constipation in the age group of 0-14 years were reviewed for ganglion cells. AChE staining was performed on frozen sections of colonic and rectal biopsies. Based on their findings cases were divided into HD and non-HD and mast cells stained by toluidine blue were evaluated. Image analysis by computerized software was applied to S-100 stained sections for assessment of neural hypertrophy.RESULTS: Difference between number of mast cells in HD group (mean = 36.44 and in non-HD group (mean = 14.79 was statistically significant. Image analysis morphometry on S-100 stained sections served as a useful adjunct. The difference between number, size, and perimeter of the nerve fibers between HD and non-HD group was statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Mast cells are significantly increased in HD and their base line values are much higher in Indian children than that reported in Western literature. Their role in HD needs further research. Morphometry of S-100 stained nerve fibers is a useful adjunct to conventional methods for diagnosis of HD.

  17. Synovial sarcoma of nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Scheithauer, BW; Amrami, KK; Folpe, AL; Silva, AI; Edgar, MA; Woodruff, JM; Levi, AD; Spinner, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Tumors of peripheral nerve are largely neuroectodermal in nature and derived from 2 elements of nerve, Schwann or perineurial cells. In contrast, mesenchymal tumors affecting peripheral nerve are rare and are derived mainly from epineurial connective tissue. The spectrum of the latter is broad and includes lipoma, vascular neoplasms, hematopoietic tumors, and even meningioma. Of malignant peripheral nerve neoplasms, the vast majority are primary peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Malignancies of...

  18. Phase-based probabilistic active contour for nerve detection in ultrasound images for regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiane, Adel; Vieyres, Pierre; Delbos, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) is steadily growing in popularity, owing to advances in ultrasound imaging technology and the advantages that this technique presents for safety and efficiency. The aim of this work is to assist anaesthetists during the UGRA procedure by automatically detecting the nerve blocks in the ultrasound images. The main disadvantage of ultrasound images is the poor quality of the images, which are also affected by the speckle noise. Moreover, the nerve structure is not salient amid the other tissues, which makes its detection a challenging problem. In this paper we propose a new method to tackle the problem of nerve zone detection in ultrasound images. The method consists in a combination of three approaches: probabilistic, edge phase information and active contours. The gradient vector flow (GVF) is adopted as an edge-based active contour. The phase analysis of the monogenic signal is used to provide reliable edges for the GVF. Then, a learned probabilistic model reduces the false positives and increases the likelihood energy term of the target region. It yields a new external force field that attracts the active contour toward the desired region of interest. The proposed scheme has been applied to sciatic nerve regions. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations show a high accuracy and a significant improvement in performance. PMID:25016592

  19. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration of crush-injured rat sciatic nerves?

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Mi-Ae; Jung, Hun Jong; Lee, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jin-yong; Pang, Kang-Mi; Yoo, Sang Bae; Alrashdan, Mohammad S.; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can promote neural regeneration following brain injury. However, the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in guiding peripheral nerve regeneration remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Hu...

  20. Effect of axon misdirection on recovery of electromyographic activity and kinematics after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Manning J; To, Bao Ngoc; Nicolini, Jennifer; English, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    In this study, patterns of activity in the soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and hindlimb kinematics were evaluated during slope walking in rats after transection and surgical repair either of the entire sciatic nerve (Sci group) or of its two branches separately, the tibial and common fibular nerves (T/CF group). With the latter method, axons from the tibial and common fibular nerves could not reinnervate targets of the other nerve branch after injury, reducing the opportunity for misdirection. Activity in the TA shifted from the swing phase in intact rats to nearly the entire step cycle in both injured groups. Since these changes occur without misdirection of regenerating axons, they are interpreted as centrally generated. Sol activity was changed from reciprocal to that of TA in intact rats to coactivate with TA, but only in the Sci group rats. In the T/CF group rats, Sol activity was not altered from that observed in intact rats. Despite effects of injury that limited foot movements, hindlimb kinematics were conserved during downslope walking in both injury groups and during level walking in the T/CF group. During level walking in the Sci group and during upslope walking in both groups of injured rats, the ability to compensate for the effects of the nerve injury was less effective and resulted in longer limb lengths held at more acute angles throughout the step cycle. Changes in limb movements occur irrespective of axon misdirection and reflect compensatory changes in the outputs of the neural circuits that drive locomotion. PMID:21411964

  1. Nerve-Langerhans cell interactions in diabetes and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Argenia L.N.; Smith, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous infections are a leading cause of hospitalization of diabetic patients. Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cutaneous dendritic cells that protect against infections, and effects of diabetes and aging on these cells are unclear. We examined LCs in footpads of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes at 3 months of age following 4 weeks of diabetes, and at 6 months following 16 weeks of diabetes. Immunostaining of LCs using the selective marker protein langerin showed cuta...

  2. Monitoring of immune cell response to B cell depletion therapy and nerve root injury using SPIO enhanced MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorek, Daniel L.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is a robust platform for non-invasive, high-resolution anatomical imaging. However, MR imaging lacks the requisite sensitivity and contrast for imaging at the cellular level. This represents a clinical impediment to greater diagnostic accuracy. Recent advances have allowed for the in vivo visualization of populations and even of individual cells using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MR contrast agents. These nanoparticles, commonly manifested as a core of a single iron oxide crystal or cluster of crystals coated in a biocompatible shell, function to shorten proton relaxation times. In MR imaging these constructs locally dephase protons, resulting in a decrease in signal (hypointensity) localized to the region of accumulation of SPIO. In the context of immune cell imaging, SPIO can provide insight into the cellular migration patterns, trafficking, temporal dynamics and progression of diseases and their related pathological states. Furthermore, by visualizing the presence and activity of immune cells, SPIO-enabled cellular imaging can help evaluate the efficacy of therapy in immune disorders. This thesis examines the production, modification and application of SPIO in a range of in vitro and in vivo immune-response-relevant cellular systems. The role of different nanoparticle characteristics including diameter, surface charge and concentration are investigated in the labeling of T cells in culture. Following optimization of SPIO loading conditions for lymphocytes, the effect these particles have on the activation of primary B cells are elucidated. B cells are tracked using a variety of modalities, with and without the application of B cell depleting therapy. This is to evaluate the efficacy of SPIO as in vivo marker for B cell distribution. Unmodified SPIO were applied to monitor macrophage infiltration in a transient nerve root compression model, with implications for neck pain diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticle accumulation and MR hypointensity was correlated to the presence of activated macrophage at the site of injury. Taken together, the application of SPIO to study nanoparticle uptake in vitro and visualization of immune cells in vivo provide a basis for advanced study and diagnosis of diverse pathologies.

  3. Whole body heat stress attenuates baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during postexercise muscle ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Davis, Scott L.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-01-01

    Both whole body heat stress and stimulation of muscle metabolic receptors activate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) through nonbaroreflex pathways. In addition to stimulating muscle metaboreceptors, exercise has the potential to increase internal temperature. Although we and others report that passive whole body heating does not alter the gain of the arterial baroreflex, it is unknown whether increased body temperature, often accompanying exercise, affects baroreflex function when mus...

  4. Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation: Signaling Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Consequences in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmouni, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part by inducing hypertension. One factor linking excess fat mass to cardiovascular diseases may be the sympathetic cardiovascular actions of leptin. Initial studies of leptin showed it regulates appetite and enhances energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Further study, however, demonstrated leptin also causes sympathetic excitation to the kidney that, in turn, increase...

  5. Large A-fiber activity is required for microglial proliferation and p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord: different effects of resiniferatoxin and bupivacaine on spinal microglial changes after spared nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decosterd Isabelle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After peripheral nerve injury, spontaneous ectopic activity arising from the peripheral axons plays an important role in inducing central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Recent evidence indicates that activation of spinal cord microglia also contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. In particular, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in spinal microglia is required for the development of mechanical allodynia. However, activity-dependent activation of microglia after nerve injury has not been fully addressed. To determine whether spontaneous activity from C- or A-fibers is required for microglial activation, we used resiniferatoxin (RTX to block the conduction of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 positive fibers (mostly C- and A?-fibers and bupivacaine microspheres to block all fibers of the sciatic nerve in rats before spared nerve injury (SNI, and observed spinal microglial changes 2 days later. Results SNI induced robust mechanical allodynia and p38 activation in spinal microglia. SNI also induced marked cell proliferation in the spinal cord, and all the proliferating cells (BrdU+ were microglia (Iba1+. Bupivacaine induced a complete sensory and motor blockade and also significantly inhibited p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. In contrast, and although it produced an efficient nociceptive block, RTX failed to inhibit p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. Conclusion (1 Blocking peripheral input in TRPV1-positive fibers (presumably C-fibers is not enough to prevent nerve injury-induced spinal microglial activation. (2 Peripheral input from large myelinated fibers is important for microglial activation. (3 Microglial activation is associated with mechanical allodynia.

  6. Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hi...

  7. A Silent Period of Levator Palpebrae Activity Induced By Median Nerve Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi UYSAL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Background: Levator palpebrae muscle is known to have a tonic activity which is inhibited in conditions where consciousness is lost. Therefore, there must be a direct relationship between ascending reticular activating system and nucleus of levator palpebrae in brainstem.Objectives: In this study, we have investigated electrophysiological clues related to this hypothesis. Material and Methods: We examined 6 patients with total peripheral-type facial palsy. A needle electromyogram electrode was used to record levator palpebrae muscle activity during median nerve stimulation. While the eyes were open, we stimulated the median nerve at the wrist with 0.5-1 msec. stimuli. We recorded the reflex activity of the levator palpebrae muscle.Results: We report that median stimulation produced a silent period with the duration of 25±4 msec. However, there was no similar silent period in the orbicularis oculi muscle with the stimulation of the median nerve in the normal side.Conclusions: This silent period may be an electrophysiological sign of the relationship between the ascending reticular activating system and the levator palpebrae muscle. Although this pattern was in fact an inhibitory type it could also be a polysynaptic reflex relationship of excitatory type since it leads to inhibition during sleep, as well.

  8. Diffuse Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Optic Nerve Does Not Elicit Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiaqiong; Fox, Michael A.; Povlishock, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the morbidity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Although most TAI studies focus on corpus callosum white matter, the visual system has received increased interest. To assess visual system TAI, we developed a mouse model of optic nerve TAI. It is unknown, however, whether this TAI causes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. To address this issue, YFP-16 transgenic mice were subjected to mild TBI and followed from 2 to 28 days. Neithe...

  9. Electrically evoked auditory nerve responses in the cochlea with normal outer hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Tianying; Guo, Menghe; He, Wenxuan; Miller, Josef M; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    As hybrid cochlear implant devices are increasingly used for restoring hearing in patients with residual hearing it is important to understand electrically evoked responses in cochleae having functional hair cells. To test the hypothesis that extracochlear electrical stimulation (EES) from sinusoidal current can provoke an auditory nerve response with normal frequency selectivity, the EES-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) was investigated in this study. Brief sinusoidal electrical curre...

  10. Alterations in protein synthetic capability of nerve cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, D M; Neary, D.; Yates, P O; Lincoln, J.; Snowden, J S; Stanworth, P

    1981-01-01

    Cytoplasmic RNA content, nuclear and nucleolar volume are all significantly reduced in nerve cells of the temporal cortex in cases of Alzheimer's disease, examined both at diagnostic craniotomy and post mortem, when compared with non=demented control cases of similar age. On average, at necropsy, all three parameters are equally reduced by about 40-50%, but in biopsy cases, nuclear volume is decreased by the greatest amount (43%), followed by nucleolar volume is decreased by the greatest amou...

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Sean D; Lang, Susan M; Simmonds, Sarah S; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2015-12-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or polysynaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to cerebrospinal fluid hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15 mol/L, 0.6 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L NaCl (5 µL/10 minutes) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure, despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally projecting RVLM neurons revealed 3 distinct populations based on discharge responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl: type I excited (46%; 11/24), type II inhibited (37%; 9/24), and type III no change (17%; 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26416846

  12. Enhancement of Median Nerve Regeneration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment in an Absorbable Conduit: Improvement of Peripheral Nerve Morphology with Enlargement of Somatosensory Cortical Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teixeira Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN, 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1, electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in 3 groups: MN Intact (n=4, PCL-Only (n=3 and PCL+MSC (n=3. Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group or without (PCL-Only group injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to 5 animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383±390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively than the PCL-Only group (2,226±575 fibers; 1.6 mm2. In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

  13. Isogenic venous graft supported with bone marrow stromal cells as a natural conduit for bridging a 20 mm nerve gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, Tim H J; Brzezicki, Grzegorz; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Siemionow, Maria

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a technique for bridging large neural gaps, using an isogenic vein graft supported with isogenic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). In three groups a nerve defect of 20 mm was bridged with a vein graft. Our first experimental group comprized an empty venous graft, in group II the venous nerve graft was filled with saline where as in group III the venous nerve graft was filled with BMSC. The animals were tested for functional recovery up to 3 months post repair. Our results show that the BMSC filled venous graft resulted in significantly better regeneration of the nerve defect compared to controls, as confirmed by the functional recovery measured by somatosensory evoked potentials, toe spread, pin prick, and gastrocnemius muscle index. Conclusively, the results confirm that the vein graft supported with BMSC is associated with better functional nerve regeneration. PMID:20842703

  14. SMN requirement for synaptic vesicle, active zone and microtubule postnatal organization in motor nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Benito, Laura; Neher, Margret Feodora; Cano, Raquel; Ruiz, Rocio; Tabares, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Low levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein produce Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a severe monogenetic disease in infants characterized by muscle weakness and impaired synaptic transmission. We report here severe structural and functional alterations in the organization of the organelles and the cytoskeleton of motor nerve terminals in a mouse model of SMA. The decrease in SMN levels resulted in the clustering of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and Active Zones (AZs), reduction in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the recycling pool (RP) of synaptic vesicles, a decrease in active mitochondria and limiting of neurofilament and microtubule maturation. We propose that SMN is essential for the normal postnatal maturation of motor nerve terminals and that SMN deficiency disrupts the presynaptic organization leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:22022549

  15. LEPTIN SIGNALING IN THE NUCLEUS TRACTUS SOLITARII INCREASES SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY TO THE KIDNEY

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Allyn L.; Agassandian, Khristofor; Morgan, Donald A.; Liu, Xuebo; Cassell, Martin D; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was initially regarded as the principal site of leptin action, but there is increasing evidence for functional leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) in extra-hypothalamic sites, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). We previously demonstrated that arcuate injection of leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown adipose tissue (BAT) and kidney. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leptin signaling in the NTS affects sympathetic neural outflow...

  16. Is polycystic ovary syndrome associated with high sympathetic nerve activity and size at birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Sverrisdóttir, YB; Mogren, T; J. Kataoka; Janson, PO; Stener-Victorin, E

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disturbance among women of reproductive age and is proposed to be linked with size at birth and increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. A disturbance in the sympathetic nervous system may contribute to the etiology of PCOS. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in PCOS and its relation to size at birth. Directly recorded sympathetic nerve activity to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA) was obtained in 20 women with PCO...

  17. A PET activation study of brush-evoked allodynia in patients with nerve injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Kupers, Ron; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    Acute experimental brush-evoked allodynia induces a cortical activation pattern that differs from that typically seen during experimental nociceptive pain. In this study, we used positron emission tomography to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with clinical allodynia. Nine patients with peripheral nerve injury were scanned during rest, brush-evoked allodynia, and brushing of normal contralateral skin. PET data were analyzed for the whole group and for single sub...

  18. SMN Requirement for Synaptic Vesicle, Active Zone and Microtubule Postnatal Organization in Motor Nerve Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Benito, Laura; Neher, Margret Feodora; Cano, Raquel; Ruiz, Rocio; Tabares, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Low levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein produce Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a severe monogenetic disease in infants characterized by muscle weakness and impaired synaptic transmission. We report here severe structural and functional alterations in the organization of the organelles and the cytoskeleton of motor nerve terminals in a mouse model of SMA. The decrease in SMN levels resulted in the clustering of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and Active Zones (AZs), reduction in the size...

  19. Up-regulation of P2X7 receptors mediating proliferation of Schwann cells after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xian-min; Xu, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Jiao; Guo, Zhili; Li, Jian; He, Cheng; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Yuan, Hongbin; Xiang, Zhenghua

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease, which results in a partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, leading to a decrease in quality of life. Schwann cells play a vital role in maintaining the peripheral nervous system and in injury and repair. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, calcium assay and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assay, the present study clearly demonstrated that P2X7 receptors (R) were expressed in myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells in longitudinal sections of sciatic nerves. After sciatic nerve injury (SNI), P2X7R expression in Schwann cells of injured sciatic nerves was significantly up-regulated during the early days of SNI. Double immunofluorescence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and P2X7R implied that P2X7R may be involved in proliferation of Schwann cells. Further experiments on primary cultures of Schwann cells showed that P2X7R are functionally expressed in Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerves; ATP via P2X7R can promote Schwann cell proliferation, possibly via the MAPK/ERK intracellular signalling pathway. Other possible roles of P2X7R on Schwann cells are discussed. PMID:25682129

  20. Amylin acts in the central nervous system to increase sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Zhang, Zhongming; Morgan, Donald A; Guo, Deng-Fu; Russo, Andrew F; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin acts in the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease food intake and body weight. We hypothesized that amylin action in the CNS promotes energy expenditure by increasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. In mice, ip administration of amylin significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. In addition, mice treated with intracerebroventricular (icv) amylin (0.1 and 0.2 nmol) exhibited a dose-related decrease in food intake and body weight, measured 4 and 24 hours after treatment. The icv injection of amylin also increased body temperature in mice. Using direct multifiber sympathetic nerve recording, we found that icv amylin elicited a significant and dose-dependent increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) subserving thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT). Of note, icv injection of amylin also evoked a significant and dose-related increase in lumbar and renal SNA. Importantly, icv pretreatment with the amylin receptor antagonist AC187 (20 nmol) abolished the BAT SNA response induced by icv amylin, indicating that the sympathetic effects of amylin are receptor-mediated. Conversely, icv amylin-induced BAT SNA response was enhanced in mice overexpressing the amylin receptor subunit, RAMP1 (receptor-activity modifying protein 1), in the CNS. Our data demonstrate that CNS action of amylin regulates sympathetic nerve outflow to peripheral tissues involved in energy balance and cardiovascular function. PMID:23645151

  1. Damage and repair of nerve cell DNA in toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisby, G E; Kabel, H; Hugon, J; Spencer, P

    1999-08-01

    It is generally agreed that ALS/PDC is triggered by a disappearing environmental factor peculiar to the lifestyle of people of the western Pacific (i.e., Guam, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and the Kii Peninsula of Japan). A strong candidate is the cycad plant genotoxin cycasin, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol (MAM). We propose that prenatal or postnatal exposure to low levels of cycasin/MAM may damage neuronal DNA, compromise DNA repair, perturb neuronal gene expression, and irreversibly alter cell function to precipitate a slowly evolving disease ("slow-toxin" hypothesis). In support of our hypothesis, we have demonstrated the following: 1. DNA from postmitotic rodent central nervous system neurons is particularly sensitive to damage by MAM. 2. MAM reduces DNA repair in human and rodent neurons, whereas DNA-repair inhibitors potentiate MAM-induced DNA damage and toxicity in mature rodent nervous tissue. 3. Human neurons (SY5Y neuroblastoma) that are deficient in DNA repair are susceptible to MAM-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage, whereas overexpression of DNA repair in similar cells is protective. 4. MAM alters gene expression in SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and, in the presence of DNA damage and reduced DNA repair, enhances glutamate-modulated expression of tau mRNA in rat primary neurons; the corresponding protein (TAU) is elevated in ALS/PDC and Alzheimer's disease. These findings support a direct relationship between MAM-induced DNA damage and neurotoxicity and suggest the genotoxin may operate in a similar manner in vivo. More broadly, a combination of genotoxin-induced DNA damage (via exogenous and/or endogenous agents) and disturbed DNA repair may be important contributing factors in the slow and progressive degeneration of neurons that is characteristic of sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary studies demonstrate that DNA repair is reduced in the brain of subjects with western Pacific ALS/PDC, ALS, and Alzheimer's disease, which would increase the susceptibility of brain tissue to DNA damage by endogenous/exogenous genotoxins. Interindividual differences in the extent of prior exposure to DNA-damaging agents and/or the efficiency of its repair might produce population variety in the rate of damage accumulation and explain the susceptibility of certain individuals to sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Studies are underway using DNA-repair proficient and deficient neuronal cell cultures and mutant mice to explore gene-environment interplay with respect to MAM treatment, DNA damage, and DNA repair, and the age-related appearance of neurobehavioral and neuropathological compromise. PMID:10461542

  2. The rate of diffusion of Ca2+ and Ba2+ in a nerve cell body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, E; Tillotson, D

    1985-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed to directly measure the diffusion rate of Ca2+ and some other ions in nerve cell bodies, using pulsed ionophoretic injections and an optical microprobe to record locally absorbance changes of the dye arsenazo III. We report here that Ca2+ and Ba2+ diffuse at approximately the same rate in nerve soma cytoplasm, having effective diffusion coefficients in the range of 7-12 X 10(-7) cm2/s, while identical measurements conducted in an electrolytic solution yielded values of 5.2 X 10(-6) cm2/s for Ca and 5.4 X 10(-6) cm2/s for Ba. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular concentration of free Ca. PMID:4016193

  3. Up-regulation of platelet-activating factor synthases and its receptor in spinal cord contribute to development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okubo Masamichi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is a lipid mediator derived from cell membrane. It has been reported that PAF is involved in various pathological conditions, such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and intrathecal administration of PAF leads to tactile allodynia. However, the expression of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury is unknown. Methods Using the rat spared nerve injury (SNI model, we investigated the expression of PAF synthases (LPCAT1 and 2 and PAF receptor (PAFr mRNAs in the spinal cord. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and double-labeling analysis of in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH with immunohistochemistry (IHC were employed for the analyses. Pain behaviors were also examined with PAFr antagonist (WEB2086. Results RT-PCR showed that LPCAT2 mRNA was increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord after injury, but not LPCAT1 mRNA. Double-labeling of ISHH with IHC revealed that LPCAT1 and 2 mRNAs were constitutively expressed by a subset of neurons, and LPCAT2 mRNA was increased in spinal microglia after nerve injury. RT-PCR showed that PAFr mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral spinal cord after nerve injury. Double-labeling analysis of ISHH with IHC revealed that after injury PAFr mRNA was predominantly colocalized with microglia in the spinal cord. Continuous intrathecal administration of the PAFr antagonist suppressed mechanical allodynia following peripheral nerve injury. Delayed administration of a PAFr antagonist did not reverse the mechanical allodynia. Conclusions Our data show the histological localization of PAF synthases and its receptor in the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury, and suggest that PAF/PAFr signaling in the spinal cord acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner among the activated microglia and neurons, thus contributing to development of neuropathic pain.

  4. Vagal nerve stimulation activates vagal afferent fibers that reduce cardiac efferent parasympathetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kentaro; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Yagishita, Daigo; So, Eileen L; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar

    2015-11-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to have antiarrhythmic effects, but many of these benefits were demonstrated in the setting of vagal nerve decentralization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of afferent fiber activation during VNS on efferent control of cardiac hemodynamic and electrophysiological parameters. In 37 pigs a 56-electrode sock was placed over the ventricles to record local activation recovery intervals (ARIs), a surrogate of action potential duration. In 12 of 37 animals atropine was given systemically. Right and left VNS were performed under six conditions: both vagal trunks intact (n = 25), ipsilateral right (n = 11), ipsilateral left (n = 14), contralateral right (n = 7), contralateral left (n = 10), and bilateral (n = 25) vagal nerve transection (VNTx). Unilateral VNTx significantly affected heart rate, PR interval, Tau, and global ARIs. Right VNS after ipsilateral VNTx had augmented effects on hemodynamic parameters and increase in ARI, while subsequent bilateral VNTx did not significantly modify this effect (%change in ARI in intact condition 2.2 ± 0.9% vs. ipsilateral VNTx 5.3 ± 1.7% and bilateral VNTx 5.3 ± 0.8%, P VNS after left VNTx tended to increase its effects on hemodynamics and ARI response (P = 0.07), but only after bilateral VNTx did these changes reach significance (intact 1.1 ± 0.5% vs. ipsilateral VNTx 3.6 ± 0.7% and bilateral VNTx 6.6 ± 1.6%, P VNS response. The effect of atropine on ventricular ARI was similar to bilateral VNTx. We found that VNS activates afferent fibers in the ipsilateral vagal nerve, which reflexively inhibit cardiac parasympathetic efferent electrophysiological and hemodynamic effects. PMID:26371172

  5. After-effects of exercise on haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in young patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, K.; Floras, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the after-effects on sympathetic nerve activity and calf and systemic haemodynamics of symptom-limited exercise in young patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. PATIENTS: 14 young patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (mean (SEM) age 35 (2) yr) and 17 healthy controls (age 29 (2) yr). METHODS: Blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, calf blood flow, plasma noradrenaline, and stroke volume were recorded during baseline rest and an hour after symptom-limited trea...

  6. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  8. Effect of SIRT1 regulating cholesterol synthesis in repairing retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the repair mechanism associated with cholesterol synthesis regulated by silent information regulator 1(SIRT1in rat model of optic nerve damage. METHODS: Preparation of optic nerve damage in 70 rats was randomly divided into normal group(10 rats, resveratrol treatment group(experimental group 30 ratsand PBS buffer control group(30 rats. The experimental group and control group was further divided into 3 subgroups(each group 10 rats, respectively. After 7, 14, 21d injected resveratrol or PBS, optic nerve injury were observed, then the rats were sacrificed. Retina was segregated; the surviving retinal ganglion cell(RGCswas counted. Dissection of optic nerve, cholesterol content of them were tested; RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and HMGCR; Western blot assay was used to test the protein expression levels of SIRT1, cholesterol regulatory element binding protein 2(SREBP2and HMGCR. RESULTS: The numbers of RGCs and cholesterol levels of rat model with optic nerve injury decreased significantly(PPPPCONCLUSION: Up-regulating the expression of SIRT1, SREBP2 and down-regulating HMGCR by resveratrol could repair the injury of optic nerve through promoting the synthesis of cholesterol in neurons and retinal ganglion cells in the repair process. SIRT1 may be as a promising new target for treatment on optic nerve damage.

  9. Altered frequency characteristics of sympathetic nerve activity after sustained elevation in arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, D E; Fels, R J; Kenney, M J

    1998-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sustained elevation in mean arterial pressure (MAP) alters the frequency-domain characteristics of efferent sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) after the return of MAP to control levels. Renal, lumbar, and splanchnic SND were recorded before, during, and after a 30-min increase in MAP produced by phenylephrine (PE) infusion in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. The following observations were made. 1) The basic cardiac-locked pattern of renal, lumbar, and splanchnic SND bursts was altered after sustained elevation in MAP, demonstrating prolonged effects on the neural circuits involved in entraining efferent SND to the cardiac cycle. Importantly, discharge bursts in afferent baroreceptor nerve activity remained pulse-synchronous after sustained increases in arterial pressure. 2) The frequency-domain relationships between the activity in sympathetic nerve pairs were altered after sustained elevation in MAP, suggesting a transformation from a system of tightly coupled neural circuits to one of multiple generators exerting selective control over SND. 3) The most prominent reduction in SND power after sustained elevation in MAP occurred in the frequency band containing the cardiac cycle, indicating that the prolonged suppression of SND after sustained increases in arterial pressure is due primarily to the selective inhibition of cardiac-related SND bursts. We conclude that sustained elevation in MAP profoundly affects the neural circuits responsible for the frequency components of basal SND in SH rats. PMID:9530235

  10. Interpretation of fusimotor activity in cat masseter nerve during reflex jaw movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, S; Taylor, A

    1983-12-01

    Simultaneous recordings were made from fusimotor axons in the central ends of filaments of the masseter nerve, and from masseter and temporalis spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth cranial nerve in lightly anaesthetized cats. Fusimotor and alpha-motor units in the masseter nerve were differentiated on the basis of their response to passive ramp and hold stretches applied to the jaw. Spindle afferents were identified as primary or secondary according to their dynamic index after administration of suxamethonium. The activity of a given fusimotor unit during reflex movements of the jaw followed one of two distinct patterns: so-called 'tonic' units showed a general increase in activity during a movement, without detailed relation to lengthening or shortening, while 'modulated' units displayed a striking modulation of their activity with shortening, and were usually silent during subsequent lengthening. Comparison of the simultaneously recorded fusimotor and spindle afferent activity suggests that modulated units may be representative of a population of static fusimotor neurones, and tonic units of a population of dynamic fusimotor neurones. In these lightly anaesthetized animals, both primary and secondary spindle afferents showed increased firing during muscle shortening as well as during lengthening. This increase during shortening is not usually seen in conscious animals and reasons are given for the view that it is due to greater depression of alpha-motor activity than of static fusimotor activity during anaesthesia. The results are discussed in relation to the theories of 'alpha-gamma co-activation' and of 'servo-assistance'; and it is suggested that static fusimotor neurones provide a 'temporal template' of the intended movement, while dynamic fusimotor neurones set the required dynamic sensitivity to deviations from the intended movement pattern. PMID:6229627

  11. The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in insulin regulation of food intake, body weight, and sympathetic nerve activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Kenjiro; Morgan, Donald A; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus. PMID:25574706

  12. The role of lamina cribrosa cells in optic nerve head fibrosis in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Deborah M; O'Brien, Colm J

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy. There are extracellular matrix (ECM) changes associated with optic disc cupping in the optic nerve head (ONH) and subsequent visual field defects. The primary risk factor for onset and progression of glaucoma is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP causes deformation at the ONH specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also deposition of ECM causing the LC to initially undergo thickening and posterior migration with eventual shearing and collapse of the LC plates leading to a thin fibrotic connective tissue structure/scar. Cells that populate the LC region of the ONH are those cells that are positive for GFAP (the astrocytes) and those negative for GFAP (the LC cells). The LC cell plays an integral role in ECM remodelling producing ECM when exposed to high level mechanical stretch, TGF- ?1 and a hypoxic environment. PMID:26675406

  13. Painful nerve injury increases plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity in axotomized sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemes Geza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA is the principal means by which sensory neurons expel Ca2+ and thereby regulate the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and the processes controlled by this critical second messenger. We have previously found that painful nerve injury decreases resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and activity-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ accumulation in axotomized sensory neurons. Here we examine the contribution of PMCA after nerve injury in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Results PMCA function was isolated in dissociated sensory neurons by blocking intracellular Ca2+ sequestration with thapsigargin, and cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration was recorded with Fura-2 fluorometry. Compared to control neurons, the rate at which depolarization-induced Ca2+ transients resolved was increased in axotomized neurons after spinal nerve ligation, indicating accelerated PMCA function. Electrophysiological recordings showed that blockade of PMCA by vanadate prolonged the action potential afterhyperpolarization, and also decreased the rate at which neurons could fire repetitively. Conclusion We found that PMCA function is elevated in axotomized sensory neurons, which contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability. Accelerated PMCA function in the primary sensory neuron may contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain, and thus its modulation could provide a new pathway for peripheral treatment of post-traumatic neuropathic pain.

  14. Primary CD56-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma of median nerve: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, E.J.; C. S. Kang; Shim, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    Primary extranodal lymphomas of the central nervous system constitute 2% of all malignant lymphomas. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is very rare. A solitary primary CD56-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma of the median nerve is described in a 70-year-old woman. On physical examination, a rubbery hard mass measuring 2.0 cm in diameter was palpated on the volar aspect of second to third finger of left hand. Excisional biopsy was performed. Under the fascia, a large fusiform tumor of ...

  15. Radioautographic characterization of a serotonin-accumulating nerve cell group in adult rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensely labeled nerve cell bodies were identified by radioautography within the pars ventralis of nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami (hdv), following intraventricular perfusion with 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated serotonin [3H]5-HT in adult rats pretreated with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This selective reaction, which involved approximately 1000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, was unaltered by concomitant administration of 10-3 M non-radioactive norepinephrine, and was absent after intraventricular injection of 10-5 or 10-4 M tritiated norepinephrine. The 3H-labeled 5-HT nerve cell bodies were loosely grouped within the inner and caudal half of the hdv, and appeared morphologically similar to the unreactive neurons among which they were interspersed. Within the same region, numerous labeled axonal varicosities were also detected which were never found in synaptic contact with the reactive cells. If the 3H-labeled 5-HT neurons endogenous 5-HT, they might constitute an intrinsic source of 5-HT innervation in the adult rat hypothalamus. (Auth.)

  16. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders.

  17. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    LI, QINGFU; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local ...

  18. Use of hybrid chitosan membranes and human mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton jelly of umbilical cord for promoting nerve regeneration in an axonotmesis rat model?

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Andrea; Pereira, Tiago; Simões, Maria João; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo AS; França, Miguel L; Sousa, Rosa; Bompasso, Simone; Raimondo, Stefania; Shirosaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osakah, Akiyoshi; Porto, Beatriz; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Varejão, Artur SP

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the effect on nerve regeneration, associating a hybrid chitosan membrane with non-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord, in peripheral nerve reconstruction after crush injury. Chromosome analysis on human mesenchymal stem cell line from Wharton's jelly was carried out and no structural alter...

  19. Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation: Signaling Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Consequences in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part by inducing hypertension. One factor linking excess fat mass to cardiovascular diseases may be the sympathetic cardiovascular actions of leptin. Initial studies of leptin showed it regulates appetite and enhances energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Further study, however, demonstrated leptin also causes sympathetic excitation to the kidney that, in turn, increases arterial pressure. In animal studies, elevating circulating leptin levels increased arterial pressure. Moreover, mice with diet-induced obesity have a preserved arterial pressure response to leptin despite the resistance to the metabolic action of leptin and these mice have elevated baseline arterial pressure. Conversely, severely obese, but leptin-deficient, mice and humans display low sympathetic tone and decreased blood pressure. Together, these findings demonstrate that leptin plays a physiological role in maintaining sympathetic tone and blood pressure, and further suggest that hyperleptinemia may contribute to the elevated blood pressure associated with obesity. Consistent with this selectivity in leptin resistance, mounting evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system subserving different tissues is differentially controlled by leptin. For instance, different molecular signaling mechanisms are engaged by the leptin receptor to control the regional sympathetic nerve activity. Understanding the mechanisms by which leptin controls the sympathetic nervous system will provide insight into the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:21562617

  20. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  1. Comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels in crustacean ventral nerve cord after photodynamic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Mikhail S.; Shubina, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a prospective treatment modality of brain cancers. It is of importance to have information about relative survival rate of different cell types in nerve tissue during photodynamic treatment. Particularly, for development of sparing strategy of the photodynamic therapy of brain tumors, which pursuits both total elimination of malignant cells, which are usually of glial origin, and, at the same time, preservation of normal blood circulation as well as normal glial cells in the brain. The aim of this work was to carry out comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels after photodynamic treatment, using simple model object - ventral nerve cord of crustacean.

  2. Local cutaneous nerve terminal and mast cell responses to manual acupuncture in acupoint LI4 area of the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Ling; Xu, Dong-Sheng; Bai, Wan-Zhu; Cui, Jing-Jing; Shu, Hong-Ming; He, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Hong; Su, Yang-Shuai; Hu, Ling; Zhu, Bing; Jing, Xiang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) are contributed by collagen fibers and mast cells in local acupoints, at which acupuncture stimulation causes various afferent fiber groups to be excited. However what happens in local nerve fibers and mast cells after MA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the response of cutaneous nerve fibers and mast cells to MA stimulation in acupoint Hegu (LI4). The contralateral LI4 of the same rat was used as a non-stimulated control. Immnohistochemistry analysis were carried out to observe the expression of histamine (HA), serotonin (5-HT) and nociceptive neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), in the LI4 area. Mast cells were labeled with anti-mast cell tryptase antibody and simultaneously with HA or 5-HT primary antibodies to observe their co-expression. Our results showed that SP and CGRP were expressed more highly on the cutaneous nerve fibers of LI4 after MA stimulation than that of the control. Mast cells aggregated in close proximity to the blood vessels in intra-epidermis and dermis and some of them with degranulation in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue of LI4. Both mast cells and their granules appeared with HA (+) and 5-HT (+) expression at stimulated L14 sites, while a few intact mast cells with a little expression of 5-HT and HA were distributed in areas of non-stimulated L14. The results indicated that local cutaneous nerve terminals and mast cells responded to MA with higher expression of SP and CGRP in nerve fibers, as well as with aggregation and degranulation of mast cells with HA and 5-HT granules at acupoint LI4. These neuroactive substances may convey signals to certain pathways that contribute to the effects of acupuncture. PMID:26148746

  3. Combination of fibrin-agarose hydrogels and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriel, Víctor; Garrido-Gómez, Juan; Hernández-Cortés, Pedro; Garzón, Ingrid; García-García, Salomé; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Sánchez-Quevedo, María del Carmen; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective was to study the effectiveness of a commercially available collagen conduit filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone or with fibrin-agarose hydrogels containing autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Approach. A 10 mm gap was created in the sciatic nerve of 48 rats and repaired using saline-filled collagen conduits or collagen conduits filled with fibrin-agarose hydrogels alone (acellular conduits) or with hydrogels containing ADMSCs (ADMSC conduits). Nerve regeneration was assessed in clinical, electrophysiological and histological studies. Main results. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes were more favorable with ADMSC conduits than with the acellular or saline conduits, evidencing a significant recovery of sensory and motor functions. Histological analysis showed that ADMSC conduits produce more effective nerve regeneration by Schwann cells, with higher remyelination and properly oriented axonal growth that reached the distal areas of the grafted conduits, and with intensely positive expressions of S100, neurofilament and laminin. Extracellular matrix was also more abundant and better organized around regenerated nerve tissues with ADMSC conduits than those with acellular or saline conduits. Significance. Clinical, electrophysiological and histological improvements obtained with tissue-engineered ADMSC conduits may contribute to enhancing axonal regeneration by Schwann cells.

