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Sample records for native citrus fruits

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  3. The citrus fruit proteome: insights into citrus fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, E; Fon, M; Lee, Y J; Phinney, B S; Sadka, A; Blumwald, E

    2007-09-01

    Fruit development and ripening are key processes in the production of the phytonutrients that are essential for a balanced diet and for disease prevention. The pathways involved in these processes are unique to plants and vary between species. Climacteric fruit ripening, especially in tomato, has been extensively studied; yet, ripening of non-climacteric fruit is poorly understood. Although the different species share common pathways; developmental programs, physiological, anatomical, biochemical composition and structural differences must contribute to the operation of unique pathways, genes and proteins. Citrus has a non-climacteric fruit ripening behavior and has a unique anatomical fruit structure. For the last few years a citrus genome-wide ESTs project has been initiated and consists of 222,911 clones corresponding to 19,854 contigs and 37,138 singletons. Taking advantage of the citrus database we analyzed the citrus proteome. Using LC-MS/MS we analyzed soluble and enriched membrane fractions of mature citrus fruit to identify the proteome of fruit juice cells. We have identified ca. 1,400 proteins from these fractions by searching NCBI-nr (green plants) and citrus ESTs databases, classified these proteins according to their putative function and assigned function according to known biosynthetic pathways. PMID:17541628

  4. Physiology of citrus fruiting / Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo J., Iglesias; Manuel, Cercós; José M., Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A., Naranjo; Gabino, Ríos; Esther, Carrera; Omar, Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio, Lliso; Raphael, Morillon; Francisco R., Tadeo; Manuel, Talon.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-mo [...] delo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área. Abstract in english Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information [...] generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.

  5. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 ...ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings...

  6. Can Berries, Citrus Fruits Boost Male Sexual Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156723.html Can Berries, Citrus Fruits Boost Male Sexual Health? New study suggests ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Biochemicals found in berries, citrus fruit and red wine might help men maintain ...

  7. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...We are proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of several varieties of fresh citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the fruit would have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach that would include requirements for importation......

  8. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari; C R Harisha; Ruknuddin Galib; Prajapati, P.K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jamb?ra Nimb? in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (?odhana), calcination (M?ra?a) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and ...

  9. 77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ...Citrus I (Early and mid-season oranges), Citrus II (Late oranges juice), Citrus VII (Late oranges fresh), and Citrus...of loss for all crops expands coverage to citrus fruit insured as juice. Allowing this additional level of...

  10. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A?eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ?0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China. PMID:23525695

  11. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  12. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jamb?ra Nimb? in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (?odhana, calcination (M?ra?a etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  13. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Barrero, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with...... fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated p...

  15. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    OpenAIRE

    Muthiah PL

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel ext...

  16. Water potential components in growing citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, M R

    1970-07-01

    Growing navel orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) 5.4 to 5.7 centimeters in diameter were used as a model system to determine the effects of transpiration and carbohydrate translocation on water and osmotic potentials in fruit tissues. Evidence supported the hypothesis that osmotic potential in the vesicles would be affected little by changes in transpiration or carbohydrate translocation because the vesicles are anatomically isolated from the transpiration stream and are at the end of the carbohydrate translocation pathway. In the mesocarp tissue, which contains a vascular network, osmotic potential decreased during the daytime when environmental conditions favored transpiration and increased at night. Exocarp water potential followed a similar pattern. Girdling of the stem above the fruits 5 days before sampling caused an increase of osmotic potential in the mesocarp but had no effect on exocarp water potential. Neither diurnal changes in transpiration nor girdling of the stem affected the osmotic potential of the vesicles.Osmotic potentials in all tissues of the fruit were in the range of -10 to -15 bars. Measurements of osmotic potential at 16 locations along a longitudinal plant through the fruit axis showed that osmotic potential increased from the stem to the stylar end, but it decreased from the pericarp tissues to the vesicles. As exocarp water potential decreased during a 20-day period after watering, osmotic potential decreased in the vesicles and exocarp. Turgor pressure, calculated as the difference between water and osmotic potentials, decreased with water potential in the vesicles but not in the exocarp. The lack of decrease of turgor pressure in the exocarp may result from a measurement error caused by pectins or from osmotic adjustment related to carbohydrate accumulation at low water potentials. PMID:16657407

  17. New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Marelize; Wingfield, Brenda D; Marin, M; Wingfield, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato includes a large number of plant and especially tree pathogens. In Colombia, isolates of this fungus cause a serious cankerstain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates have been shown to occur in two distinct phylogenetic lineages based on ITS sequence comparisons. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus, cacao and native trees in Colombia, based o...

  18. Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupesh C. Roy; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.

    2005-01-01

    Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 ...

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  20. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit species when such fruits were selected for their physical resemblance to the native fruit species. Based on our review and case studies, we propose that fruit characteristics of native plant communities could dictate how well a non-native, fleshy-fruited plant species competes for dispersers with natives. Native bird preferences may be largely influenced by regional native fruits, such that birds are attracted to the colors, morphology, and infructescence structures characteristic of preferred native fruits. Non-native fruits exhibiting similar traits are likely to encounter bird communities predisposed to consume them. If those non-natives offer greater fruit abundance, energy content, or accessibility, they may outcompete native plants for dispersers.

  1. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  2. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA? on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA?, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA? , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA? treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA?, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  4. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  5. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and...

  6. 77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983...'' named ``Citrus I (Early and mid-season oranges), Citrus II (Late oranges juice), Citrus VII (Late...'' with the intended use of juice could be in another ``citrus fruit group'' identified in the...

  7. Postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, Alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. Reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. Sanitation procedures in the packinghouses, alternate use of postharvest fungicides with different modes of action, along with fungicide application before harvest could be an effective approach to minimize postharvest decay in citrus fruit. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a preharvest treatment with pyrimethanil (PYR), a broad spectrum fungicide, recently registered in different citrus-producing countries for postharvest treatments of citrus fruit and widely used worldwide as a preharvest treatment to control various diseases in different crops. PYR (750 mg/L) was sprayed by a hand-back sprayer at run-off on 'Fremont' mandarins. The day after the treatment, half of the trees were sprayed with a 10(4) conidial suspension of P. digitatum at run-off. Fruit were harvested following 2 or 4 weeks from treatments. Sound or either wounded 2-mm-deep and 2-mm-wide or superficial wound-scratched fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 90% RH and inspected for decay after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of storage. In fruit harvested after 2 weeks from field treatment, PYR remarkably reduced decay development during two weeks of storage in sound fruit and in wound-scratched fruit and was fairly effective even after 4 weeks from treatment, but was ineffective in fruit wounded 2 mm deep and 2 mm wide. PYR was also effective in reducing preharvest decay incited by P. digitatum, P. italicum and Botrytis cinerea, but not by other pathogens. Results show that preharvest treatment with PYR could be a feasible approach to reduce postharvest chemical control of decay of citrus fruit. PMID:25145229

  8. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...the gallons of juice per ton obtained from the damaged citrus by 120; and ...of tons of such citrus. If individual records of juice content are not...determine the average juice content. (e...fruit option, citrus fruit that is...

  9. Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh C. Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 MPa while the extraction efficiency over 80% was obtained for lemon and shikuwasa but it was about 60% for daidai peel slurry. The extracted oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS to compare the compositions of oils among these peel slurries. The compositions of extracted oils differed qualitatively and quantitatively from each other of feed materials in such a way that the monoterpenes (C10H16 content varied 89.23 to 93.20% with the type of peel slurry, while limonene as a major compound. Oxygenated compounds in these oils represented 8.84, 5.5 and 4.49% in lemon, daidai and shikuwasa peel slurry, respectively. The obtained product with the composition was almost the similar with the other citrus oils extracted from fresh fruit peels.

  10. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C. M.; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  11. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  12. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  13. Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

  14. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...phrase ``a default juice content'' was not retained...final rule because all citrus fruit insured as fresh will have a default juice content provided in the...to have both a default juice content and a Fresh Fruit...Crop insurance, Florida citrus fruit, Reporting...

  15. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  16. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza; Entezari Maliheh

    2009-01-01

    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured i...

  17. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís Palou; Silvia A. Valencia-Chamorro; María B. Pérez-Gago

    2015-01-01

    According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes ...

  18. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Aslan; Marcel Rejmanek

    2012-01-01

    Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The impor...

  19. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  20. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

  1. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  2. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  3. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  4. Flavonoid composition of fruit tissues of citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogata, Yoichi; Sakamoto, Koji; Shiratsuchi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Toshinao; Yano, Masamichi; Ohta, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    An HPLC analysis was performed on the concentrations of flavonoids in 42 species and cultivars of the Citrus genus and those of two Fortunella and one Poncirus species according to the classification system established by Tanaka. The composition of 8 flavanones and 9 flavone/ols for these species was determined in the albedo, flavedo, segment epidermis and juice vesicle tissues, and those in the fruit and peel tissues were calculated from the composition data of the tissues. A principal component analysis showed that such neohesperidosyl flavonoids as neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, and rhoifolin had large factor loading values in the first principal component for each tissue. The flavonoid composition of citrus fruits was approximately the same within each section of Tanaka's system, except for the species in the Aurantium section and those with a peculiar flavonoid composition such as Bergamot (C. bergamia), Marsh grapefruit (C. paradisi), Sour orange (C. aurantium), and Shunkokan (C. shunkokan). The Aurantium section included both naringin-rich and hesperidin-rich species. PMID:16428836

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide fumigation is a major phytosanitary treatment for a wide variety of quarantine pests, including tephritid fruit flies. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest of a number of fruits, including citrus exported from Texas, Mexico and Central American countries....

  6. Water Potential Components in Growing Citrus Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Merrill R.

    1970-01-01

    Growing navel orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) 5.4 to 5.7 centimeters in diameter were used as a model system to determine the effects of transpiration and carbohydrate translocation on water and osmotic potentials in fruit tissues. Evidence supported the hypothesis that osmotic potential in the vesicles would be affected little by changes in transpiration or carbohydrate translocation because the vesicles are anatomically isolated from the transpiration stream and are at the end of the carbohydrate translocation pathway. In the mesocarp tissue, which contains a vascular network, osmotic potential decreased during the daytime when environmental conditions favored transpiration and increased at night. Exocarp water potential followed a similar pattern. Girdling of the stem above the fruits 5 days before sampling caused an increase of osmotic potential in the mesocarp but had no effect on exocarp water potential. Neither diurnal changes in transpiration nor girdling of the stem affected the osmotic potential of the vesicles. Osmotic potentials in all tissues of the fruit were in the range of ?10 to ?15 bars. Measurements of osmotic potential at 16 locations along a longitudinal plant through the fruit axis showed that osmotic potential increased from the stem to the stylar end, but it decreased from the pericarp tissues to the vesicles. As exocarp water potential decreased during a 20-day period after watering, osmotic potential decreased in the vesicles and exocarp. Turgor pressure, calculated as the difference between water and osmotic potentials, decreased with water potential in the vesicles but not in the exocarp. The lack of decrease of turgor pressure in the exocarp may result from a measurement error caused by pectins or from osmotic adjustment related to carbohydrate accumulation at low water potentials. PMID:16657407

  7. Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100-1 g and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100-1 g. Amla (Indian gooseberry fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100-1 g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100-1 g of edible portion of the fruits. Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100-1 g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100-1 g among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100-1 g. The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100-1 g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100-1 g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100-1 g of fruits.