  4. Somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers in the medulla oblongata et spinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssmann, W G; Burnweit, C; Shehab, T; Triepel, J

    1979-10-01

    Complete serial sectioning of the medulla oblongata in monkey, cat, guinea pig, and japanese dancing mouse and incubation for somatostatin-immunoreaction was carried out. Numerous regions of the medulla oblongata such as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, nucleus cuneatus et gracillis, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus tractus solitarius, nucleus vestibularis, and parts of the oliva contain dense networks of somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Cell bodies were seen in the nucleus reticularis medullae oblongatae. In the spinal cord the sections from each segment were analyzed, showing the highest concentrations of somatostatinergic fibers in the substantia gelantinosa of the columna dorsalis. Cell bodies were seen in the zona intermedia centralis, especially in the upper cervical segments. Many positive fibers were also seen in the entire zona intermedia and the columna ventralis. Especially prominent was the immunoreactivity in the zona intermediolateralis of the thoracic segments and the columna ventralis of the lower lumbar and sacral segments. PMID:390039

  5. Improving the promiscuous nerve agent hydrolase activity of a thermostable archaeal lactonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merone, Luigia; Mandrich, Luigi; Porzio, Elena; Rossi, Mosé; Müller, Susanne; Reiter, Georg; Worek, Franz; Manco, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    The thermostable Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsoPox) hydrolyzes lactones and, at a lower rate, neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds. The persistent demand of detoxification tools in the field of agricultural wastes and restoring of conditions after terrorist acts prompted us to exploit SsoPox as a "starter" to evolve its ancillary nerve agents hydrolytic capability. A directed evolution strategy yielded, among several variants, the single mutant W263F with k(cat) and specificity constant against paraoxon 16- and 6-fold enhanced, respectively, compared to the wild type. Furthermore, a phenomenon of enzyme activation by SDS has been observed, which allowed to increase those values 150- and 28-fold, respectively. The activity of SsoPox against the deadly nerve gas Cyclosarin has been reported for the first time and proved to be substantially unaffected for variant W263F. Finally, outperforming efficiency of W263F was demonstrated, under severe stressing conditions, with respect to the best known phosphotriesterase PTE from Brevundimonas diminuta. PMID:20667718

  6. A brain leptin-renin angiotensin system interaction in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilzendeger, Aline M; Morgan, Donald A; Brooks, Leonard; Dellsperger, David; Liu, Xuebo; Grobe, Justin L; Rahmouni, Kamal; Sigmund, Curt D; Mark, Allyn L

    2012-07-15

    The sympathetic nervous system, leptin, and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been implicated in obesity-associated hypertension. There is increasing evidence for the presence of both leptin and angiotensin II receptors in several key brain cardiovascular and metabolic control regions. We tested the hypothesis that the brain RAS plays a facilitatory role in the sympathetic nerve responses to leptin. In rats, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of losartan (5 ?g) selectively inhibited increases in renal and brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) produced by leptin (10 ?g ICV) but did not reduce the SNA responses to corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or the melanocortin receptor agonist MTII. In mice with deletion of angiotensin II type-1a receptors (AT(1a)R(-/-)), increases in renal and BAT SNA induced by leptin (2 ?g ICV) were impaired whereas SNA responses to MTII were preserved. Decreases in food intake and body weight with ICV leptin did not differ in AT(1a)R(-/-) vs. AT(1a)R(+/+) mice. ICV leptin in rats increased AT(1a)R and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA in the subfornical organ and AT(1a)R mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin-induced upregulation of the brain RAS in specific brain regions. To evaluate the role of de novo production of brain angiotensin II in SNA responses to leptin, we treated rats with captopril (12.5 ?g ICV). Captopril attenuated leptin effects on renal and BAT SNA. In conclusion, these studies provide evidence that the brain RAS selectively facilitates renal and BAT sympathetic nerve responses to leptin while sparing effects on food intake. PMID:22610169

  7. Intermittent low-level vagosympathetic nerve trunk stimulation inhibits ganglionated plexi activity to prevent atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanmei; Sun, Juan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Qingquan; Zhou, Xianhui; Li, Jinxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Baopeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cardiac autonomic nervous system (CANS) plays a role in the occurrence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of AF. Objective: The novel objective of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent low- level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (I-VNS) and continuous low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (C-VNS). Methods: 19 beagles were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group A, rapid left atrial appendage pacing for 6 hours; Group B, rapid atrial pacing (RAP) for 6 hours and C-VNS (20 Hz, interval 0.1 ms, square wave) with 50% threshold voltage strength; Group C, RAP for 6 hours and I-VNS (continuously recurring cycles of 30-second ON, 30-second OFF). The atrial monophasic action potential (MAP) and the effective refractory periods (ERP) of the atrium and the pulmonary veins were measured at baseline, 1 hour, 3 hours and 6 hours after the experiment began. After the experiment, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyl transferase (CHAT) expression levels in the anterior right ganglionated plexi (ARGP) from each group were measured. Results: Inter-group comparisons of MAP and ERP demonstrated that Group A was significantly different from Groups B and C (P 0.05). The MAP and ERP in Group A gradually decreased, reaching a minimum at 6 hours, but no significant changes were observed in Groups B and C. When compared to Group A, both Groups B and C had reduced TH and CHAT expression. Conclusions: During the occurrence and development of AF, I-VNS could protect the cardiovascular system, possibly replacing C-VNS. Additionally, both I-VNS and C-VNS inhibited ganglionated plexus (GP) activity during the AF prevention. PMID:26131082

  8. A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (kr2) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro kr2 decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 (r2 as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (kr2 · [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy

  9. PACAP and VIP affect NF1 expression in rat malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Adorno, Alexander; Mazzone, Venera; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; D'Agata, Velia

    2010-02-01

    In our previous study we have identified PACAP, VIP and their receptors in rat malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells, thus showing anti-apoptotic roles. Recently it has been shown that the tumor suppressor neurofibromin, encoded by the Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) gene, promotes MPNST cells sensitivity to apoptosis after serum withdrawal. In the present study we investigated whether PACAP or VIP negatively regulate NF1 expression under normal or serum-dependent pro-apoptotic culture conditions. Results indicated that serum itself significantly influenced gene and protein levels. In fact, the low NF1 levels of cells cultured in normal serum-containing medium were remarkably increased in cells switched to low- or no-serum after 24h and 48 h. Treatment with 100 nM PACAP or VIP did not affect NF1 expression when using normal amounts of serum, whereas it significantly inhibited transcript and protein levels both in low- or no-serum cultured cells. In particular, PACAP reduced NF1 levels already after 24h in low-serum cultured cells, while VIP showed a similar effect only after serum deprivation. However, both PACAP and VIP downregulated gene and protein levels within 48 h either in low-dose and serum-starved cells. Results were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, showing that 100 nM PACAP or VIP attenuated neurofibromin cytoplasmic localization only in low- or no-serum cultured cells. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of both neuropeptides effect on NF1 expression in normal, low- or serum-starved MPNST cells, ameliorating the hypothesis that resistance to apoptosis in serum-deprived cells might be correlated to PACAP-/VIP-induced NF1 inhibition. PMID:19919880

  10. Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) induces tumours of nerve-supporting or paraneural cell origin in newborn hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtaki, S; Kato, K

    1989-01-01

    Simian adenovirus type 7 (SA-7) was found to induce tumours originating from nerve-supporting or paraneural cells in newborn hamsters, regardless of injection site or tissues. SA-7 induces glioblastomas characterized by definite localization (subependymal regions) and its main cell type, bipolar spongioblast-like cells, in the brain of hamsters inoculated as newborns. When the eyes of newborn hamsters were directly inoculated, SA-7 failed to induce retinoblastoma (0/27), but retro or peri-bul...

  11. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, Lone; Kusk, Philip; Tornøe, Jens; Juliusson, Bengt; Torp, Malene; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Nielsen, Mette S; Handberg, Aase; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.; Wahlberg, Lars U

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device, capable of local delivery of NGF. The clinical device, named NsG0202, houses an NGF-secreting cell line (NGC-0295), which is derived from a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, stably genetical...

  12. Cellular Localization of the Molecular Forms of Acetylcholinesterase in rat Pheochromocytoma Pc12 Cells Treated with Nerve Growth Factor1

    OpenAIRE

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Reiness, C. Gary; Reichardt, Louis F.; Hall, Zach W.

    1981-01-01

    In rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells treated with nerve growth factor (NGF), there are several molecular forms of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which sediment on sucrose density gradients at 4 to 6, 10, and 16 S, respectively. We have investigated the cellular localization of these forms in PC12 cells. In order to determine which forms are soluble and which are membrane bound, we extracted PC12 cells in buffers of various ionic strengths and detergent compositions. To distinguish int...

  13. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  14. The search of the target of promotion: Phenylbenzoate esterase activities in hen peripheral nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain esterase inhibitors, such as carbamates, phosphinates and sulfonyl halides, do not cause neuropathy as some organophosphates, but they may exacerbate chemical or traumatic insults to axons. This phenomenon is called promotion of axonopathies. Given the biochemical and toxicological characteristics of these compounds, the hypothesis was made that the target of promotion is a phenyl valerate (PV) esterase similar to neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the target of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. However, attempts to identify a PV esterase in hen peripheral nerve have been, so far, unsuccessful. We tested several esters, other than PV, as substrates of esterases from crude homogenate of the hen peripheral nerve. The ideal substrate should be poorly hydrolysed by NTE but extensively by enzyme(s) that are insensitive to non-promoters, such as mipafox, and sensitive to promoters, such as phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). When phenyl benzoate (PB) was used as substrate, about 65% of total activity was resistant to the non-promoter mipafox (up to 0.5 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0), that inhibits NTE and other esterases. More than 90% of this resistant activity was sensitive to the classical promoter PMSF (1 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0) with an IC50 of about 0.08 mM (20 min, pH 8.0). On the contrary, the non-promoter p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride caused only about 10% inhibition at 0.5 mM. Several esterase inhibitors including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbamate, di-n-butyl dichlorovinyl phosphate and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, were tested both in vitro and in vivo for inhibition of this PB activity. Mipafox-resistant PMSF-sensitive PB esterase activity(ies) was inhibited by promoters but not by non promoters and neuropathic compounds

  15. Cytotoxic effects of acrylamide in nerve growth factor or fibroblast growth factor 1-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Lee, Don-Ching; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2014-03-01

    Acrylamide is a neurological and reproductive toxicant in humans and laboratory animals; however, the neuron developmental toxicity of acrylamide remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and neurite outgrowth inhibition of acrylamide in nerve growth factor (NGF)- or fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-mediated neural development of PC12 cells. MTS assay showed that acrylamide treatment suppresses NGF- or FGF1-induced PC12 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Quantification of neurite outgrowth demonstrated that 0.5 mM acrylamide treatment resulted in significant decrease in differentiation of NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. This decrease is accompanied with the reduced expression of growth-associated protein-43, a neuronal marker. Moreover, relative levels of pERK, pAKT, pSTAT3 and pCREB were increased within 5-10 min when PC12 cells were treated with NGF or FGF1. Acrylamide (0.5 mM) decreases the NGF-induced activation of AKT-CREB but not ERK-STAT3 within 20 min. Similarly, acrylamide (0.5 mM) decreases the FGF1-induced activation of AKT-CREB within 20 min. In contrast to the NGF treatment, the ERK-STAT3 activation that was induced by FGF1 was slightly reduced by 0.5 mM acrylamide. We further showed that PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), but not MEK inhibitor (U0126), could synergize with acrylamide (0.5 mM) to reduce the cell viability and neurite outgrowth in NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. Moreover, acrylamide (0.5 mM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities in NGF- or FGF1-stimulated PC12 cells. This increase was reversed by Trolox (an ROS scavenging agent) co-treatment. Together, our findings reveal that NGF- or FGF1-stimulation of the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells is attenuated by acrylamide through the inhibition of PI3K-AKT-CREB signaling, along with the production of ROS. PMID:24318646

  16. CD11b+GR1+ Myeloid Cells Secrete NGF and Promote Trigeminal Ganglion Neurite Growth: Implications for Corneal Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Jassim, Sarmad H.; Ozturk, Okan; Chamon, Wallace; Ganesh, Balaji; Tibrewal, Sapna; Gandhi, Sonal; Byun, Yong-Soo; Hallak, Joelle; Mahmud, Dolores L.; Mahmud, Nadim; Rondelli, Damiano; Jain, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    CD11b+GR1+ myeloid cells have immunophenotypic characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). They secrete NGF and promote neuroregeneration. They may have a beneficial role in repairing diseased or injured corneal nerves.

  17. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis replenish specific synaptic vesicle pools in central nerve terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Giselle; Jupp, Orla J.; Cousin, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Multiple synaptic vesicle (SV) retrieval modes exist in central nerve terminals to maintain a continual supply of SVs for neurotransmission. Two such modes are clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), which is dominant during mild neuronal activity and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE), which is dominant during intense neuronal activity. However little is known about how activation of these SV retrieval modes impact on the replenishment of the total SV recycling pool and the pools that r...

  18. Classic Ras Proteins Promote Proliferation and Survival via Distinct Phosphoproteome Alterations in Neurofibromin-Null Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Nicole M; Prechtl, Amanda M; Longo, Jody Fromm; Barnes, Stephen; Wilson, Landon S; Byer, Stephanie J; Brosius, Stephanie N; Carroll, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromin, the tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, potentially suppresses the activation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. However, it is not known whether these classic Ras proteins are hyperactivated in NF1-null nerve sheath tumors, how they contribute to tumorigenesis, and what signaling pathways mediate their effects. Here we show that H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras are coexpressed with their activators (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) in neurofibromin-null malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells, and that all 3 Ras proteins are activated. Dominant negative (DN) H-Ras, a pan-inhibitor of the classic Ras family, inhibited MPNST proliferation and survival, but not migration. However, NF1-null MPNST cells were variably dependent on individual Ras proteins. In some lines, ablation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and/or K-Ras inhibited mitogenesis. In others, ablation of a single Ras protein had no effect on proliferation; in these lines, ablation of a single Ras protein resulted in compensatory increases in the activation and/or expression of other Ras proteins. Using mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, we identified 7 signaling networks affecting morphology, proliferation, and survival that are regulated by DN H-Ras. Thus, neurofibromin loss activates multiple classic Ras proteins that promote proliferation and survival by regulating several distinct signaling cascades. PMID:25946318

  19. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaJBarnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity. Therefore, leptin is emerging as a major contributor to the hypertensive state observed in obesity. Sympathetic control of blood pressure is maintained principally by autonomic reflex control circuits in the caudal brainstem. The rostral ventral-lateral medulla (RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers to sympathetic preganglionic neurons to regulate sympathetic control over resistance vessels and blood pressure. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that neurons in the ventral lateral medulla express leptin receptors (ObRb. Our present study using pseudo-rabies multi-synaptic retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemical methods revealed that neurons within the RVLM that send sympathetic projections to the kidney express leptin receptors. Acute microinjection of leptin (1 and 3µg; 40nL into the RVLM evoked a significant increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. When the 3µg dose of leptin was preceded with a leptin antagonist, (SLAN-4; 1ng, it attenuated the cardiovascular response of leptin. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin’s actions within the RVLM may influence blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  20. Protection of ginsenoside Rg1 on central nerve cell damage and the influence on neuron apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; He, Li; Cui, Bingzhou; Lv, Haixin

    2014-11-01

    This paper aimed to verify the function of ginsenoside in the repair of peripheral nerve injury through the model of sciatic nerve injury in rat. The method was to prepare the model of SD rat injury of sciatic nerve, and to conduct treatment with different dose of ginsenoside Rg1. At the same time, the control group was established. The regenerative repair, functional recovery and the situation of target organ, etc. were evaluated by neuromorphic metrology index, fluorescence gold retrograde tag, animal behavior index (sciatic nerve index). The result was the situation of nerve regenerative repair and functional recovery in high dose ginsenoside Rg1 group was obviously superior to other groups, the recovery of sciatic nerve index, target muscle, etc. were fine and mostly close to normal. It was concluded that ginsenoside Rg1 could effectively promote the regenerative repair of peripheral nerve injury, and accelerate the recovery of its nerve function. It could also promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve and the recovery of its nerve function. PMID:25410069

  1. FGF21 acts centrally to induce sympathetic nerve activity, energy expenditure, and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Bryn M; Ding, Xunshan; Morgan, Donald A; Coate, Katie Colbert; Bookout, Angie L; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism by which pharmacologic administration of the hormone FGF21 increases energy expenditure to cause weight loss in obese animals is unknown. Here we report that FGF21 acts centrally to exert its effects on energy expenditure and body weight in obese mice. Using tissue-specific knockout mice, we show that ?Klotho, the obligate coreceptor for FGF21, is required in the nervous system for these effects. FGF21 stimulates sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue through a mechanism that depends on the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor. Our findings provide an unexpected mechanistic explanation for the strong pharmacologic effects of FGF21 on energy expenditure and weight loss in obese animals. PMID:25130400

  2. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.V., Tiradentes; J.G.P., Pires; N.F., Silva; A.G., Ramage; C.H., Santuzzi; H.A., Futuro Neto.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full [...] antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  3. Heart rate variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity response to acute stress: the effect of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeck, Lindsay D; Petersen, Stewart R; Jones, Kelvin E; Stickland, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Previous research has suggested a relationship between low-frequency power of heart rate variability (HRV; LF in normalized units, LFnu) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, investigations have not systematically controlled for breathing, which can modulate both HRV and MSNA. Accordingly, the aims of this experiment were to investigate the possibility of parallel responses in MSNA and HRV (LFnu) to selected acute stressors and the effect of controlled breathing. After data were obtained at rest, 12 healthy males (28 +/- 5 yr) performed isometric handgrip exercise (30% maximal voluntary contraction) and the cold pressor test in random order, and were then exposed to hypoxia (inspired fraction of O(2) = 0.105) for 7 min, during randomly assigned spontaneous and controlled breathing conditions (20 breaths/min, constant tidal volume, isocapnic). MSNA was recorded from the peroneal nerve, whereas HRV was calculated from ECG. At rest, controlled breathing did not alter MSNA but decreased LFnu (P breathing. MSNA increased in response to all stressors regardless of breathing. LFnu increased with exercise during both breathing conditions. During cold pressor, LFnu decreased when breathing was spontaneous, whereas in the controlled breathing condition, LFnu was unchanged from baseline. Hypoxia elicited increases in LFnu when breathing was controlled, but not during spontaneous breathing. The parallel changes observed during exercise and controlled breathing during hypoxia suggest that LFnu may be an indication of sympathetic outflow in select conditions. However, since MSNA and LFnu did not change in parallel with all stressors, a cautious approach to the use of LFnu as a marker of sympathetic activity is warranted. PMID:20410469

  4. Electrochemical Measurements of Optogenetically Stimulated Quantal Amine Release from Single Nerve Cell Varicosities in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Soodabeh; Berglund, E Carina; Dunevall, Johan; Oleinick, Alexander I; Amatore, Christian; Krantz, David E; Ewing, Andrew G

    2015-11-01

    The nerve terminals found in the body wall of Drosophila melanogaster larvae are readily accessible to experimental manipulation. We used the light-activated ion channel, channelrhodopsin-2, which is expressed by genetic manipulation in Type?II varicosities to study octopamine release in Drosophila. We report the development of a method to measure neurotransmitter release from exocytosis events at individual varicosities in the Drosophila larval system by amperometry. A microelectrode was placed in a region of the muscle containing a varicosity and held at a potential sufficient to oxidize octopamine and the terminal stimulated by blue light. Optical stimulation of Type?II boutons evokes exocytosis of octopamine, which is detected through oxidization at the electrode surface. We observe 22700±4200 molecules of octopamine released per vesicle. This system provides a genetically accessible platform to study the regulation of amine release at an intact synapse. PMID:26387683

  5. Peripheral nerve reconstruction with epsilon-caprolactone conduits seeded with vasoactive intestinal peptide gene-transfected mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortés, P.; Toledo-Romero, M. A.; Delgado, M.; Sánchez-González, C. E.; Martin, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; O'Valle, F.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Attempts have been made to improve nerve conduits in peripheral nerve reconstruction. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with neuroprotective, trophic and developmental regulatory actions, in peripheral nerve regeneration in a severe model of nerve injury that was repaired with nerve conduits. Approach. The sciatic nerve of each male Wistar rat was transected unilaterally at 10 mm and then repaired with Dl-lactic-?-caprolactone conduits. The rats were treated locally with saline, with the VIP, with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) or with ASCs that were transduced with the VIP-expressing lentivirus. The rats with the transected nerve, with no repairs, were used as untreated controls. At 12 weeks post-surgery, we assessed their limb function by measuring the ankle stance angle and the percentage of their muscle mass reduction, and we evaluated the histopathology, immunohistochemistry and morphometry of the myelinated fibers. Main results. The rats that received a single injection of VIP-expressing ASCs showed a significant functional recovery in the ankle stance angle (p = 0.049) and a higher number of myelinated fibers in the middle and distal segments of the operated nerve versus the other groups (p = 0.046). Significance. These results suggest that utilization of a cellular substrate, plus a VIP source, is a promising method for enhancing nerve regeneration using Dl-lactic-?-caprolactone conduits and that this method represents a potential useful clinical approach to repairing peripheral nerve damage.

  6. Ipsilateral cortical fMRI responses after peripheral nerve damage in rats reflect increased interneuron activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelled, Galit; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Tierney, Patrick L.; Conroy, Richard S.; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Yu, David; Leopold, David A.; Walters, Judith R.; Koretsky, Alan P

    2009-01-01

    In the weeks following unilateral peripheral nerve injury, the deprived primary somatosensory cortex (SI) responds to stimulation of the ipsilateral intact limb as demonstrated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses. The neuronal basis of these responses was studied by using high-resolution fMRI, in vivo electrophysiological recordings, and juxtacellular neuronal labeling in rats that underwent an excision of the forepaw radial, median, and ulnar nerves. These nerves were e...

  7. Intermittent low-level vagosympathetic nerve trunk stimulation inhibits ganglionated plexi activity to prevent atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yanmei; Sun, Juan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Qingquan; Zhou, Xianhui; LI, Jinxin; Zhang, Yu; TANG, BAOPENG

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cardiac autonomic nervous system (CANS) plays a role in the occurrence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of AF. Objective: The novel objective of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent low- level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (I-VNS) and continuous low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (C-VNS). Methods: 19 beagles were randomly divided into 3 groups...

  8. A role for the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase in nerve growth-induced PC12 cell differentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J. H.; Drueckes, P; Bartoe, J; Zhao, Z; Shen, S.H.; Krebs, E G

    1997-01-01

    SHP-1 and SHP-2 are intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases containing two adjacent src homology 2 domains that target these phosphatases to cell surface receptor signaling complexes and play a role in receptor signal transduction. In this report the PC12 cell system was used to investigate the potential roles of SHP-1 and SHP-2 in the induction of neuronal differentiation by nerve growth factor (NGF). By using neurite outgrowth as a marker for differentiation, the effects of transfected ...

  9. Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, Poul Henrik; Emerich, D F; Thanos, C; Torp, Maja; Bintz, B; Tornøe, Jens; Johnsen, A H; Wahlberg, L U

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. Howev...

  10. Leptin receptor signaling in the hypothalamus regulates hepatic autonomic nerve activity via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Morgan, Donald A; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-01-14

    Leptin action in the brain has emerged as an important regulator of liver function independently from its effects on food intake and body weight. The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the regulation of physiological processes by leptin. Here, we used direct recording of nerve activity from sympathetic or vagal nerves subserving the liver to investigate how brain action of leptin controls hepatic autonomic nerve activity. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of leptin activated hepatic sympathetic traffic in rats and mice in dose- and receptor-dependent manners. The hepatic sympatho-excitatory effects of leptin were also observed when leptin was microinjected directly into the arcuate nucleus (ARC), but not into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Moreover, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that leptin-induced increase in hepatic sympathetic outflow depends on PI3K but not AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), STAT3, or ERK1/2. Interestingly, ICV leptin also increased hepatic vagal nerve activity in rats. We show that this response is reproduced by intra-ARC, but not intra-VMH, leptin administration and requires PI3K and AMPK. We conclude that central leptin signaling conveys the information to the liver through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Our data also provide important insight into the molecular events underlying leptin's control of hepatic autonomic nerve activity by implicating PI3K and AMPK pathways. PMID:25589743

  11. Sacral nerve stimulation increases activation of the primary somatosensory cortex by anal canal stimulation in an experimental model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, K M

    2011-08-01

    Sacral and posterior tibial nerve stimulation may be used to treat faecal incontinence; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether sensory activation of the cerebral cortex by anal canal stimulation was increased by peripheral neuromodulation.

  12. Differential contribution of aortic and carotid sinus baroreflexes to control of heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kei; Mitsuhiro, Idesako; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2015-09-01

    We examined the roles of aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors in control of heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in 17 decerebrate rats. The baroreflex curves between the changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and HR or RSNA in response to intravenous injection of phenylephrine (10-20 ?g/kg) or nitroprusside (10 ?g/kg) were identified before and following sequential denervation of all four baroafferent nerves. The slope of the MAP-HR curve in the pressor range was decreased (P carotid sinus nerves. The slope for HR became negligible following complete denervation of all four baroafferent nerves. In contrast, the slope of the MAP-RSNA curve decreased as the sequential baroafferent denervation progressed, irrespective of the denervation order, and it remained well as long as any single baroafferent nerve was intact. The similar influences of sequential baroafferent denervation on the responses of HR and RSNA were observed in the depressor range. Thus, it is likely that aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors play differential roles in control of HR but they contribute similarly to control of RSNA. PMID:26159318

  13. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  14. Design, synthesis, and potent antiepileptic activity with latent nerve rehabilitation of novel ?-aminobutyric acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Ma, Jing; Shi, Xiuxiao; Zhao, Chunyan; Hou, Meng; Guo, Qingxin; Ma, Shangxian; Li, Xiaojun; Zhao, Peicheng; Liu, Wenhu; Yang, Zhuqing; Mou, Jianping; Song, Pengfei; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to design and synthesize novel ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives with the combination of aspirin (ASA) of nerve rehabilitative pharmacophores so as to develop multifunctional drugs useful in the treatment of neurological disorders. Twenty-four novel esters and amides of 1a were synthesized, biologically evaluated for antiepileptic activity with the model of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and tested for their capacity of penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with HPLC. The distribution of 8a, ASA freed by 8a, 7c, and ASA freed by 7c within 24 h in brain tissue was measured. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established and the data of Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) showed good results. With ED50 values of 0.3684-0.5199 mmol/kg, LD50 1.1487-1.3944 mmol/kg, and therapeutic index (TI) 2.65-3.15, compounds 8a, 3b, 4b, 6c, and 7c exhibited better antiepileptic activities in multiples of 0.3 to 2.2 against the control sodium valproate (VPA). Most importantly, 8a and 7c exhibited excellent antiepileptic activities with TI values of 3.15 and 3.12, respectively. PMID:25047422

  15. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Li; QU, WEI; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; JIANG, HUAJUN

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann c...

  16. Nerves and Anesthesia: A physics perspective on medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a recent theory for nerve pulse propagation and anesthesia and argue that both nerve activity and the action of anesthetics can be understood on the basis of simple physical laws. It was found experimentally that biological membranes melt from a solid state to a liquid state just below physiological temperature. Such melting processes have a profound influence on the physical properties of cell membranes. They make it possible for mechanical pulses (solitons) to travel along nerve axons. In these pulses, a region of solid phase travels in the liquid nerve membrane. These pulses display many properties associated with the action potential in nerves. Both general and local anesthetics lower melting temperatures of membranes. Thus, they make it more difficult to excite the nerve membrane. Since hydrostatic pressure increases melting temperatures, it counteracts anesthesia. This theory has the virtue of providing a simple explanation of the famous Meyer-Overton correlation, which states that the effect...

  17. Sulindac derivatives inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in primary cells from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of NF1-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Reinhard E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are neoplasms leading to death in most cases. Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 have an increased risk of developing this malignancy. The metabolites of the inactive prodrug Sulindac, Sulindac Sulfide and Sulindac Sulfone (Exisulind are new chemopreventive agents that show promising results in the treatment of different cancer types. In this study we examined the antineoplastic effect of these compounds on primary cells derived from two MPNSTs of Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. Results Exisulind and Sulindac Sulfide showed a dramatic time- and dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect with IC50-values of 120 ?M and 63 ?M, respectively. The decrease in viability of the tested cells correlated with induction of apoptosis. Treatment with 500 ?M Exisulind and 125 ?M Sulindac Sulfide for a period of 2 days increased the rate of apoptosis 21-27-fold compared to untreated cells. Reduced expression of RAS-GTP and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was detected in treated MPNST cells. Moreover, elevated levels of phosphorylated SAPK/JNK were found after drug treatment, and low activation of cleaved caspase-3 was seen. Conclusions Our results suggest that this class of compounds may be of therapeutic benefit for Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients with MPNST.

  18. Role of bone marrow derived pluripotent stem cells in peripheral nerve repair in adult rats: A morphometric evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh S Kurwale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of the effect of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNC on early and late phase of nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve model. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve transection and repair was performed in 50 inbred female Wistar albino rats divided equally in two groups. In the test group the gap was filled with BM-MNCs obtained from the two male rats and fibrin sealant, while in the control group only fibrin sealant was used. Sciatic nerve was harvested at 15 days and at 60 days interval. Parameters of regeneration were assessed at anastomosis (G, intermediate distal (C, and distal site (A. Semi-quantitative (histopathological and quantitative (morphometric parameters were analyzed. Results: At 15 days there was a statistically significant difference found in mean axon diameter, mean nerve thickness and myelin thickness at the repair site (P < 0.05. However, in the distal areas, the axons were sparse and myelin rings were very thin in both the groups. At 60 days, the difference in above-mentioned parameters was statistically significant at the distal most sites. FISH assay confirmed the presence of Y chromosome, confirming the presence of BM-MNCs from the male rats. Conclusions: Transplanting BM-MNC S at the site of peripheral nerve injury leads to significantly better recovery. These differences were evident at the repair site and at the intermediate distal site at 15 days and at the distal most sites at 60 days. With practically no ethical issue regarding their isolation and application, they can be easily used for clinical trials.

  19. Regeneração de nervos periféricos: terapia celular e fatores neurotróficos / Peripheral nerve regeneration: cell therapy and neurotrophic factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Deise, Sebben; Martina, Lichtenfels; Jefferson Luis Braga da, Silva.

    Full Text Available Traumatismos em nervos periféricos resultam na perda de função do órgão inervado e raramente apresentam recuperação sem a intervenção cirúrgica. Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas são passíveis de serem empregadas para o reparo nervoso. Dentre elas, ressalta-se o uso da técnica de tubulização, podendo ser [...] acrescentados fatores com capacidade regenerativa na câmara. A terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos surgem como uma alternativa para estimular e auxiliar a regeneração de nervos periféricos. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer um levantamento e uma análise de estudos experimentais e clínicos, quanto aos resultados obtidos, que utilizam a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos como ferramentas para otimizar o processo de regeneração. Os artigos utilizados são oriundos de bases de dados científicas LILACS e Medline, através de pesquisas realizadas no PubMed e SciELO. Artigos sobre o uso de células-tronco, células de Schwann, fatores de crescimento, colágeno, laminina e plasma rico em plaquetas no reparo de nervos periféricos foram sintetizados ao longo da revisão. Com base nos diversos estudos pode-se concluir que a utilização de células-tronco derivadas de diferentes fontes apresentam resultados promissores na regeneração nervosa, pois estas possuem capacidade de diferenciação neuronal, demonstrando, assim, resultados funcionais eficazes. O uso de tubos acrescidos de elementos bioativos com liberação controlada também otimiza o reparo nervoso, promovendo uma maior mielinização e crescimento axonal dos nervos periféricos. Outro tratamento promissor é o uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, que, além de liberar fatores de crescimento importantes no reparo nervoso, ainda serve como um carreador para fatores exógenos estimulando a proliferação de células específicas no reparo de nervo periférico. Abstract in english Peripheral nerve trauma results in functional loss in the innervated organ, and recovery without surgical intervention is rare. Many surgical techniques can be used for nerve repair. Among these, the tubulization technique can be highlighted: this allows regenerative factors to be introduced into th [...] e chamber. Cell therapy and tissue engineering have arisen as an alternative for stimulating and aiding peripheral nerve regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review was to provide a survey and analysis on the results from experimental and clinical studies that used cell therapy and tissue engineering as tools for optimizing the regeneration process. The articles used came from the LILACS, Medline and SciELO scientific databases. Articles on the use of stem cells, Schwann cells, growth factors, collagen, laminin and platelet-rich plasma for peripheral nerve repair were summarized over the course of the review. Based on these studies, it could be concluded that the use of stem cells derived from different sources presents promising results relating to nerve regeneration, because these cells have a capacity for neuronal differentiation, thus demonstrating effective functional results. The use of tubes containing bioactive elements with controlled release also optimizes the nerve repair, thus promoting greater myelination and axonal growth of peripheral nerves. Another promising treatment is the use of platelet-rich plasma, which not only releases growth factors that are important in nerve repair, but also serves as a carrier for exogenous factors, thereby stimulating the proliferation of specific cells for peripheral nerve repair.

  20. Regeneração de nervos periféricos: terapia celular e fatores neurotróficos Peripheral nerve regeneration: cell therapy and neurotrophic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Deise Sebben

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatismos em nervos periféricos resultam na perda de função do órgão inervado e raramente apresentam recuperação sem a intervenção cirúrgica. Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas são passíveis de serem empregadas para o reparo nervoso. Dentre elas, ressalta-se o uso da técnica de tubulização, podendo ser acrescentados fatores com capacidade regenerativa na câmara. A terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos surgem como uma alternativa para estimular e auxiliar a regeneração de nervos periféricos. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é fornecer um levantamento e uma análise de estudos experimentais e clínicos, quanto aos resultados obtidos, que utilizam a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos como ferramentas para otimizar o processo de regeneração. Os artigos utilizados são oriundos de bases de dados científicas LILACS e Medline, através de pesquisas realizadas no PubMed e SciELO. Artigos sobre o uso de células-tronco, células de Schwann, fatores de crescimento, colágeno, laminina e plasma rico em plaquetas no reparo de nervos periféricos foram sintetizados ao longo da revisão. Com base nos diversos estudos pode-se concluir que a utilização de células-tronco derivadas de diferentes fontes apresentam resultados promissores na regeneração nervosa, pois estas possuem capacidade de diferenciação neuronal, demonstrando, assim, resultados funcionais eficazes. O uso de tubos acrescidos de elementos bioativos com liberação controlada também otimiza o reparo nervoso, promovendo uma maior mielinização e crescimento axonal dos nervos periféricos. Outro tratamento promissor é o uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, que, além de liberar fatores de crescimento importantes no reparo nervoso, ainda serve como um carreador para fatores exógenos estimulando a proliferação de células específicas no reparo de nervo periférico.Peripheral nerve trauma results in functional loss in the innervated organ, and recovery without surgical intervention is rare. Many surgical techniques can be used for nerve repair. Among these, the tubulization technique can be highlighted: this allows regenerative factors to be introduced into the chamber. Cell therapy and tissue engineering have arisen as an alternative for stimulating and aiding peripheral nerve regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review was to provide a survey and analysis on the results from experimental and clinical studies that used cell therapy and tissue engineering as tools for optimizing the regeneration process. The articles used came from the LILACS, Medline and SciELO scientific databases. Articles on the use of stem cells, Schwann cells, growth factors, collagen, laminin and platelet-rich plasma for peripheral nerve repair were summarized over the course of the review. Based on these studies, it could be concluded that the use of stem cells derived from different sources presents promising results relating to nerve regeneration, because these cells have a capacity for neuronal differentiation, thus demonstrating effective functional results. The use of tubes containing bioactive elements with controlled release also optimizes the nerve repair, thus promoting greater myelination and axonal growth of peripheral nerves. Another promising treatment is the use of platelet-rich plasma, which not only releases growth factors that are important in nerve repair, but also serves as a carrier for exogenous factors, thereby stimulating the proliferation of specific cells for peripheral nerve repair.

  1. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.T. [Keele University at the RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Seabright, R.; Logan, A. [Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M. [Biosciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  2. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. ? Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. ? The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. ? The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  3. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ibrahim M.; Sarma Kandukuri, Divya; Harrison, Joanne L.; Hildreth, Cara M.; Phillips, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n = 16) were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2) and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2) activation and acute stress (open-field exposure), were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro) and creatinine (UCr) levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 ?V, p < 0.05) and MAP (151 ± 8 vs. 97 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05) compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with UCr (r = ?0.80, p = 0.002) and positively correlated with RSNA (r = 0.66, p = 0.014), with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p < 0.05). This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways. PMID:26300784

  4. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, El?bieta; Rychlik, Micha?; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, W?odzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9?cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. PMID:24970043

  5. Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity during the cold pressor test in normotensive pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Charlotte W; Wakefield, Paige K; Skow, Rachel J; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Julian, Colleen G; Steinback, Craig D; Davenport, Margie H

    2015-10-01

    Baseline neurovascular transduction is reduced in normotensive pregnancy; however, little is known about changes to neurovascular transduction during periods of heightened sympathetic activation. We tested the hypothesis that, despite an exacerbated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) response to cold pressor stimulation, the blunting of neurovascular transduction in normotensive pregnant women would result in similar changes in vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure (Finometer) relative to nonpregnant controls. Baseline neurovascular transduction was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls when expressed as the quotient of both total resistance and mean arterial pressure and sympathetic burst frequency (0.32±0.07 versus 0.58±0.16 mm Hg/L/min/bursts/min, Pinduced sympathoexcitation remained blunted in pregnant women (0.25±0.11 versus 0.45±0.08 mm Hg/L/min/bursts/min, Ppregnancy is associated with reductions in neurovascular transduction, which result in the dissociation of sympathetic outflow from hemodynamic outcomes, even during cold pressor-induced sympathoexcitation. PMID:26259593

  6. Celastrol supports survival of retinal ganglion cells injured by optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Haksu; Kwong, Jacky M K; Bekerman, Vlad; Gu, Lei; Yadegari, Daniel; Caprioli, Joseph; Piri, Natik

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of celastrol on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) injured by optic nerve crush (ONC). Celastrol, a quinine methide triterpene extracted from the perennial vine Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae), has been identified as a potential neuroprotective candidate in a comprehensive drug screen against various neurodegenerative diseases. Two weeks after ONC, the average density of remaining RGCs in retinas of animals treated with daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of celastrol (1mg/kg) was approximately 1332 cells/mm(2), or 40.8% of the Celastrol/Control group. In retinas of the Vehicle/ONC group about 381 RGCs/mm(2) were counted, which is 9.6% of the total number of RGCs in the DMSO/Control group. This corresponds to approximately a 250% increase in RGC survival mediated by celastrol treatment compared to Vehicle/ONC group. Furthermore, the average RGC number in retinas of ONC animals treated with a single intravitreal injection of 1mg/kg or 5mg/kg of celastrol was increased by approximately 80% (760 RGCs/mm(2)) and 78% (753 RGCs/mm(2)), respectively, compared to Vehicle/ONC controls (422 cells/mm(2)). Injection of 0.2mg/kg of celastrol had no significant effect on cell survival, with the average number of RGCs being 514 cells/mm(2) in celastrol-treated animals versus 422 cells/mm(2) in controls. The expression levels of Hsp70, Hsf1, Hsf2, HO-1 and TNF-alpha in the retina were analyzed to evaluate the roles of these proteins in the celastrol-mediated protection of injured RGCs. No statistically significant change in HO-1, Hsf1 and Hsp70 levels was seen in animals with ONC. An approximately 2 fold increase in Hsf2 level was observed in celastrol-treated animals with or without injury. Hsf2 level was also increased 1.8 fold in DMSO-treated animals with ONC injury compared to DMSO-treated animals with no injury suggesting that Hsf2 induction has an injury-induced component. Expression of TNF-alpha in retinas of celastrol-treated uninjured and ONC animals was reduced by approximately 2 and 1.5 fold compared to vehicle treated animals, respectively. The observed results suggest that mechanisms underlying celastrol?s RGC protective effect are associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. PMID:25813825

  7. Combination of Local Transplantation of In Vitro Bone-marrow Stromal Cells and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Accelerate Functional Recovery of Transected Sciatic Nerve Regeneration: A Novel Approach in Transected Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mahmoodzadeh, Sirvan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of combination of undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration was assessed in rats. A 10 mm nerve segment was excised and a vein graft was used to bridge the gap. Twenty microliter undifferentiated BMSCs (2× 107 cells /mL) were administered into the graft inBMSC group with no exposure to PEMF. In BMSC/PEMF group the whole body was exposed to PEMF (0.3 mT, 2Hz) for 4h/day within 1-5 days. In PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged and phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft. In authograft group (AUTO), the transected nervesegments were reimplanted reversely and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral, functional, electrophysiological, biomechanical, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings, morphometric indices and immuonohistochemical reactions confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in BMSC/PEMF group compared to those in the other groups (PPEMF improved functional recovery. Combination of local transplantation of in vitro bone-marrow stromal cells and pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice. PMID:26044808

  8. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  9. Effects of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on neural cell adhesion molecule in rats with lumbar nerve root compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Jian ZHOU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM in neuromuscular junctions during nerve regeneration in rats with lumbar nerve root compression. Methods: The rats with lumbar nerve root compression were given Yiqi Huayu Recipe for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively. The distribution of N-CAM in neuromuscular junctions of soleus muscle in rats was examined with immunohistochemical method and confocal laser scanning microscopy technique. The acetylcholine receptor (AChR was visualized with fluorescein-conjugated ?-bungarotoxin (?-BTX. The overlap areas of N-CAM and AChR sites were measured with NIH image technique.Results: The aggregates, sprouts and extensions of N-CAM in the neuromuscular junctions and the overlap areas of N-CAM and AChR sites in the Yiqi Huayu Recipe-treated group were all better improved than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: The expression of N-CAM is regulated according to the state of innervation for muscles. Yiqi Huayu Recipe may accelerate this nerve regeneration process.