  8. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Friday, December 21, 2012 (74 FR 75509-75521). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus..., 2012, (74 FR 75509-75521). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained errors that... in the final rule because all citrus fruit insured as fresh will have a default juice...

  9. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Different Parts of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime Fruit) as Used Locally

    OpenAIRE

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as “epa-ijebu” in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of “epa-ijebu” in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoh...

  10. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

  11. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Cit...

  12. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus g...

  13. Label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolite analysis reveal a significant metabolic shift during citrus fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Ehud; Boo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Brett S. Phinney; Shulaev, Vladimir; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Label-free LC-MS/MS-based shot-gun proteomics was used to quantify the differential protein synthesis and metabolite profiling in order to assess metabolic changes during the development of citrus fruits. Our results suggested the occurrence of a metabolic change during citrus fruit maturation, where the organic acid and amino acid accumulation seen during the early stages of development shifted into sugar synthesis during the later stage of citrus fruit development. The expression of inverta...

  14. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...603, we have performed an initial regulatory flexibility analysis...that may incur benefits or costs from the implementation of...unshiu Marcow), Citrus hybrids, Fortunella. japonica (Thunb...unshiu Marcow), Citrus hybrids, Fortunella japonica...

  15. Irradiation for international trade in agricultural products: The case of citrus fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses the influence of irradiation techniques on the Uruguayan market and their repercussions on international trade, with emphasis on the important and steadily growing citrus sector. This growth of citrus cultivation in Uruguay has been based on increasing international trade, and therefore producers and exporters have shown particular interest in the plant protection requirements which the European Economic Community (EEC) may adopt to govern the import of citrus fruit into its area. Over the past few years, the sector has become a net exporter, increasing its turnover from one harvest to the next. However, it is currently facing problems caused by the citrus plant disease known as canker, which is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris, pv citri). The EEC is considering plant protection measures which could close its market to Uruguayan citrus fruit. Likewise, the North American market does not accept fruit from regions affected by canker. It is intended to treat fruit ready for export (wax-treated and packed) by irradiation at 0.7 kGy, combined with heat treatment for 5 min at 50 deg. C at the first rinsing stage during packing. Citrus fruit irradiation thus appears as an alternative treatment which would solve the problem by allowing a quality product to be offered on the foreign market, thereby improving commercial prospects as well as avoiding non-tariff barriers. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  16. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  17. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  18. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

    2011-12-01

    Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit. PMID:21920618

  19. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES,...

  20. Network Analysis of Postharvest Senescence Process in Citrus Fruits Revealed by Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Profiling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  1. Quantification of applied dose in irradiated citrus fruits by DNA Comet Assay together with image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Nurcan; Ercin, Demet; Özvatan, Sümer; Erel, Yakup

    2016-02-01

    The experiments were conducted for quantification of applied dose for quarantine control in irradiated citrus fruits. Citrus fruits exposed to doses of 0.1 to 1.5 kGy and analyzed by DNA Comet Assay. Observed comets were evaluated by image analysis. The tail length, tail moment and tail DNA% of comets were used for the interpretation of comets. Irradiated citrus fruits showed the separated tails from the head of the comet by increasing applied doses from 0.1 to 1.5 kGy. The mean tail length and mean tail moment% levels of irradiated citrus fruits at all doses are significantly different (p < 0.01) from control even for the lowest dose at 0.1 kGy. Thus, DNA Comet Assay may be a practical quarantine control method for irradiated citrus fruits since it has been possible to estimate the applied low doses as small as 0.1 kGy when it is combined with image analysis. PMID:26304361

  2. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Parixit Bhandurge; N Rajarajeshwari; Alagawadi, K.R.; Saurabh Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the ...

  3. Low cost freshwater fish pickle using cheap citrus fruit (C. reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, A K; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Batthacharyya, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The juice extracted from a locally abundant cheap variety of citrus fruit namely, Citrus reticulata was utilized for pickling. The paper highlights the trials made to select the optimum concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chloride to be used along with the juice of C. reticulata so as to obtain the best, product. The product can be stored well at room temperature for six months.

  4. High Incidence of Preharvest Colonization of Huanglongbing-Symptomatic Citrus sinensis Fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and Exacerbation of Postharvest Fruit Decay by That Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in “Ca. Liber...

  5. Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Degu, A.; Hatew, B.; Nunes-Nesi, A; Shlizerman, L.; Zur, N.; Fernie, A. R.; Blumwald, E.; Sadka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, induc...

  6. Relationship between postharvest diseases resistance and mineral composition of citrus fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, C; Duarte, A.; Manso, Teresa; Weiland, Carlos; José M García; Cayuela, José Antonio; Yousfi, Khaled; Martínez, M. C.; Salazar, María

    2010-01-01

    Green and blue moulds, due to the pathogenic action of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum respectively are the main cause of orange losses during postharvest. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, both together are responsible for 80% of total postharvest citrus fruit decay. The type of orchard production system, field location with different types of climate and soil has a main influence on mineral composition of fruits. The mineral composition of fruits can have a significant ...

  7. Residue level, persistence and safety of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Zhu, Yanmei; Pang, Junxiao; Zhou, Zhiqin; Jiao, Bining

    2016-03-01

    A sample pretreatment method was established to analyze the residues of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in citrus fruits using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A mixed formulation of 27% spirodiclofen-pyridaben suspension concentrates was sprayed on citrus in field conditions at 1- or 1.5-fold recommended dose. The dissipation of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture in whole citrus follows the first-order dynamic equation with half-lives of 4.56-13.1d at three locations. Residues of spirodiclofen-pyridaben mixture are mainly distributed in peel, followed by whole citrus and pulp. Risk assessment showed that spirodiclofen exerts much higher chronic risk than acute risk, while pyridaben exerts relatively lower chronic risk than acute risk. However, both chronic and acute risks of this mixed pesticide in citrus fruits are relatively low to humans irrespective of dosages, frequency of applications, and pre-harvest intervals. The residue dynamics information will support label-claim for use of this mixed pesticide in citrus fruits. PMID:26471621

  8. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  9. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  10. Half-embryo test for identification of irradiated citrus fruit: collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative study on the use of the half-embryo test for the detection of irradiated citrus fruit was undertaken. Collaborative samples of seeds removed from citrus fruit, which were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.5 kGy, were examined by 12 participating laboratories. The percentage of correct identifications, whether irradiated or unirradiated, was 92% of 48 samples after 4 days incubation and 98% after 7 days incubation. Only one sample, irradiated with 0.2 kGy, was incorrectly identified. This collaborative study shows that irradiated citrus fruit can be identified using the half-embryo test and that the test can be applied in practice. (author)

  11. Half-embryo test for identification of irradiated citrus fruit: collaborative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Setagaya, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    A collaborative study on the use of the half-embryo test for the detection of irradiated citrus fruit was undertaken. Collaborative samples of seeds removed from citrus fruit, which were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.5 kGy, were examined by 12 participating laboratories. The percentage of correct identifications, whether irradiated or unirradiated, was 92% of 48 samples after 4 days incubation and 98% after 7 days incubation. Only one sample, irradiated with 0.2 kGy, was incorrectly identified. This collaborative study shows that irradiated citrus fruit can be identified using the half-embryo test and that the test can be applied in practice. (author).

  12. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  13. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are sufficient and according to the OECD methodology a MRL proposal of 6 mg/kg is derived for propiconazole in citrus fruits. The existing EU MRLs for propiconazole in food commodities of animal origin need to be modified for ruminant kidney, fat and meat reflecting the feed intake of citrus pomace. For ruminant liver and milk the existing MRLs do not have to be modified. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of propiconazole on citrus fruits and residues in ruminant meat, fat and kidney will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  15. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced. PMID:26705419

  16. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  17. 77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ...Citrus I (early and mid-season oranges), Citrus II (late oranges juice), Citrus VII (late oranges fresh), and Citrus VIII...previously Citrus I] while late oranges for juice [Citrus II] and late oranges for fresh [Citrus...

  18. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellah El Hari; M. Chaik; Nadira Lekouch; Azeddine Sedki; Abderrahaman Lahrouni

    2011-01-01

    An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in ...

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are suffi...

  20. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabner, B.J.; Tabner, V.A. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science Div.)

    1993-03-01

    The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and [gamma]-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author).

  1. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Dawei; Fass Joseph N; Phinney Brett S; Eigenheer Richard A; Fon Mario; Katz Ehud; Sadka Avi; Blumwald Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-fr...

  2. Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author)

  3. Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabner, B.J.; Tabner, V.A. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and {gamma}-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author).

  4. Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad R, Mirzaee; Mojtaba, Mohammadi; Ali Azari, Nasrabad.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one- [...] week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P

  5. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the extract showed significant results in prolonged study. The experiment also conformed ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts significantly reduced the elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride level, SGOT, SGPT, ALD and Urea level. Our data suggest a significant antidiabetic and hyperlipaemic effects of Citrus maxima fruit extracts in alloxan diabetic rats.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Dhiman; Arun Nanda; Sayeed Ahmad; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae) fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± s...

  7. 77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... 77 FR 41709-41716. The public was afforded 30 days to submit comments after the regulation was... Citrus fruit commodity Commodity type Intended use group Oranges Early-season Juice A Oranges...

  8. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ..., 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 53424-53430, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140) a proposal... cherries and citrus fruit. We considered those comments and, in a notice dated August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46901... From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of changes...

  9. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  10. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  11. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Ancu; Gheorghe Mladin; Alina Nuta; Monica Sturzeanu; Sergiu Ancu; Madalina Butac; Madalina Militaru1

    2012-01-01

    The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were i...

  12. Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

  13. Biochemical response of skin-coated citrus fruits irradiated for preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange fruits (citrus Sinensis) Kind Egyptian Balady variety, were irradiated for 100, 200 and 400 Krad ?-ray doses in combination with sodium orthophenylphenate, 0.0025% incorporated in wax coatings as preirradiation treatment. The data revealed the utility of combined treatment to control postharvest decay in citrus fruits. 100 Krad extend shelflife of skin-coated fruits by 15 weeks without significant losses in Vitamin C, reducing sugars, or free amino acids and without storage disorders. Unirradiated non skin-coated and unirradiated skin-coated had a shelf-life of 7, and 10 weeks, respectively, under the same experimental storage conditions (14-20 C and R.H. 65-75%)

  14. Hesperidin and naringin, two main flavonoids of citrus fruit, modulate bone metabolism in gonad-intact senescent male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habauzit, V.; Trzeciakiewicz, A.; Mardon, J.; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Morand, C; Davicco, M. J.; Lebecque, P; Coxam, V; Horcajada, M. N.

    2008-01-01

    Among fruit, citrus varieties are important sources of polyphenolic compounds, which could be responsible for the health-promoting effects. In the present study the effect of hesperidin (Hp) and naringin (Nar), the two major citrus flavonoids (flavanones), in regulating bone metabolism was examined in elderly male rats.

  15. Study of Fruit Diversity and Selection of Elite Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Genotypes in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lal Shrestha; Durga Datta Dhakal; Durga Mani Gautum; Krishna Prasad Paudyal; Sangita Shrestha

    2012-01-01

    Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) fruits are cultivated in terai, mid hill and high hill districts of Nepal. It is cross-pollinated crop and has a high variation in fruit characters within the species. Fruit character is the main basis of genotype selection. Study of fruit diversity is of utmost importance to select the elite genotypes for breeding and variety development program. Therefore, total of 620 fruit samples were collected and evaluated in the main production season...

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution and natural variation of metabolites in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouchuang; Tu, Hong; Wan, Jian; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-05-15

    To study the natural variation and spatio-temporal accumulation of citrus metabolites, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolome analysis was performed on four fruit tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs) and different Citrus species (lemon, pummelo and grapefruit, sweet orange and mandarin). Using a non-targeted metabolomics approach, more than 2000 metabolite signals were detected, from which more than 54 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids and limonoids, were identified/annotated. Differential accumulation patterns of both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites in various tissues and species were revealed by our study. Further investigation indicated that flavedo accumulates more flavonoids while juice sacs contain more amino acids. Besides this, cluster analysis based on the levels of metabolites detected in 47 individual Citrus accessions clearly grouped them into four distinct clusters: pummelos and grapefruits, lemons, sweet oranges and mandarins, while the cluster of pummelos and grapefruits lay distinctly apart from the other three species. PMID:26775938

  17. Pollen–pistil interactions and early fruiting in parthenocarpic citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Distefano, Gaetano; Gentile, Alessandra; Herrero Romero, María

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship bet...

  18. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  19. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.; Gilioli, G.; Grégoire, J.-C.; Jeger, M. J.; Karadjova, O. E.; Lövei, G.; Makowski, D.; Manceau, C.; Navajas, M.; Porta Puglia, A.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Schans, J.; Schrader, G.; Urek, G.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Vloutoglou, I; Winter, S.; Zlotina, M.

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from...... host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase...

  1. External Defect classification of Citrus Fruit Images using Linear Discriminant Analysis Clustering and ANN classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is one technique for transforming raw data into a new feature space in which classification can be carried out more robustly. It is useful where the within-class frequencies are unequal. This method maximizes the ratio of between-class variance to the within-class variance in any particular data set and the maximal separability is guaranteed. LDA clustering models are used to classify object into different category. This study makes use of LDA for clustering the features obtained for the citrus fruit images taken in five different domains. Sub-windows of size 40x40 are cropped from the citrus fruit images having defects such as pitting, splitting and stem end rot. Features are extracted in four domains such as statistical features, fourier transform based features, discrete wavelet transform based features and stationary wavelet transform based features. The results of clustering and classification using LDA and ANN classifiers are reported

  2. Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different citrus species

    OpenAIRE

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standar...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    OpenAIRE

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards....

  4. Sensorial analysis and Fruit Quality in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from Northern Italy (Piedmont)

    OpenAIRE

    CANTERINO, SARA; DONNO, DARIO; MELLANO, Maria Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    The loss of genetic variability of fruit is a worldwide problem and the genetic erosion is recurrent. The identification, characterisation and valorisation of traditional genetic resources are becoming fundamental to avoid the loss of this precious germplasm. The citrus grown in particular environments represent an important genetic resource with traits (e.g. frost and diseases resistance) useful in breeding programs or for direct exploitation. The aim of the research was to assess the nu...

  5. [Analysis of imazalil and its major metabolite in citrus fruits by GC-FTD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tateishi, Yukinari; Kitayama, Kyoko; Saito, Kazuo

    2003-02-01

    A simplified simultaneous analytical method of imazalil (IZ) and its major metabolite, alpha-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (IZM), in citrus fruits was developed, and commodities samples were investigated. A homogenate of citrus fruits was extracted with ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The crude extract was partitioned between 0.025 mol/L of sulfuric acid and ethyl acetate. The analytes were extracted from the aqueous fraction under basic conditions with ethyl acetate. The extract solution was purified with an ENVI-Carb cartridge, and then analyzed by GC-FTD and GC/MS. Recoveries of IZ and IZM added to grapefruit at the level of 0.05 microgram/g were 90.0 and 108.7%, and those in the case of lemon were 100.4 and 93.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.01 microgram/g in samples. By this method, IZ and IZM were analyzed in 46 citrus fruits on the market and were detected simultaneously in some samples. PMID:12749200

  6. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  7. Screening of furanocoumarin derivatives in citrus fruits by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Tetsuya; Fujito, Hiroshi; Mori, Masato

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of furanocoumarin derivatives as cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in citrus fruits. Anti-6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin conjugated with bovine serum albumin using the N-succinimidyl ester method. An enzyme marker was similarly prepared by coupling 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin with beta-D-galactosidase. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is capable of detecting as little as 800 pg/ml of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and 4 ng/ml of bergamottin. Cross-reactivity data showed that the antibody well recognizes both the furanocoumarin and 6,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-2-enyloxy moieties of the 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and is thus specific to the structure of furanocoumarin derivatives containing geranyloxy side chain as the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit juice. The antibody was, therefore, used for screening a large number of citrus fruits for furanocoumarin derivatives such as 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Fifteen citrus fruits were examined and significant reactivity was observed in 8 of these: red pummelo, sweetie, melogold, banpeiyu pummelo, hassaku, sour orange, lime and natsudaidai. This enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay may be a powerful tool for screening for furanocoumarin derivatives as cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit juice. PMID:15256725

  8. Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Mirzaee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine; moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola, grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush, orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin and lemon (cv. Lisbon. Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P < 0.01 with fruit firmness. Although this study aimed to determine the range of potential hosts for C. radicicola, to date the only natural host in the world is considered to be lemon.

  9. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary de Fátima Guedes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g?1, total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g?1, and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g?1. As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC (194.67 µM·Trolox·g?1, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (47.46 g·pulp·g?1 DPPH, and ?-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  10. Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chan Teck Leong; Roland Jui Heng Kueh

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural min...

  11. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira, Peres; José Rodrigo Regis, Lopes; Cristiane Bezerra da, Silva; Ana Carina Silva, Cândido; Euclésio, Simionatto; Márcia Regina Pereira, Cabral; Rita Machado, Oliveira; Janaina Thomasi, Facco; Cláudia Andréa Lima, Cardoso; Pedro Henrique, Simas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed f [...] rom crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  12. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed from crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  13. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  14. Girdling effects on fruit set and quantum yield efficiency of PSII in two Citrus cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, F; Gravina, A; Agustí, M

    2007-04-01

    Girdling effects on fruitlet abscission, leaf chlorophyll, chlorophyll a fluorescence and carbohydrate concentration in various flowering and vegetative shoots were studied during natural fruit drop in two Citrus cultivars. Irrespective of shoot type, girdling delayed fruitlet abscission, but only fruitlets borne on leafy shoots had increased final fruit set. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis revealed differences in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of light adapted leaves (Phi(PSII)) among shoot types and in response to girdling. In young leaves of vegetative shoots, girdling decreased Phi(PSII), whereas Phi(PSII) increased from Day 30 after girdling in young leaves of leafy flowering shoots; however, Phi(PSII) did not change in mature leaves during fruit set in either control or girdled trees. Girdling altered leaf carbohydrate concentrations and the photosynthetic performance of the various shoot types. Our results indicate that, in Citrus, several carbohydrate-based regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis coexist during carbohydrate accumulation brought about by girdling. It is concluded that the delay in fruitlet abscission and the increase in Phi(PSII )observed in girdled leafy flowering shoots are the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of fruit set after girdling. PMID:17241995

  15. Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkin Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic content was determined in a spectrophotometer at 685 nm using the adapted Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was measured using LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of the fruit juices and peel extracts on the selected lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B5448, Lb. casei NRRL B1922, Lb. acidophilus NRRL B4495 were investigated. The tested lactic acid bacteria were significantly affected by chlorogenic acid, hesperidin, naringin and caffeic acid compared to the control samples (P?0.05. Antioxidant properties of fruit samples were also measured using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The phenolics positively affected the metabolism of bacteria, with the stimulatory effects of the assayed samples being influenced by the phenolic profile.

  16. Insulin secretagogue bioactivity of finger citron fruit (Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis Hort, Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Weng, Ching-Feng; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Robert Y

    2009-10-14

    Finger citron [Citrus medica L. var. Sarcodactylis Hort, Rutaceae] (FC) fruits, widely cultivated in Japan, the southern provinces of China and Taiwan, are commonly used as functional vegetables and preserved as sweetmeats. Previously we identified the major compounds in essential oils (% in EO) of FC fruits to be d-limonene (51.24), gamma-terpenene (33.71), alpha-pinene (3.40), and beta-pinene (2.88). Documented evidence on its insulin secretion characteristics is still lacking. In parallel to compositional analysis, we performed in vivo the safety, hypoglycemic, and antidiabetic tests in Sprague-Dawley-SPF rats and Wistar DIO rats respectively. By kinetic analysis on the hypoglycemic patterns of the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (IPGTT) and the insulin-glucose tolerance tests (IGTT), its insulin secretagogue effect was confirmed. In conclusion, FC fruits that concomitantly possess insulin secretagogue and slimming effects would be very beneficial to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:19761210

  17. Fruit Characteristics, Chromosome and DNA Profiles of Four Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Collected in West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; NASRIL Nasir; NINOMIYA, Takanori; KUBO, Tatsuya; Tominaga, Shigeto; ヤマモト, マサシ; ニノミヤ, タカノリ; クボ, タツヤ; トミナガ, シゲト; 山本, 雅史; 久保, 達也; 冨永, 茂人

    2012-01-01

    Fruit characteristics, chromosome, and DNA profiles were analyzed in four mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Jeruk Brastagi', 'JeruK Keprok', 'Jeruk Siem' and 'Limau Talang Babungo', collected in West Sumatra, Indonesia. In terms of fruit characteristic, all four mandarins possessed orange rind and flesh and green polyembryonic seed. The fruit diameter of 'Limau Talang Babungo' was the smallest. 'Jeruk Siem' possessed the thinnest rind. The brix of juice was high in 'Jeruk Brastagi' and '...

  18. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Candelas Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids.

  20. Temperature Effects on Vitamin C Content in Citrus Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    C.V. Okoye; A. A. Ayuk; P.C. Njoku

    2011-01-01

    Loss in vitamin C contents of some fruit juice namely, orange, lemon, lime and grape stored under different conditions was investigated. The juices from the samples were extracted, stored at room temperature in plastic bottles. The juices were all analyzed for their vitamin C content by oxidation and reduction method. Results revealed that vitamin C concentration is more in orange juice as compared to grape, lemon and lime juice respectively in this order: at 20oC, 612.15 > 454.47 > 305.57 > ...

  1. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah El Hari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where, since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation no symptoms of citrus canker were observed, neither in their vicinities. The PHL Panel concluded that the transmission of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on asymptomatic citrus fruit was more likely when the fruit were collected from infested than from non-infested areas and groves. Symptomatic fruit carries more Xcc cells than asymptomatic fruit and the packinghouse disinfectant treatments do not achieve the eradication of Xcc. The application of management option 2 (i.e. ‘allow distribution of all types and varieties of commercially packed citrus fruit to all US States, subject to packinghouse treatment with APHIS-approved disinfectant. No packinghouse phytosanitary inspection is required’) selected by USDA will result in an increase in the Xcc load of citrus fruit consignments and in a subsequent increase in the probability of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase the probability of introduction of Xcc into new areas.

  3. The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

  4. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-01-01

    Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C) and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml) and fre...