  10. Programmed cell death-1 is expressed in large retinal ganglion cells and is upregulated after optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chan, Ann; Qin, Yu; Kwong, Jacky M K; Caprioli, Joseph; Levinson, Ralph; Chen, Ling; Gordon, Lynn K

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a key negative receptor inducibly expressed on T cells, B cells and dendritic cells. It was discovered on T cells undergoing classical programmed cell death. Studies showed that PD-1 ligation promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death during retinal development. The purpose of this present study is to characterize PD-1 regulation in the retina after optic nerve crush (ONC). C57BL/6 mice were subjected to ONC and RGC loss was monitored by immunolabelling with RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms). Time course of PD-1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. PD-1 expression was detected with anti-PD-1 antibody on whole mount retinas. PD-1 staining intensity was quantitated. Colocalization of PD-1 and cleaved-caspase-3 after ONC was analyzed. Real-time PCR results demonstrated that PD-1 gene expression was significantly upregulated at day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after ONC. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dramatic increase of PD-1 expression following ONC. In both control and injured retinas, PD-1 tended to be up-expressed in a subtype of RGCs, whose somata size were significantly larger than others. Compared to control, PD-1 intensity in large RGCs was increased by 82% in the injured retina. None of the large RGCs expressed cleaved-caspase-3 at day 5 after ONC. Our work presents the first evidence of PD-1 induction in RGCs after ONC. This observation supports further investigation into the role of PD-1 expression during RGC death or survival following injury. PMID:26277582

  11. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  12. Differential Effects of Insulin on Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Agouti Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald A.; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hyperinsulinemia, which often coexists with obesity and type 2 diabetes, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thought to promote hypertension through the sympathetic effects of insulin. Here, we examined the effect of insulin on regional sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in obesity. Methods Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to examine insulin sensitivity in agouti obese mice. We used also multifiber recording to compare the regional SNA response to ICV insulin between lean and agouti obese mice. Results Agouti obese mice have significantly elevated levels of blood glucose and plasma insulin associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In lean mice, ICV administration of insulin (20 and 100 ?U) caused a dose-dependent increase in SNA subserving hindlimb, kidney and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Of note, the regional SNA responses to insulin were differentially altered in agouti obese mice. While lumbar SNA response to insulin was intact in the obese mice, renal and BAT sympathetic activation to insulin were significantly attenuated in these agouti obese mice. Finally, we assessed the role of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in mediating sympathetic activation to insulin in obesity. Notably, ICV pre-treatment with a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) blocked the increase in lumbar SNA induced by ICV insulin in lean and agouti obese mice. Conclusions Our data suggest a differential regulation by insulin of sympathetic outflow to peripheral tissues in obesity. Our findings also demonstrate the importance of PI3K in lumbar sympathetic activation to insulin in obesity. PMID:20577122

  13. [Damage of macular ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydovskaia, M V; Tsysar', M A; Bo?ko, A N; Akopian, V S; Semenova, N S; Filonenko, I V; Fomin, A V; Gusev, E I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) characteristics and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate the associations between these parameters and clinical characteristics of patients for evaluation perspectives of using this method for monitoring of disability and neurodegenerative processes. We examined a total of 113 participants (analysis of 211 eyes), divided into three groups: 1. 48 MS patients (66 eyes) with a history of optic neuritis (ON); 2. 35 MS patients (70 eyes) without a history of ON; 3. 30 disease-free control subjects (45 eyes). The estudy included anamnesis collection, neurological examination with assessment of EDSS scores. Refracted visual acuity prior to optical coherence tomography (OCT) was tested. RTVue-100 ??? system was used to assess peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular inner parameter (protocol GCC). The strongly correlated decline of the most RNFL and GCC indices was characteristic of all groups of MS patients with and without ON compared to controls. The damage of GCC was greater in patients with ON. The inverse correlation was found between the indices studied and the level of patient's disability. The study of GCC and RNFL thickness can be used to describe and characterize the level of axonal damage in MS and for objectification of neurodegenerative process in studies on neuroprotection and neuroreparation. PMID:22677679

  14. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P stress was augmented in rosacea (both P stress induced more rapid sweating and cutaneous vasodilation onset in rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component. PMID:26133800

  15. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Hansen, J.; Sander, M.; Horn, K.; Ogoh, S.; Smith, M. L.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects.

  16. Arbitrary units are a composite and useful measure of muscle sympathetic nerve activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) signal is challenging to detect, record and analyze. Several methods exist that attempt to capture the latent construct of MSNA. We directly compared the performance of five MSNA parameters: burst frequency, burst incidence, median burst amplitude, arbitrary units (AU) and fractal dimension (FD). The MSNA signal was recorded in 33 subjects for ?30 min before, during and after the application of a graded cold pressor test stimulus at 18 °C, 10 °C and 2 °C in random order with an adequate wash-out period. Using coefficient of variation, Shannon's entropy and principal component analysis, we observed that these five parameters defined two physical and conceptual domains of MSNA—frequency and amplitude. Since AU combines information from both these domains, we observed that it explained maximum inter-subject and inter-experimental segment variation. FD did not explain the inter-subject variability and was identified as a unique parameter in the factor analysis. Epidemiological studies that attempt to quantify MSNA may consistently use AU as the parameter for quantification of MSNA

  17. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Ribeiro, Gláucia M; Fonseca, Cláudio C; Sartori, Sirlene S R; Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Neves, Clóvis A

    2012-09-01

    The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05), except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05). No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals. PMID:22801379

  18. Chronic variable stress activates hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Timo; Sager, Hendrik B; Courties, Gabriel; Dutta, Partha; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Zaltsman, Alex; von Zur Muhlen, Constantin; Bode, Christoph; Fricchione, Gregory L; Denninger, John; Lin, Charles P; Vinegoni, Claudio; Libby, Peter; Swirski, Filip K; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Although incompletely understood, interaction between the psyche and the immune system provides one potential mechanism linking stress and disease inception and progression. Known cross-talk between the brain and immune system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which centrally drives glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, which controls stress-induced catecholamine release in support of the fight-or-flight reflex. It remains unknown, however, whether chronic stress changes hematopoietic stem cell activity. Here we show that stress increases proliferation of these most primitive hematopoietic progenitors, giving rise to higher levels of disease-promoting inflammatory leukocytes. We found that chronic stress induced monocytosis and neutrophilia in humans. While investigating the source of leukocytosis in mice, we discovered that stress activates upstream hematopoietic stem cells. Under conditions of chronic variable stress in mice, sympathetic nerve fibers released surplus noradrenaline, which signaled bone marrow niche cells to decrease CXCL12 levels through the ?3-adrenergic receptor. Consequently, hematopoietic stem cell proliferation was elevated, leading to an increased output of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. When atherosclerosis-prone Apoe(-/-) mice were subjected to chronic stress, accelerated hematopoiesis promoted plaque features associated with vulnerable lesions that cause myocardial infarction and stroke in humans. PMID:24952646

  19. Functional and structural changes in the brain associated with the increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity in obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouleh, Rania H.; Hammam, Elie; Lundblad, Linda C.; Macey, Paul M; McKenzie, David K.; Henderson, Luke A.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) during daytime wakefulness, leading to hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of the brain we aimed to identify the central processes responsible for the sympathoexcitation. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into ...

  20. Inferior cardiac nerve activity in the cat during superfusion of the vascularly isolated carotid sinus with propranolol.

    OpenAIRE

    McCleary, M.; Tuttle, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    1 Inferior cardiac nerve activity in 9 cats was in inverse relationship to the pressure maintained in the systemically isolated and perfused carotid sinus. 2 Perfusion with propranolol produced no change in this relationship at a concentration of 5.0 microgram/ml, but abolished it at 50.0 microgram/ml. 3 The results suggest that concentrations of propranolol which have been reported to enhance the sensitivity of the carotid sinus to pressure do not enhance one neurophysiological component of ...

  1. Reduced Light Response of Neuronal Firing Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Optic Nerve of Cryptochrome-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Takahiro J.; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    To examine roles of the Cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) in mammalian circadian photoreception, we recorded single-unit neuronal firing activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a primary circadian oscillator, and optic nerve fibers in vivo after retinal illumination in anesthetized Cry1 and Cry2 double-knockout (Cry-deficient) mice. In wild-type mice, most SCN neurons increased their firing frequency in response to retinal illumination at night, whereas only 17% of SCN neurons responded du...

  2. Mindfulness meditation lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in African-American males with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeanie; Lyles, Robert H.; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) is a stress-reduction technique that may have real biological effects on hemodynamics but has never previously been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of MM are unknown. We sought to determine whether MM acutely lowers BP in CKD patients, and whether these hemodynamic changes are mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. In 15 hypertensive African-Am...

  3. Spontaneous activity of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl (Tyto alba): analyses of interspike interval distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Köppl, Christine; Heil, Peter

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrate auditory systems, the conversion from graded receptor potentials across the hair-cell membrane into stochastic spike trains of the auditory nerve (AN) fibers is performed by ribbon synapses. The statistics underlying this process constrain auditory coding but are not precisely known. Here, we examine the distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) from spontaneous activity of AN fibers of the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal avian predator whose auditory system is specialized for precise temporal coding. The spontaneous activity of AN fibers, with the exception of those showing preferred intervals, is commonly thought to result from excitatory events generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process, which lead to spikes unless the fiber is refractory. We show that the ISI distributions in the owl are better explained as resulting from the action of a brief refractory period ( approximately 0.5 ms) on excitatory events generated by a homogeneous stochastic process where the distribution of interevent intervals is a mixture of an exponential and a gamma distribution with shape factor 2, both with the same scaling parameter. The same model was previously shown to apply to AN fibers in the cat. However, the mean proportions of exponentially versus gamma-distributed intervals in the mixture were different for cat and owl. Furthermore, those proportions were constant across fibers in the cat, whereas they covaried with mean spontaneous rate and with characteristic frequency in the owl. We hypothesize that in birds, unlike in mammals, more than one ribbon may provide excitation to most fibers, accounting for the different proportions, and that variation in the number of ribbons may underlie the variation in the proportions. PMID:19357334

  4. Nerve growth factor eye drops improve visual acuity and electrofunctional activity in age-related macular degeneration: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro, Lambiase; Marco, Coassin; Paola, Tirassa; Flavio, Mantelli; Luigi, Aloe.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a severe disease affecting visual function in the elderly. Currently available surgical and medical options do not guarantee a significant impact on the outcome of the disease. We describe the effects of nerve growth factor eye drop treatment in a 94 years [...] old female with ARMD, whose visual acuity was progressively worsening in spite of previous surgical and medical treatments. NGF eye drops improved visual acuity and electrofunctional parameters as early as 3 months after initiation of treatment. These results are in line with previous reports on a neuroprotective effect of NGF on retinal cells and on NGF eye drops bioavailability in the retina and optic nerve. No side effects were observed after five years of follow-up, suggesting that topical NGF treatment may be a safe and effective therapy for ARMD.

  5. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally-charged images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RachaelBrown

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System. Skin sympathetic nerve activity was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively-charged images (erotica or negatively-charged images (mutilation were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting two minutes. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction, however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  6. Selective activation of microglia in spinal cord but not higher cortical regions following nerve injury in adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yuze

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal plasticity along the pathway for sensory transmission including the spinal cord and cortex plays an important role in chronic pain, including inflammatory and neuropathic pain. While recent studies indicate that microglia in the spinal cord are involved in neuropathic pain, a systematic study has not been performed in other regions of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we used heterozygous Cx3cr1GFP/+mice to characterize the morphological phenotypes of microglia following common peroneal nerve (CPN ligation. We found that microglia showed a uniform distribution throughout the CNS, and peripheral nerve injury selectively activated microglia in the spinal cord dorsal horn and related ventral horn. In contrast, microglia was not activated in supraspinal regions of the CNS, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2, insular cortex (IC, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. Our results provide strong evidence that nerve injury primarily activates microglia in the spinal cord of adult mice, and pain-related cortical plasticity is likely mediated by neurons.

  7. Arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity under orthostatic stress in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MasashiIchinose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which blood pressure is maintained against the orthostatic stress caused by gravity’s effect on the fluid distribution within the body are important issues in physiology, especially in humans who usually adopt an upright posture. Peripheral vasoconstriction and increased heart rate are major cardiovascular adjustments to orthostatic stress and comprise part of the reflex response elicited via the carotid sinus and aortic baroreceptors (arterial baroreflex: ABR and cardiopulmonary stretch receptors (cardiopulmonary baroreflex. In a series of studies, we have been characterizing the ABR-mediated regulation of cardiovascular hemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA while applying orthostatic stress in humans. We have found that under orthostatic stress, dynamic carotid baroreflex responses are modulated as exemplified by the increases in the MSNA, blood pressure and heart rate responses elicited by carotid baroreflex unloading and the shorter period of MSNA suppression, comparable reduction and faster recovery of MAP and greater heart rate response to carotid baroreflex stimulation. Our results also show that ABR-mediated beat-to-beat control over burst incidence, burst strength and total MSNA is progressively modulated as orthostatic stress is increased until induction of syncope, and that the sensitivity of ABR control over the aforementioned MSNA variables is substantially reduced during the development of syncope. We suggest that in humans, the modulation of ABR function under orthostatic stress may be one of the mechanisms by which blood pressure is maintained and orthostatic hypotension limited, and impairment of ABR control over sympathetic vasomotor activity leads to the severe hypotension associated with orthostatic syncope.

  8. Alteration of primary afferent activity following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Shigeji

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to evaluate the neural mechanisms underlying the abnormal facial pain that may develop following regeneration of the injured inferior alveolar nerve (IAN, the properties of the IAN innervated in the mental region were analyzed. Results Fluorogold (FG injection into the mental region 14 days after IAN transection showed massive labeling of trigeminal ganglion (TG. The escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the mental skin was significantly lower (i.e. mechanical allodynia at 11-14 days after IAN transection than before surgery. The background activity, mechanically evoked responses and afterdischarges of IAN A?-fibers were significantly higher in IAN-transected rats than naive. The small/medium diameter TG neurons showed an increase in both tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant (TTX-R and -sensitive (TTX-S sodium currents (INa and decrease in total potassium current, transient current (IA and sustained current (IK in IAN-transected rats. The amplitude, overshoot amplitude and number of action potentials evoked by the depolarizing pulses after 1 ?M TTX administration in TG neurons were significantly higher, whereas the threshold current to elicit spikes was smaller in IAN-transected rats than naive. Resting membrane potential was significantly smaller in IAN-transected rats than that of naive. Conclusions These data suggest that the increase in both TTX-S INa and TTX-R INa and the decrease in IA and Ik in small/medium TG neurons in IAN-transected rats are involved in the activation of spike generation, resulting in hyperexcitability of A?-IAN fibers innervating the mental region after IAN transection.

  9. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  10. Single Cell Ras-GTP Analysis Reveals Altered Ras Activity in a Subpopulation of Neurofibroma Schwann Cells but Not Fibroblasts*

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Larry S; Atit, Radhika; Rosenbaum, Thorsten; Cox, Adrienne D.; Ratner, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder characterized by multiple neurofibromas, peripheral nerve tumors containing mainly Schwann cells and fibroblasts. The NF1 gene encodes neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor postulated to function in part as a Ras GTPase-activating protein. The roles of different cell types and of elevated Ras-GTP in neurofibroma formation are unclear. To determine which neurofibroma cell type has altered Ras-GTP regulation, we developed an immunocytochem...

  11. Activation of Satellite Glial Cells in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion after Upper Molar Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which passively support the function of the neurons, but little is known about the interactions between SGCs and TG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. To examine the effect of nerve injury on SGCs, we investigated the activation of SGCs after neuronal damage due to the extraction of the upper molars in rats. Three, 7, and 10 days after extraction, animals were fixed and the TG was removed. Cryosections of the ganglia were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of activated SGCs, and ATF3, a marker of damaged neurons. After tooth extraction, the number of ATF3-immunoreactive (IR) neurons enclosed by GFAP-IR SGCs had increased in a time-dependent manner in the maxillary nerve region of the TG. Although ATF3-IR neurons were not detected in the mandibular nerve region, the number of GFAP-IR SGCs increased in both the maxillary and mandibular nerve regions. Our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury affects the activation of TG neurons and the SGCs around the injured neurons. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of a neuronal interaction between maxillary and mandibular neurons via SGC activation

  12. Nerve growth factor is involved in the supportive effect by bone marrow--derived stromal cells of the factor-dependent human cell line UT-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, I; Chevalier, S; Froger, J; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Gascan, H; Coulombel, L

    1996-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that murine MS-5 and SI/SI4 cell lines induce the proliferation of human factor-dependent UT-7 cells in the absence of normally required human cytokines and also stimulate the differentiation of CD34+/CD38-LTC-ICs. We report in this study that the effect of MS-5 cells on UT-7 cells can be completely explained by the synergistic action of nerve growth factor (NGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) produced by these murine stromal cells. Purified murine NGF was able to support short-term clone formation and long-term growth of UT-7 cells in suspension cultures as efficiently as rhu-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. NGF action was mediated through the TrkA receptor, in which messenger RNA (mRNA) was easily detected in UT-7 cells by Northern blot. MS-5 cells strongly expressed NGF mRNA in Northern blot, and direct implication of MS-5-derived NGF in the induction of UT-7 cells proliferation was demonstrated in inhibition assays with an anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that neutralized by 84% +/- 4.1% (n = 5) UT-7 clone formation. However, NGF did not act alone, and several arguments demonstrated the synergistic action of MS-5-derived SCF: (1) an anti-c-kit partially inhibited UT-7 cells clone formation in coculture assays, (2) SCF and NGF synergized in an H3-TdR incorporation assay, and (3) the stimulatory effect of 10x-concentrated MS-5 supernatant was completely inhibited by an anti-c-kit but not by an anti-NGF, and levels of soluble NGF (1.2 ng/mL) detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 10x supernatant of MS-5 cells cultures were below the biologically active concentrations. In contrast, although MS-5 cells also promoted the differentiation of very primitive CD34+/CD38- human stem cells both in colony assays and long-term cultures, we could not incriminate MS-5-derived NGF in the observed effect: an anti-NGF MoAb did not inhibit the synergistic effect of MS-5 cells in colony assays or long-term cultures nor did soluble muNGF duplicate MS-5 effect and survival of CD34+/CD38- clonogenic progenitor cells promoted by MS-5 was unaffected by an anti-NGF and was not induced by soluble NGF alone or combined with SCF. In contrast, NGF in synergy with SCF supported the short-term maintenance of high numbers of CD34+/CD38+ mature erythroid progenitors probably through an indirect mechanism implying macrophages. These results suggest that NGF, in which the primary target cells are outside the hematopoietic system, is present in the marrow environment and might act at some steps of hematopoietic stem cell development. These results also underline that the response of cell lines and normal stem cells to stromal cells is mediated by different pathways. PMID:8781416

  13. Activation of sulphonylurea-sensitive channels and the NO-cGMP pathway decreases the heart rate response to sympathetic nerve stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, RM; Paterson, DJ

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Activation of ATP sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP)) and the NO-cGMP pathway have both been implicated in reducing norepinephrine (NE) release from cardiac sympathetic nerves during stimulation. Our aim was to test whether these pathways could interact and modulate cardiac excitability during sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS). METHODS: The effect of inhibitors and activators of K(ATP) channels and the NO-cGMP pathway on the heart rate (HR) response to cardiac SNS in the isolated gui...

  14. Apoptosis of sensory neurons and satellite cells after sciatic nerve transection in C57BL/6J mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.R., Oliveira.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of axonal regeneration, after sciatic nerve lesion in adult C57BL/6J mice, is reduced when compared to other isogenic strains. It was observed that such low regeneration was not due just to a delay, since neuronal death was observed. Two general mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necro [...] sis, may be involved. By using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique, we demonstrated that a large number of sensory neurons, as well as satellite cells found in the dorsal root ganglia, were intensely labeled, thus indicating that apoptotic mechanisms were involved in the death process. Although almost no labeled neurons or satellite cells were observed one week after transection, a more than ten-fold increase in TUNEL labeling was detected after two weeks. The results obtained with the C57BL/6J strain were compared with those of the A/J strain, which has a much higher peripheral nerve regeneration potential. In A/J mice, almost no labeling of sensory neurons or satellite cells was observed after one or two weeks, indicating the absence of neuronal loss. Our data confirm previous observations that approximately 40% of C57BL/6J sensory neurons die after sciatic nerve transection, and indicate that apoptotic events are involved. Also, our observations reinforce the hypothesis that the low rate of axonal regeneration occurring in C57BL/6J mice may be the result of a mismatch in the timing of the neurons need for neurotrophic substances, and production of the latter by non-neuronal cells in the distal stump.

  15. Investigation of developmentally regulated membrane proteins in muscle and nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developmental regulation of membrane glycoproteins in muscle and nerve cells has been studied. One of these glycoproteins, designated 5B4 antigen, is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (5B4) in rat brain neurons. On immunoblots of fetal rat brain membranes, 5B4 stains a diffuse band with an M/sub r/ of 180-250 kilodalton (kd). Prior digestion of such membranes with a bacteriophage-encoded endoneuraminidase specific for ?-2,8-linked poly(sialic acid) results in a shift in the form of the antigen to two sharp bands of 140 and 180 kd. In adult brain, 5B4 recognizes a pair of sharp bands of M/sub r/ 140 and 180 kd, which are neither sensitive to endo-neuraminidase digestion nor recognized by H.46. V8 peptide maps of the enzymatically iodinated 140 kd adult antigen and the 140 kd endo-neuraminidase digested fetal antigen are identical. These results demonstrate that the polypeptide backbone of the adult and fetal forms of the 5B4 antigen are similar, and that the observed microheterogeneity in the native fetal antigen is due to polysialation. Membrane glycoproteins are through to play an essential role in myoblast fusion during muscle development. In order to identify such glycoproteins, L6 myoblasts were labeled with 3H-N-acetylglucosamine and 3H-mannose during several stages of differentiation. The effects of various inhibitors of fusion of protein expression were also studied. After identifying membrane glycoproteins whose developmental regulation coincides with myoblast fusion, it is important to establish their role in the fusion process, possibly through reconstitution into phospholipid membrane vesicles (liposomes)

  16. Active cheerleading with radial nerve palsy following supracondylar humerus fracture [Cheerleading mit Radialisparese nach suprakondylärer Humerusfraktur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herold, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Cheerleading is associated with substantial morbidity. As such, cheerleading fall-related injuries may cause serious to fatal outcomes especially falls from attempted pyramids. We report on a female adolescent cheerleader age 14 suffering a supracondylar humerus fracture related to a fall from a pyramid. Unfortunately, lateral pinning led to complete iatrogenic radial nerve palsy. However, given an intriguing compensatory athletic function of the wrist she was able to perform cheerleading artistic figures such as flic-flac within four months after the injury with a radial nerve palsy, which is highlighted in an attached video. 18 months after the radial palsy she was admitted to our hospital and underwent neuroma resection of the initially transsected radial nerve at the elbow and sural nerve grafting for radial nerve palsy.[german] Cheerleading kann zu verschiedensten Unfällen führen. Insbesondere bei dem Versuch Pyramiden zu bilden sind bereits Todesfälle aufgetreten. Wir berichten von einer 14-jährigen Cheerleaderin welche bei dem Versuch eine Pyramide zu bilden stürzte und sich eine suprakondyläre Humerusfraktur zuzog. Bei der osteosynthetischen Versorgung kam es leider zu einer kompletten Durchtrennung des N. radialis. Dennoch konnte sie bei der gegebenen erstaunlichen Kompensation ihrer Handgelenksgeweglichkeit weiterhin schwierige Cheerleading Übungen wie Flick-Flack durchführen, was im beigefügten Video verdeutlicht wird. 18 Monate nach Eintreten der Radialisparese wurde sie in unserer Klinik vorstellig und es wurde nach einer Neuromresektion eine Suralis Interposition zur Nervenrekonstruktion durchgeführt.

  17. LEPTIN SIGNALING IN THE NUCLEUS TRACTUS SOLITARII INCREASES SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY TO THE KIDNEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Allyn L.; Agassandian, Khristofor; Morgan, Donald A.; Liu, Xuebo; Cassell, Martin D; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was initially regarded as the principal site of leptin action, but there is increasing evidence for functional leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) in extra-hypothalamic sites, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). We previously demonstrated that arcuate injection of leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown adipose tissue (BAT) and kidney. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leptin signaling in the NTS affects sympathetic neural outflow. Using a stereotaxic device in anesthetized rats, we microinjected leptin (0.25 to 1.0 ?g) or saline into the NTS while recording SNA to kidney and BAT. Microinjection of leptin into the commissural and medial subnuclei of the caudal NTS at the level of the area postrema in Sprague-Dawley rats produced a dose-related increase in renal SNA (+112±15% with leptin 1 ?g, n=7, P<0.001), but did not increase SNA to BAT (?15±12%; P=NS). This effect was dependent on intact Ob-Rb because it was not observed in Zucker obese rats that have a missense mutation in the leptin receptor. Rostral NTS injection of leptin failed to increase SNA indicating that leptin signaling in the NTS is probably confined to the caudal NTS at the level of the area postrema. In summary, this study demonstrates that leptin signaling in the caudal NTS increases SNA to the kidney, but not brown adipose tissue. The study strengthens the concept of a distributed brain network of leptin action and demonstrates that these distributed brain sites can mediate contrasting sympathetic responses to leptin. PMID:19103999

  18. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.; Farr, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heating decreases central venous pressure (CVP) while increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In normothermia, similar decreases in CVP elevate MSNA, presumably via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading. The purpose of this project was to identify whether increases in MSNA during whole body heating could be attributed to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading coincident with the thermal challenge. Seven subjects were exposed to whole body heating while sublingual temperature, skin blood flow, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and MSNA were monitored. During the heat stress, 15 ml/kg warmed saline was infused intravenously over 7-10 min to increase CVP and load the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. We reported previously that this amount of saline was sufficient to return CVP to pre-heat stress levels. Whole body heating increased MSNA from 25 +/- 3 to 39 +/- 3 bursts/min (P Central blood volume expansion via rapid saline infusion did not significantly decrease MSNA (44 +/- 4 bursts/min, P > 0.05 relative to heat stress period) and did not alter mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) or pulse pressure. To identify whether arterial baroreceptor loading decreases MSNA during heat stress, in a separate protocol MAP was elevated via steady-state infusion of phenylephrine during whole body heating. Increasing MAP from 82 +/- 3 to 93 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) caused MSNA to decrease from 36 +/- 3 to 15 +/- 4 bursts/min (P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading during passive heating is not the primary mechanism resulting in elevations in MSNA. Moreover, arterial baroreceptors remain capable of modulating MSNA during heat stress.

  19. Oral Contraceptive Use, Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity, and Systemic Hemodynamics in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronee E; Hart, Emma C; Charkoudian, Nisha; Curry, Timothy B; Carter, Jason R; Fu, Qi; Minson, Christopher T; Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N

    2015-09-01

    Endogenous female sex hormones influence muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a regulator of arterial blood pressure and important factor in hypertension development. Although ?80% of American women report using hormonal contraceptives sometime during their life, the influence of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on MSNA and systemic hemodynamics remains equivocal. The goal of this study was to determine whether women taking OCs have altered MSNA and hemodynamics (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance) at rest during the placebo phase of OC use compared with women with natural menstrual cycles during the early follicular phase. We retrospectively analyzed data from studies in which healthy, premenopausal women (aged 18-35 years) participated. We collected MSNA values at rest and hemodynamic measurements in women taking OCs (n=53; 25±4 years) and women with natural menstrual cycles (n=74; 25±4 years). Blood pressure was higher in women taking OCs versus those with natural menstrual cycles (mean arterial pressure, 89±1 versus 85±1 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01), although MSNA was similar in both groups (MSNA burst incidence, 16±1 versus 18±1 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively; P=0.19). In a subset of women in which detailed hemodynamic data were available, those taking OCs (n=33) had similar cardiac output (4.9±0.2 versus 4.7±0.2 L/min, respectively; P=0.47) and total peripheral resistance (19.2±0.8 versus 20.0±0.9 U, respectively; P=0.51) as women with natural menstrual cycles (n=22). In conclusion, women taking OCs have higher resting blood pressure and similar MSNA and hemodynamics during the placebo phase of OC use when compared with naturally menstruating women in the early follicular phase. PMID:26101348

  20. Biological Activity of Nerve Growth Factor Precursor Is Dependent upon Relative Levels of Its Receptors*

    OpenAIRE

    Masoudi, Raheleh; Ioannou, Maria S.; Coughlin, Michael D; Pagadala, Promila; Neet, Kenneth E; Clewes, Oliver; Allen, Shelley J.; Dawbarn, David; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced as a precursor called pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF), which is secreted by many tissues and is the predominant form of NGF in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease brain, cholinergic neurons degenerate and can no longer transport NGF as efficiently, leading to an increase in untransported NGF in the target tissue. The protein that accumulates in the target tissue is proNGF, not the mature form. The role of this precursor is controversial, and...

  1. The long chain fatty acid oleate activates mouse intestinal afferent nerves in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W Andrew; Beyak, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Vagal afferents innervating the gastrointestinal tract serve an important nutrient-sensing function, and these signals contribute to satiety. Detection of nutrients occurs largely through the release of mediators from specialized enteroendocrine cells within the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. The signaling pathways leading to vagal afferent activation are not clear; however, previous in-vivo studies have implicated a role for cholecystokinin (CCK). We used an in vitro intestinal afferent extracellular recording preparation to study the effect of luminal perfusion of the long chain fatty acid oleate on mouse intestinal afferent activity. Oleate activated intestinal afferents in a concentration-dependent fashion, with an EC50 value of approximately 25 mmol/L. The L-type calcium channel blocker nicardipine attenuated the effect of oleate. Vagotomy resulted in a significant (>60%) reduction of the responses to both oleate and CCK. The CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide nearly abolished responses to CCK and oleate. Our experiments therefore suggest that oleate activates intestinal afferents, with vagal afferents primarily involved; however, nonvagal fibres also contribute. The activation is dependent on CCK release, likely via activation of L-type channels on mucosal enteroendocrine cells, finally resulting in activation of CCK-1 receptors on the afferent terminals. PMID:23656469

  2. Intravitreal Delivery of Human NgR-Fc Decoy Protein Regenerates Axons After Optic Nerve Crush and Protects Ganglion Cells in Glaucoma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Jun; Arzeno, Alexander; Choi, Jin Young; Boccio, Juliann; Frieden, Eric; Bhargava, Ajay; Maynard, George; Tsai, James C.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Glaucoma is a major cause of vision loss due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Therapeutic intervention controls increased IOP, but neuroprotection is unavailable. NogoReceptor1 (NgR1) limits adult central nervous system (CNS) axonal sprouting and regeneration. We examined NgR1 blocking decoy as a potential therapy by defining the pharmacokinetics of intravitreal NgR(310)-Fc, its promotion of RGC axonal regeneration following nerve crush, and its neuroprotective effect in a microbead glaucoma model. Methods. Human NgR1(310)-Fc was administered intravitreally, and levels were monitored in rat vitreal humor and retina. Axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush was assessed by cholera toxin ? anterograde labeling. In a microbead model of glaucoma with increased IOP, the number of surviving and actively transporting RGCs was determined after 4 weeks by retrograde tracing with Fluro-Gold (FG) from the superior colliculus. Results. After intravitreal bolus administration, the terminal half-life of NgR1(310)-Fc between 1 and 7 days was approximately 24 hours. Injection of 5 ?g protein once per week after optic nerve crush injury significantly increased RGCs with regenerating axons. Microbeads delivered to the anterior chamber increased pressure, and caused 15% reduction in FG-labeled RGCs of control rats, with a 40% reduction in large diameter RGCs. Intravitreal treatment with NgR1(310)-Fc did not reduce IOP, but maintained large diameter RGC density at control levels. Conclusions. Human NgR1(310)-Fc has favorable pharmacokinetics in the vitreal space and rescues large diameter RGC counts from increased IOP. Thus, the NgR1 blocking decoy protein may have efficacy as a disease-modifying therapy for glaucoma. PMID:25655801

  3. Role of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels expressed in PVN in regulating sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Le; LaGrange, Lila P.; Larson, Robert A.; Gu, Mingjun; ZHU, JIANHUA; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels regulate membrane properties of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) projecting hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons and inhibition of SK channels increases in vitro excitability. Here, we determined in vivo the role of PVN SK channels in regulating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In anesthetized rats, bilateral PVN microinjection of SK channel blocker with peptide apamin (0, 0.125, 1.25, 3.75, ...

  4. Endothelial cell activation by mast cell mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileepan, Kottarappat N; Stechschulte, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are important cells of the immune system, and their secretory products regulate many vascular functions. Although considerable interest is focused on the role of mast cells and infectious agents in atherosclerosis, whether or not mast cell mediators act in concert with bacterial agents to regulate endothelial activation is not known. Here, we have described experimental techniques and presented related results to demonstrate how mast cell granule (MCG) mediators and bacterial products synergize endothelial cell inflammatory responses. The described methods outline: (1) the collection of rat peritoneal mast cells; (2) preparation of MCGs; (3) co-culture of human endothelial cells with mast cell granules; (4) determination of the regulation of endo- thelial cell inflammatory responses; (5) demonstration of the role of MCG protease and histamine in the regulation of endothelial cell function; (6) amplification of lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction pathways by mast cell granules; (7) elucidation of histamine-induced amplification of endothelial cell responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components; and (8) determination of the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We hope the techniques described here can be used for designing experiments focusing on the regulatory role of mast cell mediators on cell functions. PMID:16110164

  5. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  6. Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells from the Hair Follicle Can Differentiate Into Motor Neurons and Reduce Muscle Atrophy after Transplantation to Injured Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen; HOFFMAN, ROBERT M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells from the mouse and human are multipotent and can differentiate into many cell types, including neurons and glial cells. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation in mouse models. In the present study, nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were induced by retinoic acid and fetal bovine serum to differentiate and...

  7. Survival, migration and differentiation of mouse tau-GFP embryonic stem cells transplanted into the rat auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Björn; Jiao, Yu; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Stupp, Samuel I; Olivius, Petri

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have been investigated as treatment for a variety of diagnoses such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injuries. Here, we investigated the possibility of using stem cells as a replacement therapy for lesions of the auditory nerve (AN). We transplanted tau-GFP mouse embryonic stem cells into the AN either by the internal auditory meatus or via the modiolus in rats that had been previously deafened by application of ?-bungarotoxin to the round window niche. We investigated the effect of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cell transplant survival and differentiation. Additionally chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), a digestive enzyme that cleaves the core chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, was used in order to promote possible migration of cells and axons through the transitional zone. A bioactive isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine (IKVAV) peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofiber gel was applied around the cell injection site. This nanofiber gel has been shown to promote neural differentiation and other similar gels have been used to encapsulate and release proteins. Three weeks after injection, transplanted cells were found in the scala tympani, the modiolus, the AN trunk and the brain stem. As compared to cell transplantation and gel only, BDNF content in the PA gel increased cell survival and neuronal differentiation. In the animals treated with ChABC we observed extensive migration of cells through the transitional zone to or from the CNS. PMID:22487201

  8. Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Gareth R; Libby, Richard T.; Jakobs, Tatjana C.; Smith, Richard S.; Phalan, F. Campbell; Barter, Joseph W.; Barbay, Jessica M.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; Mahesh, Nagaraju; Porciatti, Vittorio; Whitmore, Alan V.; MASLAND, RICHARD H.; John, Simon W. M.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we use a mouse model (DBA/2J) to readdress the location of insult(s) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. We localize an early sign of axon damage to an astrocyte-rich region of the optic nerve just posterior to the retina, analogous to the lamina cribrosa. In this region, a network of astrocytes associates intimately with RGC axons. Using BAX-deficient DBA/2J mice, which retain all of their RGCs, we provide experimental evidence for an insult within or very close to the lamina...

  9. Mindfulness meditation lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in African-American males with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Lyles, Robert H; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2014-07-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) is a stress-reduction technique that may have real biological effects on hemodynamics but has never previously been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of MM are unknown. We sought to determine whether MM acutely lowers BP in CKD patients, and whether these hemodynamic changes are mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. In 15 hypertensive African-American (AA) males with CKD, we conducted a randomized, crossover study in which participants underwent 14 min of MM or 14 min of BP education (control intervention) during two separate random-order study visits. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), beat-to-beat arterial BP, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were continuously measured at baseline and during each intervention. A subset had a third study visit to undergo controlled breathing (CB) to determine whether a reduction in RR alone was sufficient in exacting hemodynamic changes. We observed a significantly greater reduction in systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and HR, as well as a significantly greater reduction in MSNA, during MM compared with the control intervention. Participants had a significantly lower RR during MM; however, in contrast to MM, CB alone did not reduce BP, HR, or MSNA. MM acutely lowers BP and HR in AA males with hypertensive CKD, and these hemodynamic effects may be mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. RR is significantly lower during MM, but CB alone without concomitant meditation does not acutely alter hemodynamics or sympathetic activity in CKD. PMID:24829497

  10. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gláucia M., Freitas-Ribeiro; Cláudio C., Fonseca; Sirlene S.R., Sartori; Alan, Loures-Ribeiro; Clóvis A., Neves.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de cél [...] ulas nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e íleo (P>0,05), exceto as células argirófilas no jejuno (P Abstract in english The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of n [...] ervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05), except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05). No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.

  11. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  12. Imatinib mesylate inhibits cell growth of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in vitro and in vivo through suppression of PDGFR-?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive and associated with poor prognosis. Basic research to develop new treatment regimens is critically needed. The effects of imatinib mesylate on MPNSTs were examined in six human MPNST cell lines and in a xenograft mouse model. The results showed expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? and suppression of its phosphorylation by imatinib mesylate in all six cell lines. Imatinib mesylate effectively suppressed MPNST cell growth in vitro at concentrations similar to those used clinically (1.46 ? 4.6 ?M) in three of six cell lines. Knockdown of PDGFR-? by transfection with a specific siRNA also caused significant reduction in cell proliferation in the sensitive cell lines, but not in the resistant cell lines. Furthermore, imatinib mesylate also significantly suppressed colony formation within soft agar and tumor growth in xenograft models using two of the three sensitive MPNST cell lines. There was excellent agreement between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to imatinib mesylate, suggesting possible selection of imatinib-sensitive tumors by in vitro analysis. The results suggest that imatinib mesylate may be useful in the treatment of MPNST patients and in vitro studies may help select cells that are sensitive to imatinib mesylate in vivo

  13. Exteroceptive, proprioceptive, and sympathetic activity recorded with microelectrodes from human peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E

    1979-06-01

    With tungsten microelectrodes percutaneously inserted into human peripheral nerve fascicles, in vivo recordings of single-unit action potentials can be obtained from different types of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers. This technique of microneurography has provided a great deal of information about (1) the sensory innervation of the human skin, with its mechanoreceptive, thermoreceptive, and nociceptive functions, (2) the proprioceptive innervation of human skeletal muscles, special attention being devoted to the motor control functions of the muscle spindles and the fusimotor system, and (3) the sympathetic innervation of autonomic effector organs in skin and muscle, with its significance for, for example, regulation of temperature and blood pressure. The technique has its main application not as a routine procedure in clinical diagnostic work but as a research tool in basic physiologic and pathophysiologic studies. PMID:156292

  14. Non-thermal influence of a weak microwave on nerve fiber activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a short selective review of the non-thermal weak microwave field impact on a nerve fiber. The published results of recent experiments are reviewed and analyzed. The theory of the authors is presented, according to which there are strongly pronounced resonances in the range of about 30-300 GHz associated with the excitation of ultrasonic vibrations in the membrane as a result of interactions with the microwave radiation. These forced vibrations create acoustic pressure, which may lead to the redistribution of the protein transmembrane channels, thus changing the threshold of the action potential excitation in the axons of the neural network. The problem of surface charge on the bilayer lipid membrane of the nerve fiber is discussed. Various experiments for observing the effects considered are also discussed.

  15. Late Onset of Facial Nerve Palsy after Tympanomastoidectomy: HSV-I Activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Solmaz, Fevzi; DÖNER, Fehmi

    2015-01-01

    We presented a right peripheral facial palsy occurred 7 days after operation. A 42 year old female patient had an uneventful right tympanomastoidectomy in our clinic.  She developed a Hause-Brackmann Grade II peripheral facial palsy postoperatively. A viral screen was performed using Enzyme Immune Assay. HSV-1 specific antibody titer was determined during the acute phase on the 2nd day of facial palsy, confirming the viral etiology. She was commenced to take steroid therapy. Her facial nerve ...