  5. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; SOLOMON F. AMEH; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experi...

  6. Application of microorganisms, alone or in combination, to control postbloom fruit drop in citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana N., Klein; Aline C., Silva; Marcos R., Lopes; Katia C., Kupper.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14, ACB-33, ACB-37, and ACB-40) and Bacillus subtilis (ACB-66, ACB-69, ACB-77, and ACB-83) were tested separately or in mixtures for suppression of postbloom fruit drop in citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This work aimed at: (i) determining the incubation [...] time and temperature for production of cells of biocontrol agents; (ii) determining the effect of the isolates, separately or in mixture on the germination conidia of C. acutatum; (iii) evaluating the efficiency of antagonistic isolates on detached citrus flowers and under field conditions. The results of the interactions in vitro showed that there was little differentiation in cell production among the species, and the optimum temperature was 27ºC. The best time for multiplication of bacterial cells was 36 hours, whereas for Trichoderma, the production of conidia continued to increase up to 120 hours of incubation. The mixtures of the ACB-77 plus ACB-66, ACB-33, or ACB-37 inhibited pathogen germination from 84% to 89%. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that ACB69 alone gave 99% control. The use of mixture ACB-69 plus ACB-37 proved to be viable in the control of disease under field conditions, but the efficiency of the control was lowest than the obtained by applications of ACB-69 alone.

  7. Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

    2005-08-24

    The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control with FLU applications of 100 mg/L at 50 degrees C and 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C resulted in ca. 0.8 mg/kg FLU fruit residues, in agreement with results on wounded citrus fruit. When equal concentrations and temperatures were applied, FLU treatments were as effective as IMZ. In vitro trials showed a low sensitivity to FLU against P. digitatum and P. italicum isolates. MIC values for the complete inhibition of mycelium growth were >or=100 microg/mL, while ED(50) values ranged from 0.1 to 1 microg/mL for P. digitatum and from 1 to >100 microg/mL for P. italicum. The latter result suggests that care should be taken to avoid exclusive application of FLU in a sustainable program for management of fruit decay. However, integrating fungicide application and hot water dip may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, by increasing the effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16104790

  8. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 ?g/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 ?g/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 ?g/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  9. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  10. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following: (1) Citrus I—Early and mid-season oranges; (2) Citrus II—Late oranges juice; (3) Citrus III—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on a juice basis; (4) Citrus IV—Tangelos...; or (2) The following juice content, if acceptable records are not furnished: (i) Citrus I—52...

  11. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2015-10-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  12. Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (?), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest ?-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL. PMID:24245895

  13. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Regulation of cuticle formation during fruit development and ripening in 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinqiu; Sun, Li; Xie, Li; He, Yizhong; Luo, Tao; Sheng, Ling; Luo, Yi; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2016-02-01

    Fruit cuticle, which is composed of cutin and wax and biosynthesized during fruit development, plays important roles in the prevention of water loss and the resistance to pathogen infection during fruit development and postharvest storage. However, the key factors and mechanisms regarding the cuticle biosynthesis in citrus fruits are still unclear. Here, fruit cuticle of 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) was studied from the stage of fruit expansion to postharvest storage from the perspectives of morphology, transcription and metabolism. The results demonstrated that cutin accumulation is synchronous with fruit expansion, while wax synthesis is synchronous with fruit maturation. Metabolic profile of fruits peel revealed that transition of metabolism of fruit peel occurred from 120 to 150 DAF and ABA was predicted to regulate citrus wax synthesis during the development of Newhall fruits. RNA-seq analysis of the peel from the above two stages manifested that the genes involved in photosynthesis were repressed, while the genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax, cutin and lignin were significantly induced at later stages. Further real-time PCR predicted that MYB transcription factor GL1-like regulates citrus fruits wax synthesis. These results are valuable for improving the fruit quality during development and storage. PMID:26795158

  15. Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus. PMID:25686700

  16. Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details about an image processing method applied for classifying three external surface defects of citrus fruit using wavelet transforms based features and an artificial neural network. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT features viz. mean and standard deviation of the details and approximations were extracted from citrus fruit images and used for classifying the defects. The DWT and SWT features were extracted from 40x40 sub-windows of the fruit image. The WPT features were extracted from the full fruit image of size 640x480. The classification results pertaining to the three wavelet transforms are reported and discussed.

  17. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  18. Sexual behavior and diel activity of citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, J M; Parra, J R; Vilela, E F; Walder, J M; Leal, W S

    2001-10-01

    Males and virgin females of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana Lima, displayed two flight peaks during a 24-hr period, one at dawn and the other at dusk in an orange grove near Gavião Peixoto, São Paulo, Brazil. During the day, when temperatures were highest and relative humidity lowest, most individuals rested on leaves in the lower and middle crown. Moths rapidly moved higher in the crown after sunset, and many were observed flying above the tree canopy. This behavior was mainly associated with mating. Males and virgin females marked with fluorescent powder of different colors were observed in the dark with the aid of a black light. Mating was observed only in the upper crown of citrus trees from 6:00 to 9:00 PM, with a peak (64%) between 7:00 and 8:00 PM. Males of E. aurantiana were captured in traps baited either with virgin females or female extracts, suggesting the use of a long-range sex pheromone. At close distance (1-2 cm), males and females displayed a short-range communication behavior, with males exposing hairpencils and vibrating their wings. Females were frequently stimulated to contact the body of a male before copulation. The mean duration of copulation was 1 hr 40 min. PMID:11710611

  19. [Levels of organochlorine insecticides in citrus fruits in 1996-1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, K; Ludwicki, J K; Struci?ski, P; Czaja, K

    1999-01-01

    The monitoring of organochlorine insecticides (HCB, HCH, and DDT) in citrus fruits taken from the market was carried out in 9 regions in Poland in the years 1996-1997. The concentrations of the insecticides were measured in the edible part and in the peel separately. The total number of 331 samples of oranges, lemons, grapefruits and mandarins were subjected residue analysis. The mean concentrations of the organochlorine compounds in the edible parts amounted 0.0002 mg/kg for HCB, and ranged from 0.0081 to 0.0247 mg/kg for sigma HCH and from 0.0041 to 0.022 for DDT depending on the product. The highest contrentrations together with the highest violation rate (9.5%) of the Polish Maximum Residue Limit was found in case of DDT. The mean concentrations of the insecticides in the citrus peels were not markedly higher than those in the edible parts. The results obtained in this monitoring did not differ from the results reported by the other authors. PMID:10474290

  20. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively. PMID:20162090

  1. Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit. [Citrus paradisi Macf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

    1986-04-01

    Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).

  2. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  3. Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

    2010-07-01

    An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

  4. Effects of rootstock/scion combinations on the flavor of citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Gili; Tietel, Zipora; Porat, Ron

    2013-11-27

    We examined sensory quality, total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels, and aroma volatiles compositions of 'Or' and 'Odem' mandarins grafted on sour orange (SO), Volkamer lemon (Volka), and US-812 rootstocks; 'Valencia' oranges grafted on SO, Volka, and ×639 rootstocks; and a new pummelo × grapefruit hybrid cv. 'Redson' grafted on SO, Volka, and macrophylla rootstocks. TSS and acidity levels of all species were lower in juice of fruits on Volka than on SO. Sensory quality evaluations revealed that 'Odem' mandarins and 'Redson' fruits grown on SO were preferred to those on Volka but the rootstocks had no notable effects on flavor perception of 'Or' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges. Chromatographic analysis revealed that contents of aroma volatiles, especially terpenes, in homogenized segments of 'Odem' and 'Redson' but not of 'Or' and 'Valencia' were significantly lower on Volka than on SO. Overall, the effects of rootstocks on citrus fruit flavor depended on specific rootstock/scion interactions. Furthermore, the flavor of some varieties grown on Volka was inferior to that on SO because of lower TSS and acidity levels and lower aroma volatiles contents. PMID:24219601

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

  6. Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods. (author)

  7. Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by ?-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 ? 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 ? 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 ? 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 ? 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the ?-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation

  8. Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Sun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 {approx} 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 {approx} 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 {approx} 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 {approx} 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the {gamma}-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation.

  9. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Ghorbani; Zahra Pakkish

    2014-01-01

    The effect of brassinosteroid (BR) on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR indu...

  10. Postharvest disinfestation treatments for deciduous and citrus fruits of the Western Cape, South Africa: a database analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.S., Pryke; K.L., Pringle.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective postharvest disinfestation of export fruits from the Western Cape province of South Africa would help to reduce rejections due to the presence of insects. However, there is normally only a limited opportunity between controlling the insects and damaging the produce. A widely used agent in [...] disinfestation procedures, methyl bromide, was scheduled to be withdrawn in many countries in 2005 due to its ozone-depleting properties. The main alternatives are irradiation, extreme temperatures, forced air, vapour-heat methods and the use of controlled atmospheres. A literature survey was used to identify postharvest treatments with the highest likelihood of success in killing insect contaminants without damaging the fruit. Data from 284 scientific articles relating to these kinds of disinfestation were entered into a database (PQUAD). Queries were run to determine the most intensively studied fruits and pests. The tolerances of the commodities were compared with those of the pests at family level. Where pest tolerances were lower than those of the fruit, the treatment was regarded as a possible candidate for use. Methyl bromide, controlled atmospheres and irradiation were identified as the most widely used against pests. Irradiation appeared to control insects at doses that did not damage deciduous produce. Citrus appeared to be more susceptible to damage, however, than deciduous fruits. Low temperature also seemed to be less detrimental to deciduous fruit than to citrus. Deciduous fruit is already preserved in cold storage, making this an inexpensive option to combat insects. Cold treatment appeared to control members of the Pseudococcidae, Tephritidae and Tortricidae; more work is required on the other pest families. Controlled atmospheres also had a high chance of success for both citrus and deciduous fruits.

  11. Citrus Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred G. Gmitter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop.

  12. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  13. Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jagdish C.; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A.

    2008-12-01

    The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1100 to 2500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient ( R2). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R2 value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent classification of citrus according to the variety to which they belong and well-classified citrus according to their origin. The technique has potential in rapid determination of sugars content and to identify different varieties and origins of citrus in citrus juice industry.

  14. Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

  15. Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based) and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details ...

  16. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) based on evaporation replenishment (ER) irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation w...