  16. Cultures of Schwann-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells on PDMS/MWNT sheets as a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Ho; Sun, Fangfang; Choi, Yoon Ji; Zou, Fengming; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Byung Kwan; Song, Geun Sung; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates as novel scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. Schwann cells (SCs) are attractive therapeutic targets due to their pivotal role in peripheral nerve regeneration, but primary SCs have limitations for clinical application. However, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may differentiate into Schwann-like cells. The present study assesses the potential applicability of multiwall CNTs (MWNTs) composited with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which were then seeded with differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dASCs) to promote neuronal differentiation and growth. Aqueous MWNT dispersion was filtered, and the PDMS/MWNT sheets were prepared using a simple printing-transfer method. Characterization of PDMS/MWNT sheets indicated their unique physical properties, such as superior mechanical strength and electroconductivity, compared with bare PDMS sheets. ASCs were differentiated into Schwann-like cells using a mixture of glial growth factors. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were co-cultured with SCs and dASCs on PDMS/MWNTs sheets or noncoated dishes. An alamar blue proliferation assay of dASC and SCs showed significantly more dASC and SCs cultured on PDMS/MWNT sheets at 48 h and 72 h than when cultured on noncoated dishes (p?PDMS/MWNT sheets seeded with dASCs, the proliferation of DRG neurons and the longest neurite outgrowth length per neuron were significantly greater than when DRG were cultured on PDMS/MWNT sheets alone or on noncoated dishes seeded with SCs or dASCs (p?PDMS/MWNT sheets exhibited excellent biocompatibility for culturing Schwann-like cells differentiated from ASCs. Seeding the dASCs on PDMS/MWNT sheets may produce synergistic effects in peripheral nerve regeneration, similarly to SCs. PMID:25903927

  17. Characteristic element of matrix attachment region mediates vector attachment and enhances nerve growth factor expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Zhang, J H; Sun, Q L; Yao, Z Y; Deng, B G; Guo, W Y; Wang, L; Dong, W H; Wang, F; Zhao, C P; Wang, T Y

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that a characteristic element of the matrix attachment region (MAR) in human interferon-? mediates the adhesion of vectors to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we investigated if vector adhesion increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in CHO cells. The MAR characteristic element sequence of human interferon-? was inserted into the multiple-cloning site of the pEGFP-C1 vector. The target NGF gene was inserted upstream of the MAR characteristic element sequence to construct the MAR/NGF expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO cells and stable monoclonal cells were selected using G418. NGF mRNA and protein expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasmid reduction experiments were used to determine the state of transfected plasmid in mammalian cells. The insertion of MAR into the vector increased NGF expression levels in CHO cells (1.93- fold) compared to the control. The recombinant plasmid expressing the MAR sequence was digested into a linear space vector. The inserted MAR and NGF sequences were consistent with those inserted into the plasmid before recombination. Therefore, we concluded that the MAR characteristic element mediates vector adhesion to CHO cells and enhances the stability and efficiency of the target gene expression. PMID:26345852

  18. Adult-brain-derived neural stem cells grafting into a vein bridge increases postlesional recovery and regeneration in a peripheral nerve of adult pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liard, Olivier; Segura, Stéphanie; Sagui, Emmanuel; Nau, André; Pascual, Aurélie; Cambon, Melissa; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Fusai, Thierry; Moyse, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    We attempted transplantation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) inside an autologous venous graft following surgical transsection of nervis cruralis with 30?mm long gap in adult pig. The transplanted cell suspension was a primary culture of neurospheres from adult pig subventricular zone (SVZ) which had been labeled in vitro with BrdU or lentivirally transferred fluorescent protein. Lesion-induced loss of leg extension on the thigh became definitive in controls but was reversed by 45-90 days after neurosphere-filled vein grafting. Electromyography showed stimulodetection recovery in neurosphere-transplanted pigs but not in controls. Postmortem immunohistochemistry revealed neurosphere-derived cells that survived inside the venous graft from 10 to 240 post-lesion days and all displayed a neuronal phenotype. Newly formed neurons were distributed inside the venous graft along the severed nerve longitudinal axis. Moreover, ANSC transplantation increased CNPase expression, indicating activation of intrinsic Schwann cells. Thus ANSC transplantation inside an autologous venous graft provides an efficient repair strategy. PMID:22448170

  19. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  20. Nasal-Type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-cell Neurolymphomatosis Confined to the Lumbar Nerve Roots: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurolymphomatosis refers to lymphoma that has infiltrated the peripheral nervous system and this is the least common clinical presentation of nervous system lymphoma. Most neurolymphomatosis is due to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and most patients show lymphomatous infiltration in the meninges and brain parenchyma, in addition to peripheral nervous system involvement. We diagnosed a case of neurolymphomatosis that was confined to the right 4th and 5th lumbar nerve roots without involvement of the meninges or brain parenchyma in a patient with the nasal-type extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. We made this diagnosis based on the MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings and the clinical manifestations

  1. High sensitivity recording of afferent nerve activity using ultra-compliant microchannel electrodes: an acute in vivo validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Chew, Daniel J.; Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Fawcett, James W.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2012-04-01

    Neuroprostheses interfaced with transected peripheral nerves are technological routes to control robotic limbs as well as convey sensory feedback to patients suffering from traumatic neural injuries or degenerative diseases. To maximize the wealth of data obtained in recordings, interfacing devices are required to have intrafascicular resolution and provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) recordings. In this paper, we focus on a possible building block of a three-dimensional regenerative implant: a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel electrode capable of highly sensitive recordings in vivo. The PDMS 'micro-cuff' consists of a 3.5 mm long (100 µm × 70 µm cross section) microfluidic channel equipped with five evaporated Ti/Au/Ti electrodes of sub-100 nm thickness. Individual electrodes have average impedance of 640 ± 30 k? with a phase angle of -58 ± 1 degrees at 1 kHz and survive demanding mechanical handling such as twisting and bending. In proof-of-principle acute implantation experiments in rats, surgically teased afferent nerve strands from the L5 dorsal root were threaded through the microchannel. Tactile stimulation of the skin was reliably monitored with the three inner electrodes in the device, simultaneously recording signal amplitudes of up to 50 µV under saline immersion. The overall SNR was approximately 4. A small but consistent time lag between the signals arriving at the three electrodes was observed and yields a fibre conduction velocity of 30 m s-1. The fidelity of the recordings was verified by placing the same nerve strand in oil and recording activity with hook electrodes. Our results show that PDMS microchannel electrodes open a promising technological path to 3D regenerative interfaces.

  2. Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, Poul Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. However, results also show that the NGF dose could advantageously be increased. We have used the sleeping beauty transposon expression technology to establish a new clinical grade cell line, NGC0211, with at least 10 times higher NGF production than that of NGC-0295. To test whether encapsulation of this cell line provides a relevant dose escalation step in delivering NGF for treatment of the cognitive decline in AD patients, we have validated the bioactivity of devices with NGC0211 and NGC-0295 cells in normal rat striatumas well as in the quinolinic acid striatal lesion model. These preclinical animal studies show that implantation of devices with NGC0211 cells lead to significantly higher NGF output, which in both cases correlate with highly improved potency.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 24 November 2011; doi:10.1038/gt.2011.178.

  3. C nociceptor activity in human nerve during painful and non painful skin stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hees, J.; Gybels, J

    1981-01-01

    Percutaneous recordings from more than one hundred single C fibres have been performed in the radial nerve of conscious human subjects. All these fibres belong to the poly-modal C nociceptor group, being excited by mechanical and thermal and also by chemical stimulation. Conduction velocities showed a monophasic distribution with a mean value of 0.86 m/s (SD: 0.17). The mechanical threshold, measured with von Frey hairs, varied between 2.3 and 13.1 g. The receptive field was circular or ellip...

  4. Mechanism of sphingosine 1-phosphate- and lysophosphatidic Acid-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and eosinophil chemoattractant in nerve cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, Richard W

    2012-02-01

    The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act via G-protein coupled receptors S1P(1-5) and LPA(1-3) respectively, and are implicated in allergy. Eosinophils accumulate at innervating cholinergic nerves in asthma and adhere to nerve cells via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were used as an in vitro cholinergic nerve cell model. The G(i) coupled receptors S1P(1), S1P(3), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3) were expressed on IMR-32 cells. Both S1P and LPA induced ERK phosphorylation and ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, with differing time courses. LPA also induced ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of the eosinophil chemoattractant, CCL-26. The eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induced ERK-dependent up-regulation of transcription of S1P(1), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3), providing the situation whereby eosinophil granule proteins may enhance S1P- and\\/or LPA- induced eosinophil accumulation at nerve cells in allergic conditions.

  5. Mechanism of sphingosine 1-phosphate- and lysophosphatidic Acid-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and eosinophil chemoattractant in nerve cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, Richard W

    2011-05-01

    The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act via G-protein coupled receptors S1P(1-5) and LPA(1-3) respectively, and are implicated in allergy. Eosinophils accumulate at innervating cholinergic nerves in asthma and adhere to nerve cells via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were used as an in vitro cholinergic nerve cell model. The G(i) coupled receptors S1P(1), S1P(3), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3) were expressed on IMR-32 cells. Both S1P and LPA induced ERK phosphorylation and ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, with differing time courses. LPA also induced ERK- and G(i)-dependent up-regulation of the eosinophil chemoattractant, CCL-26. The eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induced ERK-dependent up-regulation of transcription of S1P(1), LPA(1), LPA(2) and LPA(3), providing the situation whereby eosinophil granule proteins may enhance S1P- and\\/or LPA- induced eosinophil accumulation at nerve cells in allergic conditions.

  6. Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Erine H; Patterson, Larissa B; Parichy, David M

    2011-05-01

    The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes. Here, we use molecular markers, vital labeling, time-lapse imaging, mutational analyses, and transgenesis to identify peripheral nerves as a niche for precursors to adult melanophores that subsequently migrate to the skin to form the adult pigment pattern. We further identify genetic requirements for establishing, maintaining, and recruiting precursors to the adult melanophore lineage and demonstrate novel compensatory behaviors during pattern regulation in mutant backgrounds. Finally, we show that distinct populations of latent precursors having differential regenerative capabilities persist into the adult. These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia. PMID:21625562

  7. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia M. Freitas-Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05, except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05. No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de células nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e íleo (P>0,05, exceto as células argirófilas no jejuno (P<0,05. Nenhuma relação numérica foi verificada entre o número de gânglios nervosos e células endócrinas, e também entre células nervosas e endócrinas. Nós recomendamos o emprego de novas técnicas imunohistoquímicas para confirmar a correlação numérica entre os sistemas nervoso e endócrino no intestino delgado. A morfologia e a distribuição das células endócrinas e dos gânglios nervosos estudados foram similares àqueles encontrados em mamíferos eutérios.

  8. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone on Distribution of Selected Active Substances in Nerve Fibers Within the Circular Muscle Layer of Porcine Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonkowski, S?awomir; Obremski, Kazimierz; Calka, Jaroslaw

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, whether low doses (25 % of no observable adverse effect levels values) of zearalenone (ZEN) can affect the expression of active substances in nerve fibers in the muscular layer of porcine ileum. The study was performed on ten immature pigs divided into two groups: experimental group (n?=?5), where zearalenone (10 ?g/kg body weight) was given for 42 days, and control animals (n?=?5), where placebo was administered. Fragments of ileum of all animals were processed for single-labelling immunofluorescence technique using the antibodies against vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase, cocaine and amphetamine regulatory peptide, galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-27 and substance P. The number of nerve fibers immunoreactive to particular substances was evaluated by the counting of nerves per observation field (0.1 mm(2)). Low doses of zearalenone caused the clear changes in the expression of substances studied. The number of nerve fibers immunoreactive to the majority of substances increased in experimental animals. The exception was only galanin, the expression of which was less after administration of zearalenone. The obtained results for the first time show that even low doses of zearalenone can affect the nerve fibers in the digestive tract. PMID:25772391

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: A rarity

    OpenAIRE

    Yaga, Uday Shankar; Shivakumar, Rashmi; Kumar, M. Ashwini; Sathyaprakash,

    2015-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the mandible is an uncommon tumor that develops either from a preexisting neurofibroma or de novo. MPNSTs are sarcomas that originate from peripheral nerves or from cells associated with the nerve sheath, such as Schwann cells, perineural cells or from fibroblasts. Because MPNSTs can arise from multiple cell types, the overall appearance can vary greatly from one case to the next. A case of MPNST of the right side of the mandible in a 23-year...

  10. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device, capable of local delivery of NGF. The clinical device, named NsG0202, houses an NGF-secreting cell line (NGC-0295), which is derived from a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, stably genetically modified to secrete NGF. Bioactivity and correct processing of NGF was confirmed in vitro. NsG0202 devices were implanted in the basal forebrain of Göttingen minipigs and the function and retrievability were evaluated after 7 weeks, 6 and 12 months. All devices were implanted and retrieved without associated complications. They were physically intact and contained a high number of viable and NGF-producing NGC-0295 cells after explantation. Increased NGF levels were detected in tissue surrounding the devices. The implants were well tolerated as determined by histopathological brain tissue analysis, blood analysis, and general health status of the pigs. The NsG0202 device represents a promising approach for treating the cognitive decline in AD patients.

  11. A rationally designed mutant of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase hydrolyzes the organophosphorus nerve agent soman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen D; Norris, Joseph; Sweeney, Richard; Bahnson, Brian J; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2015-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) such as sarin and soman are some of the most toxic chemicals synthesized by man. They exert toxic effects by inactivating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and bind secondary target protein. Organophosphorus compounds are hemi-substrates for enzymes of the serine hydrolase superfamily. Enzymes can be engineered by amino acid substitution into OP-hydrolyzing variants (bioscavengers) and used as therapeutics. Some enzymes associated with lipoproteins, such as human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (pPAF-AH), are also inhibited by OPs; these proteins have largely been ignored for engineering purposes because of complex interfacial kinetics and a lack of structural data. We have expressed active human pPAF-AH in bacteria and previously solved the crystal structure of this enzyme with OP adducts. Using these structures as a guide, we created histidine mutations near the active site of pPAF-AH (F322H, W298H, L153H) in an attempt to generate novel OP-hydrolase activity. Wild-type pPAF-AH, L153H, and F322H have essentially no hydrolytic activity against the nerve agents tested. In contrast, the W298H mutant displayed novel somanase activity with a kcat of 5min(-1) and a KM of 590?M at pH7.5. There was no selective preference for hydrolysis of any of the four soman stereoisomers. PMID:26343853

  12. ProNGF derived from rat sciatic nerves downregulates neurite elongation and axon specification in PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigos, Anna Sofía; Longart, Marines; García, Lisbeth; Castillo, Cecilia; Forsyth, Patricia; Medina, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Several reports have shown that a sciatic nerve conditioned media (CM) causes neuronal-like differentiation in PC12 cells. This differentiation is featured by neurite outgrowth, which are exclusively dendrites, without axon or sodium current induction. In previous studies, our group reported that the CM supplemented with a generic inhibitor for tyrosine kinase receptors (k252a) enhanced the CM-induced morphological differentiation upregulating neurite outgrowth, axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Sodium currents were also induced by depletion of endogenous precursor of nerve growth factorr (proNGF) from the CM (pNGFd-CM). Given that sodium currents, neurite outgrowth and axon specification are important features of neuronal differentiation, in the current manuscript, first we investigated if proNGF was hindering the full PC12 cell neuronal-like differentiation. Second, we studied the effects of exogenous wild type (pNGFwt) and mutated (pNGFmut) proNGF isoforms over sodium currents and whether or not their addition to the pNGFd-CM would prevent sodium current elicitation. Third, we investigated if proNGF was exerting its negative regulation through the sortilin receptor, and for this, the proNGF action was blocked with neurotensin (NT), a factor known to compete with proNGF for sortilin. Thereby, here we show that pNGFd-CM enhanced cell differentiation, cell proportion with long neurites, total neurite length, induced axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Interestingly, treatment of PC12 cells with wild type or mutated proNGF isoforms elicited sodium currents. Supplementing pNGFd-CM with pNGFmut reduced 35% the sodium currents. On the other hand, pNGFd-CM+pNGFwt induced larger sodium currents than pNGFd-CM. Finally, treatments with CM supplemented with NT showed that sortilin was mediating proNGF negative regulation, since its blocking induced similar effects than the pNGFd-CM treatment. Altogether, our results suggest that proNGF within the CM, is one of the main inhibitors of full neuronal differentiation, acting through sortilin receptor. PMID:26441535

  13. Patterned substrates and methods for nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Heath, Carole; Shanks, Howard; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija

    2004-01-13

    Micropatterned substrates and methods for fabrication of artificial nerve regeneration conduits and methods for regenerating nerves are provided. Guidance compounds or cells are seeded in grooves formed on the patterned substrate. The substrates may also be provided with electrodes to provide electrical guidance cues to the regenerating nerve. The micropatterned substrates give physical, chemical, cellular and/or electrical guidance cues to promote nerve regeneration at the cellular level.

  14. Effects of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with enalapril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of aldosterone in the heart is suppressed by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moreover, perindopril has been reported to have more cardioprotective effects than enalapril. Forty patients with CHF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured before and 6 months after treatment. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LVEF were also determined by echocardiography. After treatment, in patients receiving perindopril, TDS decreased from 39±10 to 34±9 (P123I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters improved after 6 months of perindopril treatment. These findings indicate that perindopril treatment can ameliorate the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and the left ventricular performance in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  15. Cytologic appearance of retinal cells included in a fine-needle aspirate of a meningioma around the optic nerve of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedten, Harold; Hillström, Anna

    2013-06-01

    A 6-year-old Wirehair Dachshund had a meningioma around the optic nerve that caused exophthalmos. A benign mesenchymal tumor was suspected based on the cytologic pattern of a fine-needle aspirate, and a meningioma was diagnosed by histopathologic examination. In addition to the meningioma cells, the cytologic smears included groups of cells from apparently 4 layers of normal retina. In particular, uniform rod-shaped structures in the cytologic sample could suggest rod-shaped bacteria, but these structures were identified as cylindrical outer segments of photoreceptor rod cells. Other retinal structures recognized included pigmented epithelial layer cells with their uniquely formed pigment granules, the characteristic bi-lobed, cleaved nuclei from the outer nuclear layer, and nerve tissue likely from the outer plexiform layer of the retina. PMID:23656635

  16. Chronic upregulation of activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 and nerve growth factor following diffuse axonal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzaszcz MaryAnn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of axonal injury following TBI, and have linked cognitive disability in these patients to white matter signal changes. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of this white matter injury, and the role of microglial activation in this process. It is increasingly recognized that microglia constitute a heterogeneous population with diverse roles following injury. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that following diffuse axonal injury involving the corpus callosum, there is upregulation of a subpopulation of microglia that express the lectin galectin-3/Mac-2 and are involved in myelin phagocytosis. Methods Adult mice were subject to midline closed skull injury or sham operation and were sacrificed 1, 8, 14 or 28 days later. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques were used to analyze patterns of labelling within the corpus callosum qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 were most abundant 1 day following injury. Their levels were attenuated at later time points after TBI but still were significantly elevated compared to sham animals. Furthermore, the majority of galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia were immunoreactive for nerve growth factor in both sham and injured animals. Conclusions Our results suggest that galectin-3/Mac-2+ microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of diffuse axonal injury both acutely and chronically and that they mediate their effects, at least in part by releasing nerve growth factor.

  17. Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Theriot, Casey M; Semcer, Rebecca L.; Shah, Saumil S.; Grunden, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    Prolidases hydrolyze Xaa-Pro dipeptides and can also cleave the P-F and P-O bonds found in organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including the nerve agents soman and sarin. Ph1prol (PH0974) has previously been isolated and characterized from Pyrococcus horikoshii and was shown to have higher catalytic activity over a broader pH range, higher affinity for metal, and increased thermostability compared to P. furiosus prolidase, Pfprol (PF1343). To obtain a better enzyme for OP nerve agent decontamin...

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on purinergic signaling modulation in rat brain nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purinergic signaling is composed of three modulatory components: a) source of extracellular nucleotides, b) specific receptor expression for these transmitter molecules and c) ectonucleotidase selection that dictate cell response gradually degradation extracellular nucleotides to nucleosides. ATP acts as a fast excitatory transmitter in the CNS. Postsynaptic actions of ATP are mediated by an extended family of purinergic, P2X receptors, widely expressed throughout the CNS. NTPDases hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP and are responsive for purinergfic termination. To investigate if ionizing irradiation could modulate CNS purinergic signalization we monitored activity of NTPDases and abundance of P2X7 receptor in synaptic plasma membranes after whole-body acute irradiation using low (0,5Gy) or therapeutic (2Gy) doses, 1h i 72h after irradiating juvenile (15-day old) and adult (90-day old) rats. Acute irradiation modulate purinergic system components investigated at the different ways in the rat development brain SPM and in the adult brain dependent of dose and time after irradiation

  19. Endoneurial macrophages induce perineural invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by secretion of GDNF and activation of RET tyrosine kinase receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavel, Oren; Shomron, Olga; Shabtay, Ayelet; Vital, Joseph; Trejo-Leider, Leonor; Weizman, Noam; Krelin, Yakov; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J; Amit, Moran; Gil, Ziv

    2012-11-15

    Perineural invasion of cancer cells (CPNI) is found in most patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDA), prostate, or head and neck cancers. These patients undergo palliative rather than curative treatment due to dissemination of cancer along nerves, well beyond the extent of any local invasion. Although CPNI is a common source of distant tumor spread and a cause of significant morbidity, its exact mechanism is undefined. Immunohistochemical analysis of specimens excised from patients with PDAs showed a significant increase in the number of endoneurial macrophages (EM?) that lie around nerves invaded by cancer compared with normal nerves. Video microscopy and time-lapse analysis revealed that EM?s are recruited by the tumor cells in response to colony-stimulated factor-1 secreted by invading cancer cells. Conditioned medium (CM) of tumor-activated EM?s (tEM?) induced a 5-fold increase in migration of PDA cells compared with controls. Compared with resting EM?s, tEM?s secreted higher levels of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), inducing phosphorylation of RET and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in PDA cells. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of the GDNF receptors GFRA1 and RET abrogated the migratory effect of EM?-CM and reduced ERK phosphorylation. In an in vivo CPNI model, CCR2-deficient mice that have reduced macrophage recruitment and activation showed minimal nerve invasion, whereas wild-type mice developed complete sciatic nerve paralysis due to massive CPNI. Taken together, our results identify a paracrine response between EM?s and PDA cells that orchestrates the formation of cancer nerve invasion. PMID:22971345

  20. K(ATP)-channel-dependent regulation of catecholaminergic neurons controls BAT sympathetic nerve activity and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Sulay; Paeger, Lars; Hess, Simon; Morgan, Donald A; Hausen, A Christine; Brönneke, Hella S; Hampel, Brigitte; Ackermann, P Justus; Evers, Nadine; Büning, Hildegard; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens C

    2013-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, and its activity is tightly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. However, the mechanisms underlying CNS-dependent control of BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) are only partly understood. Here, we demonstrate that catecholaminergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) adapt their firing frequency to extracellular glucose concentrations in a K(ATP)-channel-dependent manner. Inhibiting K(ATP)-channel-dependent control of neuronal activity via the expression of a variant K(ATP) channel in tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing neurons and in neurons of the LC enhances diet-induced obesity in mice. Obesity results from decreased energy expenditure, lower steady-state BAT SNA, and an attenuated ability of centrally applied glucose to activate BAT SNA. This impairs the thermogenic transcriptional program of BAT. Collectively, our data reveal a role of K(ATP)-channel-dependent neuronal excitability in catecholaminergic neurons in maintaining thermogenic BAT sympathetic tone and energy homeostasis. PMID:24011078

  1. Immunohistochemistry of GluR1 subunits of AMPA receptors of rat cerebellar nerve cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Castejón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The localization of GluR1 subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the glial cells and inhibitory neurons of cerebellar cortex and their association with the climbing and parallel fibers, and basket cell axons were studied. Samples of P14 and P21 rat cerebellar cortex were exposed to a specific antibody against GluR1 subunit(s of AMPA receptors and were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. GluR1 strong immunoreactivity was confined to Purkinje cell and the molecular layer. Weak GluR1 immunoreactivity was observed surrounding some Golgi cells in the granule cell layer. Intense GluR1 immunoreactivity was localized around Purkinje, basket, and stellate cells. Purkinje cells expressed strong GluR1 immunoreactivity surrounding the cell body, primary dendritic trunk and secondary and tertiary spiny dendritic branches. Marked immunofluorescent staining was also detected in the Bergmann glial fibers at the level of middle and outer third molecular layer. Positive immunofluorescence staining was also observed surrounding basket and stellate cells, and in the capillary wall. These findings suggest the specific localization of GluR1 subunits of AMPA receptors in Bergmann glial cells, inhibitory cerebellar neurons, and the associated excitatory glutamatergic circuits formed by climbing and parallel fibers, and by the inhibitory basket cell axons.

  2. Immunohistochemistry of GluR1 subunits of AMPA receptors of rat cerebellar nerve cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando J., Castejón; Michael E., Dailey.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The localization of GluR1 subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the glial cells and inhibitory neurons of cerebellar cortex and their association with the climbing and parallel fibers, and basket cell axons were studied. Samples of P14 and P21 rat cerebellar cortex were exposed to a specific [...] antibody against GluR1 subunit(s) of AMPA receptors and were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. GluR1 strong immunoreactivity was confined to Purkinje cell and the molecular layer. Weak GluR1 immunoreactivity was observed surrounding some Golgi cells in the granule cell layer. Intense GluR1 immunoreactivity was localized around Purkinje, basket, and stellate cells. Purkinje cells expressed strong GluR1 immunoreactivity surrounding the cell body, primary dendritic trunk and secondary and tertiary spiny dendritic branches. Marked immunofluorescent staining was also detected in the Bergmann glial fibers at the level of middle and outer third molecular layer. Positive immunofluorescence staining was also observed surrounding basket and stellate cells, and in the capillary wall. These findings suggest the specific localization of GluR1 subunits of AMPA receptors in Bergmann glial cells, inhibitory cerebellar neurons, and the associated excitatory glutamatergic circuits formed by climbing and parallel fibers, and by the inhibitory basket cell axons.

  3. Novel concepts for improved communication between nerve cells and silicon electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Roeland; Braeken, Dries; Van Meerbergen, Bart; Winters, Kurt; Eberle, Wolfgang; Loo, Josine; Tsvetanova, Diana; Chen, Chang; Severi, Simone; Yitzchaik, S.; Spira, M.; Shappir, J.; Callewaert, Geert; Borghs, Gustaaf; Bartic, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Hybrid integration of living cells and electronic circuits on a chip requires a high-density matrix of sensors and actuators. This matrix must be processable on top of CMOS devices and must be bio-compatible in order to support living cells. Recent studies have shown that the use of nail structures combined with a phagocytosis-like event of the cell can be exploited to improve the electrical coupling between a cell and a sensor. In this paper, two CMOS-compatible fabrication methods for sub-micron nails will be presented. The biocompatibility and proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the culturing of PC12 neuroblastoma cells. Electrical functionality is shown by simultaneous stimulation and recording of pig cardiomyocyte cells. Biocompatibility aspects for more demanding cortical cell cultures have been addressed in a preliminary assessment.

  4. Anesthetic induction agents, sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex sensitivity: a study in rabbits comparing thiopental, propofol and etomidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aono H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of arterial hypotension following intravenous anesthetic induction agents are multifactorial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of thiopental, propofol and etomidate on hemodynamics, sympathetic outflow and arterial baroreflex sensitivity using not only neuraxis-intact but also totally baro-denervated rabbits. A total of 60 rabbits was anesthetized with urethane, tracheotomized, and mechanically ventilated with oxygen in nitrogen (FiO2 0.5. The left renal sympathetic nerve was isolated and placed on a bipolar electrode to record renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. Thirty animals underwent a surgical preparation of total baroreceptor denervation. Bolus injections of an anesthesia induction dose of thiopental 4 mg/kg and twice the induction dose of propofol 4 mg/kg significantly decreased RSNA to the same extent (19.4+/-6.7 and 19.7+/-5.2% reduction, mean +/- SEM and mean arterial pressure (MAP also to the same extent (19.5+/-4.6 and 22.1+/-3.1% reduction in the neuraxis-intact animals. RSNA was increased (34.5+/-6% without reduction of MAP by an induction dose of etomidate, 0.3 mg/kg. Sympathetic barosensitivity was attenuated even 10 min after thiopental at 4 mg/kg or propofol at 4 mg/kg (68% and 54% of control, respectively. Propofol at 2 mg/kg (induction dose and etomidate at 0.6 mg/kg decreased RSNA and MAP only in the baro-denervated animals. It was found from the barosensitivity study that patients can be hemodynamically unstable even though blood pressure has returned to normal after thiopental and propofol administration. Data suggest that etomidate can even stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and increase sympathetic outflow. It was also clearly found from the baro-denervated animal study that thiopental was stronger than propofol in directly suppressing sympathetic outflow at the induction dose.

  5. Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Vesna D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

  6. Neuromuscular blocking activity of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves in the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridtitid, W; Rattanaprom, W; Thaina, P; Chittrakarn, S; Sunbhanich, M

    1998-06-01

    Methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (Piperaceae) leaves was studied for the neuromuscular blocking activity in rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. The plant extract, at concentrations of 3.2, 4.0, 4.8 and 6.4 mg/ml, exhibited an initially transient increase in twitch tension which was followed by a marked dose-related neurally-evoked twitch depression. The neuromuscular blocking effect produced by the plant extract was compared with d-tubocurarine (dTC) and succinylcholine (SCh). The EC50 for neurally-evoked twitch depression of the extract, dTC and SCh was 4.07 mg/ml, 1.1 microM and 15 microM, respectively. The neurally-evoked twitch depression produced by the extract was partially antagonized by tetraethylammonium (TEA) but not by neostigmine (NS). These findings suggested that the plant extract possessed a marked neuromuscular blocking activity at the neuromuscular junction and a possible mechanism which was likely to inhibit neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release at the presynaptic terminal. PMID:9683344

  7. In vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Sharma, Manav; Saharia, Dhiren; Sarma, Kushal Konwar; Sarma, Monalisa Goswami; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Bora, Utpal

    2015-09-01

    We report a novel silk-gold nanocomposite based nerve conduit successfully tested in a neurotmesis grade sciatic nerve injury model in rats over a period of eighteen months. The conduit was fabricated by adsorbing gold nanoparticles onto silk fibres and transforming them into a nanocomposite sheet by electrospinning which is finally given a tubular structure by rolling on a stainless steel mandrel of chosen diameter. The conduits were found to promote adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro and did not elicit any toxic or immunogenic responses in vivo. We also report for the first time, the monitoring of muscular regeneration post nerve conduit implantation by recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) through needle electromyogram. Pre-seeding the conduits with Schwann cells enhanced myelination of the regenerated tissue. Histo-morphometric and electrophysiological studies proved that the nanocomposite based conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells performed best in terms of structural and functional regeneration of severed sciatic nerves. The near normal values of nerve conduction velocity (50 m/sec), compound muscle action potential (29.7 mV) and motor unit potential (133 ?V) exhibited by the animals implanted with Schwann cell loaded nerve conduits in the present study are superior to those observed in previous reports with synthetic materials as well as collagen based nerve conduits. Animals in this group were also able to perform complex locomotory activities like stretching and jumping with excellent sciatic function index (SFI) and led a normal life. PMID:26026910

  8. Development of Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates with Tunable Elastic Modulus to Study Cell Mechanobiology in Muscle and Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Palchesko, Rachelle N.; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yan; Feinberg, Adam W

    2012-01-01

    Mechanics is an important component in the regulation of cell shape, proliferation, migration and differentiation during normal homeostasis and disease states. Biomaterials that match the elastic modulus of soft tissues have been effective for studying this cell mechanobiology, but improvements are needed in order to investigate a wider range of physicochemical properties in a controlled manner. We hypothesized that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blends could be used as the basis of a tunable sy...

  9. Pharmacological approaches to the study of CHOLINO- and GABA-receptor states in nerve cells after irradiation with low intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of functioning specific cholino- and GABA-receptors (ChR and GABA-R) by modeling the effect of synaptic neuromediators, correspondingly acetocholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in low concentrations on the K+ active transport in the rats cerebral cortex after single-time or chronical total irradiation with the dose of 0.25 Gy are studied. As a result of the study of both the acetocholine (10-10 and 10-6 mole/l) and gamma-aminobutyric avid (10-9 and 10-5 mole/l) effects on the K+ active transport in the rats cerebral cortex slices in presence of any selective antagonists of the choline- and GABA-receptors, it is shown, that after the whole body irradiation with 25 c Gy (1.75 m Gy/min) the metabotropic muscarinic ChR and GABAB - receptors were involved into the processes of neurotransmitter modulation, whereas under ionotropic nicotinic choline- and GABA - receptors. The observed changes are supposed to be of adaptive character. The post irradiation structural and functional disturbances may be considered as one of the causes of essential distortions in the processes of interneuronal metabolic communication in the central nerve system

  10. Palmitoylethanolamide reduces granuloma-induced hyperalgesia by modulation of mast cell activation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Maria Pia; Palazzo Enza; Cipriano Mariateresa; Luongo Livio; De Filippis Daniele; de Novellis Vito; Maione Sabatino; Iuvone Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain evidences of a possible analgesic role for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in chronic granulomatous inflammation sustained by mast cell (MC) activation in rats at 96 hours. PEA (200-400-800 ?g/mL), locally administered at time 0, reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and release of NGF in comparison with saline-treated controls. PEA prevented nerve formation and sprouting, as shown by histological analysis, reduced mechanical allod...

  11. Chromatin binding of epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in cells bearing the appropriate surface receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, E. M.; Rodeck, U.; Herlyn, M; Koprowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed the uptake and intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor in different cell lines that express or do not express the respective surface receptors for these factors. After 1 hr of incubation, all three growth factors were detected in the cytoplasmic fraction and in the nucleus, tightly bound to chromatin. The amount of chromatin-bound growth factors continued to increase during the incubation, and anal...

  12. Electrical stimulation with periodic alternating intervals stimulates neuronal cells to produce neurotrophins and cytokines through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Honjo, Kenichi; Ichioka, Hiroaki; Oseko, Fumishige; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a representative complication of dental surgery. Electrical therapy, based on electrical stimulation with periodic alternating intervals (ES-PAI), may promote nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in a non-invasive manner, potentially providing an effective therapy for neuropathy. This study aimed to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying the nerve recovery stimulated by ES-PAI. In brief, ES-PAI was applied to a neuronal cell line, Neuro2A, at various intensities using the pulse generator apparatus, FREUDE. Cell viability, neurotrophin mRNA expression, and cytokine production were examined using a tetrazolium-based assay, real-time RT-PCR, and ELISA, respectively. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was assessed using flow cytometry. It was found that ES-PAI increased the viability of cells and elevated expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3); ESPAI also augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) expression, which was restored by addition of p38 inhibitors. Phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) was augmented by ES-PAI. Hence, ES-PAI may ameliorate peripheral neuropathy by promoting neuronal cell proliferation and production of neurogenic factors by activating p38 and ERK-1/2 pathways. PMID:26510379

  13. Cocaine increases natural killer cell activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyke, C; Stesin, A; Jones, R.; Chuntharapai, A; Seaman, W

    1986-01-01

    The administration of epinephrine to humans increases natural killer (NK) cell activity and numbers. If endogenous catecholamines regulate NK cells, then their activity should be increased by cocaine, an agent that potentiates endogenous catecholamines. We investigated the in vivo effect of cocaine on NK cell activity and on the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, including NK cells. Intravenous cocaine (0.6 mg/kg) produced a three- to fourfold increase in NK cell activity in peripheral blood...

  14. Isolated Ocular Motor Nerve Palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nathan H; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    An isolated ocular motor nerve palsy is defined as dysfunction of a single ocular motor nerve (oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens) with no associated or localizing neurologic signs or symptoms. When occurring in patients aged 50 or older, the most common cause is microvascular ischemia, but serious etiologies such as aneurysm, malignancy, and giant cell arteritis should always be considered. In this article, the authors review the clinical approach, anatomy, and differential diagnosis of each isolated ocular motor nerve palsy and discuss the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment of microvascular ischemia. PMID:26444399

  15. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused pig antrum with intact vagal innervation, we found concomitant, atropine-resistant release of GRP and gastrin during electrical stimulation of the vagal nerves. Intra-arterial GRP at 10(-11)-10(-10) m...

  16. Effect of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on peanut agglutinin-binding molecules and Schwann's cells in rats after lumbar nerve root compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Chong-Jian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Yiqi Huayu Recipe on peanut agglutinin-binding molecules (PNA-BMs and Schwann's cells (Sc of the neuromuscular junction after L5 nerve root compression in rats. Methods: The rats were given Yiqi Huayu Recipe at the 10th, 20th, 30th and 60th day after L5 nerve root compression. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning techniques, we observed the distributions of PNA-BMs and S-100 in the soleus muscle. The overlap area of PNA-BMs and S-100 was measured with NIH image technique. Results: The extracellular matrix (ECM recognized by PNA played an important role in guiding the sprouting and extending of the Schwann' s cells. The agglomeration, sprouting and extension of the terminal Sc and the overlap area of Sc with PNA-BMs in the Yiqi Huayu Recipe group were better than those in the control group. Conclusion: Yiqi Huayu Recipe can promote the growth of ECM and Schwann's cells and accelerate the nerve regeneration process.

  17. Potential genotoxic effects of GSM-1800 exposure on human cutaneous and nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction The GSM-1800 signal has been in use for several years in Europe and questions raised about its potential biological effects, in view of the fact that, with respect to GSM-900, the increase in the carrier frequency corresponds to a more superficial absorption in the tissues. Consequently, the skin becomes an even more important target for the absorption of the radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) emitted by mobile phones. Nevertheless, brain tissues remain a critical target. Cells In order to determine whether R.F.R. at 1800 MHz could behave as a genotoxic agent, skin and brain cells were exposed to a 217-Hz-modulated GSM-1800 signal and assayed using the comet assay: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocytes (N.H.E.K.) and dermal fibroblasts (N.H.D.F.) which are cutaneous cells from epidermis and dermis respectively, and (2) the S.H. -S.Y.5.Y. and C.H.M.E.-5 human cell lines, which are neuroblastoma and micro-glial cells, respectively. Exposure The R.F.R. exposure system that was used in these experiments was manufactured by I.T. I.S. (Zurich, Switzerland). It consists in two shorted waveguides allowing to run exposed and sham conditions at the same time in the same culture incubator, at 37 Celsius degrees, 5% CO2. It is controlled by a software, which provides blind conditions until completion of data analysis. The specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) used was 2 W/kg, corresponding to the public exposure limit recommended by I.C.N.I.R.P. and the exposure duration was 48 hours. Comet assay At the end of the exposure, cells were removed from their Petri dish by trypsin/EDTA treatment, counted and 5 x 104 cells were used to detect DNA damage including single DNA breaks. Positive controls were performed using hydrogen peroxidase (1%, 1 hour). The genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay kit (Trevigen slides) following the supplier procedure. Under these conditions, 6 independent experiments were performed for each cell type (2 Petri dishes by run). The analysis was done on at least 100 images from two comet slides (one per Petri dish) for each cellular model and exposure condition. Results The analysis of the slides is ongoing. Once the data analysis is completed, I.T.I.S. will break the blinding codes, and the results will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by France Telecom R and D, Bouygues Telecom, the Cnrs and the Aquitaine Council for Research. (authors)

  18. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Ravussin, Eric; Tataranni, P Antonio; de Courten, Barbora

    2003-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interact to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, especially during stress. Pima Indians have a low SNS activity, which may contribute to both their increased risk of obesity and reduced risk of hypertension. Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory eff...

  19. Giant cell arteritis presenting as oculomotor nerve palsy with pupillary dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G.E.; Shakir, R A

    1994-01-01

    Acute complete oculomotor palsy with headache is a classical presentation of an extrinsic compression most commonly due to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. We present a patient with such a presentation but with histologically proven giant cell arteritis. This possibility should be considered especially in the elderly to avoid complications and the need for angiography.

  20. The effect of the sympathetic nervous system on splenic natural killer cell activity in mice administered the Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84

    OpenAIRE

    Izumo, Takayuki; Maekawa, Toshihiro; Horii, Yuko; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Ida, Masayuki; Furukawa, Yuichi; ONO, YOSHIKO; KISO, Yoshinobu; KITAGAWA, Yoshinori; SHIBATA, Hiroshi; Nagai, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Splenic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) modulates cellular immune functions such as splenic natural killer cell activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 enhances splenic natural killer cell activity. Here, we examined whether S-PT84 affects splenic natural killer activity through splenic SNA in BALB/c mice. Splenic SNA was significantly decreased following the administration of S-PT84. This phenomenon was inhibited by pretreatment with thioperamide (histamine H3 receptor antagonist), s...

  1. Effects of nicorandil on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity after reperfusion therapy in patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a cardioprotective phenomenon in which short periods of myocardial ischaemia result in resistance to decreased contractile dysfunction during a subsequent period of sustained ischaemia. Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, can induce PC effects on sympathetic nerves during myocardial ischaemia. However, its effects on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and left ventricular remodelling have not been determined. In this study, we sought to determine whether nicorandil administration improves CSNA in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied 58 patients with first anterior AMI, who were randomly assigned to receive nicorandil (group A) or isosorbide dinitrate (group B) after primary coronary angioplasty. The nicorandil or isosorbide dinitrate was continuously infused for >48 h. The extent score (ES) was determined from 99mTc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, and the total defect score (TDS) was determined from 201Tl scintigraphy 3-5 days after primary angioplasty. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by left ventriculography 2 weeks later. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed TDS and washout rate (WR) were determined from 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images 3 weeks later. The left ventriculography results were re-examined 6 months after treatment. Fifty patients originally enrolled in the trial completed the entire protocol. After treatment, no significant differences were observed in ES or left ventricular parameters between the two groups. However, in group A (n=25), the TDSs determined from 201Tl and 123I-MIBG were significantly lower (26±6 vs 30±5, P<0.01, and 32±8 vs 40±6, P<0.0001, respectively), the H/M ratio significantly higher (1.99±0.16 vs 1.77±0.30, P<0.005) and the WR significantly lower (36%±8% vs 44%±12%, P<0.005) than in group B (n=25). Moreover, 6 months after treatment, LVEDV and LVEF were better in group A than in group B. These findings indicate that nicorandil can have beneficial effects on CSNA and left ventricular remodelling in patients with first anterior AMI. (orig.)

  2. Effects of nicorandil on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity after reperfusion therapy in patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a cardioprotective phenomenon in which short periods of myocardial ischaemia result in resistance to decreased contractile dysfunction during a subsequent period of sustained ischaemia. Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, can induce PC effects on sympathetic nerves during myocardial ischaemia. However, its effects on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and left ventricular remodelling have not been determined. In this study, we sought to determine whether nicorandil administration improves CSNA in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied 58 patients with first anterior AMI, who were randomly assigned to receive nicorandil (group A) or isosorbide dinitrate (group B) after primary coronary angioplasty. The nicorandil or isosorbide dinitrate was continuously infused for >48 h. The extent score (ES) was determined from {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, and the total defect score (TDS) was determined from {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy 3-5 days after primary angioplasty. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by left ventriculography 2 weeks later. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed TDS and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images 3 weeks later. The left ventriculography results were re-examined 6 months after treatment. Fifty patients originally enrolled in the trial completed the entire protocol. After treatment, no significant differences were observed in ES or left ventricular parameters between the two groups. However, in group A (n=25), the TDSs determined from {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-MIBG were significantly lower (26{+-}6 vs 30{+-}5, P<0.01, and 32{+-}8 vs 40{+-}6, P<0.0001, respectively), the H/M ratio significantly higher (1.99{+-}0.16 vs 1.77{+-}0.30, P<0.005) and the WR significantly lower (36%{+-}8% vs 44%{+-}12%, P<0.005) than in group B (n=25). Moreover, 6 months after treatment, LVEDV and LVEF were better in group A than in group B. These findings indicate that nicorandil can have beneficial effects on CSNA and left ventricular remodelling in patients with first anterior AMI. (orig.)

  3. Functional and structural changes in the brain associated with the increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity in obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania H. Fatouleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA during daytime wakefulness, leading to hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI of the brain we aimed to identify the central processes responsible for the sympathoexcitation. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve in 17 OSA patients and 15 healthy controls lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes sampling protocol. Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. In both groups there was a positive correlation between MSNA and signal intensity in the left and right insulae, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, dorsal precuneus, sensorimotor cortex and posterior temporal cortex, and the right mid-cingulate cortex and hypothalamus. In OSA the left and right dlPFC, medial PFC (mPFC, dorsal precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex and caudate nucleus showed augmented signal changes compared with controls, while the right hippocampus/parahippocampus signal intensity decreased in controls but did not change in the OSA subjects. In addition, there were significant increases in grey matter volume in the left mid-insula, the right insula, left and right primary motor cortices, left premotor cortex, left hippocampus and within the brainstem and cerebellum, and significant decreases in the mPFC, occipital lobe, right posterior cingulate cortex, left cerebellar cortex and the left and right amygdala in OSA, but there was no overlap between these structural changes and the functional changes in OSA. These data suggest that the elevated muscle vasoconstrictor drive in OSA may result from functional changes within these brain regions, which are known to be directly or indirectly involved in the modulation of sympathetic outflow via the brainstem. That there was no overlap in the structural and functional changes suggests that asphyxic damage due to repeated episodes of nocturnal obstructive apnoea is not the main cause of the sympathoexcitation.

  4. Nerve growth factor, neuropeptides and cutaneous nerves in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodeib Abeer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurogenic components, as neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides, are probably involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD with the neuroimmunocutaneous system as they modify the functions of immunoactive cells in the skin. Nerve growth factor (NGF is the best-characterized member of the neurotrophin family. Both NGF and neuropeptides (NPs may be associated with the disease pathogenesis. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the plasma level of NGF and NPs in AD patients and correlate them with the disease activity and nerve changes in the skin by electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Plasma levels of NGF and vasoactive intestinal peptide (+VIP were measured by an immunoenzymatic assay while plasma levels of calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY were measured by radioimmunoassay in 30 AD patients in comparison to 10 normal non-atopic controls. Electron microscopic study was done in 10 AD patients. Results: It has been found that there is significant increase of plasma levels of NGF and NPs in AD patients compared with controls. There is a positive correlation between the plasma levels of NGF and disease activity (correlation coefficient = 0.750, P< 0.005. There is a significant correlation between the number of Schwann axon complex, evidenced by electron microscopic examination and plasma level of NGF in AD patients. Conclusion: It has been concluded that these neurogenic factors; NGF and NPs modulate the allergic response in AD, probably through interactions with cells of the immune-inflammatory component. NGF might be considered as a marker of the disease activity.

  5. T-cell activation molecule 4-1BB binds to extracellular matrix proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalupny, N J; Peach, R.; Hollenbaugh, D; Ledbetter, J.A.; Farr, A G; Aruffo, A

    1992-01-01

    The recently isolated 4-1BB cDNA clone encodes a cell surface protein expressed by activated T cells. Its extracellular domain is homologous to members of the nerve growth factor receptor super family and its cytoplasmic domain contains a sequence homologous to the binding site for the T-cell-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck found in the cytoplasmic domains of CD4 and CD8 alpha. At present the function of 4-1BB is not known. We prepared a 4-1BB-immunoglobulin fusion protein (4-1BB Rg). This pr...

  6. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interact to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, especially during stress. Pima Indians have a low SNS activity, which may contribute to both their increased risk of obesity and reduced risk of hypertension. Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol and muscle SNS activity [muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA), microneurography] in 58 males [27 Pimas/31 Caucasians]. Seven Pimas and 12 Caucasians were randomized to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to examine the effect of overnight partial chemical adrenalectomy (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P <0.006). No correlation was found between fasting cortisol and basal MSNA. Administration of metyrapone did not lead to significant changes in MSNA. In response to a hydrocortisone infusion, MSNA decreased in Pima Indians (P = 0.03) but not in Caucasians (P = 0.7). Our data indicate that the low SNS activity that predisposes Pima Indians to obesity is not due to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population.

  7. Amylin Acts in the Central Nervous System to Increase Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Zhang, Zhongming; Morgan, Donald A.; Guo, Deng-Fu; Andrew F. Russo; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin acts in the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease food intake and body weight. We hypothesized that amylin action in the CNS promotes energy expenditure by increasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. In mice, ip administration of amylin significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. In addition, mice treated with intracerebroventricular (icv) amylin (0.1 and 0.2 nmol) exhibited a dose-related decrease in foo...

  8. The involvement of NF-?B in PDT-induced death of crayfish glial and nerve cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnaya, E. V.; Neginskaya, M. A.; Kovaleva, V. D.; Rudkovskii, M. V.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for selective destruction of cells, in particular, for treatment of brain tumors. However, photodynamic treatment damages not only tumor cells, but also healthy neurons and glial cells. To study the possible role of NF-?B in photodynamic injury of neurons and glial cells, we investigated the combined effect of photodynamic treatment and NF-?B modulators: activator betulinic acid, or inhibitors parthenolide and CAPE on an isolated crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single neuron surrounded by glial cells. A laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2) was used as a light source. The inhibition of NF-?B during PDT increased the duration of neuron firing and glial necrosis and decreased neuron necrosis and glial apoptosis. The activation of NF-?B during PDT increased neuron necrosis and glial apoptosis and decreased glial necrosis. The difference between the effects of NF-?B modulators on photosensitized neurons and glial cells indicates the difference in NF-?B-mediated signaling pathways in these cell types. Thus, NF-?B is involved in PDT-induced shortening of neuron firing, neuronal and glial necrosis, and apoptosis of glial cells.

  9. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5±6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33±0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50±0.34 in class II, 1.95±0.61 in class III, and 1.39±0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8±12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3±10.2% in class II, 49.2±24.5% in class III, and 66.3±26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  10. C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuska, Dana; Pirkmajer, Sergej

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of proinsulin C-peptide in type 1 diabetes ameliorates nerve and kidney dysfunction, conditions which are associated with a decrease in Na,K-ATPase activity. We determined the molecular mechanism by which long term exposure to C-peptide stimulates Na,K-ATPase expression and activity in primary human renal tubular cells (HRTC) in control and hyperglycemic conditions.

  11. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the cell adhesion molecule L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, E; Richter-Landsberg, C; Faissner, A; Schachner, M

    1985-01-01

    The nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 were shown to be immunochemically identical. Immunoprecipitation with L1 and NILE antibodies of [3H]fucose-labeled material from culture supernatants and detergent extracts of NGF-treated rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells yielded comigrating bands by SDS-PAGE. NILE antibodies reacted with immunopurified L1 antigen, but not with N-CAM and other L2 epitope-bearing glycoproteins from adult mo...

  12. Photodynamic nerve cell killing: dynamics of electrophysiological responses and comparison of photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    1997-12-01

    The study of single neuron response to photodynamic effect provides evaluation of the dynamics of cytotoxic events leading from initial threshold changes to the cell death and allows us to compare phototoxicity of different substances. The photosensitized isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor neurons were irradiated with the He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 0.3 W/cm2), and their responses were recorded. The following photosensitizers were studied: methylene blue, janus green B, protoporphyrin IX, chlorins e6 and p6 and sulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine 'Photosens.' Crayfish neurons were insensitive to the He-Ne laser irradiation and photosensitization alone, but very sensitive to photodynamic effect: they changed firing rate and died at nanomolar concentrations of photosensitizers. The dynamics of neuron responses depended on the photosensitizer type and its concentration. Dependencies of firing acceleration rate and neuron lifetime on photosensitizer concentration allowed to compare efficiencies of different photosensitizers. Photosens and chlorin p6 were found to be the most potent photosensitizers.

  13. Extremely low nerve growth facior (NGF) activity of sea snake (Hydrophiidae) venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Khafizova; Tu, Anthony T

    2002-12-01

    Sea snake venoms contain less protein than those of land snakes (Toom et al., 1969). Sea snake venoms lack arginine ester hydrolyzing activity, whereas those of Crotalidae and Viperidae have such activity (Tu et al., 1966). Sea snakes live in salty water, and their venoms may be different from those of land snakes. Because of the difficulty in obtaining sea snake venoms, information about sea snake venoms is quite incomplete. NGF is commonly present in the venoms of land snakes such as Elapidae, Viperidae, and Crotalidae (Cohen and Levi-Montalcini, 1956; Lipps, 2002). It is therefore of interest to investigate the presence or absence of NGF in sea snake venoms. In order to investigate the presence or absence of NGF, five sea snake venoms were selected. Lapemis hardwickii (Hardwick's sea snake) and Acalyptophis peronii venom were obtained from the Gulf of Thailand. Hydrophis cyanocinctus (common sea snake) and Enhydrina schistosa (beaked sea snake) venom were obtained from the Strait of Malacca. Laticauda semifasciata (broad band blue sea snake) venom was also examined and the venom was obtained from Gato Island in the Philippines. PMID:12503884

  14. Intradental nerve activity and jaw-opening reflex in response to mechanical deformation of cat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgart, L; Gazelius, B; Sundström, F

    1988-07-01

    Mechanical stress was applied to canine teeth in anaesthetized cats to excite intradental A-fibres and to produce digastric muscle EMG responses. Activity in the intradental sensory units was recorded by two electrodes, one inserted in a dentinal cavity, the other in contact with the gingival sulcus. A pneumatically driven piston was used to cause a mechanical stress (10-150 N) on the stabilized tooth crown for 30 s, with instantaneous onset and release. Application of a load of 30 N produced a momentary burst of impulses in 2 of 12 teeth; 8 out of 10 teeth responded when 150 N was used. Digastric EMG responses were obtained at and above 60 N. Removal of the coronal pulp or cooling of the tooth crown with ethyl chloride abolished this reflex, whereas percussion of the tooth still produced a digastric response. Our results suggest that load-induced deformation of teeth activates intradental sensory mechanisms and a reflex withdrawal reaction unrelated to periodontal stimulation. PMID:3227930

  15. Vagal nerve stimulator: Evolving trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Over three decades ago, it was found that intermittent electrical stimulation from the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain activity and terminate seizures. This paved way for the concept of vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). We describe the evolution of the VNS and its use in different fields of medicine. We also review the literature focusing on the mechanism of action of VNS producing desired effects in different conditions. PUBMED and EMBASE search was per...

  16. Periosteum Metabolism and Nerve Fiber Positioning Depend on Interactions between Osteoblasts and Peripheral Innervation in Rat Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauprivez, Cédric; Bataille, Caroline; Baroukh, Brigitte; Llorens, Annie; Lesieur, Julie; Marie, Pierre J.; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Cherruau, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system controls bone remodeling by regulating bone formation and resorption. How nerves and bone cells influence each other remains elusive. Here we modulated the content or activity of the neuropeptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide to investigate nerve-bone cell interplays in the mandible periosteum by assessing factors involved in nerve and bone behaviors. Young adult rats were chemically sympathectomized or treated with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28, a receptor antagonist. Sympathectomy depleted the osteogenic layer of the periosteum in neurotrophic proNerve Growth Factor and neurorepulsive semaphorin3a; sensory Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers invaded this layer physiologically devoid of sensory fibers. In the periosteum non-osteogenic layer, sympathectomy activated mast cells to release mature Nerve Growth Factor while Calcitonin-Gene Related Peptide-positive fibers increased. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide treatment reversed sympathectomy effects. Treating intact animals with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide increased proNerve Growth Factor expression and stabilized mast cells. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide10-28 treatment mimicked sympathectomy effects. Our data suggest that sympathetic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide modulate the interactions between nervous fibers and bone cells by tuning expressions by osteogenic cells of factors responsible for mandible periosteum maintenance while osteogenic cells keep nervous fibers at a distance from the bone surface. PMID:26509533

  17. Mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollard, David M; Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J

    2015-01-01

    All patients with leprosy have some degree of nerve involvement. Perineural inflammation is the histopathologic hallmark of leprosy, and this localization may reflect a vascular route of entry of Mycobacterium leprae into nerves. Once inside nerves, M. leprae are ingested by Schwann cells, with a wide array of consequences. Axonal atrophy may occur early in this process; ultimately, affected nerves undergo segmental demyelination. Knowledge of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy has been greatly limited by the minimal opportunities to study affected nerves in man. The nine-banded armadillo provides the only animal model of the pathogenesis of M. leprae infection. New tools available for this model enable the study and correlation of events occurring in epidermal nerve fibers, dermal nerves, and nerve trunks, including neurophysiologic parameters, bacterial load, and changes in gene transcription in both neural and inflammatory cells. The armadillo model is likely to enhance understanding of the mechanisms of nerve injury in leprosy and offers a means of testing proposed interventions. PMID:25432810

  18. Proteasome Inhibition by Fellutamide B Induces Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, John; Groll, Michael; Fahnestock, Margaret; Crews, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic small molecules have the potential to aid in the treatment of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The natural product fellutamide B, originally isolated from Penicillium fellutanum, potently induces nerve growth factor (NGF) release from fibroblasts and glial-derived cells, although the mechanism for this neurotrophic activity has not been elucidated. Here, we report that fellutamide B potently inhibits proteasome catalytic activity. High resolution structural informa...

  19. Measuring acute changes in adrenergic nerve activity of the heart in the living animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the function of the adrenergic neurons of the heart may be important indicators of the adaptations of an animal to physiologic stress and disease. Rates of loss of norepinephrine (NE) from the heart were considered to be proportional to NE secretion and to adrenergic function. In rat hearts, yohimbine induced almost identical increases in rates of loss of 3H-NE and of 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a functional analog of NE. Clonidine induced decreases in rates of loss of 3H-NE that were also mimicked by those of 125I-MIBG. In the dog heart, pharmacologically-induced increases and decreases in rates of loss of 123I-MIBG could be measured externally; these values were similar to those obtained for 125I-MIBG in the rat heart. Thus acute changes in the adrenergic neuron activity can be measured in the living heart. The method is applicable to man in determining the capacity of the adrenergic system to respond to provocative challenges

  20. Evaluation of sympathetic nerve system activity with MIBG. Comparison with heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors attempted to elucidate the relations of plasma concentration of norepinephrine (pNE) and findings of heart rate variability and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and evaluated cardiac autonomic nervous activity in chronic renal failure. Subjects were 211 patients with various heart diseases (coronary artery lesion, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure and so on), 60 patients with artificial kidney due to chronic renal failure, 13 of whom were found to have coronary arterial disease by Tl myocardial scintigraphy, and 14 normal volunteers. ECG was recorded with the portable recorder for heart rate variability. Together with collection of blood for pNE measurement, myocardial scintigraphy was done at 15 and 150 min after intravenous administration of 111 MBq of MIBG for acquisition of early and delayed, respectively, images of the frontal breast. Accumulation at and elimination during the time points of MIBG were computed in cps unit. Variability of heart rate was found to have the correlation positive with MIBG delayed accumulation and negative with the elimination, and pNE, negative with heart rate variability and the delayed accumulation and positive with the elimination. Thus cardiac autonomic nervous abnormality was suggested to occur before uremic cardiomyopathy. (K.H.)

  1. Evaluation of sympathetic nerve system activity with MIBG. Comparison with heart rate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Chinori; Wakabayashi, Yasushi; Shouda, Sakae; Mikami, Tadashi [Hamamatsu Medical School (Japan); Tawarahara, Kei; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    1997-04-01

    Authors attempted to elucidate the relations of plasma concentration of norepinephrine (pNE) and findings of heart rate variability and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and evaluated cardiac autonomic nervous activity in chronic renal failure. Subjects were 211 patients with various heart diseases (coronary artery lesion, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure and so on), 60 patients with artificial kidney due to chronic renal failure, 13 of whom were found to have coronary arterial disease by Tl myocardial scintigraphy, and 14 normal volunteers. ECG was recorded with the portable recorder for heart rate variability. Together with collection of blood for pNE measurement, myocardial scintigraphy was done at 15 and 150 min after intravenous administration of 111 MBq of MIBG for acquisition of early and delayed, respectively, images of the frontal breast. Accumulation at and elimination during the time points of MIBG were computed in cps unit. Variability of heart rate was found to have the correlation positive with MIBG delayed accumulation and negative with the elimination, and pNE, negative with heart rate variability and the delayed accumulation and positive with the elimination. Thus cardiac autonomic nervous abnormality was suggested to occur before uremic cardiomyopathy. (K.H.)

  2. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of 3H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

  3. Red Cell Catalase Activity in Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Alphonsus Ekpe Udoh; Iya Ntui; Okon Essien; Mary Ndon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between red cell catalase activity and glucose concentrations was examined. Red cell catalase activity, whole blood glucose concentration, red cell lysate glucose concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were estimated in 40 diabetic patients and a control group of 30 healthy subjects. The diabetic group had a significantly lower catalase (p<0.01) activity than the control. As would be expected, the blood glucose concentration of the diabetic group was significant...

  4. Differentiation of immortal cells inhibits telomerase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, H W; Sokoloski, J A; Perez, J.R.; Maltese, J Y; Sartorelli, A. C.; Stein, C. A.; Nichols, G; Khaled, Z.; Telang, N. T.; Narayanan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleic acid-protein complex, adds hexameric repeats of 5'-TTAGGG-3' to the ends of mammalian chromosomal DNA (telomeres) to compensate for the progressive loss that occurs with successive rounds of DNA replication. Although somatic cells do not express telomerase, germ cells and immortalized cells, including neoplastic cells, express this activity. To determine whether the phenotypic differentiation of immortalized cells is linked to the regulation of telomerase activity, t...

  5. Palmitoylethanolamide reduces granuloma-induced hyperalgesia by modulation of mast cell activation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Maria Pia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain evidences of a possible analgesic role for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA in chronic granulomatous inflammation sustained by mast cell (MC activation in rats at 96 hours. PEA (200-400-800 ?g/mL, locally administered at time 0, reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and release of NGF in comparison with saline-treated controls. PEA prevented nerve formation and sprouting, as shown by histological analysis, reduced mechanical allodynia, evaluated by Von Frey filaments, and inhibited dorsal root ganglia activation. These results were supported by the evidence that MCs in granuloma were mainly degranulated and closely localized near nerve fibres and PEA significantly reduced MC degranulation and nerves fibre formation. These findings are the first evidence that PEA, by the modulation of MC activation, controls pain perception in an animal model of chronic inflammation, suggesting its potential use for the treatment of all those painful conditions in which MC activation is an initial key step.

  6. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiongjiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid-co-[(glycolic acid-alt-(L-lysine]} (PLGL was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide and nerve growth factor (NGF for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair.

  7. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly e...

  8. Researches of activity of acetylcholinesterase in nerve fibres of both thymus and spleen of rats in remote terms after chronic radioactive and thermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in nerve fibres of both thymus and spleen in remote period (in a 6 months) after chronic irradiation, thermal effect and combined action of these two factors was investigated. The researches were conducted on 80 rats-males, which were divided into 4 groups: first was the control group, second was subjected to thermal effect (25 sessions - 37 degree, 4 hours ), third - x-ray irradiation (25 sessions -0,02 Gy), fourth - combined action of these two factors. Defined(determined) Activity of AChE was determined by microscope-photometer at length wave 490 nm. Irradiation and heat in used dozes did not cause appreciable changes, but at their combined action the activity of AChE decreased. The additional single thermal effect promoted increase of ferment activity up to a control level in nerve fibres of spleen, but not thymus. Probably, the infringement of interaction processes of systems may be stipulated by changes of activity of endocrine glands. The significant decrease of a level of insulin and glucocorticoids in blood was detected in experiments. 13 refs., 1 fig

  9. Effects of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with enalapril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The production of aldosterone in the heart is suppressed by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moreover, perindopril has been reported to have more cardioprotective effects than enalapril. Forty patients with CHF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%; mean 33{+-}7%] were randomly assigned to perindopril (2 mg/day; n=20) or enalapril (5 mg/day; n=20). All patients were also treated with diuretics. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed total defect score (TDS) and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured before and 6 months after treatment. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LVEF were also determined by echocardiography. After treatment, in patients receiving perindopril, TDS decreased from 39{+-}10 to 34{+-}9 (P<0.01), H/M ratios increased from 1.62{+-}0.27 to 1.76{+-}0.29 (P<0.01), WR decreased from 50{+-}14% to 42{+-}14% (P<0.05) and plasma BNP concentrations decreased from 226{+-}155 to 141{+-}90 pg/ml (P<0.0005). In addition, the LVEDV decreased from 180{+-}30 to 161{+-}30 ml (P<0.05) and the LVESV decreased from 122{+-}35 to 105{+-}36 ml (P<0.05). Although the LVEF tended to increase, the change was not statistically significant (from 33{+-}8% to 36{+-}12%; P=NS). On the other hand, there were no significant changes in these parameters in patients receiving enalapril. Plasma BNP concentrations, {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters improved after 6 months of perindopril treatment. These findings indicate that perindopril treatment can ameliorate the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and the left ventricular performance in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  10. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  11. Contribution of the distal nerve sheath to nerve and muscle preservation following denervation and sensory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Karen; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Minet, Wyatt; Fahnestock, Margaret; Bain, James R

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of the distal nerve sheath to sensory protection. Following tibial nerve transection, rats were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) saphenous-to-tibial nerve neurorrhaphy; (2) saphenous-to-gastrocnemius neurotization; (3) unprotected controls (tibial nerve transection); or (4) immediate common peroneal-to-tibial nerve neurorrhaphy. After a 6-month denervation period and motor reinnervation, ultrastructural, histologic, and morphometric analyses were performed on the distal tibial nerve and gastrocnemius muscle cross-sections. Sensory axons neurotized to muscle maintain existing muscle integrity, as demonstrated by less fibrosis, collagenization, and fat deposition, more than unprotected muscle, and preserve the distribution pattern of fast twitch fibers. However, neurorrhaphy of the sensory nerve to the distal tibial nerve (involving the distal nerve sheath) improves existing endoneurial sheath structure, demonstrated by reduced collagen, and enhances regeneration, shown by improved axon-to-Schwann cell coupling and increased axon area. The authors conclude that sensory protection of muscle does not require the distal nerve sheath, but that preservation of the distal sheath may contribute to enhanced nerve regeneration. PMID:15672322

  12. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair / Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Gabriel Martins, Dallo; Bernardo Vergara, Reichert; José Benedito Ramos, Valladão Júnior; Camila, Silva; Bianca Aparecida de, Luca; Beatriz de Freitas Azevedo, Levy; Gerson, Chadi.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS), um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, pode [...] ndo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ciático poder alterar o padrão da ativação astrocitária nos cornos anterior e posterior da medula espinal do rato. MÉTODOS: Suspensão de CS cultivadas ou extrato homogeneizado de medula espinal lesada de rato foram inoculados num reservatório feito a partir de dois esmagamentos aplicados no nervo ciático do rato distantes 0,5mm entre si. Injeção local de salina tamponada serviu como controle. Os ratos foram mortos uma semana após e os astrócitos da medula espinal marcados por método imunohistoquímico e quantificados por análise de imagem. RESULTADOS: No corno anterior da medula, ipsilateral à lesão, ativação astrocitária leve foi vista após as injeções de tampão ou CS, entretanto, ativação celular intensa foi observada nesta região com a inoculação neural do extrato homogeneizado de tecido medular lesado. Adicionalmente, as inoculações de CS e de extrato homogeneizado de tecido medular promoveram forte reação astrocitária no corno dorsal da medula espinal, bilateralmente. CONCLUSÕES: Os astrócitos da medula espinal reagem em função do processo de reparo do nervo lesado, o que pode influenciar o resultado funcional esperado, algo que deve ser considerado durante o planejamento da estratégia neurocirúrgica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC), a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fibe [...] r outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.

  13. Localization of Interictal Epileptiform Activity Using Magnetoencephalography with Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry in Patients with a Vagus Nerve Stimulator

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton-Kotloski, Jennifer R.; Kotloski, Robert J.; Boggs, Jane A.; Popli, Gautam; O’Donovan, Cormac A.; Couture, Daniel E.; Cornell, Cassandra; Godwin, Dwayne W.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides useful and non-redundant information in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy, and in particular, during the pre-surgical evaluation of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a common treatment for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, interpretation of MEG recordings from patients with a VNS is challenging due to the severe magnetic artifacts produced by the VNS. We used synthetic aperture magnetometry (g2) [SAM(g2)], an adaptiv...

  14. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:26025677

  15. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Ray; Rise, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [14C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [14C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of 14C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve t...

  16. Genetically-increased taste cell population with G?-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors is associated with increase of gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve fibers in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsukawa Hideo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide gurmarin is a selective sweet response inhibitor for rodents. In mice, gurmarin sensitivity differs among strains with gurmarin-sensitive C57BL and gurmarin-poorly-sensitive BALB strains. In C57BL mice, sweet-responsive fibers of the chorda tympani (CT nerve can be divided into two distinct populations, gurmarin-sensitive (GS and gurmarin-insensitive (GI types, suggesting the existence of two distinct reception pathways for sweet taste responses. By using the dpa congenic strain (dpa CG whose genetic background is identical to BALB except that the gene(s controlling gurmarin sensitivity are derived from C57BL, we previously found that genetically-elevated gurmarin sensitivity in dpa CG mice, confirmed by using behavioral response and whole CT nerve response analyses, was linked to a greater taste cell population co-expressing sweet taste receptors and a G? protein, G?-gustducin. However, the formation of neural pathways from the increased taste cell population to nerve fibers has not yet been examined. Results Here, we investigated whether the increased taste cell population with G?-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors would be associated with selective increment of GS fiber population or nonselective shift of gurmarin sensitivities of overall sweet-responsive fibers by examining the classification of GS and GI fiber types in dpa CG and BALB mice. The results indicated that dpa CG, like C57BL, possess two distinct populations of GS and GI types of sweet-responsive fibers with almost identical sizes (dpa CG: 13 GS and 16 GI fibers; C57BL: 16 GS and 14 GI fibers. In contrast, BALB has only 3 GS fibers but 18 GI fibers. These data indicate a marked increase of the GS population in dpa CG. Conclusion These results suggest that the increased cell population expressing T1r2/T1r3/G?-gustducin in dpa CG mice may be associated with an increase of their matched GS type fibers, and may form the distinct GS sweet reception pathway in mice. G?-gustducin may be involved in the GS sweet reception pathway and may be a key molecule for links between sweet taste receptors and cell type-specific-innervation by their matched fiber class.

  17. Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Chi Lee; Chin-Chuan Tsai; Chun-Hsu Yao; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Ming-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15?mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25??g/mL), or saline (control), was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in...

  18. Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer measured by fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for early detection of structural damage in patients with preperimetric glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Rolle, Cristina Briamonte, Daniela Curto, Federico Maria GrignoloEye Clinic, Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Torino, Torino, ItalyAims: To evaluate the capability of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT to detect structural damage in patients with preperimetric glaucoma.Methods: A total of 178 Caucasian subjects were enrolled in this cohort study: 116 preperimetric glaucoma patients and 52 healthy subjects. Using three-dimensional FD-OCT, the participants underwent imaging of the ganglion cell complex (GCC and the optic nerve head. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values were calculated for all parameters at the first and fifth percentiles. Areas under the curves (AUCs were generated for all parameters and were compared (Delong test. For both the GCC and the optic nerve head protocols, the OR logical disjunction (Boolean logic operator was calculated.Results: The AUCs didn’t significantly differ. Macular global loss volume had the largest AUC (0.81. Specificities were high at both the fifth and first percentiles (up to 97%, but sensitivities were low, especially at the first percentile (55%–27%.Conclusion: Macular and papillary diagnostic accuracies did not differ significantly based on the 95% confidence interval. The computation of the Boolean OR operator has been found to boost diagnostic accuracy. Using the software-provided classification, sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were low for both the retinal nerve fiber layer and the GCC scans. FD-OCT does not seem to be decisive for early detection of structural damage in patients with no functional impairment. This suggests that there is a need for analysis software to be further refined to enhance glaucoma diagnostic capability.Keywords: OCT, RNFL, GCC, diagnostic accuracy 

  19. A novel internal fixator device for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Hsien; Wilson, Robin E; Love, James M; Fisher, John P; Shah, Sameer B

    2013-06-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve damage, especially for a transected nerve, is rarely complete, resulting in impaired motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with inappropriate autonomic responses that seriously impair quality of life. In consequence, strategies for enhancing peripheral nerve repair are of high clinical importance. Tension is a key determinant of neuronal growth and function. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that moderate levels of imposed tension (strain) can encourage axonal outgrowth; however, few strategies of peripheral nerve repair emphasize the mechanical environment of the injured nerve. Toward the development of more effective nerve regeneration strategies, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel, modular nerve-lengthening device, which allows the imposition of moderate tensile loads in parallel with existing scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair. This concept would enable nerve regeneration in two superposed regimes of nerve extension--traditional extension through axonal outgrowth into a scaffold and extension in intact regions of the proximal nerve, such as that occurring during growth or limb-lengthening. Self-sizing silicone nerve cuffs were fabricated to grip nerve stumps without slippage, and nerves were deformed by actuating a telescoping internal fixator. Poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) constructs mounted on the telescoping rods were apposed to the nerve stumps to guide axonal outgrowth. Neuronal cells were exposed to PLGA using direct contact and extract methods, and they exhibited no signs of cytotoxic effects in terms of cell morphology and viability. We confirmed the feasibility of implanting and actuating our device within a sciatic nerve gap and observed axonal outgrowth following device implantation. The successful fabrication and implementation of our device provides a novel method for examining mechanical influences on nerve regeneration. PMID:23102114

  20. Beneficial effect of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. Comparison with enalapril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), it remains unclear whether perindopril is more cardioprotective than enalapril. Forty-five stable CHF outpatients undergoing conventional therapy including enalapril therapy were randomized to 2 groups [group I (n=24): continuous enalapril treatment; group II (n=21): enalapril was changed to perindopril]. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was evaluated using cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and 6 months after treatment. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. In group I, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In contrast, in group II delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio was significantly increased (2.0±0.07 vs 2.15±0.07, p=0.013) and the washout rate was significantly decreased (33.0±1.4 vs 30.5±1.2, p=0.030) after 6 months compared with the baseline value. In addition, LVEF was significantly increased and the plasma BNP level was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that for the treatment of CHF, perindopril is superior to enalapril with respect of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and BNP. (author)

  1. Three-Dimensional Gastrointestinal Organoid Culture in Combination with Nerves or Fibroblasts: A Method to Characterize the Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastu?a, Agnieszka; Middelhoff, Moritz; Brandtner, Anna; Tobiasch, Moritz; Höhl, Bettina; Nuber, Andreas H.; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Neupert, Steffi; Kollmann, Patrick; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Quante, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is characterized by a high turnover of cells and intestinal stem cells predominantly reside at the bottom of crypts and their progeny serve to maintain normal intestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of a niche surrounding intestinal stem cells in crypts, which consists of cellular and soluble components and creates an environment constantly influencing the fate of stem cells. Here we describe different 3D culture systems to culture gastrointestinal epithelium that should enable us to study the stem cell niche in vitro in the future: organoid culture and multilayered systems such as organotypic cell culture and culture of intestinal tissue fragments ex vivo. These methods mimic the in vivo situation in vitro by creating 3D culture conditions that reflect the physiological situation of intestinal crypts. Modifications of the composition of the culture media as well as coculturing epithelial organoids with previously described cellular components such as myofibroblasts, collagen, and neurons show the impact of the methods applied to investigate niche interactions in vitro. We further present a novel method to isolate labeled nerves from the enteric nervous system using Dclk1-CreGFP mice. PMID:26697073

  2. Frequency-dependent ERK phosphorylation in spinal neurons by electric stimulation of the sciatic nerve and the role in electrophysiological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shenglan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK in DRG and dorsal horn neurons is induced by the C-fiber electrical stimulation to the peripheral nerve. The present study was designed to investigate the expression and modulation of pERK in the rat dorsal horn neurons produced by repetitive electrical stimulation, and its involvement in the electrophysiological activity of dorsal horn neurons. Electrical stimulation of C-fiber intensity at different frequencies was applied to the sciatic nerve; the stimuli-induced pERK expression and the activity in dorsal horn neurons were studied by immunohistochemistry and extracellular recording, respectively. Electrical stimulation of C-fibers (3 mA induced pERK expression in dorsal horn neurons in a frequency-dependent manner, indicating that the frequency of electrical stimulation is an important factor which activates the intracellular signal pathway in the spinal cord. To demonstrate the underlying mechanism of this frequency-dependent pERK expression, an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, and a voltage sensitive calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine, were administrated intrathecally before the stimulation. We found that high frequency (0.5 Hz and 10 Hz but not low frequent (0.05 Hz stimulus-evoked pERK was partially inhibited by MK-801. Both high and low frequency stimulus-evoked pERK were inhibited by the nifedipine treatment. The extracellular single unit activities were recorded from the laminae I-II and V of the L4-5 dorsal horn, and we found that blockage of the intracellular ERK signal suppressed the wind-up responses in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, any change in the mechanically evoked responses was not observed following the administration of ERK inhibitor. These observations indicate that ERK activation plays an important role in the induction of the wind-up responses in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons.

  3. Assessment of central chemosensitivity and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity using I-123 MIBG imaging in central sleep apnea syndrome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-123 m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been used to study cardiac sympathetic function in various cardiac diseases. Central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. One of the mechanisms of its poor prognosis may be related to impaired cardiac sympathetic activity. However, the relationship between chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide, which is reported to correlate with the severity of CSAS, and cardiac sympathetic activity has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess cardiac sympathetic function and chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide in CHF patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was evaluated in 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (male/female: 19/2, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)5 times/h underwent polysomnography. Patients with an apnea hypopnea index >15/h but without evidence of obstructive apnea were defined as having CSAS. Early (15 min) and delayed (4 hr) planar MIBG images were obtained from these patients. The mean counts in the whole heart and the mediastinum were obtained. The heart-to-mediastinum count ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the corrected myocardial washout rate (WR) were also calculated. The central chemoreflex was assessed with the rebreathing method using a hypercapnic gas mixture (7% CO2 and 93% O2). Ten of the 21 patients had CSAS. The H/M ratio was similar in patients both with and without CSAS (1.57±0.18 vs. 1.59±0.14, p=0.82). However, the WR was higher in patients with CSAS than in patients without CSAS (40±8% vs. 30±12%, p<0.05). ODI significantly correlated with central chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide. Moreover, there was a highly significant correlation between WR and central chemosensitivity (r=0.65, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between ODI and the WR (r=0.36, p=0.11). Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and CSAS is impaired. However, central sleep apnea might not directly increase cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. We suggest that central chemosensitivity, which is considered to be one of the mechanisms of CSAS, is correlated with cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. (author)

  4. A Flat Interface Nerve Electrode With Integrated Multiplexer

    OpenAIRE

    Lertmanorat, Zeng; Montague, F. W; Durand, Dominique M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of peripheral nerve cuff electrode development is the design of an electrode capable of selectively activating a specific population of axons in a common nerve trunk. Several designs such as the round spiral electrode or the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) have shown such ability. However, multiple contact electrodes require many leads, making the implantation difficult and potentially damaging to the nerve. Taking advantage of the flat geometry of the FINE, multiplexer...

  5. Perspectives in regeneration and tissue engineering of peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Stefania; Fornaro, Michele; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G; Geuna, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common casualty and although peripheral nerve fibers retain a considerable regeneration potential also in the adult, recovery is usually rather poor, especially in case of large nerve defects. The aim of this paper is to address the perspectives in regeneration and tissue engineering after peripheral nerve injury by reviewing the relevant experimental studies in animal models. After a brief overview of the morphological changes related to peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, the paper will address the evolution of peripheral nerve tissue engineering with special focus on transplantation strategies, from organs and tissues to cells and genes, that can be carried out, particularly in case of severe nerve lesions with substance loss. Finally, the need for integrated research which goes beyond therapeutic strategies based on single approaches is emphasized, and the importance of bringing together the various complimentary disciplines which can contribute to the definition of effective new strategies for regenerating the injured peripheral nerve is outlined. PMID:21474294

  6. Tuning adenosine A1 and A2A receptors activation mediates L-citrulline-induced inhibition of [3H]-acetylcholine release depending on nerve stimulation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, M A; Oliveira, L; Campesatto-Mella, E; Barroso, A; Silva, C; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Alves-do-Prado, W; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2008-01-01

    The influence of nerve stimulation pattern on transmitter release inhibition by L-citrulline, the co-product of NO biosynthesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was studied in the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm. We also investigated the putative interactions between NOS pathway and the adenosine system. L-citrulline (10-470 microM), the NOS substrate L-arginine (10-470 microM) and the NO donor 3-morpholinylsydnoneimine (SIN-1, 1-10 microM), concentration-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-acetylcholine ([(3)H]-ACh) release from rat motor nerve endings. Increasing stimulus frequency from 5 Hz-trains to 50 Hz-bursts enhanced [(3)H]-ACh release inhibition by l-arginine (47 microM) and L-citrulline (470 microM), whereas the effect of SIN-1 (10 microM) remained unchanged. NOS inhibition with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) prevented the effect of L-arginine, but not that of L-citrulline. Adenosine deaminase (2.5 U/ml) and the adenosine transport inhibitor, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (10 microM), attenuated release inhibition by L-arginine and L-citrulline. With 5 Hz-trains, blockade of A(1) receptors with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (2.5 nM), but not of A(2A) receptors with ZM241385 (10nM), reduced the inhibitory action of l-arginine and L-citrulline; the opposite was verified with 50 Hz-bursts. Blockade of muscarinic M(2) autoreceptors with AF-DX116 (10 nM) also attenuated the effects of L-arginine and L-citrulline with 50 Hz-bursts. L-citrulline (470 microM) increased basal adenosine outflow via the equilibrative nucleoside transport system sensitive to NBTI (10 microM), without significantly (P>0.05) changing the nucleoside release subsequent to nerve stimulation. Data indicate that NOS-derived L-citrulline negatively modulates [(3)H]-ACh release by increasing adenosine outflow channelling to A(1) and A(2A) receptors activation depending on the stimulus paradigm. While adenosine acts predominantly at inhibitory A(1) receptors during 5 Hz-trains, inhibition of ACh release by L-citrulline at 50 Hz-bursts depends on the interplay between adenosine A(2A) and muscarinic M(2) receptors. PMID:18022291

  7. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  8. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parts of the brain that we know can affect seizure activity, so we know that the vagus nerve normally ... 9 years old. He has staring spells every day and his family says they hear him ... having some seizures during his sleep at night, but he’s not had any of ...