  17. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

  18. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  19. Global analysis of gene expression during development and ripening of citrus fruit flesh. A proposed mechanism for citric Acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Manuel; Soler, Guillermo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Talón, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together with the analyses of selected metabolites highlighted key physiological processes occurring during citrus fruit development and ripening such as water accumulation, carbohydrate build-up, acid reduction, pigment substitutions (carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll decreases) and ascorbic acid diminution. Often, the combined analyses strongly suggested prevalence of specific metabolic alternatives. This observation has been exemplified with the proposal for a mechanism for citrate utilization, a process of much importance in citrus industry. Microarray data validated by real-time RT-PCR suggested that citrate was sequentially metabolyzed to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Thereafter, glutamate was both utilized for glutamine production and catabolyzed through the gamma-aminobutirate (GABA) shunt (GABA --> succinate semialdehyde --> succinate). This last observation appears to be of special relevance since it links the proton consuming reaction glutamate + H(+)--> GABA + CO(2) with high acid levels. GG-MS determinations showed that glutamate was constant while GABA levels decreased at ripening in agreement with a feasible activation of the GABA shunt during acid catabolism. This suggestion provides a convincing explanation for the strong reduction of both citrate and cytoplasmatic acidity that takes place in citrus fruit flesh during development and ripening. PMID:16897468

  20. Identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, W S; Bento, J M; Murata, Y; Ono, M; Parra, J R; Vilela, E F

    2001-10-01

    The sex pheromone of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana has been identified by gas chromatography coupled to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). The electron impact mass spectral (EI-MS) fragmentation of the major EAD-active peak gave identifying features for a monounsaturated acetate. Further analyses by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS), vapor-phase infrared spectroscopy (GC-IR), along with chemical derivatization (DMDS reaction), led to full characterization of the major component as (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (E8-12 : Ac). The second constituent was identified as the related alcohol, (E)-8-dodecenol (E8-12 : OH). The two compounds were indistinguishable from the authentic synthetic standards in chemical and EAD analyses. Samples of the two compounds were obtained by a facile synthesis utilizing lithium chemistry. Field tests showed that captures in traps baited with a mixture of E8-12 : Ac and E8-12 : OH at 100 : 1 and 10 : 1 ratios were not significantly different from the catches in traps having two virgin females. Dosage tests showed better performance of traps baited with 1 mg than those with 0.1 mg of the pheromone blend, either in 100 : 1 or 10 : 1 ratio. PMID:11710610

  1. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, Pg Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds. PMID:23589408

  2. Water-soluble polysaccharides from finger citron fruits (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengchun; Liang, Fengjie; Zhang, Yuyang; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2014-03-31

    Four water-soluble polysaccharides, FCp-1, FCp-2, FCp-3, and FCp-4 were obtained from finger citron fruits (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by routine separation procedure. Based on the calibration curve, molecular weights of them were estimated to be 113.9, 32.6, 140.3, and 177.1 kDa respectively. The acid hydrolysis, methylation, IR, GC-MS, and NMR experiments were used for composition analysis. FCp-1 was a heteropolysaccharide composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, and xylose, with a molar ratio of 3.0:7.0:4.1:1.0:1.5. FCp-2 and FCp-4 were ?4)-?-D-GalpA(1? linking galacturonan differ in molecular weights. FCp-3 was a ?6)-?-D-Glcp(1? linking glucan. According to the results of in vitro assays, FCp-3 showed significantly and moderately enhancing capacities toward the proliferation of splenocytes and thymocytes respectively. Thus, FCp-3 or analogs may have further use as immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24632217

  3. Chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of "naringenin," a flavanone present in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of deaths in developed countries and is emerging as a major public health burden in developing countries too. Changes in cancer prevalence patterns have been noticed due to rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. One of the major concerns is an influence of dietary habits on cancer rates. Approaches to prevent cancer are many and chemoprevention or dietary cancer prevention is one of them. Therefore, nutritional practices are looked at as effective types of dietary cancer prevention strategies. Attention has been given to identifying plant-derived dietary agents, which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic with minimal toxic side effects. Naringenin, a phytochemical mainly present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, is a frequent component of the human diet and has gained increasing interest because of its positive health effects not only in cancer prevention but also in noncancer diseases. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in studying the biological effects of naringenin at cellular and molecular levels. This review examines the cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic effects of naringenin in an organ-specific format, evaluating its limitations, and its considerable potential for development as a cancer chemopreventive/therapeutic agent. PMID:25514618

  4. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Dicle Donmez; Ozhan Simsek; Tolga Izgu; Yildiz Aka Kacar; Yesim Yalcin Mendi

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus t...

  5. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiwan Buachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  6. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  7. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  8. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits; Avaliacao e aceitacao de morangos e citros irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background From field harvest to the consumer’s table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Results Mature ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7?kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. Conclusions This study provides a broad picture of differential accumulation of proteins and metabolites in postharvest citrus fruit, and gives new insights into HT improved fruit disease resistance during subsequent storage of ‘Kamei’ Satsuma mandarin. Interpretation of the data for the proteins and metabolites revealed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lignin play important roles in heat treatment induced fruit resistance to pathogens and physiological disorders. PMID:23497220

  10. Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioni, D R; Guizzardi, M; Biondi, D M; Renda, A; Ruberto, G

    1998-08-18

    This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. "Washington navel", "Sanguinello", "Tarocco", "Moro", "Valencia late", and "Ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. "Avana"), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. "Marsh seedless" and "Red Blush"), citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata cvv. "Carrizo" and "Troyer"), and lemon (C. limon cv. "Femminello", collected in three periods), were characterized by a combination of GC and GC/MS analyses. The antifungal efficacy of the oils was then examined at progressively reduced rates. Findings showed a positive correlation between monoterpenes other than limonene and sesquiterpene content of the oils and the pathogen fungi inhibition. The best results were shown by the citrange oils, whose chemical composition is reported for the first time, and lemon. Furthermore P. digitatum was found to be more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the oils. PMID:9761340

  11. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  12. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of...

  13. Characterisation of free and bound volatile compounds from six different varieties of citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Nan; Tai, Ya-Nan; Dong, Man; Shao, Jin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Free volatile compounds in six varieties of citrus juices were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound fractions were isolated and extracted with methanol and Amberlite XAD-2 resin and then hydrolyzed by almond β-glucosidase. A total of 43 free and 17 bound volatile compounds were identified in citrus. Free volatile contents in sweet orange were the most abundant, followed by those in grapefruits and mandarins. Among free volatiles, terpenes were the most abundant in citrus juice. Sensory analysis results showed that the flavor of the same citrus cultivars was similar, but the flavor of different cultivars varied. Among bound volatiles, benzenic compounds were the most abundant in these citrus juices. Bound volatiles also significantly differed among cultivars. In addition, only p-vinylguaiacol were detected in all of the samples. PMID:25952837

  14. Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp.) de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos / Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp.) of potential use as rootstock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Ary Apparecido, Salibe.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, [...] incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki. Abstract in english The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp.), and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan [...] , C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

  15. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo, S.; Soler, A.; Canals, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M × M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (M...

  16. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini; Marcos Antônio Elias; Flaviana Gomes Lima; Bruno Bastos Gonçalves; Leonardo Lima Bergamini; Carlos Melo Silva Neto; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2013-01-01

    The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stig...

  17. Fruit Quality and Nutraceutical composition in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from Northern Italy (Piedmont)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUNOUS, Giancarlo; CANTERINO, SARA; BECCARO, GABRIELE LORIS

    2009-01-01

    In the Verbano lake area (46° 1' 26.04" N; 8° 41' 13.92" E), thanks to a favourable microclimate, the citrus culture has a great historic tradition, dating since the XVII century. The culture was introduced into the area from Tuscany and Ligury and many old citrus trees, propagated by grafting and budding during the last hundred years, are grown. The safeguard of the local germplasm and the conservation of the biodiversity, in order to reduce the genetic erosion, is fundamental and the citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product...agreement. The fees for the analyses of fresh citrus juices and other citrus products shall be set...

  19. Citrus Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Fred G. Gmitter; Manuel Talon

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  20. Quality Improvement of Pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm. Merr. Using Leaf-to-Fruit Ratio Arrangement and Fruit Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Kalsum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pummelo fruit has a large size, a lot of assimilate will be required for fruit growth and development. The problem of pummelo cultivation is not only assimilate requirement for fruit growth but also the fruit quality, i.e. external and internal quality. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of leaf-to-fruit ratio, fruit bagging and their relationship on fruit development and quality. This research has been conducted at University Farm of Bogor Agricultural University from November 2013 until September 2014. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor was leaf-to-fruit ratio with three levels (50:1, 75:1 and 100:1. The second factor was fruit bagging with four plastic colors (transparent, blue, red and yellow and control (without bagging. The result showed that fruit of the control treatment dropped because of pest attack. Leaf-to-fruit ratio and fruit bagging affected fruit growth and quality. The highest leaf-to-fruit ratio (100:1 significantly increased fruit weight as compared with lower leaf-to-fruit ratio (75:1 and 50:1, i.e: 746.3, 641.4 and 603.3 g, respectively. There was no significant effect of leaf-to-fruit ratio on edible portion, juice content and vitamin C in all treatments, whereas bagging bag color has significantly affected on fruit quality. Red plastic resulted the largest fruit but poorest quality in total soluble solids and maturity index. Transparent and yellow plastic could be recommended for pummelo bagging, which showed better taste indicated by high total soluble solids, maturity index and vitamin C.

  1. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  2. Efficacy of lufenuron bait station technique to control mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata in Citrus Orchards in Northern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of the lufenuron bait stations as a component of an integrated pest management program (IPM) was tested in three citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata during the three years 2005, 2006 and 2007. the technique was based on the use of the insect growth regulator lufenuron transferred via a gel bait Fr adult flies to prevent the hatching of eggs laid in fruits and induce a subsequent population reduction. The evaluation of the effect of the treatments was based on the assessment of adult Medfly population reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures in McPhail traps baited with the synthetic lure trimedlure and insecticide together with the evaluation of fruit damage. Results indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions of 12.72 pour cent during 2005, 34.99 pour cent and respectively 78.85 pour cent, 62.84 pour cent in fields 1, 2 and 3 during 2007 compared to standard chemical treatments. Fruit damage assessment showed generally significant differences between the two treatments reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures

  3. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  4. Involvement of CitCHX and CitDIC in Developmental-Related and Postharvest-Hot-Air Driven Citrate Degradation in Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Li, Shaojia; Dong, Wencheng; Feng, Chao; Yin, Xueren; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is the predominant organic acid associated with taste in citrus fruit. Although citrate metabolism has been widely studied in recent years, the potential contributions of transport proteins to citrate content remain unclear. In the present study, high-acid citrus fruit Gaocheng (‘GC’, Citrus sp.) and low-acid citrus fruit Satsuma mandarin (‘SM’, Citrus unshiu Marc.) were selected for study, and the degradation of citrate was deduced to be the main cause of the difference in acidity in fully mature fruits. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on ‘GC’ and ‘SM’ fruit samples over the same time course, and the results indicated that citrate degradation occurred mainly through the glutamine pathway, catalyzed by CitAco3-CitGS2-CitGDU1, and also two transport-related genes, CitCHX and CitDIC, were shown to be associated with citrate degradation. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. In postharvest ‘GC’ fruit, the expressions of these two transport-related genes were induced by 2-fold under hot air treatment, accompanied by a reduction of 7%-9% in total acid degradation. Transient expression of CitCHX and CitDIC in tobacco leaves was performed, and the citrate content was reduced by 62%, 75% and 78% following CitCHX, CitDIC and CitCHX plus CitDIC treatments, respectively, as compared with expression of an empty vector. Overall, these data indicated that two transport proteins, CitCHX and CitDIC, are not only involved in citrate degradation during fruit development, but also involved in postharvest hot air triggered citrate reduction. PMID:25738939

  5. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 ?M. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. PMID:26950105

  6. Effect of Inflorescence Types on Fruits Quality of Owari Cultivar of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Iqbal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies were envisaged to determine the effect of inflorescence pattern on the fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer Citrange (TR, Sour Orange (SO and Trifoliate Orange (TF in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture, Ege University, Izmir Turkey. Physical fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and height of fruits developed from leafy inflorescence were significantly higher as compared with leafless fruits. Fruit peel color (L, a, b and a/b ratio, specific gravity and electrical conductivity percentage (EC% was significantly higher in leafless fruits than leafy fruits but peel thickness and peel thickness index were higher for leafy fruits than that of leafless ones. Fruit internal quality parameters such as fruit juice percentage and vitamin C contents were significantly higher in leafless fruits as compared with leafy ones.