  9. Adenosine potentiates human lung mast cell tissue plasminogen activator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Michal J; Bradding, Peter; Vial, Catherine

    2011-01-15

    We investigated whether adenosine, a potent contributor to the regulation of pulmonary function, can modulate human lung mast cell (HLMC) fibrinolytic activity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity and tPA transcript expression levels from a human mast cell line (HMC-1) and HLMC were monitored following adenosine application. Adenosine potentiated mast cell tPA activity and tPA gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Adenosine effects were abolished in the presence of adenosine deaminase. HMC-1 cells and HLMC predominantly expressed adenosine A(2A) and A(2B) receptor transcripts (A(2B) ? A(2A) > A(3) > A(1)). Pharmacological and signaling studies suggest that the A(2A) receptor is the major subtype accounting for adenosine-induced mast cell tPA activity. Finally, the supernatant from HMC-1 cells and HLMC treated with adenosine (for 24 h) significantly increased fibrin clot lysis, whereas ZM241385, an A(2A) receptor antagonist, abolished this effect. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data to demonstrate the potentiating effect of adenosine on mast cell tPA activity and fibrin clot lysis. PMID:21149610

  10. Activated protein C modulates the proinflammatory activity of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Matsumoto,1,2* Yuki Matsushima,1* Masaaki Toda,1 Ziaurahman Roeen,1 Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza,1,5 Josephine A Hinneh,1 Etsuko Harada,1,3 Taro Yasuma,4 Yutaka Yano,4 Masahito Urawa,1,5 Tetsu Kobayashi,5 Osamu Taguchi,5 Esteban C Gabazza1 1Department of Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, 2BONAC Corporation, BIO Factory 4F, Fukuoka, 3Iwade Research Institute of Mycology, 4Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial activity of activated protein C in allergic diseases including bronchial asthma and rhinitis. However, the exact mechanism of action of activated protein C in allergies is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that pharmacological doses of activated protein C can modulate allergic inflammation by inhibiting dendritic cells. Materials and methods: Dendritic cells were prepared using murine bone marrow progenitor cells and human peripheral monocytes. Bronchial asthma was induced in mice that received intratracheal instillation of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. Results: Activated protein C significantly increased the differentiation of tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the secretion of type I interferons, but it significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in myeloid dendritic cells. Activated protein C also inhibited maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Activated protein C-treated dendritic cells were less effective when differentiating naïve CD4 T-cells from Th1 or Th2 cells, and the cellular effect of activated protein C was mediated by its receptors. Mice that received adoptive transfer of activated protein C-treated ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells had significantly less airway hyperresponsiveness, significantly decreased lung concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and less plasma concentration of immunoglobulin E when compared to control mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that dendritic cells mediate the immunosuppressive effect of activated protein C during allergic inflammation. Keywords: allergy, dendritic cells, coagulation, protein C pathway

  11. The Physics of Nerves

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

  12. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction Secondary to Lymphomatous Infiltration of the Nervous System by Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomatous meningitis (metastasis of lymphoma cells into the cerebrospinal-fluid spaces [CSF] and neurolymphomatosis (lymphomatous infiltration of a peripheral nerve or root are neurologic complications of non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma (NHL that frequently result in significant neurologic dysfunction. Leptomeningeal metastases most commonly present as cerebral dysfunction (hydrocephalus causing headache or apraxia of gait, encephalopathy, or seizures, cranial neuropathy (diplospia, facial weakness, vertigo, hearing loss, and tongue weakness, and spinal-nerve root dysfunction (incomplete cauda equina syndrome ? asymmetric lower- extremity weakness, sensory loss, or incontinence. Diagnosis is made by finding leptomeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain or spine or demonstration of lymphomatous cells by CSF cytology or flow cytometry. Treatment consists of focal radiotherapy for areas of bulky disease followed by intra-CSF chemotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. Neurolymphomatosis typically presents as a painful, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy affecting multiple limbs in an asymmetric fashion with rapid evolution although variability in presentation can occur. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of enhancement of nerve roots on MRI of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus or peripheral nerves or by increased hyper-metabolic activity following the course of affected nerves on fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Treatment of neurolymphomatosis consists of focal radiotherapy (if significant neurologic dysfunction is present and high-dose intravenous methotrexate therapy. Standard systemic chemotherapy agents are not effective since they do not penetrate the physiologic ?nerve-blood barrier?. Other disorders that must be differentiated from these entities include peripheral-nerve or nerve root compression and paraneoplastic neuropathy.

  13. Activity driven fluctuations in living cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, É; Gov, N S; Visco, P; Weitz, D A; van Wijland, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living cell, where both thermal fluctuations and nonequilibrium activity coexist. The model is based on a confining harmonic potential describing the elastic cytoskeletal matrix, which undergoes random active hops as a result of the nonequilibrium rearrangements within the cell. We describe the probe's statistics and we bring forth quantities affected by the nonequilibrium activity. We find an excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and experimental results for tracers inside living cells. Finally, we exploit our model to arrive at quantitative predictions for the parameters characterizing nonequilibrium activity, such as the typical time scale of the activity and the amplitude of the active fluctuations.

  14. Paclitaxel alters sensory nerve biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Brian G; Shah, Sameer B

    2015-10-15

    Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic that, despite its common use, frequently causes debilitating peripheral sensory neuropathy. Paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes microtubules, and through unknown mechanisms, causes abnormal microtubule aggregation. Given that microtubules contribute to the mechanical properties of cells, we tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel treatment would alter the stiffness of sensory nerves. Rat sural nerves were excised and soaked in Ringer's solution with or without paclitaxel. Nerves were secured between a force transducer and actuator, and linearly strained. Stress-strain curves were generated, from which elastic moduli were calculated. Paclitaxel treated nerves exhibited significantly higher moduli in both linear and transition regions of the curve. A composite-tissue model was then generated to estimate the stiffness increase in the cellular fraction of the nerve following paclitaxel treatment. This model was supported experimentally by data on mechanical properties of sural nerves stripped of their epineurium, and area fractions of the cellular and connective tissue components of the rat sural nerve, calculated from immunohistochemical images. Model results revealed that the cellular components of the nerve must stiffen 12x to 115x, depending on the initial axonal modulus assumed, in order to achieve the observed tissue level mechanical changes. Consistent with such an increase, electron microscopy showed increased microtubule aggregation and cytoskeletal packing, suggestive of a more cross-linked cytoskeleton. Overall, our data suggests that paclitaxel treatment induces increased microtubule bundling in axons, which leads to alterations in tissue-level mechanical properties. PMID:26321364

  15. Transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells plus biodegradable fibrin glue restores the urethral sphincter in a pudendal nerve-transected rat model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y., Xu; Y.F., Song; Z.X., Lin.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fibrin glue (FG) could promote urethral sphincter restoration in muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC)-based injection therapies in a pudendal nerve-transected (PNT) rat, which was used as a stress urinary incontinence (SUI) model. MDSCs were purified from the gastrocnemius muscles [...] of 4-week-old inbred female SPF Wistar rats and labeled with green fluorescent protein. Animals were divided into five groups (N = 15): sham (S), PNT (D), PNT+FG injection (F), PNT+MDSC injection (M), and PNT+MDSC+FG injection (FM). Each group was subdivided into 1- and 4-week groups. One and 4 weeks after injection into the proximal urethra, leak point pressure (LPP) was measured to assess urethral resistance function. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed 4 weeks after injection. LPP was increased significantly in FM and M animals after implantation compared to group D (P

  16. Carcinoma de células escamosas no olho de bovino com invasão cerebral através dos nervos cranianos Ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a cow with cerebral invasion through cranial nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rocha de Barros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Um carcinoma de células escamosas foi removido do olho de uma vaca de 7 anos de idade que apresentava ptose da orelha esquerda, salivação e perda de peso progressiva. Devido ao mau prognóstico, a vaca foi submetida à eutanásia 9 meses após a cirurgia. Na necropsia e no exame histopatológico, foi observado que o tumor havia invadido o tronco encefálico através dos nervos cranianos. Outros achados de necropsia significativos incluíam pneumonia de aspiração e atrofia por desnervação do músculo temporal esquerdo.A squamous cell carcinoma of the eye was removed from a 7-year-old cow which presented drooping of left ear, drooling and progressive loss of weight. Due to poor prognosis it was euthanatized 9 months after surgery. At necropsy and histopathological examination it was found that the tumor had invaded the brain stem through the cranial nerves. Additional necropsy significant findings included aspiration pneumonia and denervation atrophy of the left temporal muscle.

  17. Does nerve identification during open inguinal herniorrhaphy reduce the risk of nerve damage and persistent pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, J M; Aasvang, E K

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nerve identification during open inguinal hernia herniorrhaphy has been suggested as one of the factors that may reduce the risk of development of persistent postherniorrhaphy pain. In this prospective study, we evaluated whether intraoperative inguinal nerve identification influenced the risk of development of persistent postherniorrhaphy pain, sensory dysfunction in the groin and functional ability score after open hernia repair. METHODS: A total of 244 men with a primary inguinal hernia underwent open Lichtenstein repair in a high-volume hernia surgery centre, where information on inguinal nerve identification was registered during operation. Before the operation and 6 months postoperatively, functional pain-related impairment was assessed with Activities Assessment Scale and pain intensity scores with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS 0-10). Quantitative sensory testing in the groin was performed before operation and 6 months postoperatively, in order to investigate intraoperative inguinal nerve damage. RESULTS: The intraoperative nerve identification rates for the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves were 94.7, 97.5 and 21.3 %, respectively. Thirty-nine patients (16.0 %) had substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months follow-up. There was no difference in risk of development of substantial pain-related functional impairment in patients with identification compared with non-identification of the iliohypogastric nerve (P = 1.0), the ilioinguinal nerve (P = 0.59), the genitofemoral nerve (P = 0.40) or all nerves (P = 0.52). There were no differences in regard to sensory loss in the groin area or in regard to improvement in functional outcome following surgery, between patients with and without nerve identification. CONCLUSIONS: Although intraoperative inguinal nerve identification should be aimed at, other factors may contribute to the risk of nerve damage and persistent pain after open groin hernia repair.

  18. Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeath, James B.; Thor, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila ventral nerve cord has been a central model system for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms that control CNS development. Studies show that the generation of neural diversity is a multistep process initiated by the patterning and segmentation of the neuroectoderm. These events act together with the process of lateral inhibition to generate precursor cells (neuroblasts) with specific identities, distinguished by the expression of unique combinations of regulatory genes. The expression of these genes in a given neuroblast restricts the fate of its progeny, by activating specific combinations of downstream genes. These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter.

  19. The role of exosomes in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna C Ching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain problematic to treat, with poor functional recovery commonly observed. Injuries resulting in a nerve gap create specific difficulties for axonal regeneration. Approaches to address these difficulties include autologous nerve grafts (which are currently the gold standard treatment and synthetic conduits, with the latter option being able to be impregnated with Schwann cells or stem cells which provide an appropriate micro-environment for neuronal regeneration to occur. Transplanting stem cells, however, infers additional risk of malignant transformation as well as manufacturing difficulties and ethical concerns, and the use of autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cells requires the sacrifice of a functioning nerve. A new approach utilizing exosomes, secreted extracellular vesicles, could avoid these complications. In this review, we summarize the current literature on exosomes, and suggest how they could help to improve axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Electrodynamic activity of healthy and cancer cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Ji?í

    Vol. 329. Bristol : IOP, 2011 - (Cifra, M.; Pokorny, J.; Ku?era, O.), 012007 ISSN 1742-6588. [9th International Frohlich's Symposium on Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells - Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics. Praha (CZ), 01.07.2011-03.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Boundary elements * Cancer cells * Electric dipole Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal fun...

  2. Post-Embryonic Nerve-Associated Precursors to Adult Pigment Cells: Genetic Requirements and Dynamics of Morphogenesis and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Budi, Erine H.; Patterson, Larissa B.; PARICHY, DAVID M.

    2011-01-01

    The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previo...

  3. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-11

    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS™, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. PMID:26212442

  4. Enhanced Expression of WD Repeat-Containing Protein 35 via Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation in Bupivacaine-Treated Neuro2a Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lei; Kondo, Fumio; Harato, Misako; Feng, Guo-Gang; Ishikawa, Naoshisa; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Okada, Shoshiro

    2014-01-01

    The family of WD repeat proteins comprises a large number of proteins and is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Bupivacaine is a sodium channel blocker administered for local infiltration, nerve block, epidural, and intrathecal anesthesia. Recently, we reported that bupivacaine induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, resulting in an increas...

  5. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness assessment in patients with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tiganov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with Alzheimer`s disease and mild cognitive impairment.Methods: this study included 10 patients (20 eyes with Alzheimer`s disease, 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls that had no history of dementia. All the subjects underwent psychiatric examination, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and complete ophthalmological examination, comprising optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.Results: there was a significant decrease in GCC thickness in patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared to the control group, global loss volume of ganglion cells was higher than in control group. there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of RNFL thickness. Weak positive correlation of GCC thickness and MMSE results was observed.Conclusion: Our data confirm the retinal involvement in Alzheimer`s disease, as reflected by loss of ganglion cells. Further studies will clear up the role and contribution of dementia in pathogenesis of optic neuropathy.

  6. CD11b+GR1+ Myeloid Cells Secrete NGF and Promote Trigeminal Ganglion Neurite Growth: Implications for Corneal Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Jassim, Sarmad H.; Ozturk, Okan; Chamon, Wallace; Ganesh, Balaji; Tibrewal, Sapna; Gandhi, Sonal; Byun, Yong-Soo; Hallak, Joelle; Mahmud, Dolores L.; Mahmud, Nadim; Rondelli, Damiano; Jain, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We characterized fluorescent bone marrow cells (YFP+ BMCs) in the thy1-YFP mouse and determine if they promote trigeminal ganglion (TG) cell neurite growth. Methods. Excimer laser annular keratectomy was performed in thy1-YFP mice, and corneas were imaged. BMCs were harvested from femur and tibia, and the expression of surface markers on YFP+ BMCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP?) was evaluated in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Neurotrophic action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP?) was determined in compartmental and transwell cultures of dissociated TG cells. Results. Following annular keratectomy, YFP+ BMCs infiltrated the cornea. YFP+ BMCs shared surface markers (CD11b+Gr1+Ly6C+Ly6G-F4/80low) with monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), had similar morphology, and suppressed T-cell proliferation in allogenic MLR in a dose-dependent manner. YFP+ BMCs, but not YFP? BMCs, significantly increased growth of TG neurites in vitro. When cultured in a transwell with TG neurites, YFP+ BMCs expressed neurotrophins and secreted nerve growth factor (NGF) in conditioned medium. YFP+ BMCs that infiltrated the cornea maintained their phenotype and actions (neuronal and immune). Conclusions. YFP+ BMCs in thy1-YFP mice have immunophenotypic features of MDSCs. They secrete NGF and promote neuroregeneration. Their immunosuppressive and neurotrophic actions are preserved after corneal infiltration. These findings increase our understanding of the beneficial roles played by leukocyte trafficking in the cornea and may lead to therapeutic strategies that use NGF-secreting myeloid cells to repair diseased or injured neurons. PMID:23942970

  7. Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

  8. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  9. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  10. Metabolic activity is necessary for activation of T suppressor cells by B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag-primed B cells must express cell-surface IgM, but not IgD or Ia Ag, and must remain metabolically active, in order to activate suppressor T cells (Ts) specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. Ag-primed B cells that were gamma-irradiated with 1000r, or less, retained the ability to activate Ts; however, Ag-primed B cells exposed to UV light were not able to do so. gamma-Irradiated and UV-treated Ag-primed B cells both expressed comparable levels of cell-surface IgM, and both localized to the spleen after in vivo transfer; neither could proliferate in vitro in response to mitogens. By contrast, gamma-irradiated primed B cells were still able to synthesize proteins, whereas UV-treated primed B cells could not. These findings suggest that in order for Ag-primed B cells to activate Ts, they must (a) express cell-associated IgM (sIgM) antibody bearing the idiotypic determinants of antibody specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide, and (b) be able to synthesize protein for either the continued expression of sIgM after cell transfer, or for the elaboration of another protein molecule that is also required for the activation of Ts; this molecule does not appear to be Ia Ag

  11. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection of enzyme inhibition and phosphorylation in biological fluids. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was chosen as a model enzyme. In competitive immunoassay, the target total BChE in a sample (mixture of OP-inhibited BChE and active BChE) competes with the BChE modified on the MBs to bind to the limited anti-BChE antibody labeled with quantum dots (QDs-anti-BChE), and followed by electrochemical stripping analysis of the bound QDs conjugate on the MBs. This assay shows a linear response over the total BChE concentration range of 0.1~20 nM. Simultaneously, real time BChE activity was measured on an electrochemical carbon nanotube-based sensor coupled with microflow injection system after immuno-capture by MBs-anti-BChE conjugate. Therefore, the formed phosphorylated adduct (OP-BChE) can be estimated by the difference values of the total amount BChE (including active and OP-inhibited) and active BChE from established calibration curves. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure (less than 20% inhibition of BChE) because of individual variation of BChE values, but also avoids the drawback of the scarce availability of OP-BChE antibody. It is sensitive enough to detect 0.5 nM OP-BChE, which is less than 2% BChE inhibition. This method offers a new method for rapid, accurate, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts and enzyme inhibition for biomonitoring of OP and nerve agent exposures.

  12. Immunomodulation of activated hepatic stellate cells by mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to prevent the development of liver fibrosis in a number of pre-clinical studies. Marked changes in liver histopathology and serological markers of liver function have been observed without a clear understanding of the therapeutic mechanism by which stem cells act. We sought to determine if MSCs could modulate the activity of resident liver cells, specifically hepatic stellate cells (SCs) by paracrine mechanisms using indirect cocultures. Indirect coculture of MSCs and activated SCs led to a significant decrease in collagen deposition and proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of activated SCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of SC activity by MSCs were examined. IL-6 secretion from activated SCs induced IL-10 secretion from MSCs, suggesting a dynamic response of MSCs to the SCs in the microenvironment. Blockade of MSC-derived IL-10 and TNF-? abolished the inhibitory effects of MSCs on SC proliferation and collagen synthesis. In addition, release of HGF by MSCs was responsible for the marked induction of apoptosis in SCs as determined by antibody-neutralization studies. These findings demonstrate that MSCs can modulate the function of activated SCs via paracrine mechanisms provide a plausible explanation for the protective role of MSCs in liver inflammation and fibrosis, which may also be relevant to other models of tissue fibrosis

  13. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with ...

  14. The furcal nerve revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/ professionals involved in spine care.

  15. Unilateral optic nerve aplasia associated with microphthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi?-Babi? Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraduction. Optic nerve aplasia is a rare developmental anomaly characterised by the congenital absence of the optic nerve, central retinal vessels and retinal ganglion cells that is seen most often in a unilaterally malformed eye. Case report. We reported a girl with a very rare anomaly of the eye, unilateral aplasia of the optic nerve and microphthalmia. We carried out a complete ophthalmological examination, A- and Bscan ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit and brain, pediatrician, neurological examinations and karyotype determination. The examined child was a third child from the third regular pregnancy, born at term (39 GS, BM 3100 g. Family ocular history was negative. The right corneal diameter was 7.5 mm and left 10 mm. On dilated fundus examination, the right eye showed the absence of optic nerve and central retinal vessels. B-scan echography showed a small right globe (axial length 13.80 mm, normal size left globe (axial length 18.30 mm and the absence of optic nerve on the right eye. Physical and neurological findings and karyotype was normal. MRI of the orbits and brain marked asymmetry of globe size and unilateral absence of the optic nerve. The patient is under the control of a competent ophthalmologist and prosthetic. Conclusion. Further aesthetic and functional development of a young person is the primary goal in tracking this rare congenital optic nerve anomalies in the malformed eye.

  16. Chapter 11: Tissue engineering of peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Bruno; Raimondo, Stefania; Tos, Pierluigi; Gaidano, Valentina; Audisio, Chiara; Scevola, Anna; Perroteau, Isabelle; Geuna, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering of peripheral nerves has seen an increasing interest over the last years and, similarly to many other fields of regenerative medicine, great expectations have risen within the general public to its potential clinical application in the treatment of damaged nerves. However, in spite of the scientific advancements, applications to the patients is still very limited and it appears that to optimize the strategy for the tissue engineering of the peripheral nerves in the clinical view, researchers have to strive for a new level of innovation which will bring together (in a multitranslational approach) the main pillars of tissue engineering: namely (1) microsurgery, (2) cell and tissue transplantation, (3) material science, and (4) gene transfer. This review paper provides an overview of these four key approaches to peripheral nerve tissue engineering. While some of these issues will also be specifically addressed in other papers in this special issue on peripheral nerve regeneration of the International Review of Neurobiology, in this paper we will focus on an example of successful translational research in tissue engineering, namely nerve reconstruction by muscle-vein-combined nerve scaffolds. PMID:19682640

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Ri...

  18. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Cattedra di Radiologia ' ' R' ' , Universita di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bianchi, S. [Division de Radiodiagnostic. Hopital Cantonal Huniversitaire, Rue Micheli du Crest, Geneva (Switzerland); Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E. [Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2000-03-30

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  19. Suppression of nerve growth factor Trk receptors and prolactin receptors by endocannabinoids leads to inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melck, D; De Petrocellis, L; Orlando, P; Bisogno, T; Laezza, C; Bifulco, M; Di Marzo, V

    2000-01-01

    Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), two endogenous ligands of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor subtypes, inhibit the proliferation of PRL-responsive human breast cancer cells (HBCCs) through down-regulation of the long form of the PRL receptor (PRLr). Here we report that 1) anandamide and 2-AG inhibit the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced proliferation of HBCCs through suppression of the levels of NGF Trk receptors; 2) inhibition of PRLr levels results in inhibition of the proliferation of other PRL-responsive cells, the prostate cancer DU-145 cell line; and 3) CB1-like cannabinoid receptors are expressed in HBCCs and DU-145 cells and mediate the inhibition of cell proliferation and Trk/PRLr expression. Beta-NGF-induced HBCC proliferation was potently inhibited (IC50 = 50-600 nM) by the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210, 2-AG, anandamide, and its metabolically stable analogs, but not by the anandamide congener, palmitoylethanolamide, or the selective agonist of CB2 cannabinoid receptors, BML-190. The effect of anandamide was blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, but not by the CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528. Anandamide and HU-210 exerted a strong inhibition of the levels of NGF Trk receptors as detected by Western immunoblotting; this effect was reversed by SR141716A. When induced by exogenous PRL, the proliferation of prostate DU-145 cells was potently inhibited (IC50 = 100-300 nM) by anandamide, 2-AG, and HU-210. Anandamide also down-regulated the levels of PRLr in DU-145 cells. SR141716A attenuated these two effects of anandamide. HBCCs and DU-145 cells were shown to contain 1) transcripts for CB1 and, to a lesser extent, CB2 cannabinoid receptors, 2) specific binding sites for [3H]SR141716A that could be displaced by anandamide, and 3) a CB1 receptor-immunoreactive protein. These findings suggest that endogenous cannabinoids and CB1 receptor agonists are potential negative effectors of PRL- and NGF-induced biological responses, at least in some cancer cells. PMID:10614630

  20. Activation of radiosensitizers by hypoxic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxic cells metabolize nitroheterocyclic compounds to produce toxic intermediates capable of affecting the survival of neighboring oxygenated cells. Mutagenesis experiments with E. coli WP-2 343 (deficient in nitro-reductase) indicated that reduction of nitroheterocyclics outside bacteria causes killing and mutations within bacteria, presumably due to the transfer of the 'active' specie(s). Using animal tissue slices to reduce nitrofurans, cultured L-929 cells incubated under aerobic conditions were far more sensitive to the toxic and DNA damaging effects of these drugs. Transfer of the active species also occurs in a tissue-like environment in multicell spheroids where the presence of a hypoxic central core served to convert the nitroheterocyclics to intermediates which also damaged the neighbouring oxygenated cells. (author)

  1. Rapid adhesion of nerve cells to muscle fibers from adult rats is mediated by a sialic acid-binding receptor

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Single viable muscle fibers isolated from adult rats by collagenase digestion rapidly bind dissociated spinal neurons or PC-12 cells but not a variety of other cells tested. The adhesion process is calcium- independent, temperature-sensitive, and is not blocked by pretreating cells with inhibitors of energy metabolism or actin polymerization. Adhesion is mediated by a carbohydrate-binding protein and can be inhibited by N-acetylneuraminic acid or mucin, a glycoprotein with high sialic acids c...

  2. Automated cell apoptosis characterization using active contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2007-01-01

    Programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, is of fundamental importance in many biological processes and also highly associated with serious diseases like cancer and HIV. The current paper presents an innovative method for apoptosis phenomenon characterization based on apoptotic cell quantification and detection using active contours (snakes). Evaluation results against manual counts have proved the high accuracy and efficiency of the developed method. PMID:18002080

  3. Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Luc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS. Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in animal models of trigeminal sensitization. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated glial cell activation in the trigeminal-spinal system following injection of the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA into the temporomandibular joint, which generates inflammatory pain and trigeminal hypersensitivity. Results CFA-injected animals showed ipsilateral mechanical allodynia and temporomandibular joint edema, accompanied in the trigeminal ganglion by a strong increase in the number of GFAP-positive satellite glial cells encircling neurons and by the activation of resident macrophages. Seventy-two hours after CFA injection, activated microglial cells were observed in the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and in the cervical dorsal horn, with a significant up-regulation of Iba1 immunoreactivity, but no signs of reactive astrogliosis were detected in the same areas. Since the purinergic system has been implicated in the activation of microglial cells during neuropathic pain, we have also evaluated the expression of the microglial-specific P2Y12 receptor subtype. No upregulation of this receptor was detected following induction of TMJ inflammation, suggesting that any possible role of P2Y12 in this paradigm of inflammatory pain does not involve changes in receptor expression. Conclusions Our data indicate that specific glial cell populations become activated in both the trigeminal ganglia and the CNS following induction of temporomandibular joint inflammation, and suggest that they might represent innovative targets for controlling pain during trigeminal nerve sensitization.

  4. [Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for nerve injury in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with both pluripotency and replication competence similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have been developed from mouse fibroblasts in 2006 by Yamanaka et al. iPSCs are unique in employing somatic cells for their production, and can avoid ethical issues existing in ESCs. It is clear that progress in technology to produce iPSCs is one of the most crucial achievements of medicine in this century. Technology with the new pluripotent cells will offer many advantages in the field of regeneration medicine supplying new tissues to the injured organ and/or development of methodology to uncover many genetic diseases. On the other hand, we have to await adequate progress in issues regarding iPSCs, including enhanced efficiency to obtain iPSCs, the technology to produce organs from the cells, avoidance of tumorigenesis and decrease in immunity in response to iPSCs. PMID:23544326

  5. Lysis of primary hepatic tumours by lymphokine activated killer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, K H; Shu, S Y; Lee, C.S.; Chu, C. T.; Yang, C.S.; Chang, K J

    1987-01-01

    Lymphokine activated killer cell is a newly described lytic system against a variety of solid tumours and is distinct in several respects from the classic cytolytic T cell and the natural killer systems. This study was conducted to evaluate the lytic activity of lymphokine activated killer cells against fresh autologous and allogeneic, as well as cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Lymphokine activated killer cell was generated by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with variou...

  6. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in rat superior cervical ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Fumiya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive for dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH). Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-immunoreactive puncta were distributed around some clusters of SIF cells, whereas some SIF cells closely abutted DBH-immunoreactive ganglionic cells. SIF cells contained bassoon-immunoreactive products beneath the cell membrane at the attachments and on opposite sites to the ganglionic cells. Ganglion neurons and SIF cells were immunoreactive to dopamine D2 receptors. Immunohistochemistry for P2X3 revealed ramified nerve endings with P2X3 immunoreactivity around SIF cells. Triple-labeling for P2X3, TH and VAChT allowed the classification of SIF cells into three types based on their innervation: (1) with only VAChT-immunoreactive puncta, (2) with only P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings, (3) with both P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings and VAChT-immunoreactive puncta. The results of retrograde tracing with fast blue dye indicated that most of these nerve endings originated from the petrosal ganglion. Thus, SIF cells in the superior cervical ganglion are innervated by preganglionic fibers and glossopharyngeal sensory nerve endings and can be classified into three types. SIF cells might modulate sympathetic activity in the superior cervical ganglion. PMID:25416508

  7. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  8. Coexistent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Lateral Spinal Meningoceles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhoir, Lata; Nichat, Pramod; Chug, Ashish; Verma, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignant spindle cell tumor of the soft tissue thought to be derived from the components of nerve sheath. MPNSTs are mainly located in the buttocks, thighs, brachial plexus, and paraspinal region. The objective of this article is to describe a case of neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed neurofibrosarcoma of the right lateral thoracic nerve with thoracic meningoceles, a rare coincidental finding which has not yet been reported in the Eng...

  9. Neuromuscular Junction Integrity after Chronic Nerve Compression Injury

    OpenAIRE

    MOZAFFAR, TAHSEEN; Strandberg, Erika; Abe, Kazuko; Hilgenberg, Lutz G.; Smith, Martin A.; Gupta, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic nerve compression injuries (CNC) are progressive demyelinating disorders characterized by a gradual decline of the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in the affected nerve region. CNC injury induces a robust Schwann cell response with axonal sprouting, but without morphologic evidence of axonal injury. We hypothesize that early CNC injury occurs without damage to neuromuscular junction of motor axons. A well-established animal model was used to assess for damage to motor axons. As sprout...

  10. Ganglioside-exposed dendritic cells inhibit T-cell effector function by promoting regulatory cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jales, Alessandra; Falahati, Rustom; Mari, Elisabeth; Stemmy, Erik J; Shen, Weiping; Southammakosane, Cathy; Herzog, Dallen; Ladisch, Stephan; Leitenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Tumour pathogenesis is characterized by an immunosuppressive microenvironment that limits the development of effective tumour-specific immune responses. This is in part the result of tumour-dependent recruitment and activation of regulatory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment and draining lymph nodes. Shedding of gangliosides by tumour cells has immunomodulatory properties, suggesting that gangliosides may be a critical factor in initiating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. To better define the immunomodulatory properties of gangliosides on antigen-specific T-cell activation and development we have developed an in vitro system using ganglioside-treated murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells to prime and activate antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells from AND T-cell receptor transgenic mice. Using this system, ganglioside treatment promotes the development of a dendritic cell population characterized by decreased CD86 (B7-2) expression, and decreased interleukin-12 and interleukin-6 production. When these cells are used as antigen-presenting cells, CD4 T cells are primed to proliferate normally, but have a defect in T helper (Th) effector cell development. This defect in Th effector cell responses is associated with the development of regulatory T-cell activity that can suppress the activation of previously primed Th effector cells in a contact-dependent manner. In total, these data suggest that ganglioside-exposed dendritic cells promote regulatory T-cell activity that may have long-lasting effects on the development of tumour-specific immune responses. PMID:20875076

  11. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia M. Freitas-Ribeiro; Cláudio C. Fonseca; Sirlene S.R. Sartori; Alan Loures-Ribeiro; Neves, Clóvis A.

    2012-01-01

    The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modif...

  12. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with ?-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins

  13. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen tension. Lowering the intraocular pressure tends to increase the optic nerve oxygen tension, even though this effect may be masked by the autoregulation when the optic nerve oxygen tension and perfusion pressure is in the normal range. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors increase the optic nerve oxygen tension through a mechanism of vasodilatation and lowering of the intraocular pressure. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduces the removal of CO2 from the tissue and the CO2 accumulation induces vasodilatation resulting in increased blood flow and improved oxygen supply. This effect is inhibited by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical trials and needed to test this hypotheses.

  14. Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis (Foshou) activates fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling to induce migration of RSC96 Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Hsueh, Ming-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Pan, Lung-Fa; Ju, Da-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Factors that enhance the intrinsic growth potential of neurons play a major role in the regeneration and repair of adult neurons following an injury. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is one of the key players in the origin and growth of neuronal and glial cells through autocrine and paracrine signaling. Water extract of Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis (fingered citron, foshou), which is been used effectively as a Chinese herbal medicine, was found to activate the FGF-2 promoter in transgenic luciferase expression models. Foshou treatment on Schwann cells (RSC96) transfected with luciferase reporter plasmid under a FGF-2 promoter was found to induce the FGF-2 promoter and showed enhanced luciferase expression. The FGF-2 expression was accompanied with an increase in the expression of proteins involved in cell migration and cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, foshou potentially enhances nerve regeneration by inducing the Schwann cell proliferation and migration. PMID:24707873

  15. Transplantation of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells increases levels of nerve growth factor in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Chen, C-F; Wang, D-Y; Lü, Y-T; Huan, Y; Liu, M; Ge, R-C; Chen, X-W; Qi, H-S; An, L; Hu, X

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the levels of growth factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with autism after transplantation of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs). Fourteen subjects diagnosed with autism received transplantation of CBMNCs first through intravenous infusion, and three times subsequently through intrathecal injections. A 2-mL sample of CSF was taken before each intrathecal injection. CSF levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data are reported as means ± SD and were analyzed using the SPSS 10.0 software. One-way analysis of variance with post-hoc F-and Q-tests were performed for comparisons. NGF levels in the CSF were significantly increased after transplantation (213.54 ± 56.38 after the third versus 28.32 ± 12.22 ng/L after the first transplantation; P < 0.05), while VEGF and bFGF levels did not change significantly. Therefore, transplantation of CBMNCs could increase NGF levels in the CSF of patients with autism. PMID:26345804

  16. Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Lithium Chloride on Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Interrelated with an Upregulated Intraretinal BDNF after Optic Nerve Transection in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Mei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection of lithium for axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is attributed to upregulated intraretinal Bcl-2. As lithium also upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF which can rescue axotomized RGCs, it is hypothesized that lithium could protect RGCs through BDNF. This study investigated this hypothesis and a possible relationship between the dose and protection of lithium. All adult experimental rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (LiCl at 30, 60 or 85 mg/kg·bw until they were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after left intraorbital optic nerve (ON transection. Our results revealed that RGC densities promoted and declined with increased dose of LiCl and the highest RGC densities were always in the 60 mg/kg·bw LiCl group at both 7 and 14 day points. Similar promotion and decline in the mRNA and protein levels of intraretinal BDNF were also found at the 14 day point, while such BDNF levels increased in the 30 mg/kg·bw LiCl group but peaked in the 60 and 85 mg/kg·bw LiCl groups at the 7 day point. These findings suggested that lithium can delay the death of axotomized RGCs in a dose-dependent manner within a certain period after ON injury and such beneficial effect is interrelated with an upregulated level of intraretinal BDNF.

  17. Células binucleadas no núcleo do nervo hipoglosso humano através dos grupos etários / Binucleated nerve cells in the human nucleus n. hypoglossi through ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecil José, Rezze.

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram contadas e estudadas as células uni- e binucleadas do núcleo do nervo hipoglosso humano de 26 indivíduos brancos e do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 4 meses a 86 anos, todos sem processos patológicos que presumivelmente determinassem alterações nas células nervosas. Os cortes seriad [...] os com 30µ de espessura, foram corados pelo método de Pal Weigert modificado por Erhart, sendo feita coloração de fundo pelo picrocarmim. Mediante comparação dos diâmetros medidos ortogonalmente foi verificado, pelo estudo estatístico, que as células binucleadas eram maiores que as uninucleadas. O pequeno número de células binucleadas (33 em 202.910 células contadas), sua distribuição indiferente nos diversos grupos etários e a ausência de figuras de reprodução mitótica ou amitótica, levam à conclusão de que a sua presença não caracteriza um processo de involução senil. O significado deste achado que tem sido atribuído a processo de divisão celular mitótica ou amitótica, à divisão nuclear ou nucleolar sem chegar à divisão citoplasmática ou à fusão de duas células uninucleadas, é discutido à luz dos dados constantes da literatura. Abstract in english It has been generally accepted that mature neurons of the central nervous system of adult mammals are incapable of cell-division. Nevertheless, recent data are suggesting the contrary. Mature neurons, bi- or multinucleated, observed in the central nervous system of vertebrates, mammals and man are b [...] eing differently interpreted: as a result of mitotic or amitotic cell-division of mature neurons; as indiferentiated cells which could indicate a regeneration process; as a cellular reaction to nervous injuries; as the result of the fusion between two mononucleated elements. The cells of the human nucleus n. hypoglossi were counted an studied in 26 white males, the youngest four months old, the eldest, eightysix years old. The material secured at the necropsy table was selected in order to exclude diseases or physical conditions which could interfere with the final results. The medulla oblongata were formalin fixed, imbedded in celloidin, 30µ serial cross sectioned, numbered and stained by Pal-Weigert modified by Erhart method for myelin sheaths. The counterstain was by carmin. The cells were counted when their cell-bodies showed evident nucleus and nucleolus. They were measured and carefully analysed including with high magnification. From the 202.910 counted cells, 33 were binucleated. These latter did not present any characteristic of mitotic or amitotic cell-division an no relation between age and higher frequency of binucleated cells could be observed. The general morphology of the binucleated cells was equivalent to the mononucleated ones although the former were significantly larger than the latter. The statistical analysis was made by comparision of sample mean of two populations at the five per cent level of significance. It is concluded, considering the studied material and the current literature, that there is no reason to accept, the presence of binucleated nerve cells as a biological reaction due to old age. The real significance of these cells is still unknown, but it can be admitted that they should have a biological capacity which would be qualitatively the same in the differente ages. Nevertheless, their quantitative evaluation is not possible, as far as we know.

  18. [Transplantation in peripheral nerve injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujici?, D; Samardzi?, M; Rasuli?, L; Savi?, D; Cvrkota, I; Simi?, V

    2003-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the most commocommnlynly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve. In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases). Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases). Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient's age, location and the extent (total or partial) of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities. PMID:14619715

  19. Run-down of neuromuscular transmission during repetitive nerve activity by nicotinic antagonists is not due to desensitization of the postsynaptic receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S.J.; Chang, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    1. Whether the function of the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor is use-dependently affected by repetitive nerve stimulation in the presence of competitive antagonists was studied in the mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. 2. For electrophysiological experiments, the preparation was immobilized by synthetic mu-conotoxin, which preferentially blocks muscular Na-channels causing neither depolarization of the membrane potential, inhibition of quantal transmitter release, nor depress...

  20. Bimodal Activity of FK 506 (Tacrolimus): Low Dose FK 506-Application (0,1 mg/KG) with High Neurotrophic Effectiveness on Allogenous Nerve Transplants in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bremerich, A; Dicke, U.; J. Rustemeyer

    2007-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of nerve reconstruction procedures as an alternative to the present standard procedure of an autologous nerve transplantation is nowadays the focus of interest in clinical research of nerval regeneration. Despite of the neuro-regenerative effect of the immunosuppressive drug FK 506, the high doses used successfully up to now cannot justify the clinical application for nerval regeneration with regard to the side effects. Hence, the aim of this animal experimenta...

  1. Regulation of polymorphonuclear cell activation by thrombopoietin.

    OpenAIRE

    PEGORARO, Luigi; BRIZZI, Maria Felice; MONTRUCCHIO, Giuseppe; Camussi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates early and late stages of platelet formation as well as platelet activation. TPO exerts its effects by binding to the receptor, encoded by the protooncogene c-mpl, that is expressed in a large number of cells of hematopoietic origin. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Mpl and the effects of TPO on human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). We demonstrate that PMN express the TPO receptor c-Mpl and that TPO induces STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the for...

  2. Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Mark D; Carson, Robert P; Lagrange, Andre Hollis

    2015-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, speech impairment, movement disorder, sleep disorders and refractory epilepsy. AS is caused by loss of the Ube3a protein encoded for by the imprinted Ube3a gene. Ube3a is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal chromosome in mature neurons. While imprinting in neurons of the brain has been well described, the imprinting and expression of Ube3a in other neural tissues remains relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the overwhelming deficits in brain function in AS patients, the possibility of disrupted Ube3a expression in the infratentorial nervous system and its consequent disability have been largely ignored. We evaluated the imprinting status of Ube3a in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and show that it is also imprinted in these neural tissues. Furthermore, a growing body of clinical and radiological evidence has suggested that myelin dysfunction may contribute to morbidity in many neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we show that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental disorders, AS symptoms do not become apparent until roughly 6 to 12 months of age. To determine the temporal expression pattern and silencing, we analyzed Ube3a expression in AS mice at several time points. We confirm relaxed imprinting of Ube3a in neurons of the postnatal developing cortex, but not in structures in which neurogenesis and migration are more complete. This furthers the hypothesis that the apparently normal window of development in AS patients is supported by an incompletely silenced paternal allele in developing neurons, resulting in a relative preservation of Ube3a expression during this crucial epoch of early development. PMID:25894543

  3. Optic nerve sheath meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Silvia Muñoz Quiñones, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 53-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of visual loss in his left eye. Visual acuity could be corrected to 20/20 with an increased hyperopic correction. Dilated funduscopy showed faint choroidal folds and elevation of the left optic disc. The coronal view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fluid-filled dilated sheath surrounding normal optic nerves. General physical examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. The subject was diagnosed as having dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath and followed a course of acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily for three months, and displayed good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period. Despite the fact that several authors have recommended an optic nerve decompression, most of the patients follow a benign clinical course. The role of corticosteroids is not described in the literature. Raised levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid in the perioptic subarachnoidal space could be a determining factor. On the basis of an osmotic gradient between the cerebral subarachnoid space and perioptic subarachnoid space, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could be beneficial. In contrast to other reports, we believe that surgical intervention could be reserved for patients with rapid or progressive optic nerve dysfunction.Keywords: optic nerve, perineural subaracnoid space, optic nerve meningocoele, optic nerve tumors

  4. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  5. Microporous polymer beads for chemical decontamination of organophosphorus nerve agents

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Anette K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work presented in this thesis was the development of reactive polymer beads for use as decontaminants of organophosphorus nerve agents. The physiological mode of action of nerve agents, which is the cause of their high toxicity, is the ability to bind and inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). As organophosphorus nerve agents easily reach the active site of AChE and inhibit the enzyme, it was hoped that effective polymeric decontaminants could be prepared by mimi...

  6. Up on the tightrope: natural killer cell activation and inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Lanier, Lewis L

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells circulate through the blood, lymphatics and tissues, on patrol for the presence of transformed or pathogen-infected cells. As almost all NK cell receptors bind to host-encoded ligands, signals are constantly being transmitted into NK cells, whether they interact with normal or abnormal cells. The sophisticated repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors that has evolved to regulate NK cell activity ensures that NK cells protect hosts against pathogens, yet prev...

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synaps...

  8. Myostatin negatively regulates satellite cell activation and self-renewal

    OpenAIRE

    McCroskery, Seumas; Thomas, Mark; Maxwell, Linda; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. Here we show that myostatin, a TGF-? member, signals satellite cell quiescence and also negatively regulates satellite cell self-renewal. BrdU labeling in vivo revealed that, among the Myostatin-deficient satellite cells, higher numbers of satellite cells are activated as compared with wild type. In contrast, addition of Myostatin to myofiber explant cultures inhibits satellite cell activation. Ce...

  9. Electrodynamic activity of healthy and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microtubules in the cell form a structure capable of generating electrodynamic field and mitochondria form their supporting system for physical processes including energy supply. Mitochondria transfer protons from their matrix space into cytosol, create strong static field around them that causes ordering of water and altering it into quasi-elastic medium with reduced viscous damping. Microtubules are composed of heterodimers that are electric dipoles. Microtubule oscillations generate an electrodynamic field. The greatest energy supply may be provided by liberation of non-utilized energy from mitochondria. Microtubules and mitochondria form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Mitochondria form a boundary element whose function depends on chemical-genetic control but their output is essential for physical processes in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells results in diminished intensity of the static electric field, disturbed water ordering, increased damping of microtubule oscillations and their shift towards linear region, and decreased energy supply. Power and coherence of oscillations and generated electrodynamic field is weakened. Malignant properties of cancer cell, in particular local invasion and metastasis, may depend on disturbed electrodynamic field. Nanotechnology is promising for investigation of electrodynamic activity in living cells.

  10. Electrodynamic activity of healthy and cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Microtubules in the cell form a structure capable of generating electrodynamic field and mitochondria form their supporting system for physical processes including energy supply. Mitochondria transfer protons from their matrix space into cytosol, create strong static field around them that causes ordering of water and altering it into quasi-elastic medium with reduced viscous damping. Microtubules are composed of heterodimers that are electric dipoles. Microtubule oscillations generate an electrodynamic field. The greatest energy supply may be provided by liberation of non-utilized energy from mitochondria. Microtubules and mitochondria form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Mitochondria form a boundary element whose function depends on chemical-genetic control but their output is essential for physical processes in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells results in diminished intensity of the static electric field, disturbed water ordering, increased damping of microtubule oscillations and their shift towards linear region, and decreased energy supply. Power and coherence of oscillations and generated electrodynamic field is weakened. Malignant properties of cancer cell, in particular local invasion and metastasis, may depend on disturbed electrodynamic field. Nanotechnology is promising for investigation of electrodynamic activity in living cells.

  11. Functional and mechanical evaluation of nerve stretch injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickett, Todd; Connell, Sean; Bastijanic, Jennifer; Hegde, Satya; Shi, Riyi

    2011-10-01

    Peripheral nerves undergo tensile loading in common physiological conditions, but stretch can also induce nerve pathology, impairing electrophysiological conduction. The level of strain nerves can tolerate and the functional deficits which result from exceeding this threshold are not thoroughly understood. To examine these phenomena, a novel system for tensile electrophysiology was created using a grease gap-recording chamber paired with a computerized micromanipulator and load cell. Guinea pig sciatic nerves were stretched beyond their maximum physiologic length to examine the effects of tension on signal conduction. Mechanical and electrophysiological data such as load, position, compound action potential amplitude, and signal latency were recorded in real-time. While 5% strain did not affect conduction, further elongation decreased amplitude approximately linearly with strain. These experiments verify the findings of prior studies into nerve stretch, and demonstrate the utility of this apparatus for investigating the mechanical and electrophysiological properties of nerves undergoing strain. PMID:20703726

  12. Hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling controls sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure and mediates leptin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Shannon M; Guo, Deng-Fu; Morgan, Donald A; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-04-01

    The fundamental importance of the hypothalamus in the regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular functions is well established. However, the molecular processes involved are not well understood. Here, we show that the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the hypothalamus is tied to the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and to cardiovascular function. Modulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling caused dramatic changes in sympathetic traffic, blood flow, and arterial pressure. Our data also demonstrate the importance of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in transducing the sympathetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin. Moreover, we show that the PI3K pathway links the leptin receptor to mTORC1 signaling and that changes in its activity impact sympathetic traffic and arterial pressure. These findings establish mTORC1 activity in the hypothalamus as a key determinant of sympathetic and cardiovascular regulation and suggest that dysregulated hypothalamic mTORC1 activity may influence the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23541372

  13. Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Hagbom, Marie; Istrate, Claudia; Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A.; Loitto, Vesa; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Hakan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    otavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves...

  14. Cocaine blunts human CD4+ cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, F; Frost, P; Manfrini, E; Lee, P; Pham, L; Garcia, C; Daley, S; Kung, M; Villanueva, P

    1994-01-01

    Cocaine is reported to be immunotoxic. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for the immunopharmacological outcomes of cocaine in vivo and in vitro remain, however, to be fully elucidated. Our experimental data confirm that exposure of normal human T cells to micromolar concentrations of cocaine modulates T-cell responses to stimulation by a variety of stimuli, and indicate that cocaine impairs early activation events during CD4+ but not CD4- T-cell stimulation. Pre-incubation of enriched CD4+ T-cell subpopulations that express the homing receptor CD62L with nanomolar concentrations of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin leads to a more severe impairment of activation than that noted following pre-incubation with micromolar concentrations of cocaine alone. These findings begin to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immunopathology of cocaine. Our data support the proposition that cocaine abuse may place cocaine-abuser HIV-seropositive individuals at increased risk of opportunistic infections. PMID:7852054

  15. Chronic upregulation of activated microglia immunoreactive for galectin-3/Mac-2 and nerve growth factor following diffuse axonal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzaszcz MaryAnn; Venkatesan Charu; Choi Nicole; Wainwright Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of axonal injury following TBI, and have linked cognitive disability in these patients to white matter signal changes. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of this white matter injury, and the role of microglial activation in this process. It is increasingly...

  16. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration / Effetti della somministrazione oculare di nerve growth factor in due modelli animali di degenerazione delle cellule ganglionari retiniche

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valeria, Colafrancesco; Marco, Coassin; Simona, Rossi; Luigi, Aloe.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye a [...] nd diabetes (DT) was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  17. Primary intrapulmonary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor mimicking lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    La Mantia, Elvira; FRANCO, RENATO; CANTILE, MONICA; Rocco, Raffaele; DE CHIARA, ANNAROSARIA; Martucci, Nicola; Rocco, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas originating from the cells constituting the nerve sheaths such as Schwann cells, perineural cells or fibroblasts. They represent approximately 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They have been rarely observed in the lung. We describe a rare case of primary lung MPNST in an elderly male patient, in which surgical approach has obtained a good control of the disease. Immuno-histochemical and molecular analyses have been required on t...

  18. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T; Wiencke, A K; Bang, K; Dollerup, J; Jensen, P K; Stefánsson, E

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.

  19. Lymphoma Nerve Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehring JM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolymphomatosis (NL denotes the invasion of cranial nerves, nerve roots, plexus, or nerves by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL or leukaemia. This occurs in the absence (primary NL or presence (primary NL of systemic NHL. Clinical patterns include a painful polyneuropathy or polyradiculopathy, cranial neuropathy, painless polyneuropathy, and peripheral mononeuropathy. Integration of clinical information, imaging findings, as well as histopathologic examination of involved nerves or non-neural tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are needed to establish the diagnosis. Timely recognition of the disease and its exact neuroanatomical extent is the basis for successful therapy using systemic chemotherapy and localized irradiation of bulky disease sites. More complex regimens are required when cerebrospinal fluid and systemic disease sites are affected.

  20. Application and histology-driven refinement of active contour models to functional region and nerve delineation: towards a digital brainstem atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirmal; Sultana, Sharmin; Rashid, Tanweer; Krusienski, Dean; Audette, Michel A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the digital formatting of a printed atlas of the brainstem and the delineation of cranial nerves from this digital atlas. It also describes on-going work on the 3D resampling and refinement of the 2D functional regions and nerve contours. In MRI-based anatomical modeling for neurosurgery planning and simulation, the complexity of the functional anatomy entails a digital atlas approach, rather than less descriptive voxel or surface-based approaches. However, there is an insufficiency of descriptive digital atlases, in particular of the brainstem. Our approach proceeds from a series of numbered, contour-based sketches coinciding with slices of the brainstem featuring both closed and open contours. The closed contours coincide with functionally relevant regions, whereby our objective is to fill in each corresponding label, which is analogous to painting numbered regions in a paint-by-numbers kit. Any open contour typically coincides with a cranial nerve. This 2D phase is needed in order to produce densely labeled regions that can be stacked to produce 3D regions, as well as identifying the embedded paths and outer attachment points of cranial nerves. Cranial nerves are modeled using an explicit contour based technique called 1-Simplex. The relevance of cranial nerves modeling of this project is two-fold: i) this atlas will fill a void left by the brain segmentation communities, as no suitable digital atlas of the brainstem exists, and ii) this atlas is necessary to make explicit the attachment points of major nerves (except I and II) having a cranial origin. Keywords: digital atlas, contour models, surface models

  1. Idiopathic facial nerve paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Kumari Abbina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an Image of 4-year-old boy presentedwith a 2-weeks history of pull in the angle ofmouth and difficulty in chewing the food. Onphysical examination flattened naso-labial foldand corner of mouth drooping towards rightside were noted with weakness of lower facialmuscles. Nerve conduction studies of facialnerve showed decreased conduction in the leftfacial nerve with prolonged latencies. Diagnosismade by the neurologist was idiopathic left facialnerve paresis. Neurologist prescribed drugs andreferred the case to physiotherapy.

  2. Jurkat T cells express a functional neutral endopeptidase activity (CALLA) involved in T cell activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mari, B; Checler, F; Ponzio, G.; Peyron, J F; Manie, S; Farahifar, D; Rossi, B.; Auberger, P.

    1992-01-01

    We have characterized a T lymphocyte endopeptidase activity that hydrolyses succinyl-alanine-alanine-phenylalanine-paranitroanilide (Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNa). Hydrolysis of this substrate by intact Jurkat T cells was markedly enhanced when exogenous aminopeptidase N was added to the incubation medium. It thus appears that the release of paranitroaniline from Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA results from the combination of two distinct enzymatic activities: (i) an endopeptidase activity that cleaves the substr...

  3. Active stochastic stress fluctuations in the cell cytoskeleton stir the cell and activate primary cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph F.; Fakhri, Nikta; Battle, Christopher; Ott, Carolyn M.; Wessel, Alok D.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mackintosh, Frederick C.

    2015-03-01

    Cells are active systems with molecular force generation that drives complex dynamics at the supramolecular scale. Much of cellular dynamics is driven by myosin motors interacting with the actin cytoskeleton. We discovered active random ``stirring'' driven by cytoplasmic myosin as an intermediate mode of transport, different from both thermal diffusion and directed motor activity. We found a further manifestation of cytoskeletal dynamics in the active motion patterns of primary cilia generated by epithelial cells. These cilia were thought to be immotile due to the absence of dynein motors, but it turns out that their anchoring deeper inside the cell in combination with the strongly fluctuating cortex results in clearly measurable non-equilibrium fluctuations.

  4. Transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells plus biodegradable fibrin glue restores the urethral sphincter in a pudendal nerve-transected rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fibrin glue (FG could promote urethral sphincter restoration in muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC-based injection therapies in a pudendal nerve-transected (PNT rat, which was used as a stress urinary incontinence (SUI model. MDSCs were purified from the gastrocnemius muscles of 4-week-old inbred female SPF Wistar rats and labeled with green fluorescent protein. Animals were divided into five groups (N = 15: sham (S, PNT (D, PNT+FG injection (F, PNT+MDSC injection (M, and PNT+MDSC+FG injection (FM. Each group was subdivided into 1- and 4-week groups. One and 4 weeks after injection into the proximal urethra, leak point pressure (LPP was measured to assess urethral resistance function. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed 4 weeks after injection. LPP was increased significantly in FM and M animals after implantation compared to group D (P < 0.01, but was not different from group S. LPP was slightly higher in the FM group than in the M group but there was no significant difference between them at different times. Histological and immunohistochemical examination demonstrated increased numbers of surviving MDSCs (109 ± 19 vs 82 ± 11/hpf, P = 0.026, increased muscle/collagen ratio (0.40 ± 0.02 vs 0.34 ± 0.02, P = 0.044, as well as increased microvessel density (16.9 ± 0.6 vs 14.1 ± 0.4/hpf, P = 0.001 at the injection sites in FM compared to M animals. Fibrin glue may potentially improve the action of transplanted MDSCs to restore the histology and function of the urethral sphincter in a SUI rat model. Injection of MDSCs with fibrin glue may provide a novel cellular therapy method for SUI.

  5. Overexpression of nerve growth factor by murine smooth muscle cells: role of the p75 neurotrophin receptor on sympathetic and sensory sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Casey N; Smithson, Laura J; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret; Kawaja, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    Elevating levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) can have pronounced effects on the survival and maintenance of distinct populations of neurons. We have generated a line of transgenic mice in which NGF is expressed under the control of the smooth muscle ?-actin promoter. These transgenic mice have augmented levels of NGF protein in the descending colon and urinary bladder, so these tissues display increased densities of NGF-sensitive sympathetic efferents and sensory afferents. Here we provide a thorough examination of sympathetic and sensory axonal densities in the descending colon and urinary bladder of NGF transgenic mice with and without the expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). In response to elevated NGF levels, sympathetic axons (immunostained for tyrosine hydroxylase) undergo robust collateral sprouting in the descending colon and urinary bladder of adult transgenic mice (i.e., those tissues having smooth muscle cells); this sprouting is not augmented in the absence of p75NTR expression. As for sensory axons (immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide) in the urinary bladders of transgenic mice, fibers undergo sprouting that is further increased in the absence of p75NTR expression. Sympathetic axons are also seen invading the sensory ganglia of transgenic mice; these fibers form perineuronal plexi around a subpopulation of sensory somata. Our results reveal that elevated levels of NGF in target tissues stimulate sympathetic and sensory axonal sprouting and that an absence of p75NTR by sensory afferents (but not by sympathetic efferents) leads to a further increase of terminal arborization in certain NGF-rich peripheral tissues. PMID:23322532

  6. Immune Responses Following Mouse Peripheral Nerve Xenotransplantation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Jin Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation offers a potentially unlimited source for tissues and organs for transplantation, but the strong xenoimmune responses pose a major obstacle to its application in the clinic. In this study, we investigate the rejection of mouse peripheral nerve xenografts in rats. Severe intragraft mononuclear cell infiltration, graft distension, and necrosis were detected in the recipients as early as 2 weeks after mouse nerve xenotransplantation. The number of axons in xenografts reduced progressively and became almost undetectable at week 8. However, mouse nerve xenotransplantation only led to a transient and moderate increase in the production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-?. The data implicate that cellular immune responses play a critical role in nerve xenograft rejection but that further identification of the major effector cells mediating the rejection is required for developing effective means to prevent peripheral nerve xenograft rejection.

  7. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. 123I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, Tomoaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second (Cardiology) Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Near-Infrared Laser on Neural Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kataoka, Yosky; Yamada, Hisao; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-08-01

    Near-infrared laser has been used to relieve patients from various kinds of pain caused by postherpetic neuralgesia, myofascial dysfunction, surgical and traumatic wound, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinically, He-Ne (?=632.8 nm, 780 nm) and Ga-Al-As (805 ± 25 nm) lasers are used to irradiate trigger points or nerve ganglion. However the precise mechanisms of such biological actions of the laser have not yet been resolved. Since laser therapy is often effective to suppress the pain caused by hyperactive excitation of sensory neurons, interactions with laser light and neural cells are suggested. As neural excitation requires large amount of energy liberated from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), we examined the effect of 830-nm laser irradiation on the energy metabolism of the rat central nervous system and isolated mitochondria from brain. The diode laser was applied for 15 min with irradiance of 4.8 W/cm2 on a 2 mm-diameter spot at the brain surface. Tissue ATP content of the irradiated area in the cerebral cortex was 19 % higher than that of the non-treated area (opposite side of the cortex), whereas the ADP content showed no significant difference. Irradiation at another wavelength (652 nm) had no effect on either ATP or ADP contents. The temperature of the brain tissue was increased 4.5 - 5.0 °C during the irradiation of both 830-nm and 652-nm laser light. Direct irradiation of the mitochondrial suspension did not show any wavelength-dependent acceleration of respiration rate nor ATP synthesis. These results suggest that the increase in tissue ATP content did not result from the thermal effect, but from specific effect of the laser operated at 830 nm. Electrophysiological studies showed the hyperpolarization of membrane potential of isolated neurons and decrease in membrane resistance with irradiation of the laser, suggesting an activation of potassium channels. Intracellular ATP is reported to regulate some kinds of potassium channels. Possible mechanisms of laser effect on neural activity through interaction between ATP and potassium channels will be discussed.

  10. Effects of Near-Infrared Laser on Neural Cell Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared laser has been used to relieve patients from various kinds of pain caused by postherpetic neuralgesia, myofascial dysfunction, surgical and traumatic wound, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinically, He-Ne (?=632.8 nm, 780 nm) and Ga-Al-As (805 ± 25 nm) lasers are used to irradiate trigger points or nerve ganglion. However the precise mechanisms of such biological actions of the laser have not yet been resolved. Since laser therapy is often effective to suppress the pain caused by hyperactive excitation of sensory neurons, interactions with laser light and neural cells are suggested. As neural excitation requires large amount of energy liberated from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), we examined the effect of 830-nm laser irradiation on the energy metabolism of the rat central nervous system and isolated mitochondria from brain. The diode laser was applied for 15 min with irradiance of 4.8 W/cm2 on a 2 mm-diameter spot at the brain surface. Tissue ATP content of the irradiated area in the cerebral cortex was 19% higher than that of the non-treated area (opposite side of the cortex), whereas the ADP content showed no significant difference. Irradiation at another wavelength (652 nm) had no effect on either ATP or ADP contents. The temperature of the brain tissue was increased 4.5-5.0 deg. C during the irradiation of both 830-nm and 652-nm laser light. Direct irradiation of the mitochondrial suspension did not show any wavelength-dependent acceleration of respiration rate nor ATP synthesis. These results suggest that the increase in tissue ATP content did not result from the thermal effect, but from specific effect of the laser operated at 830 nm. Electrophysiological studies showed the hyperpolarization of membrane potential of isolated neurons and decrease in membrane resistance with irradiation of the laser, suggesting an activation of potassium channels. Intracellular ATP is reported to regulate some kinds of potassium channels. Possible mechanisms of laser effect on neural activity through interaction between ATP and potassium channels will be discussed

  11. No-carrier-added versus carrier-added123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No-carrier-added (nca) MIBG is primarily associated with specific uptake (i.e. uptake-1 mechanism). We evaluated the hypothesis that nca MIBG will be less influenced by changes in extra-neuronal uptake (i.e. uptake-2 mechanism) compared with carrier-added (ca) MIBG. No-carrier-added MIBG was compared with ca MIBG of two different manufacturers (ca MIBG-1 and ca MIBG-2, with a specific activity of 200 Mq/?mol and 40 MBq/?mol MIBG respectively) in rats (n=6 per group): controls, blocking uptake-1 (desipramine) and blocking uptake-2 (phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride). Dedicated pinhole SPECT was performed 2 h after injection of the radiotracer. After SPECT, biodistribution was assessed [% injected dose per gram tissue (%ID)]. No-carrier-added MIBG had the highest absolute cardiac uptake. Although a clear trend was observed, nca MIBG was not statistically significantly different from ca MIBG-1 (0.31±0.05 %ID vs 0.25±0.01 %ID,p=0.05). Blocking uptake-1 resulted in a significant decrease in absolute cardiac uptake only for nca MIBG (0.22±0.03 %ID,p=0.004). Blocking uptake-2 resulted in a significant reduction in ca MIBG-1 cardiac uptake (0.14±0.02 %ID,p=0.0001), but not in the cardiac uptake of nca MIBG or MIBG-2. SPECT showed the highest relative cardiac uptake for nca MIBG. Poor contrast between myocardium and surrounding tissue hampered assessment of relative cardiac uptake on SPECT of both ca MIBG-1 and ca MIBG-2. No-carrier-added MIBG yields a higher myocardial uptake than ca MIBG and is associated with a higher specific as well as a lower non-neuronal uptake. We therefore conclude that for the scintigraphic assessment of the myocardial sympathetic nervous system, nca MIBG is to be preferred over ca MIBG. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced natural killer cell activity in experimental murine encephalitozoonosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Niederkorn, J Y; Brieland, J. K.; Mayhew, E

    1983-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice infected with the protozoan parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi demonstrated enhanced in vitro cytolysis of YAC-1 lymphoma cells. Selective cell depletion experiments showed that the dominant cell population mediating cytolysis of YAC-1 tumor cells expressed the characteristic phenotype of murine natural killer (NK) cells because (i) pretreatment of spleen cells with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum plus complement abolished the cytotoxic activity; (ii) augmented cytolysis was ...

  13. The Unfolded Protein Response is a Major Mechanism by which LRP1 Regulates Schwann Cell Survival After Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Henry, Kenneth; Yamauchi, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Orita, Sumihisa; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Lin, Jonathan H.; Gonias, Steven L.; Campana, W. Marie

    2011-01-01

    In peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells (SCs) must survive to exert a continuing and essential role in successful nerve regeneration. Herein, we show that peripheral nerve injury is associated with activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR culminates in expression of C/EBP homology protein CHOP, a pro-apoptotic transcription factor in SCs, unless counteracted by LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), which serves as a major act...

  14. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  15. Hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma of the spinal nerve: multifocal occurrence, and recurrence as an intraneural perineurioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Hirose, Takanori; Nishimura, Yukimasa; Fukuoka, Junya; Kishikawa, Masao

    2013-07-01

    A 63-year-old Japanese man complained of lower back pain and numbness and was diagnosed as intradural tumors at the T11/12 and L1 level. The thoracic tumor originated from the posterior nerve root, and the lumbar tumor originated from the cauda equina. Five months after surgical resection, the patient developed recurrent tumor consisting of enlargement of multiple caudal nerves. Pathologically, the primary tumors showed a nodular and lobular pattern, including spindle cells in a fascicular, whorl and storiform pattern, with variable cellularity, nuclear palisading and frequent small onion bulb structures. Mild pleomorphism was present, and there were four mitoses per 10 high power fields. Many cells showed immunoreactivity for S-100 and Sox10. There were also claudin-1-positive spindle cells, but no epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)-positive cells. The cells in onion bulb structures were positive for claudin-1 and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). These findings led to a diagnosis of hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma. The features of high cellularity, pleomorphism and a Ki-67 index over 10% suggested a low-malignant nature. The recurrent tumor also showed high proliferative activity, as reflected by mitotic figures and a Ki-67 index of 20%. This is the first case of spinal nerve hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma with low malignant potential and peculiar intraneural perineurioma component. PMID:23865576

  16. Extracellular Microvesicles from Astrocytes Contain Functional Glutamate Transporters: Regulation by Protein Kinase C and Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain-Daniel Gosselin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate transport through astrocytic excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 is paramount for neural homeostasis. EAAT-1 has been reported in secreted extracellular microvesicles (eMV, such as exosomes and because the Protein Kinase C (PKC family controls the sub-cellular distribution of EAATs, we have explored whether PKCs drive EAATs into eMV. Using rat primary astrocytes, confocal immunofluorescence and ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradient we here report that PKC activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA reorganizes EAAT-1 distribution and reduces functional [3H]-aspartate reuptake. Western-blots show that EAAT-1 is present in eMV from astrocyte conditioned medium, together with NaK ATPase and glutamine synthetase all being further increased after PMA treatment. However, nanoparticle tracking analysis reveals that PKC activation did not change particle concentration. Functional analysis indicates that eMV have the capacity to reuptake [3H]-aspartate. In vivo, we demonstrate that spinal astrocytic reaction induced by peripheral nerve lesion (spared nerve injury, SNI is associated with a phosphorylation of PKC ? together with a shift of EAAT distribution ipsilaterally. Ex vivo, spinal explants from SNI rats release eMV with an increased content of NaK ATPase, EAAT-1 and EAAT-2. These data indicate PKC and cell activation as important regulators of EAAT-1 incorporation in eMV, and raise the possibility that microvesicular EAAT-1 may exert extracellular functions. Beyond a putative role in neuropathic pain, this phenomenon may be important for understanding neural homeostasis and a wide range of neurological diseases associated with astrocytic reaction as well as non-neurological diseases linked to eMV release.

  17. Cell division: a source of active stress in cellular monolayers

    CERN Document Server

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Saw, Thuan B; Lim, Chwee T; Ladoux, Benoit; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the notion of cell division-induced activity and show that the cell division generates extensile forces and drives dynamical patterns in cell assemblies. Extending the hydrodynamic models of lyotropic active nematics we describe turbulent-like velocity fields that are generated by the cell division in a confluent monolayer of cells. We show that the experimentally measured flow field of dividing Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells is reproduced by our modeling approach. Division-induced activity acts together with intrinsic activity of the cells in extensile and contractile cell assemblies to change the flow and director patterns and the density of topological defects. Finally we model the evolution of the boundary of a cellular colony and compare the fingering instabilities induced by cell division to experimental observations on the expansion of MDCK cell cultures.

  18. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in activated alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine was studied in a population of activated Type II cells isolated from the lungs of rats treated with silica. Type II cells were separated by centrifugal elutriation into two populations, designated Type IIA and Type IIB. The Type IIB or activated population consisted of Type II cells that were larger than normal cells; Type IIA cells were morphologically similar to normal Type II cells. Type IIB cells incorporated more [Me-14C]choline into both total phosphatidylcholine and disaturated phosphatidylcholine than did Type IIA or control Type II cells. Measurement of the pool sizes of the choline-containing precursors to phosphatidylcholine indicated that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine was increased 4- to 5-fold in Type IIB cells. Increased conversion of cholinephosphate to CDP-choline was associated with increased phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Type IIB cells. Cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase activity was increased approximately threefold in Type IIB cells. Subcellular fractionation indicated that essentially all of the increase in cytidylyltransferase activity was associated with the particulate fraction (100,000 x g pellet). In Type IIB cells, the particulate fraction contained 83% of the total cellular cytidylyltransferase activity; in control cells, this fraction contained 67% of the total activity. The specific activity of the cytidylyltransferase associated with the particulate fraction was increased twofold in Type IIB cells. The specific activity of the cytosolic enzyme was similar to that in control cells. Cholinephosphotransferase specific activity was increased approximately twofold in the activated Type II cells. The specific activity of choline kinase was the same as that in control Type II cells

  19. Nanotechnology and bio-functionalisation for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghati, Tina; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which stimulate neuronal cell proliferation, migration and increase cell-material interaction to facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical-sized defects. This article briefly reviews several up-to-date published studies using Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid peptide sequence, nanocomposite based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticle and nanofibrous scaffolds as promising strategies to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration by influencing cellular behaviour such as attachment, spreading and proliferation. The aim is to establish the potent manipulations, which are simple and easy to employ in the clinical conditions for nerve regeneration and repair.

  20. Nanotechnology and bio-functionalisation for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghati, Tina; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-08-01

    There is a high clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which stimulate neuronal cell proliferation, migration and increase cell-material interaction to facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical-sized defects. This article briefly reviews several up-to-date published studies using Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid peptide sequence, nanocomposite based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticle and nanofibrous scaffolds as promising strategies to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration by influencing cellular behaviour such as attachment, spreading and proliferation. The aim is to establish the potent manipulations, which are simple and easy to employ in the clinical conditions for nerve regeneration and repair. PMID:26487832

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells: Properties and clinical potential for cell based therapies in reconstructive surgery with a focus on peripheral nerve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhbier, Jörn W.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and expansion of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs could be demonstrated from bone marrow, peripheral blood, skin, umbilical cord blood and adipose issue. They can be differentiated to different mesodermal cell lines like bone, cartilage, muscle or adipose tissue cells as well as . Thus MSCs represent an attractive cell population for the substitution of mesenchymal tissues via tissue engineering due to their potential of differentiation and their favourable expansion properties. In contrast to embryonic stem cells (ESCs they have the advantage that they can be autologously harvested in high numbers. Besides, there are fewer ethical issues in the use of MSCs. Another advantage of MSCs is the highly regenerative secretion profile of cytokines and growth factors, in particular supporting angiogenesis. A plethora of studies describe the morphological and phenotypical characterization of this cell type as well as regulatory mechanisms lying the differentiation into specific tissues aiming to optimize conditions for differentiation and thus clinical application. This review describes the definition of a mesenchymal stem cell, methods for isolation and phenotypical characterization, possibilities of differentiation and possible therapeutical applications of MSCs.

  2. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (?30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  3. Long-term changes in neurotrophic factor expression in distal nerve stump following denervation and reinnervation with motor or sensory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, B; Bain, J R; Fahnestock, M

    2008-05-01

    Several factors have been proposed to account for poor motor recovery after prolonged denervation, including motor neuron cell death and incomplete or poor regeneration of motor fibers into the muscle. Both may result from failure of the muscle and the distal motor nerve stump to continue expression of neurotrophic factors following delayed muscle reinnervation. This study investigated whether regenerating motor or sensory axons modulate distal nerve neurotrophic factor expression. We found that transected distal tibial nerve up-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA, down-regulated neurotrophin-3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor mRNA, and that although these levels returned to normal with regeneration, the chronically denervated distal nerve stump continued to express these neurotrophic factors for at least 6 months following injury. A sensory nerve (the cutaneous saphenous nerve) sutured to distal tibial nerve lowered injury-induced BDNF and GDNF mRNA levels in distal stump, but repair with a mixed nerve (peroneal, containing muscle and cutaneous axons) was more effective. Repair with sensory or mixed nerves did not affect nerve growth factor or neurotrophin-3 expression. Thus, distal nerve contributed to a neurotrophic environment for nerve regeneration for at least 6 months, and sensory nerve repair helped normalize distal nerve neurotrophic factor mRNA expression following denervation. Furthermore, as BDNF and GDNF levels in distal stump increased following denervation and returned to control levels following reinnervation, their levels serve as markers for the status of regeneration by either motor or sensory nerve. PMID:18194437

  4. Mechanisms and roles of muscarinic activation in guinea-pig adrenal medullary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Nakamura, Jun; Warashina, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors are expressed in the adrenal medullary (AM) cells of various mammals, but their physiological roles are controversial. Therefore, the ionic mechanism for muscarinic receptor-mediated depolarization and the role of muscarinic receptors in neuronal transmission were investigated in dissociated guinea-pig AM cells and in the perfused guinea-pig adrenal gland. Bath application of muscarine induced an inward current at ?60 mV. This inward current was partially suppressed by quinine with an IC50 of 6.1 ?M. The quinine-insensitive component of muscarine-induced currents changed the polarity at ?78 mV and was inhibited by bupivacaine, a TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channel inhibitor. Conversely, the current-voltage relationship for the bupivacaine-insensitive component of muscarine currents showed a reversal potential of ?5 mV and a negative slope below ?40 mV. External application of La3+ had a double action on muscarine currents of both enhancement and suppression. Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed expression of TASK1 channels and cononical transient receptor potential channels 1, 4, 5, and 7 in guinea-pig AM cells. Retrograde application of atropine reversibly suppressed transsynaptically evoked catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. The results indicate that muscarinic receptor stimulation in guinea-pig AM cells induces depolarization through inhibition of TASK channels and activation of nonselective cation channels and that muscarinic receptors are involved in neuronal transmission from the splanchnic nerve. PMID:22744007

  5. Mechanisms and roles of muscarinic activation in guinea-pig adrenal medullary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masumi; Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Nakamura, Jun; Warashina, Akira

    2012-09-15

    Muscarinic receptors are expressed in the adrenal medullary (AM) cells of various mammals, but their physiological roles are controversial. Therefore, the ionic mechanism for muscarinic receptor-mediated depolarization and the role of muscarinic receptors in neuronal transmission were investigated in dissociated guinea-pig AM cells and in the perfused guinea-pig adrenal gland. Bath application of muscarine induced an inward current at -60 mV. This inward current was partially suppressed by quinine with an IC(50) of 6.1 ?M. The quinine-insensitive component of muscarine-induced currents changed the polarity at -78 mV and was inhibited by bupivacaine, a TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) (TASK) channel inhibitor. Conversely, the current-voltage relationship for the bupivacaine-insensitive component of muscarine currents showed a reversal potential of -5 mV and a negative slope below -40 mV. External application of La(3+) had a double action on muscarine currents of both enhancement and suppression. Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed expression of TASK1 channels and cononical transient receptor potential channels 1, 4, 5, and 7 in guinea-pig AM cells. Retrograde application of atropine reversibly suppressed transsynaptically evoked catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. The results indicate that muscarinic receptor stimulation in guinea-pig AM cells induces depolarization through inhibition of TASK channels and activation of nonselective cation channels and that muscarinic receptors are involved in neuronal transmission from the splanchnic nerve. PMID:22744007

  6. The Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit R1A (Prkar1a) Plays Critical Roles in Peripheral Nerve Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Lee, Audrey A.; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Kirschner, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling through cAMP has been implicated in Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and myelination, but the signaling pathway components downstream of cAMP required for SC function remain unknown. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a potential downstream effector of cAMP. Here, we induced loss of Prkar1a, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, in SC to study its role in nerve development; loss of Prkar1a is predicted to elevate PKA activity. Conditional Prkar1a knock-out in mouse SC (Prkar1a-SCKO) resulted in a dramatic and persistent axonal sorting defect, and unexpectedly decreased SC proliferation in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves in vivo. Effects were cell autonomous as they were recapitulated in vitro in Prkar1a-SCKO SC, which showed elevated PKA activity. In the few SCs sorted into 1:1 relationships with axons in vivo, SC myelination was premature in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves, correlating with global increase in the cAMP-regulated transcription factor Oct-6 and expression of myelin basic protein. These data reveal a previously unknown role of PKA in axon sorting, an unexpected inhibitory role of PKA on SC cell proliferation in vivo and define the importance of Prkar1a in peripheral nerve development. PMID:24227708

  7. Proteasome inhibition by fellutamide B induces nerve growth factor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John; Groll, Michael; Fahnestock, Margaret; Crews, Craig M

    2008-05-01

    Neurotrophic small molecules have the potential to aid in the treatment of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The natural product fellutamide B, originally isolated from Penicillium fellutanum, potently induces nerve growth factor (NGF) release from fibroblasts and glial-derived cells, although the mechanism for this neurotrophic activity has not been elucidated. Here, we report that fellutamide B potently inhibits proteasome catalytic activity. High-resolution structural information obtained from cocrystallization of the 20S proteasome reveals novel aspects regarding beta-subunit binding and adduct formation by fellutamide B to inhibit their hydrolytic activity. We demonstrate that fellutamide B and other proteasome inhibitors increased NGF gene transcription via a cis-acting element (or elements) in the promoter. These results demonstrate an unrecognized connection between proteasome inhibition and NGF production, suggesting a possible new strategy in the development of neurotrophic agents. PMID:18482702

  8. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  9. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the United States have some form of epilepsy. You are about to see a vagus nerve ... the implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator for epilepsy. My name is Dr. Stephanie Einhaus and I ...

  10. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a vagus nerve stimulator for epilepsy. My name is Dr. Stephanie Einhaus and I am a ... an implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator. My name is Dr. Stephanie Einhaus and we’ve enjoyed ...

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... where they’ve done everything they can with standard treatment, then yes, they should be considered for vagus nerve stimulation. Someone has emailed us a question, does vagus nerve stimulation help prevent ...

  12. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... emailed in previously was do small electrical appliances, cellular phones, or metal detectors affect vagus nerve stimulation? The ... been asked does vagus nerve stimulator therapy cause sleep disturbances? The answer to that question is no, ...

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dissect down to the vagus nerve and wrap these electrodes around the nerve and then connect them ... the trachea and we’re dissecting down between these two to what’s called the carotid sheath. The ...

  14. Study on telomerase activity during radiation-induced cells death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate changes of telomerase activity in human tumor and normal cell lines exposed to radiation and its association with cell death. Methods Telomerase activity was assayed, telomerase in situ hybridization was performed,dead cells were numbered, and morphology of the dead cells was distinguished at different time, point after irradiation. Results: Apoptosis was the primary cause of cell death of A549 and L02 cell lines. In the development of apoptosis, positive cells by telomerase in situ hybridization accounted for 60% to 90% of the two lines, and the expression intensity of telomerase activity assayed by TRAP increased, suggesting that radiation injury could induce telomerase activity and that the high level of telomerase activity might be maintained till the development of apoptosis. Conclusion: Telomerase suppression may not be involved in radiation-induced human tumor and normal cell apoptosis and telomerase participates in the process of chromosomal repair

  15. Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit T Cell Activation by Depleting Cystine and Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Minu K.; Sinha, Pratima; Clements, Virginia K.; RODRIGUEZ, PAULO; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most cancer patients and are potent inhibitors of T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Their inhibitory activity is attributed to production of arginase, reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-10. We now report that MDSC also block T cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for T cell activation because T cells lack cystathionase, which...

  16. Mast cell activation in children with migraine before and after training in self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olness, K; Hall, H; Rozniecki, J J; Schmidt, W; Theoharides, T C

    1999-02-01

    Migraine may affect as many as 9% of all schoolchildren and often presents with abdominal symptoms of pain, nausea, and vomiting. Even though the pathophysiology of migraine remains unknown, self-regulation techniques appear to be more effective in prevention of childhood migraine than conventional pharmacotherapy which is often associated with adverse effects. Mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine in adults, but have not been previously studied in children with migraine. Mast cells are found close to the vessels and nerves in the meninges where they can release multiple vasoactive, neurosensitizing, and pro-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, we investigated whether children with migraine may have increased urinary levels of mast cell mediators and whether practicing relaxation imagery exercises has an effect on the frequency of headache, as well as on mast cell activation. Urine was collected for 24 hours from children with and without migraine after a 5-day amine-restricted diet. Children with migraine also collected urine during migraine episodes. The mean levels of urinary histamine, its main metabolite, methylhistamine, and the mast cell enzyme, tryptase, were higher in children than generally found in adults, but they did not differ statistically in any of the categories studied. However, in 8 of 10 children who practiced relaxation imagery techniques and successfully reduced the number of migraines, the urine tryptase levels were also significantly lower. There was no relationship between successful practice and sex or age of the child. These results suggest that stress may activate mast cells which could be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. PMID:15613202

  17. Decline of natural killer cell activity in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spleen cells of (C57BL/6 x C3H/He)F1 mice were assayed for natural killer (NK) cell activity against YAC-1 and FBL-3 lymphoma targets at several intervals after total-body exposure to a high sublethal dose of 137Cs or 60Co ? rays. NK cell activity did not decline for the first 12 days but decreased sharply thereafter and remained low until day 24. The recovery of splenic NK cell activity was delayed. Beginning on day 28, the activity was slowly increased, reaching near-normal levels (80% of controls) 41 to 59 days after irradiation. Suppressor cells detectable during the period of lowest NK cell activity, i.e., on days 17 and 19, may have been responsible for the delayed and slow recovery. These studies indicated that (a) mature effectors of natural cytotoxicity are relatively radioresistant renewable cells with a lifespan of about 2 weeks whose progenitors are radiosensitive cells and (b) the kinetics of decline and especially of recovery of NK cell activity may be influenced by suppressor cells. Should NK cell activity confer resistance to autochthonous lymphomas in vivo, it may be a significant consideration for strategies of tumor therapy by cytotoxic agents that reconstitution of the NK cell pool is a slow process and that suppressor cell function must be overcome for full recovery

  18. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilbride, Sean M

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1) are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington\\'s disease and Alzheimer\\'s disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  19. High-level inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV is required to increase glutamate release from the nerve terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilbride Seán M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, EC 1.10.2.2 and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase EC 1.9.3.1 are reduced by 30-70% in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, and are associated with excitotoxic cell death in these disorders. In this study, we investigated the control that complexes III and complex IV exert on glutamate release from the isolated nerve terminal. Results Inhibition of complex III activity by 60-90% was necessary for a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release to occur from isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes depolarized with 4-aminopyridine or KCl. Similarly, an 85-90% inhibition of complex IV activity was required before a major increase in the rate of Ca2+-independent glutamate release from depolarized synaptosomes was observed. Inhibition of complex III and IV activities by ~ 60% and above was required before rates of glutamate efflux from polarized synaptosomes were increased. Conclusions These results suggest that nerve terminal mitochondria possess high reserves of complex III and IV activity and that high inhibition thresholds must be reached before excess glutamate is released from the nerve terminal. The implications of the results in the context of the relationship between electron transport chain enzyme deficiencies and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  20. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Fansa; Felix Stang; Gerburg Keilhoff

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date...