  7. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yujie Zhang; Zhengbo Liu; Shubo Gu; Jianhua Wang; Yinshi Sun; Xiaoxia Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis wa...

  9. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...

  10. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  11. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  12. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  13. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves (‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’) and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice ve...

  14. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  15. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lowering of the MRL was proposed, and for tomatoes and aubergines, where it was concluded that no modification of the MRL would be required. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA on 6 January 2012. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.9 mg/kg for citrus fruit, 0.5 mg/kg for pome fruit, 0.5 mg/kg peaches/nectarines and plums, 0.7 mg/kg for grapes, 3 mg/kg for strawberries, 0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes and aubergines, 0.4 mg/kg for sweet pepper, 3 mg/kg for chilli pepper, 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits with inedible peel and 20 mg/kg for hops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bifenazate on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Since for some of these crops higher MRLs were proposed in a previously issued reasoned opinion of EFSA, they need to be considered to avoid trade disruption. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bifenazate on citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, table- and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons, watermelons and hops will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  16. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L.) osbeck ): II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos / Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Victoria Filho; Célio S., Moreira; Natalino Y., Shimoama; Rosa K., Shinohar.

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Ci [...] trus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2). A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem. Abstract in english The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus [...] orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia) . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha) were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m) with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

  17. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0. PMID:19283047

  18. Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of lime, Citrus aurantifolia swingle fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lime fruits irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilising the market demand, revealed that irradiation of lime fruits, with 100 Gy gamma radiation proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of fruits upto 22 days of storage as compared to control and higher doses of irradiation. (author)

  19. Variation of Physiochemical Components of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Fruits at Different Sides of the Tree in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lal Shrestha; Durga Datta Dhakal; Durga Mani Gautum; Krishna Prasad Paudyal; Sangita Shrestha

    2012-01-01

    Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the important commercial fruits cultivated from terai to high hill of Nepal. It is an important source of vitamin “C” (ascorbic acid) for human nutrition. Amount of juice, TSS (Total soluble solids), TA (Titrable acid) and vitamin C are the determining factors of quality of acid lime fruits which may vary according to bearing sides of the trees. The main objective of this study is, to determine the variation of fruit quality...

  20. Effect of harvesting with a trunk shaker and an abscission chemical on fruit detachment and defoliation of citrus grown under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spain ranks as the world’s leading exporter of citrus for fresh consumption. Manual harvest accounts for 50% of the total production costs. Mechanical harvest would increase labor productivity and benefits of growers. Efficiency of these machines depends on the varieties and operating conditions. Use of abscission chemicals has been promoted to increase the detachment rate of fruit without affecting its quality. This work is aimed at studying whether the mechanical harvest and/or the application of an abscission agent affect the quality and quantity of harvested fruit and tree defoliation under the conditions of citrus cultivation in Spain. Trials were made in a completely randomized experimental design. From 2008 to 2011, different orchards of mandarin and orange trees were sprayed with different doses of ethephon as abscission agent and harvested with a trunk shaker. Harvest related variables (detachment percentage, defoliation and fruit without calyx were measured. The percentage of fruit detached by the trunk shaker ranged between 70 and 85% and it did not depend on the orchard. The shaker produced minimal damage to the bark when gripped incorrectly. Increased doses of ethephon increased fruit detachment except in ‘Clemenules’ orchard, but also increased the fruit without calyx in 1-9%. Moreover, ethephon promoted significant defoliation. Neither gummosis nor death of branches was observed. This work demonstrates that mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers may be a feasible solution for citrus cultivated in Spain for fresh market. Use of ethephon could only be recommended for citrus destined to industry and only for certain varieties.

  1. Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits ...

  2. El Estrés Hídrico en Cítricos (Citrus spp.): Una revisión / Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review / O estresse hídrico em cítricos (Citrus spp): Uma revisão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier E, Vélez; Javier G, Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H, Alvarado-Sanabria.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cítricos constituem o principal produto frutícola no mundo pelas suas vantagens e benefícios. Uma umidade adequada e homogênea no solo garante sua qualidade e produção, ainda nos países subtropicais onde existe distribuição uniforme da precipitação. A maioria das áreas citrícolas, contam com infr [...] aestrutura de risco localizado, o que incrementa a eficiência no uso da agua. Porém, a pressão sobre os recursos hídricos faz necessário estudar o comportamento em condiçöes adversas para manejar eficientemente o planejamento da irrigação. Nesta revisão apresenta-se o efeito do déficit hídrico nos cítricos. Além disto, algumas respostas fisiológicas e anatômicas pelos cítricos ao déficit e o efeito do estresse hídrico sobre a produção e o crescimento vegetativo. Finalmente, apresentam-se alguns resultados da aplicação de irrigação deficitária, como forma de poupar água sem afetar a produção. Abstract in spanish Los cítricos constituyen el principal producto frutícola a nivel mundial por sus ventajas y beneficios. Una humedad adecuada y homogénea en el suelo garantiza su calidad y producción, incluso en los países subtropicales donde existen distribuciones uniformes de la precipitación. La mayoría de las ár [...] eas de cítricos cuentan con infraestructura de riego localizado, lo que incrementa la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Sin embargo, la presión sobre los recursos hídricos hace necesario seguir estudiando el comportamiento ante condiciones adversas para manejar eficientemente la programación del riego. En este artículo se presenta el efecto del déficit hídrico en los cítricos. Además de algunas respuestas fisiológicas y anatómicas que manifiestan los cítricos a este déficit y que efecto tiene un estrés hídrico sobre la producción y el crecimiento vegetativo. Por último se recopilan algunos resultados de la aplicación de riego deficitario como una forma de ahorrar agua sin afectar la producción. Abstract in english Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits. Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns. Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, th [...] ereby increasing water-use efficiency. However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling. This paper deals with the effect of water stress on citric plants, as well as some of their physiological and anatomical responses to such deficit and what effect hydric stress has on vegetable production and growth. Some results are compiled regarding deficit irrigation (DI) as a way to save water without affecting production.

  3. Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2012-05-01

    Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

  4. Towards the improvement of fruit-quality parameters in citrus under deficit irrigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, A; Frías, J.; García-Tejero, I.; Romero, F.; Muriel, J. L.; Capote, N.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortage is becoming a severe problem in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, reducing the availability of agricultural land and water resources. In Spain, citrus is one of the most economically important crops, with 74,000 ha devoted to its cultivation. Since water resources are increasingly more insufficient, the efficient use of water is becoming more essential. Deficit irrigation in many agricultural crops has frequently proved to be an efficient tool for improving water-use efficie...

  5. Dinámicas del viento en quintas de cítricos y daño en los frutos / Wind Dynamics in Citrus Orchards and Fruit Damage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Cataldo; Valeria, Durañona; Rodolfo, Pienika; Alfredo, Gravina.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay las quintas de cítricos están protegidas con mallas naturales, conformadas por árboles altos. Si bien se consigue disminuir la velocidad media del viento, no se logra una disminución de la cantidad de fruta descartada debido al daño por viento. El roce de las hojas sería lo que genera el [...] mayor daño sobre la superficie en las primeras etapas de crecimiento del fruto. Se realizó un trabajo de campo en un cuadro de una plantación de cítricos, en el que se instalaron mallas de manera de lograr una protección parcial del mismo. En las zonas protegidas por estas mallas se apreció un aumento de la cantidad de fruta de calidad exportable. A diferencia de las barreras naturales, cuando el viento escurre alrededor de estas mallas plásticas se produce turbulencia con escalas del tamaño de las hojas de los árboles y aún menores. Se estudió un árbol cítrico en el túnel de viento, con flujos de velocidad media entre 1 m/s y 6 m/s, y de diferente nivel de energía contenida en las estructuras vorticosas correspondientes a longitudes del tamaño de las hojas y menores. Para una velocidad media determinada, cuando el contenido de energía de las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia era elevado, las hojas se movieron con una amplitud significativamente mayor a cuando el flujo presentó baja energía en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia. Esto lleva a concluir que la hoja permanecería alejada del fruto un tiempo significativamente mayor cuanto más elevada sea la energía contenida en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia, disminuyendo así la acción mecánica de las hojas y el consiguiente daño. Abstract in english In Uruguay, citrus orchards are protected by live fences, constituted by tall trees. While it manages to reduce the average wind speed, it does not reduce the amount of fruit discarded due to wind damage. The rubbing of the leaves’ edges against the fruits would be the most significant source of dam [...] age in young fruits. A field test in a box of citrus plantations was performed, in which artificial fences were installed for wind protection. In the fence protected zones, an increase of the exportable quality fruit was detected. As a difference to live fences, artificial fences are designed to control the turbulence of tree leaves’ size or smaller. Citrus tree’s response under wind action was studied in a wind tunnel for flows with mean velocities between 1 m/s and 6 m/s, and with different energy content at small-scale turbulence. At a fixed mean velocity, if the energy at small-scale turbulence was high, the leaves moved with an amplitude significantly greater than when this energy is low. This leads us to infer that the leaf would remain significantly more time away from the fruit when the energy at the small-scales is greater than when the energy is low, reducing the leaves’ mechanical action and thereby the resulting damage.

  6. Persistence of 14C-gibberellin A3 on the surface of Citrus fruit peel and on inert glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of gibberellin A3 on plant surfaces was examined using fruit of ‘Marsh’ seedless grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and an inert glass model system. 14C-gibberellin A3 was applied to surfaces in aqueous treatment solutions or in waxing solutions. Dried-out treatment residues were removed by washing and analyzed for total and GA3-like radioactivity. Gibberellin A3 persisted without significant loss for at least 7 d in aqueous treatment solutions (pH 4.0 or 6.2) but was less persistent in the pH 10.4 waxing solution (t1/2 = 7 d). Loss of total peel surface radioactivity was fast during the first 3 days, slowing down afterwards. After 14 days 73% of the initial radioactivity could still be recovered from fruit peel surface and 70% of the recovered radioactivity was still in the form of gibberellin A3. Gibberellin A3 was somewhat more persistent in residues from pH 4 than pH 7 treatment solutions. Light had a slight enhancing effect on gibberellin A3 decomposition on fruit peel under growth chamber conditions. After 12 d at 100% relative humidity, 88% of the radioactivity on glass surfaces was still in the form of gibberellin A3, as against 45% at a relative humidity of 50%. Simulated field conditions, combining daily fluctuations in light, temperature and relative humidity, markedly enhanced gibberellin A3 decomposition on glass surfaces (t1/2 = 2 d). Gibberellin A3 was very persistent (90% after 9 d) in the waxing residues on fruit peel surface. (author)

  7. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Baseline data of naturally occurring radionuclides in some native vegetables and fruits in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to provide the baseline data information on natural radioactivities in vegetables and fruits produced and consumed locally in the areas of potential nuclear power plant sites in Thailand. Four provinces (Prajuab-Kirikhan, Chumphon, Surat-Thani and Nakhon-Si-thammarat) were selected for collection of native vegetables and fruits samples, together with their corresponding soils. The activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 210Po were determined in all these samples. The obtained results for 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 210Po for all vegetable and fruit samples were in the range of 1-34, 1-108, 32-4392 and 0.2-47 Bq kg-1, respectively, which were much lower than those obtained for their corresponding soils. (authors)