  1. Activation of Virus-specific Memory B Cells in the Absence of T Cell Help

    OpenAIRE

    Hebeis, Barbara J.; Klenovsek, Karin; Rohwer, Peter; Ritter, Uwe; Schneider, Andrea; Mach, Michael; Winkler, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Humoral immunity is maintained by long-lived plasma cells, constitutively secreting antibodies, and nonsecreting resting memory B cells that are rapidly reactivated upon antigen encounter. The activation requirements for resting memory B cells, particularly the role of T helper cells, are unclear. To analyze the activation of memory B cells, mice were immunized with human cytomegalovirus, a complex human herpesvirus, and tick-born encephalitis virus, and a simple flavivirus. B cell population...

  2. Human lymphokine-activated killer cells are cytotoxic against cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether human lymphokine- activated killer (LAK) cells are cytotoxic against cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Nylon wool nonadherent (NWNA) peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as purified natural killer cell (NK) (CD3- CD16+ CD56+) and T (CD3+ CD16- CD56-) cells obtained from five healthy T. gondii seronegative volunteers exhibited minimal cytotoxic activity against T. gondii-infected cells. When standard LAK (S-LAK) cell preparations were induc...

  3. Effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and myocyte dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Funada, Ryuichi; Takama, Noriaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yuichi [Health Park Clinic, Department of Imaging, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. However, its effects on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in acute heart failure (AHF) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in AHF. We selected 70 patients with mild to moderate nonischemic AHF who were treated with standard conventional therapy soon after admission. Thirty-five patients were assigned to additionally receive intravenous nicorandil (4-12 mg/h; group A), whereas the remaining patients continued their current drug regimen (group B). Delayed total defect score (TDS), delayed heart to mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR) were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy within 3 days of admission and 4 weeks later. High sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level was also measured at the same time points. After treatment, MIBG scintigraphic parameters significantly improved in both groups. However, the extent of the changes in these parameters in group A significantly exceeded the extent of the changes in group B [TDS -11.3 ± 4.3 in group A vs -4.0 ± 6.0 in group B (p < 0.01); H/M ratio 0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 (p < 0.01); WR -13.8 ± 7.8 % vs -6.1 ± 8.9 % (p < 0.01)]. The hs-TnT level decreased significantly from 0.052 ± 0.043 to 0.041 ± 0.033 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in group A, but showed no significant change in group B. Moreover, in both groups, no relationships between the extent of changes in MIBG parameters and hs-TnT level were observed. Adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy provides additional benefits for CSNA and myocyte dysfunction over conventional therapy alone in AHF patients. Furthermore, the mechanisms of improvement in CSNA and myocyte dysfunction after nicorandil treatment in AHF patients were distinct. (orig.)

  4. Effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and myocyte dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. However, its effects on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in acute heart failure (AHF) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in AHF. We selected 70 patients with mild to moderate nonischemic AHF who were treated with standard conventional therapy soon after admission. Thirty-five patients were assigned to additionally receive intravenous nicorandil (4-12 mg/h; group A), whereas the remaining patients continued their current drug regimen (group B). Delayed total defect score (TDS), delayed heart to mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR) were determined by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy within 3 days of admission and 4 weeks later. High sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level was also measured at the same time points. After treatment, MIBG scintigraphic parameters significantly improved in both groups. However, the extent of the changes in these parameters in group A significantly exceeded the extent of the changes in group B [TDS -11.3 ± 4.3 in group A vs -4.0 ± 6.0 in group B (p < 0.01); H/M ratio 0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 (p < 0.01); WR -13.8 ± 7.8 % vs -6.1 ± 8.9 % (p < 0.01)]. The hs-TnT level decreased significantly from 0.052 ± 0.043 to 0.041 ± 0.033 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in group A, but showed no significant change in group B. Moreover, in both groups, no relationships between the extent of changes in MIBG parameters and hs-TnT level were observed. Adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy provides additional benefits for CSNA and myocyte dysfunction over conventional therapy alone in AHF patients. Furthermore, the mechanisms of improvement in CSNA and myocyte dysfunction after nicorandil treatment in AHF patients were distinct. (orig.)

  5. Human distal sciatic nerve fascicular anatomy: Implications for ankle control using nerve-cuff electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Gustafson, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of neural prostheses to restore standing balance, prevent foot drop, or provide active propulsion during ambulation requires detailed knowledge of the distal sciatic nerve anatomy. Three complete sciatic nerves and branches were dissected from the piriformis to each muscle entry point to characterize the branching patterns and diameters. Fascicle maps were created from serial sections of each distal terminus below the knee through the anastomosis of the tibial and common fibular nerves above the knee. Similar branching patterns and fascicle maps were observed across specimens. Fascicles innervating primary plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, invertors, and evertors were distinctly separate and functionally organized in the proximal tibial, common fibular, and distal sciatic nerves; however, fascicles from individual muscles were not apparent at these levels. The fascicular organization is conducive to selective stimulation for isolated and/or balanced dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, and inversion through a single multicontact nerve-cuff electrode. These neuroanatomical data are being used to design nerve-cuff electrodes for selective control of ankle movement and improve current lower-limb neural prostheses.

  6. Vagal nerve stimulator: Evolving trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Over three decades ago, it was found that intermittent electrical stimulation from the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain activity and terminate seizures. This paved way for the concept of vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). We describe the evolution of the VNS and its use in different fields of medicine. We also review the literature focusing on the mechanism of action of VNS producing desired effects in different conditions. PUBMED and EMBASE search was performed for 'VNS' and its use in refractory seizure management, depression, obesity, memory, and neurogenesis. VNS has been in vogue over for the past three decades and has proven to reduce the intensity and frequency of seizure by 50% in the management of refractory seizures. Apart from this, VNS has been shown to promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus after 48 hours of stimulation of the vagus nerve. Improvement has also been observed in non-psychotic major depression from a randomized trial conducted 7 years ago. The same concept has been utilized to alter behavior and cognition in rodents, and good improvement has been observed. Recent studies have proven that VNS is effective in obesity management in patients with depression. Several hypotheses have been postulated for the mechanism of action of VNS contributing to its success. VNS has gained significant popularity with promising results in epilepsy surgery and treatment-resistant depression. The spectrum of its use has also extended to other fields of medicine including obesity, memory, and neurogenesis, and there is still a viable scope for its utility in the future. PMID:23633829

  7. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; la Cour, M; Bang, K; Jensen, P K; Stefánsson, E

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta blockers, has a similar effect. In addition, the effect of dorzolamide and timolol in combination was studied.

  8. Novel signals controlling embryonic Schwann cell development, myelination and dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Parkinson, David B; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Bhaskaran, Ambily; Jessen, Kristján R

    2008-06-01

    Immature Schwann cells found in perinatal rodent nerves are generated from Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) that originate from the neural crest. Immature Schwann cells generate the myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells of adult nerves. When axons degenerate following injury, Schwann cells demyelinate, proliferate and dedifferentiate to assume a molecular phenotype similar to that of immature cells, a process essential for successful nerve regeneration. Increasing evidence indicates that Schwann cell dedifferentiation involves activation of specific receptors, intracellular signalling pathways and transcription factors in a manner analogous to myelination. We have investigated the roles of Notch and the transcription factor c-Jun in development and after nerve transection. In vivo, Notch signalling regulates the transition from SCP to Schwann cell, times Schwann cell generation, controls Schwann cell proliferation and acts as a brake on myelination. Notch is elevated in injured nerves where it accelerates the rate of dedifferentiation. Likewise, the transcription factor c-Jun is required for Schwann cell proliferation and death and is down-regulated by Krox-20 on myelination. Forced expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells prevents myelination, and in injured nerves, c-Jun is required for appropriate dedifferentiation, the re-emergence of the immature Schwann cell state and nerve regeneration. Thus, both Notch and c-Jun are negative regulators of myelination. The growing realisation that myelination is subject to negative as well as positive controls and progress in molecular identification of negative regulators is likely to impact on our understanding of demyelinating disease and mechanisms that control nerve repair. PMID:18601657

  9. Limitations of nerve repair of segmental defects using acellular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Yerko A; Almeida, Vania W; Levi, Allan D

    2013-09-01

    The authors present the case of a 20-year-old man who, 3 months after his initial injury, underwent repair of a 1.7-cm defect of the ulnar nerve at the wrist; repair was performed with an acellular nerve allograft. Given the absence of clinical or electrophysiological recovery at 8 months postrepair, the patient underwent reexploration, excision of the "regenerated cable," and rerepair of the ulnar nerve with sural nerve autografts. Histology of the cable demonstrated minimal axonal regeneration at the midpoint of the repair. At the 6- and 12-month follow-ups of the sural nerve graft repair, clinical and electrophysiological evidence of both sensory and motor reinnervation of the ulnar nerve and associated hand muscles was demonstrated. In this report, the authors describe a single case of failed acellular nerve allograft and correlate the results with basic science and human studies reporting length and diameter limitations in human nerve repair utilizing grafts or conduits devoid of viable Schwann cells. PMID:23746100

  10. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    Background: The immune response is blunted in mice and humans in spaceflight. The effects of hyperoxia in mice alter expression of some of the same immune response genes. If these two conditions are additive, there could be an increased risk of infection in long duration missions. Immunosuppression is seen in healthy astronauts who have flown in space; however little is known about the mechanisms that cause the reduced immunity in spaceflight. Here we examine the role of oxidative stress on mice exposed to periods of high O2 levels mimicking pre-breathing protocols and extravehicular activity (EVA). To prevent decompression sickness, astronauts are exposed to elevated oxygen (hyperoxia) before and during EVA activities. Spaceflight missions may entail up to 24 hours of EVA per crewmember per week to perform construction and maintenance tasks. The effectiveness and success of these missions depends on designing EVA systems and protocols that maximize human performance and efficiency while minimizing health and safety risks for crewmembers. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted on the immune system under 100% oxygen exposures to determine the potential for immune compromise due to prolonged and repeated EVAs. Methods: Animals were exposed to hyperoxic or control conditions for 8 hours per day over a period of 3 days, initiated 4 hours into the dark cycle (12h dark/12h light), using animal environmental control cabinets and oxygen controller (Biospherix, Lacona, NY). Experimental mice were exposed to 98-100% oxygen as a model for pre-breathing and EVA conditions, while control mice were maintained in chambers supplied with compressed air. These are ground control studies where we use real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) to measure gene expression of the early immune gene expression during bead activation of splenocytes of normoxic and hyperoxic mice. All procedures were reviewed and approved by the IACUC at Ames Research Center. After the last 8h of hyperoxic exposure, spleens were removed and the splenocytes were isolated and kept as individual biological samples. We have also examined transcription factors (JASPAR) and pathways of the immune system to help us understand the mechanism of regulation. Results: Our recent mouse immunology experiment aboard STS-131 suggests that the early T cell immune response was inhibited in animals that have been exposed to spaceflight, even 24 hours after return to earth. Moreover, recent experiments in hyperoxic mice show that many of the same genes involved in early T cell activation were altered. Specifically, expression of IL-2R?, Cxcl2, TNF?, FGF2, LTA and BCL2 genes are dysregulated in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Conclusions: If these hyperoxia-induced changes of gene expression in early T cell activation are additive to the changes seen in the microgravity of spaceflight, there could be an increased infection risk to EVA astronauts, which should be addressed prior to conducting a Mars or other long-term mission.

  11. Monitoring NK cell activity in patients with hematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Viel, Sébastien; Charrier, Emily; Marçais, Antoine; Rouzaire, Paul; Bienvenu, Jacques; Karlin, Lionel; Salles, Gilles; Walzer, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that can recognize and kill various types of malignant cells. Monitoring the activity of peripheral NK cells in patients affected by hematological malignancies may provide prognostic information or unveil ongoing tumor-specific immune responses. Moreover, further insights into the biology of NK cells might also promote the development of novel strategies for stimulating their anticancer activity. Here, we review the main me...

  12. Racial differences in B cell receptor signaling pathway activation

    OpenAIRE

    Longo Diane M; Louie Brent; Mathi Kavita; Pos Zoltan; Wang Ena; Hawtin Rachael E; Marincola Francesco M; Cesano Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Single-cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parametric flow cytometry-based approach that simultaneously measures basal and modulated intracellular signaling activity in multiple cell subpopulations. Previously, SCNP analysis of a broad panel of immune signaling pathways in cell subsets within PBMCs from 60 healthy donors identified a race-associated difference in B cell anti-IgD-induced PI3K pathway activity. Methods The present study extended this analysis to a broad...

  13. Acquisition of Spontaneous Electrical Activity During Embryonic Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-3 Neurons Located in the Terminal Nerve of Transgenic Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Lee, Wenjau; Navarre, Sammy; Kozlowski, David J.; Wayne, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    There are multiple populations of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that have distinct physiological and behavioral functions. Teleost fish have a population of GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb that is thought to play a neuromodulatory role in multiple physiological systems, including olfactory, visual, and reproductive. We used transgenic zebrafish in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of a green fluorescent protein to id...

  14. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  15. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  16. Expression of myelin proteins in the opossum optic nerve: late appearance of inhibitors implicates an earlier non-myelin factor in preventing ganglion cell regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Maclaren, RE

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of appearance of myelin-associated proteins in the visual system of the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis domestica is described. Whole mounts of optic nerve, chiasm, and optic tract were sectioned horizontally and incubated with antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), "Rip," and the neurite inhibitory protein (IN-1), followed by visualization with diaminobenzidine and a peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. PLP is...

  17. Dengue Virus Directly Stimulates Polyclonal B Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Michelle Premazzi; de Morais, Ana Theresa Silveira; Peçanha, Ligia Maria Torres; de Arruda, Luciana Barros

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection is associated to vigorous inflammatory response, to a high frequency of activated B cells, and to increased levels of circulating cross-reactive antibodies. We investigated whether direct infection of B cells would promote activation by culturing primary human B lymphocytes from healthy donors with DENV in vitro. B cells were susceptible, but poorly permissive to infection. Even though, primary B cells cultured with DENV induced substantial IgM secretion, which is a hallmark of polyclonal B cell activation. Notably, DENV induced the activation of B cells obtained from either DENV immune or DENV naïve donors, suggesting that it was not dependent on DENV-specific secondary/memory response. B cell stimulation was dependent on activation of MAPK and CD81. B cells cultured with DENV also secreted IL-6 and presented increased expression of CD86 and HLA-DR, which might contribute to B lymphocyte co-stimulatory function. Indeed, PBMCs, but not isolated B cells, secreted high amounts of IgG upon DENV culture, suggesting that interaction with other cell types in vivo might promote Ig isotype switching and IgG secretion from different B cell clones. These findings suggest that activation signaling pathways triggered by DENV interaction with non-specific receptors on B cells might contribute to the exacerbated response observed in dengue patients. PMID:26656738

  18. Shape control and compartmentalization in active colloidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Matthew; Engel, Michael; Klotsa, Daphne; Sabrina, Syeda; Drews, Aaron M; Nguyen, Nguyen H P; Bishop, Kyle J M; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-08-25

    Small autonomous machines like biological cells or soft robots can convert energy input into control of function and form. It is desired that this behavior emerges spontaneously and can be easily switched over time. For this purpose we introduce an active matter system that is loosely inspired by biology and which we term an active colloidal cell. The active colloidal cell consists of a boundary and a fluid interior, both of which are built from identical rotating spinners whose activity creates convective flows. Similarly to biological cell motility, which is driven by cytoskeletal components spread throughout the entire volume of the cell, active colloidal cells are characterized by highly distributed energy conversion. We demonstrate that we can control the shape of the active colloidal cell and drive compartmentalization by varying the details of the boundary (hard vs. flexible) and the character of the spinners (passive vs. active). We report buckling of the boundary controlled by the pattern of boundary activity, as well as formation of core-shell and inverted Janus phase-separated configurations within the active cell interior. As the cell size is increased, the inverted Janus configuration spontaneously breaks its mirror symmetry. The result is a bubble-crescent configuration, which alternates between two degenerate states over time and exhibits collective migration of the fluid along the boundary. Our results are obtained using microscopic, non-momentum-conserving Langevin dynamics simulations and verified via a phase-field continuum model coupled to a Navier-Stokes equation. PMID:26253763

  19. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360?000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  20. Effect of the culture extract of Lentinus edodes mycelia on splenic sympathetic activity and cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Horii, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kazuko; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-01-28

    The spleen is an important organ for tumor immunity, and the splenic sympathetic nerve has a suppressive effect on splenic natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity. On the basis of this and reports that Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) has tumor-inhibitory effects, the authors hypothesized that an extract of a mycelial culture of L. edodes grown in a solid medium of sugar-cane bagasse and defatted rice bran-L.E.M-might affect the sympathetic splenic sympathetic nerve activity (Splenic-SNA) and thus inhibit tumor proliferation. Thus, the effect of L.E.M on Splenic-SNA and human cancer cell proliferation was examined. Splenic-SNA was found to be suppressed by an intraduodenal L.E.M injection in urethane-anesthetized rats, which significantly inhibited increases in the tumor volume of human colon and breast cancer cells implanted in athymic nude mice. These findings suggest that L.E.M has an inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation possibly via a reduction in NK cytotoxicity through the suppression of Splenic-SNA. PMID:19059811

  1. Invasive Glioblastoma Cells Acquire Stemness and Increased Akt Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. The dismal prognosis is due to postsurgery recurrences arising from escaped invasive tumor cells. The signaling pathways activated in invasive cells are under investigation, and models are currently designed in search for therapeutic targets. We developed here an in vivo model of human invasive GBM in mouse brain from a GBM cell line with moderate tumorigenicity that allowed simultaneous primary tumor growth and dispersal of tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. This strategy allowed for the first time the isolation and characterization of matched sets of tumor mass (Core and invasive (Inv cells. Both cell populations, but more markedly Inv cells, acquired stem cell markers, neurosphere renewal ability, and resistance to rapamycin-induced apoptosis relative to parental cells. The comparative phenotypic analysis between Inv and Core cells showed significantly increased tumorigenicity in vivo and increased invasion with decreased proliferation in vitro for Inv cells. Examination of a large array of signaling pathways revealed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk down-modulation and Akt activation in Inv cells and an opposite profile in Core cells. Akt activation correlated with the increased tumorigenicity, stemness, and invasiveness, whereas Erk activation correlated with the proliferation of the cells. These results underscore complementary roles of the Erk and Akt pathways for GBM proliferation and dispersal and raise important implications for a concurrent inhibitory therapy.

  2. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles biofunctionalize nerve implants and enable neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittnacht, Ursula; Hartmann, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Microstructured 20 ?m thick polymer filaments used as nerve implants were loaded with chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to promote nerve regeneration and ensure local delivery of nanotherapeutics. The stable nanoparticles were rapidly internalized by cells and did not affect cell viability. Target mRNA was successfully reduced by 65-75% and neurite outgrowth was enhanced even in an inhibitory environment. This work, thus, supports the application of nanobiofunctionalized implants as a novel approach for spinal cord and nerve repair.

  3. Prolonged nerve blockade delays the onset of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Kim, Kristine N.; Reznor, Gally; Dohlman, Jenny C.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain. Pharmacological blockade of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system. However, results in preventing onset of pain behaviors by providing prolonged nerve blockade have been mixed. Furthermore, the experimental techniques used to date to provide that blockade were limited in clinical potential in tha...

  4. Soluble ligands for NK cell receptors promote evasion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from NK cell anti-tumor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Reiners, Katrin S.; Topolar, Daniela; Henke, Alexander; Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Kessler, Jörg; Sauer, Maike; Bessler, Martina; Hansen, Hinrich P.; Tawadros, Samir; Herling, Marco; Krönke, Martin; Hallek, Michael; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Exosomal NKp30-ligand BAG6 is crucial for detection of tumor cells by NK cells in vitro and in vivo.Soluble plasma factors including BAG6 suppress NK cell cytotoxicity and promote evasion of CLL cells from NK cell anti-tumor activity.

  5. Arming NK cells with enhanced antitumor activity: CARs and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Oberoi, Pranav; Wels, Winfried S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells hold great promise for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. The antitumor activity of NK cells can be enhanced by the transgene driven expression of chimeric antigen receptors that facilitate the selective recognition and killing of malignant cells. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that NK cells may similarly be “armed” against neoplastic cells by the expression of cancer-specific granzyme B-containing fusion proteins that are released as soluble factors upon NK-cel...

  6. Central respiratory effects versus neuromuscular actions of nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickett, D L; Glenn, J F; Beers, E T

    1986-01-01

    The relative contributions of peripheral neuromuscular and central nervous system components in the respiratory failure following acute exposure to organophosphorous anticholinesterase (AChE) agents remain unclear. We examined the effects of the nerve agents, soman, sarin, tabun, and VX on diaphragm contraction, diaphragm electromyogram (EMG), phrenic nerve activity, medullary respiratory-related unit activity, and airflow in the cat. The agents were infused at the rate of 1 LD50 per 15 minutes until respiratory arrest, at which time the phrenic nerve was stimulated supramaximally to test diaphragmic contraction. We found that one of the first signs of respiratory distress is disruption of the normal firing pattern of the medullary respiratory-related neurons. This is followed by changes in phrenic nerve activity, diaphragm EMG, diaphragm contraction and airflow. At the time of respiratory arrest, the medullary respiratory-related units and the phrenic nerve have stopped firing. Immediately following cessation of spontaneous respiration, the diaphragm was tested by stimulating the phrenic nerve with 2 msec pulses of 500 msec duration at 10 Hz and at 100 Hz. Stimulation at 10 Hz consistently produced a frequency-following contraction, while stimulation at 100 Hz produced a tetanic contraction. We conclude that loss of central respiratory drive is the predominant cause of nerve agent-induced respiratory failure, as the diaphragm muscle still contracts tetanically when challenged with a 100 Hz train for 500 msec at the time of respiratory arrest. PMID:3714123

  7. Investigation of Natural Killer cell detachment from tumor cells - Characterizing the termination of the activating Natural Killer cell immunological synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Netter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The process of Natural Killer (NK) cell adhesion to target cells resulting in NK cell activation and cytotoxicity has been the subject of intense research. However, only very little is known about the detachment of NK cells from target cells after the lytic hit. Since NK cells are able to kill multiple targets in a serial manner, this detachment process could play a pivotal role for an effective cytotoxic NK cell response. We therefore established different assay systems, based on...

  8. Limitations of Conduits in Peripheral Nerve Repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Magill, Christina K.; Farhadi, H. Francis; Borschel, Gregory H; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve conduits have emerged as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts, but their use in large-diameter nerve deficits remains untested. We report four patients who underwent repair of large-diameter nerves using absorbable nerve conduits and discuss the failed clinical outcomes. The reported cases demonstrate the importance of evaluating the length, diameter, and function of nerves undergoing conduit repair. In large-diameter nerves, the use of conduits should be carefully considered.

  9. Mode of regulation of natural killer cell activity by interferon

    OpenAIRE

    Minato, N; Reid, L; Cantor, H; Lengyel, P.; Bloom, BR

    1980-01-01

    Whereas xenogeneic tumors such as baby hamster kidney or HeLa cells grow in nude mice, the same cells persistently infected with a variety of viruses are rejected. Spleen cells from normal nude mice were found to be induced to produce interferon and to exert natural killer (NK) activity on virus persistently infected (PI) tumor cells, and not on uninfected parental cells in vitro. The phenotype of the interferon-producing cells and the NK effector cells was found to be the same namely, Qa 5(+...

  10. Natural killer cell activity in reticulum cell sarcomas (RCS) of SJL/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two transplantable reticulum cell sarcomas (RCS) of SJL mice expressed marked levels of natural killer (NK) activity when tested against susceptible 51Cr-labeled tumor targets. In contrast, normal SJL lymph node and spleen cells demonstrated low levels of NK activity. Neither depletion of macrophages nor pretreatment with anti-Thy-1.2 sera and complement reduced the capacity of RCS cells to express NK activity. Systemic injection of irradiated RCS cells into SJL mice induced a transient increase in NK activity at 3 and 7 days after injection. However, the NK activity observed in recipients of irradiated RCS cells never reached levels comparable to those of control mice injected with viable tumor cells. These data suggest that the transplantable reticulum cell sarcomas of SJL mice may represent a tumor of natural killer cells and thus provide an enriched source of these effectors that may be useful for further characterization of natural cytotoxicity

  11. Traumatic third nerve palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Elston, J S

    1984-01-01

    Twenty patients with a traumatic third nerve palsy had sustained a closed head injury with prolonged loss of consciousness in a high-speed deceleration accident. Sixteen were male, and the average age was 25 years. Seven had skull or facial fractures, 15 damage to the anterior visual pathways, and 16 other permanent neurological damage. Nineteen developed the misdirection/regeneration syndrome. Thirteen had strabismus surgery, and an area of binocular single vision was enlarged or achieved in...

  12. Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükali, Cem Ismail; Kürtüncü, Murat; Akçay, Halil ?brahim; Tüzün, Erdem; Öge, Ali Emre

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) syndromes can be subclassified as primary and secondary. The main primary PNH syndromes are neuromyotonia, cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS), and Morvan's syndrome, which cause widespread symptoms and signs without the association of an evident peripheral nerve disease. Their major symptoms are muscle twitching and stiffness, which differ only in severity between neuromyotonia and CFS. Cramps, pseudomyotonia, hyperhidrosis, and some other autonomic abnormalities, as well as mild positive sensory phenomena, can be seen in several patients. Symptoms reflecting the involvement of the central nervous system occur in Morvan's syndrome. Secondary PNH syndromes are generally seen in patients with focal or diffuse diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system. The PNH-related symptoms and signs are generally found incidentally during clinical or electrodiagnostic examinations. The electrophysiological findings that are very useful in the diagnosis of PNH are myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges in needle electromyography along with some additional indicators of increased nerve fiber excitability. Based on clinicopathological and etiological associations, PNH syndromes can also be classified as immune mediated, genetic, and those caused by other miscellaneous factors. There has been an increasing awareness on the role of voltage-gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity in primary PNH pathogenesis. Then again, a long list of toxic compounds and genetic factors has also been implicated in development of PNH. The management of primary PNH syndromes comprises symptomatic treatment with anticonvulsant drugs, immune modulation if necessary, and treatment of possible associated dysimmune and/or malignant conditions. PMID:25719304

  13. A (heat) shock to the system promotes peripheral nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Höke, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are easily damaged, resulting in loss of motor and sensory function. Recovery of motor and sensory function after peripheral nerve injury is suboptimal, even after appropriate surgical repair. This is due to the slow rate of axonal elongation during regeneration and atrophic changes that occur in denervated Schwann cells and target muscle with proximal lesions. One way to solve this problem is to accelerate the rate at which the axons regenerate. In this issue of the JCI, Ma...

  14. Immune Responses Following Mouse Peripheral Nerve Xenotransplantation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lai-Jin Lu; Jia-Bing Sun; Zhi-Gang Liu; Xu Gong; Jian-Li Cui; Xi-Guang Sun

    2009-01-01

    Xenotransplantation offers a potentially unlimited source for tissues and organs for transplantation, but the strong xenoimmune responses pose a major obstacle to its application in the clinic. In this study, we investigate the rejection of mouse peripheral nerve xenografts in rats. Severe intragraft mononuclear cell infiltration, graft distension, and necrosis were detected in the recipients as early as 2 weeks after mouse nerve xenotransplantation. The number of axons in xenografts reduced ...

  15. Dendritic cell-mediated NK cell activation is controlled by Jagged2–Notch interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kijima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ishifune, Chieko; Maekawa, Yoichi; Koyanagi, Akemi; YAGITA, HIDEO; Chiba, Shigeru; Kishihara, Kenji; SHIMADA, MITSUO; Yasutomo, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells regulate various immune responses by exerting cytotoxic activity or secreting cytokines. The interaction of NK cells with dendritic cells (DC) contributes to NK cell-mediated antitumor or antimicrobial responses. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms for controlling this interaction are largely unknown. Here, we show an involvement of Jagged2–Notch interaction in augmenting NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by DC. Enforced expression of Jagged2 on A20 cells (Jag...

  16. Cloned cell lines with natural killer activity. Specificity, function, and cell surface markers

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Cell lines with natural killer (NK) activity grown from native spleen cells cultured in medium conditioned by spleen cells proliferating in the presence of concanavalin A (Con A) were characterized. One NK cell line was cloned and assayed on several human and mouse NK-sensitive targets to analyze whether target specificities segregate upon cloning. Results showed that NK clones display target specificities identical to NK cells in normal spleen. This suggests that NK cells have no clonally di...

  17. Change of telomerase activity in gamma-irradiated hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using two hematopoietic cell lines, KGla and CEM, to investigate the variation of telomerase activity after ?-irradiation. Methods: After irradiation, cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and telomerase activity of cells was analysed by Kim's TRAP assay. Cell synchronization was achieved after two-step thymidine blocks, and cell cycle was examined by BrdU incorporation technique for verifying cell cycle distribution after irradiation and cell synchronization. Results: Telomerase activity increased after irradiation of between 0 and 3 Gy in a dose-dependent manner, reaching the maximum at 3 Gy. The increase of telomerase activity was nearly to its maximum 8h after irradiation, the peak being observed at around 24h. Although this kinetics partly correlated with cell redistribution into the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, telomerase activity did not show significant variation over the cell cycle. Conclusion: The up-regulation of telomerase in hematopoietic cell lines after ?-irradiation may suggest the involvement of telomerase in DNA repair and chromosome healing

  18. Elotuzumab enhances natural killer cell activation and myeloma cell killing through interleukin-2 and TNF-? pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasa, Balaji; Yun, Rui; Belmar, Nicole A; Fox, Melvin; Chao, Debra T; Robbins, Michael D; Starling, Gary C; Rice, Audie G

    2015-01-01

    Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-F7 (SLAMF7, also known as CS1, CD319, or CRACC) that enhances natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. This study explored the mechanisms underlying enhanced myeloma cell killing with elotuzumab as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide, to support ongoing phase III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). An in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)/myeloma cell co-culture model was developed to evaluate the combination of elotuzumab and lenalidomide. Expression of activation markers and adhesion receptors was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine expression by Luminex and ELISPOT assays, and cytotoxicity by myeloma cell counts. Elotuzumab activated NK cells and promoted myeloma cell death in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures. The combination of elotuzumab plus lenalidomide demonstrated superior anti-myeloma activity on established MM xenografts in vivo and in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures in vitro than either agent alone. The combination enhanced myeloma cell killing by modulating NK cell function that coincided with the upregulation of adhesion and activation markers, including interleukin (IL)-2R? expression, IL-2 production by CD3(+)CD56(+) lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production. In co-culture assays, TNF-? directly increased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab or elotuzumab plus lenalidomide, and neutralizing TNF-? decreased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab. These results demonstrate that elotuzumab activates NK cells and induces myeloma cell death via NK cell-mediated ADCC, which is further enhanced when combined with lenalidomide. PMID:25287778

  19. AUGMENTATION OF MURINE NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY BY MANGANESE CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from male CBA/J mice was augmented by a single parenteral injection of MnCl2 administered 1 day prior to testing by in vitro and in vivo isotope release assays. Increased cytotoxic activity was observed in vitro against both NK-se...

  20. Role of JNK isoforms in the development of neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve transection in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassero Giusi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current tools for analgesia are often only partially successful, thus investigations of new targets for pain therapy stimulate great interest. Consequent to peripheral nerve injury, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity in cells of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and spinal cord is involved in triggering neuropathic pain. However, the relative contribution of distinct JNK isoforms is unclear. Using knockout mice for single isoforms, and blockade of JNK activity by a peptide inhibitor, we have used behavioral tests to analyze the contribution of JNK in the development of neuropathic pain after unilateral sciatic nerve transection. In addition, immunohistochemical labelling for the growth associated protein (GAP-43 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP in DRGs was used to relate injury related compensatory growth to altered sensory function. Results Peripheral nerve injury produced pain–related behavior on the ipsilateral hindpaw, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of GAP43-immunoreactive (IR neurons and a decrease in the percentage of CGRP-IR neurons in the lumbar DRGs. The JNK inhibitor, D-JNKI-1, successfully modulated the effects of the sciatic nerve transection. The onset of neuropathic pain was not prevented by the deletion of a single JNK isoform, leading us to conclude that all JNK isoforms collectively contribute to maintain neuropathy. Autotomy behavior, typically induced by sciatic nerve axotomy, was absent in both the JNK1 and JNK3 knockout mice. Conclusions JNK signaling plays an important role in regulating pain threshold: the inhibition of all of the JNK isoforms prevents the onset of neuropathic pain, while the deletion of a single splice JNK isoform mitigates established sensory abnormalities. JNK inactivation also has an effect on axonal sprouting following peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Correlation between muscular and nerve signals responsible for hand grasping in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Swathi; Kortelainen, Jukka; Nag, Sudip; Ng, Kian Ann; Bazley, Faith A; Michoud, Frederic; Patil, Anoop; Orellana, Josue; Libedinsky, Camilo; Lahiri, Amitabha; Chan, Louiza; Chng, Keefe; Cutrone, Annarita; Bossi, Silvia; Thakor, Nitish V; Delgado-Martinez, Ignacio; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices that interface with the nervous system to restore functional motor activity offer a viable alternative to nerve regeneration, especially in proximal nerve injuries like brachial plexus injuries where muscle atrophy may set in before nerve re-innervation occurs. Prior studies have used control signals from muscle or cortical activity. However, nerve signals are preferred in many cases since they permit more natural and precise control when compared to muscle activity, and can be accessed with much lower risk than cortical activity. Identification of nerve signals that control the appropriate muscles is essential for the development of such a `bionic link'. Here we examine the correlation between muscle and nerve signals responsible for hand grasping in the M. fascicularis. Simultaneous recordings were performed using a 4-channel thin-film longitudinal intra-fascicular electrode (tf-LIFE) and 9 bipolar endomysial muscle electrodes while the animal performed grasping movements. We were able to identify a high degree of correlation (r > 0.6) between nerve signals from the median nerve and movement-dependent muscle activity from the flexor muscles of the forearm, with a delay that corresponded to 25 m/s nerve conduction velocity. The phase of the flexion could be identified using a wavelet approximation of the ENG. This result confirms this approach for a future neuroprosthetic device for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:25570451

  2. Bassoon, a Novel Zinc-finger CAG/Glutamine-repeat Protein Selectively Localized at the Active Zone of Presynaptic Nerve Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Dieck, Susannetom; Sanmartí-Vila, Lydia; Langnaese, Kristina; Richter, Karin; Kindler, Stefan; Soyke, Antje; Wex, Heike; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Kämpf, Udo; Fränzer, Jürgen-Theodor; Stumm, Markus; Garner, Craig C.; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.

    1998-01-01

    The molecular architecture of the cytomatrix of presynaptic nerve terminals is poorly understood. Here we show that Bassoon, a novel protein of >400,000 Mr, is a new component of the presynaptic cytoskeleton. The murine bassoon gene maps to chromosome 9F. A comparison with the corresponding rat cDNA identified 10 exons within its protein-coding region. The Bassoon protein is predicted to contain two double-zinc fingers, several coiled-coil domains, and a stretch of polyglutamines (24 a...

  3. Axillary nerve injuries in contact sports: recommendations for treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, G S; Apruzzese, W

    1998-11-01

    Axillary nerve injuries are some of the most common peripheral nerve injuries in athletes who participate in contact sports. Resulting deltoid muscle paralysis is secondary to nerve trauma which occurs following shoulder dislocation or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in quadrilateral space syndrome as the axillary nerve exits this anatomic compartment. The axillary nerve is also extremely vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder, and iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. Accurate diagnosis of axillary nerve injury is based on a careful history and physical examination as well as an understanding of the anatomy of the shoulder and the axillary nerve in particular. Inspection, palpation and neurological testing provide the bases for diagnosis. A clinically suspected axillary nerve injury should be confirmed by electrophysiological testing, including electromyography and nerve conduction studies. During the acute phase of injury, the athlete should be rested and any ligamentous or bony injury should be treated as indicated. Patients should undergo an extensive rehabilitation programme emphasising active and passive range of motion as well as strengthening of the rotator cuff, deltoid and periscapular musculature. Shoulder joint contracture should be avoided at all costs as a loss of shoulder mobility may ultimately affect functional outcome despite a return of axillary nerve function. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 4 months following injury, surgical exploration is indicated. Athletes who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery, although the return of function of the involved shoulder is typically good to excellent. We recommend that athletes who sustain axillary nerve injury may return to contact sport participation when they achieve full active range of motion of the shoulder and when shoulder strength is documented to be good to excellent by isometric or manual muscle testing. PMID:9858397

  4. Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen up-regulates human NK cell activity.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Orazio, J A; Cole, B C; Stein-Streilein, J.

    1996-01-01

    While the effects of superantigens on T lymphocytes are well characterized, how superantigens interact with other immune cells is less clear. This report examines the effects of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity. Incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with MAM for 16 to 20 h augmented NK cytotoxicity (against K562) in a dose-dependent manner (P < or = 0.05). Superantigen-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, an activity of superantigen...

  5. Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, T M; Englezou, A; Gupta, J; Bacchetti, S; Reddel, R R

    1995-01-01

    Immortalization of human cells is often associated with reactivation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening. We examined whether telomerase activation is necessary for immortalization. All normal human fibroblasts tested were negative for telomerase activity. Thirteen out of 13 DNA tumor virus-transformed cell cultures were also negative in the pre-crisis (i.e. non-immortalized) stage. Of 35 immortalized cell line...

  6. Microwave-induced thermogenetic activation of single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to a microwave field is shown to enable thermogenetic activation of individual cells in a culture of cell expressing thermosensitive ion channels. Integration of a microwave transmission line with an optical fiber and a diamond quantum thermometer has been shown to allow thermogenetic single-cell activation to be combined with accurate local online temperature measurements based on an optical detection of electron spin resonance in nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond

  7. Microwave-induced thermogenetic activation of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, N. A. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedotov, I. V. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 143025 (Russian Federation); Ermakova, Yu. G.; Matlashov, M. E.; Belousov, V. V. [M.M. Shemyakin and Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 143025 (Russian Federation); Zheltikov, A. M. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 143025 (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-20

    Exposure to a microwave field is shown to enable thermogenetic activation of individual cells in a culture of cell expressing thermosensitive ion channels. Integration of a microwave transmission line with an optical fiber and a diamond quantum thermometer has been shown to allow thermogenetic single-cell activation to be combined with accurate local online temperature measurements based on an optical detection of electron spin resonance in nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond.

  8. Anti-microbial activity of Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourhis, Lionel; Martin, Emmanuel; Peguillet, Isabelle; Guihot, Amélie; Froux, Nathalie; Core, Maxime; Levy, Eva; Dusseaux, Mathilde; Meyssonnier, Vanina; Premel, Virginie; Ngo, Charlotte; Riteau, Béatrice; Duban, Livine; Robert, Delphine; Rottman, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) lymphocytes are characterized by two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant TCR? chain and restriction by the MHC-related protein, MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells are activated by cells infected with different strains of bacteria and yeasts, but not viruses, both in human and mouse. This activation requires cognate interaction between the invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and MR1, which can present a bacteria-derived ligand. I...

  9. Microwave-induced thermogenetic activation of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, N. A.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ermakova, Yu. G.; Matlashov, M. E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Belousov, V. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to a microwave field is shown to enable thermogenetic activation of individual cells in a culture of cell expressing thermosensitive ion channels. Integration of a microwave transmission line with an optical fiber and a diamond quantum thermometer has been shown to allow thermogenetic single-cell activation to be combined with accurate local online temperature measurements based on an optical detection of electron spin resonance in nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

  10. Biological activity of cytotoxic dendritic cells cocultured with cytokine-induced killer cells and their effect on acute leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X Y; Li, J L

    2015-01-01

    We cocultured cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and investigated their proliferation, immunophenotype changes, secretory cytokine levels, and their antitumor effects on acute myeloid leu