  9. Baseline data of naturally occurring radionuclides in some native vegetables and fruits in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Pornnumpa, C; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the baseline data information on natural radioactivities in vegetables and fruits produced and consumed locally in the areas of potential nuclear power plant sites in Thailand. Four provinces (Prajuab-Kirikhan, Chumphon, Surat-Thani and Nakhon-Si-thammarat) were selected for collection of native vegetables and fruits samples, together with their corresponding soils. The activities of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and (210)Po were determined in all these samples. The obtained results for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and (210)Po for all vegetable and fruit samples were in the range of 1-34, 1-108, 32-4392 and 0.2-47 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which were much lower than those obtained for their corresponding soils. PMID:25944964

  10. Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Couto, Pereira; Wiliam, Boschetti; Roger, Rampazzo; Paulo Gustavo, Celso; Plinho Francisco, Hertz; Alessandro de Oliveira, Rios; Márcia, Vizzotto; Simone Hickmann, Flores.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the greatest variety of Brazilian flora is in the Amazon region, the Southern region of Brazil also has an estimated number of at least 5,000 species of vascular native plants. These species have been neglected as potential food sources, remaining unknown and under-utilized and limiting the [...] potential variety in the diet of Brazilians and other peoples. Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The essential element concentrations in the fruit samples were higher or similar to the values reported for traditional fruits. The araticum-do-mato fruit samples had high concentrations of the elements Ca, K, and Cu, and trace elements such as Pb and Sr. Mandacaru-de-três-quinas had predominance of Ba, Bi, and Ga, and the essential elements Mg and Mn. Uvaia and guabiroba had the highest levels of Al and Cr, but uvaia had high levels of Fe and Zn. The pindo palm had high amounts of Cd and Ni, and the yellow guava had high concentrations of Na, while red guava had high levels of Co.

  11. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  12. Studies on the sugar and organic acid in fruits of Citrus unshiu Marc. By sup(14)C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of spraying Cl- and SOsub(4)sup(2-) solutions on sugar, organic acid and amino acid levels in citrus(C. unshiu Marc.) fruit juice were examined using the sup(14)C tracer method. Each sup(14)C-labelled compound under investigation was measured during the three weeks after 14CO2 assimilation. The total carbon compound, which was measured as the specfic activity(cpm/ml) of sup(14)C, was transported more into the fruit juice within one week after sup(14)COsub(2) assimilation with the SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatment than with the Clsup(-) treatment. The sup(14)C-specific activity changes of the sugar fraction were very similar in both Clsup(-) and SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatments although the organic acid fraction was reduced more by SOsub(4)sup(2-). The specific activity ratio of the sugar fraction to organic acid was increased rapidly when treated with Clsup(-). This indicates that SOsub(4)sup(2-) plays a role in raising the ratio of sugar to organic acid. It was found that the sup(14)C-specific activity in the amino acid fraction was higher when Clsup(-) was applied. (Author)

  13. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times. The automatic drip irrigation scheduling can be better substitute for manual drip irrigation operation and enhancing the water use efficiency.  

  14. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25–30 °C, 60–70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemic...

  15. Application of Sensory Evaluation, HS-SPME GC-MS, E-Nose, and E-Tongue for Quality Detection in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electronic tongue (E-tongue), headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), electronic nose (E-nose), and quantitative describe analysis (QDA) were applied to describe the 2 types of citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarins [Citrus unshiu Marc.] and sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis {L.} Osbeck]) and their mixing juices systematically and comprehensively. As some aroma components or some flavor molecules interacted with the whole juice matrix, the changes of most components in the fruit juice were not in proportion to the mixing ratio of the 2 citrus fruits. The potential correlations among the signals of E-tongue and E-nose, volatile components, and sensory attributes were analyzed by using analysis of variance partial least squares regression. The result showed that the variables from the sensor signals (E-tongue system and E-nose system) had significant and positive (or negative) correlations to the most variables of volatile components (GC-MS) and sensory attributes (QDA). The simultaneous utilization of E-tongue and E-nose obtained a perfect classification result with 100% accuracy rate based on linear discriminant analysis and also attained a satisfying prediction with high coefficient association for the sensory attributes (R(2) > 0.994 for training sets and R(2) > 0.983 for testing sets) and for the volatile components (R(2) > 0.992 for training sets and R(2) > 0.990 for testing sets) based on random forest. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods, such as GC-MS and sensory evaluation by human panel in the fruit industry. PMID:26416698

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  17. In-Line estimation of the standard colour index of citrus fruits using a computer vision system developed for a mobile platform

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, A.; Talens Oliag, Pau; Prats-Montalbán, José Manuel; CUBERO GARCÍA, SERGIO; Albert Gil, Francisco Eugenio; BLASCO IVARS, JOSE

    2013-01-01

    A key aspect for the consumer when it comes to deciding on a particular product is the colour. In order to make fruit available to consumers as early as possible, the collection of oranges and mandarins begins before they ripen fully and reach their typical orange colour. As a result, they are therefore subjected to certain degreening treatments, depending on their standard colour citrus index at harvest. Recently, a mobile platform that incorporates a computer vision system capable of pre-so...

  18. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE conce...

  19. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

  20. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  1. COMPARATIVE DISAPPEARANCE OF DIOXATHION, MALATHION, OXYDEMETONMETHYL AND DIALIFOR FROM FLORIDA CITRUS LEAF AND FRUIT SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface residue disappearance rates of dioxathion, malathion, and oxydemetonmethyl, and dialifor were the same for fruit and leaves, and they increase with temperature. Disappearance rates were in the order of malation, oxydemetonmethyl, dialifor, dioxathion (from largest to smal...

  2. Comparison of Essential Oils of Clove, Thyme and Imazalil Fungicide on Blue Mold ( Penicillium italicum Wehemer of Citrus Fruits in Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens are the most important factors inducing postharvest losses on citrus fruit. Experiments were conducted as a CRD with 4 replications on sweet lime (Citrus limetta and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were pure essential oils of clove and thyme and in 25% ethanol solution at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% and imazalil (2 ml/l. Results indicated that in the first year, pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of blue mold of Valencia orange fruit from 90 % (control to 0 and 12.5 %, respectively. Pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of sweet lime in the first year of experiment from 95 % (control to 0 and 6 %, respectively. In the second year, with the same treatments decay percentage of blue mold was reduced from 90 % (control to 0. Solutions of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 % of clove and thyme oil extracts in 25 % ethanol solution reduced decay percentage of sweet lime fruits form 85 % (control to 65, 41 and 26 % for thyme oil and to 60, 30 and 22.5 % for clove oil. Comparison of pure clove and thyme oil extract with imazalil showed that pure clove and thyme oil extracts were not significantly different with fungicide treatment. Treatments of clove and thyme oils in 25 % ethanol treatment were not as effective as fungicide.

  3. Thymus capitatus essential oil reducing citrus fruit decay

    OpenAIRE

    Arras, Giovanni; Piga, Antonio

    1995-01-01

    Thymus capitatus essential oil was employed as vapour in postharverst to reduce Botrys cinerea grey mould in mandarin fruits. The latter were sprayerd with 105 spores/ml suspension, placed in 15-litre desiccators at 25°C and fumigated under vacuum conditions at varying concentrations of thyme oil. The desiccators were kept for 24 h and then the fruit rinse water was plated in Petri dishes to test spore viability. The results showed that the untreated control rinse water exhibited a high rate ...

  4. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

  5. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ / Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Ferreira de, Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Elen de Lima, Aguiar - Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes, Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo, Nascimento; William Costa, Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues, Cassino.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os [...] espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial. Abstract in english This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to Nove [...] mber, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

  6. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters. PMID:24498732

  7. Efficacy assessment of Candida oleophila (strain O) and Pichia anomala (strain K) against major postharvest diseases of citrus fruits in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, R; Serrhini, M N; Jijakli, M H

    2004-01-01

    Two yeasts, Candida oleophila (strain O) and Pichia anomala (strain K), were previously selected for their antagonistic activity against postharvest diseases on apples and pears. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of both antagonistic yeast's against wound postharvest pathogens of citrus fruits. The efficacy of both strains (applied at 10(5), 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml) was assessed against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum inoculated after one hour (at a concentration of 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) spores/ml) on citrus varieties 'clementine' and 'valencia-late'. Fruits were incubated for one week at 24 degrees C before measurement of lesion diameter. The protective levels were positively correlated with high concentration of antagonist and low concentration of pathogen. Highest protective levels (from 73 to 100%) were detected with the application of strain O or strain K at 10(8) CFU/ml whatever the pathogen (applied at 10(5) spores/ml) and the citrus variety. The antagonistic activity of both strains was also dependent on the incubation period before pathogen Inoculation. The protective level increased with time between application of the antagonist and inoculation of fungal spores. Whatever the yeast strain (10(8) CFU/ml). the protective level exceed 70% when wounded oranges were inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum (both at 10(6) spores/ml) 12 hours after yeast treatment. These protective levels reached 100% when the incubation period separating the antagonist application and the pathogenic inoculation was 24 hours. On the other hand, high protective levels (citrus variety 'clementine' caused by Geotrichum candidum inoculated at concentration of 10(6) spores/ml when strain O or strain K were applied at 10(8) CFU/ml 24 hours before pathogen. All these results support the potential practical application of both strains against major postharvest pathogens on citrus. PMID:15756846

  8. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  9. Assimilation of 14CO2 and 14C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimilation and metabolism of 14CO2 was compared to that of [U-14C] sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of 14CO2 by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more 14CO2 than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the 14C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from 14CO2 in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous [U-14C] sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO2 assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose

  10. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção / Damage caused by fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) on citrus under organic production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Felisberto da, Silva; Luíza Rodrigues, Redaelli; Rafael Narciso, Meirelles; Fábio Kessler, Dal Soglio.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação d [...] e sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) are the main pests of horticulture worldwide. Because they are considered key pests in citrus production, it is necessary to monitor them to avoid the direct damage. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the population variation of Anastrepha fraterculus [...] and the relationship of its population with damage in organic orchards of orange "Céu" cultivar and tangor (C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata) cv "Murcott". Data were collected over the maturation period, from January 2003 to September 2004, in the Caí Valley region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The number of fruit flies was recorded weekly by McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25%. Damageto the fruits were determined by the ratio between healthy fruits and fruit damaged by the flies. Meteorological records of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were obtained from meteorological station 30 km away from the experimental areas. It was found that larger populations of A. fraterculus, the predominant species in the region, were found under ideal conditions of rainfall. The estimatedpopulation of fruit flies capable of causing damage to fruits varied according to the cultivar, in which orange cv 'Céu' was the most susceptible. The highest population peaks were found at the color changing phase of fruits. However, at the phase of fruit maturity, flies caused the greatest damage due to the fruits intolerance to the attack. It was concluded that the infestation of citrus fruits by A. fraterculus is related to the species, the cultivar and climatic factors, especially rainfall. Constant monitoring of fruit fly population is important in determining the infestation at harvest.

  11. Guava SSR analysis: Diversity assessment and similarity to accessions associated with reducing citrus greening in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guava (Psidium guajava) is an evergreen tree in the Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. It is grown throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, and is used as a fresh fruit and processed into juice, jelly and paste. Recent introduction of citrus greening (huanglongbing) into Florida...

  12. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

  13. Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mac.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G

    2015-05-15

    The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased ?-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels. PMID:25577088

  14. Laser labeling and its effect on the storage quality of citrus fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etching the required information on the skins of fruits and vegetables is an alternative way to label produce. A low energy CO2 laser beam etches the outermost layer of the epidermis revealing the contrasting underneath layer while forming alphanumerical characters. These etched areas represent brea...

  15. The ability of the antagonist yeast Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1 to suppress green mould infection in citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Lahlali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies it was shown that Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, isolated from healthy Moroccan citrus Valencia-Late oranges, was effective against Penicillium italicum. Here the effectiveness of strain Z1 was assessed against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould, under different temperature (5-25°C and relative humidity (RH (45-100% regimes for its reliable and largescale application in packinghouse. All main effects and interactions were significant (P80%. Its applications as a formulated product significantly reduced the incidence of infected fruit (55% and the percentage of infected wounds (47% compared to the only pathogen control treatment. However, disease control with formulated product was significantly less than that obtained with thiabendazole (30% or strain Z1 culturable cells (35%. These results highlight that strain Z1 is an effective biological control agent for control of green mould under varying environmental conditions, and control may be optimized by combining its use with other environmentally-safe post-harvest treatments or improved formulation.

  16. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  17. Effect of the Citrus Lycopene ?-Cyclase Transgene on Carotenoid Metabolism in Transgenic Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fei; Zhou, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Qiang (Casey); Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene ?-cyclase (LYCB) is the key enzyme for the synthesis of ?-carotene, a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, tomato constitutively express Lycb-1 was engineered. The ?-carotene level of transformant increased 4.1 fold, and the total carotenoid content increased by 30% in the fruits. In the transgenic line, the downstream ?-branch metabolic fluxes were repressed during the three developmental stages while ?-carotene content increased in the ripe stage. Microarray analysi...

  18. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I.; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial an...

  19. Mass and volume modelling of tangerine (Citrus reticulate fruit with some physical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mobli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are instances in which it is desirable to determine relationships among fruit physical attributes. For example, fruits are often graded on the basis of size and projected area, but it may be more economical to develop a machine which would grade by mass or volume. Therefore, the relationships between mass/volume (either mass or volume and other physical attributes of fruit are needed. In this study three Iranian varieties of tangerine were selected and the various models for predicting mass/volume of tangerine from its dimensions, projected area, and volume/mass were established. The models were divided into three classifications: 1 – single and multiple variable regressions of tangerine dimensions, 2 – single and multiple variable regressions of projected areas, 3 – estimating tangerine mass/volume based on its volume/mass. The results revealed that mass and volume modelling on the basis of intermediate diameter, on any projected area, and the measured volume are the best models. Based on the results, mass and volume modelling, respectively on the basis of the actual volume and one projected area, were identified as the best models. The highest determination coefficient in all the models was obtained for volume modelling based on projected area as R2 = 0.97. Finally, volume modelling from economical stand-point was recommended as the most reliable modelling.

  20. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  1. Gibberellins Contents in Leafy Fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc. in Relation to Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Iqbal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies were designed to find out the role of endogenous Gibberellin like compounds in production of low quality in leafy fruits of Satsuma mandarin. Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy and leafless fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer citrange, Sour orange and Trifoliate orange rootstock was tested with lettuce hypocotyl elongation test. Results showed that Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets was considerably higher than the leafless fruitlets in Troyer citrange. Like wise Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Sour orange and Trifoliate orange was also higher than that of leafless fruitlets. Comparison of the leafy fruitlets indicated that maximum gibberellin like activities were noted in case of Trifoliate rootstock which was followed by Troyer citrange and Sour orange, respectively.

  2. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Waard, W.J., de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A. A. C. M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; de Kok, T. M. C. M.; Van Schooten, F. J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exert their toxicity. To establish whether or not activation of the AhR pathway by NAhRAs and dioxin-like substances results in similar cellular responses, gene expression pro...

  3. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the ‘true citrus fruit trees’ group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Curk, Franck; Snoussi-Trifa, Hager; Morillon, Raphael; Ancillo, Gema; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in morphology, the genera representing ‘true citrus fruit trees’ are sexually compatible, and their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Most of the important commercial ‘species’ of Citrus are believed to be of interspecific origin. By studying polymorphisms of 27 nuclear genes, the average molecular differentiation between species was estimated and some phylogenetic relationships between ‘true citrus fruit trees’ were clarified. Methods Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from 18 genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis pathways and nine putative genes for salt tolerance was performed for 45 genotypes of Citrus and relatives of Citrus to mine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indel polymorphisms. Fifty nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also analysed. Key Results A total of 16 238 kb of DNA was sequenced for each genotype, and 1097 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 indels were identified. These polymorphisms were more valuable than SSRs for inter-taxon differentiation. Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that Citrus reticulata and Fortunella form a cluster that is differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). These results confirm the taxonomic subdivision between the subgenera Metacitrus and Archicitrus. A few genes displayed positive selection patterns within or between species, but most of them displayed neutral patterns. The phylogenetic inheritance patterns of the analysed genes were inferred for commercial Citrus spp. Conclusions Numerous molecular polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), which are potentially useful for the analysis of interspecific genetic structures, have been identified. The nuclear phylogenetic network for Citrus and its sexually compatible relatives was consistent with the geographical origins of these genera. The positive selection observed for a few genes will help further works to analyse the molecular basis of the variability of the associated traits. This study presents new insights into the origin of C. sinensis. PMID:23104641

  4. Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez de Camacaro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck injertada sobre limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005 y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006. El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio.One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch. The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005 and 229 days (February to September 2006. The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

  5. Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Pérez de Camacaro; Aracelis, Jiménez.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) injertada sobre [...] limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq) ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005) y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006). El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio. Abstract in english One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus s [...] inensis L. Osbeck) grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale) located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping) of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch). The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005) and 229 days (February to September 2006). The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

  6. Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

  7. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 min...

  8. Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

  9. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

  10. Citrus PH5-like H(+)-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13-21 exons and 12-20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange "Honganliu" exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

  11. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13–21 exons and 12–20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange “Honganliu” exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

  12. Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone in citrus fruits, reduces TAFI expression in HepG2 cells through transcriptional inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kimihiko; Seike, Toru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Ishii, Hidemi

    2013-06-01

    Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, carboxypeptidase B2) is a 58-kDa plasma glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes as an inactive form. TAFI is activated by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex, and activated TAFI (TAFIa) plays an important role in regulating the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis through inhibition of fibrinolysis. It has been suggested that high levels of TAFI in circulating plasma increase the risks of cardiovascular death and acute phase in ischaemic stroke. However, the mechanisms of regulating TAFI expression have been unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nobiletin (a polymethoxy flavonoid contained in the rind of citrus fruits) on TAFI gene (CPB2) and TAFI antigen expression in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nobiletin decreased the release of TAFI antigen from HepG2 cells into conditioned medium in parallel with decreased levels of CPB2 mRNA and antigen. The half-life time of CPB2 mRNA in nobiletin-treated cells was unchanged compared to that of untreated control cells. Using nobiletin-treated cells that were transfected with a luciferase CPB2 promoter reporter plasmid, activity decreased to half of that in untreated control cells. A series of luciferase reporter constructs containing 5´-flanking region deletions of the human CPB2 gene showed that the sequences from -150 bp to -50 bp were essential for transcription of CPB2 and contained an AP-1 binding sequence at ~ -119 bp to - 99 bp in the CPB2 promoter. The amount of complexed nuclear protein and sequences from ~ -119 bp to -99 bp was decreased in nobiletin-treated cells. ChIP assays showed that c-Jun bound to the ~ -119 bp to -99 bp region of the CPB2 promoter and that the amount of the immunocomplex decreased after nobiletin treatment. Therefore, nobiletin-induced repression of CPB2 transcription might involve AP-1 inhibition and/or prevention of AP-1 binding in a specific region on the CPB2 gene in HepG2 cells. PMID:23572161

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CITRUS HYSTRIX AND CITRUS MAXIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*

    2013-01-01

    Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit was conducted using agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Salmonella typh...

  14. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  15. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks / Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins; Rodrigo Rodas, Lemo; Tatiana, Cantuarias-Avilés.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O es [...] paçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro co [...] unty, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

  16. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf. e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'.

  17. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cercos Manuel; Talon Manuel; Soler Guillermo; Terol Javier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrat...

  18. Mechanical Harvesting of Citrus Fruits for Fresh Market with a Trunk Shaker and a Hand-Held Petrol Shaker

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrosa Mira, Antonio; Ortiz Sánchez, María Coral; Martin, B; Moreno, R; Molto, E.; Chueca, P.

    2012-01-01

    Harvesting is one of the more expensive tasks in a Spanish citrus crop because it is done manually. Spanish researchers are investigating the possibilities of mechanical harvesting of citrus cultivated under Spanish conditions. This paper compares two different strategies for mechanical harvesting: the use of a trunk shaker and the use of a hand-held petrol shaker. Tests were performed in lemon, orange and mandarin groves. Tree spacing was 6-7 m between rows and 2.5-4.5 m in the row. Trees we...

  19. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães, Machado; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving; Dierlei dos, Santos; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citr [...] us sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [...] L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  1. Vascularización del pedicelo y crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis var. Salustiana y su relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético Pedicel development and fruit growth in Citrus sinensis ‘Salustiana’ and their relation with indol-acetic acid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia E Laskowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer el proceso de vascularización del pedicelo y el crecimiento inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var. Salustiana en relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. Desde la antesis hasta 118 días después de antesis (dda se colectaron estructuras reproductivas y en el laboratorio se determinaron los cambios anatómicos y el crecimiento de la superficie en sección transversal del pedicelo y el incremento en masa seca del fruto. Simultáneamente se cuantificó el ácido indolacético (AIA en estos órganos empleando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC. El incremento en la superficie transversal del pedicelo estuvo determinado por el aumento en superficie en la sección transversal del xilema y el floema, con mayor tasa a partir de los 62 dda, debido a la actividad del cambium vascular. El xilema y el floema continuaron desarrollándose hasta el final del estudio, pero a partir de los 76 dda la superficie del floema activo se mantuvo constante debido al desarrollo de capas internas de fibras. Durante el período de crecimiento estudiado, la concentración de AIA tanto en los pedicelos como en el fruto fue marcadamente superior durante la post-antesis y luego disminuyó abruptamente. Los máximos niveles de AIA coincidieron con los procesos de división celular y diferenciación en el pedicelo y con la fase lenta de crecimiento del fruto. Las cinéticas de crecimiento del pedicelo y fruto fueron muy similares, observándose una mayor tasa de incremento en materia seca del fruto durante el período de mayor desarrollo del tejido vascular secundario, principalmente del xilema.Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. Salustiana with the objective to establish the relationship between indol-acetic acid content and, fruit and pedicel development during the initial growth stage. Reproductive structures of different trees from an orchard in Museros (Valencia, Spain were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis and used to determine cross-sectional area of pedicel, anatomical changes, dry mass of fruit, and indol-acetic acid (IAA content using HPLC. The increase in cross-sectional area of pedicel was related to the increase in cross-sectional area of xylem and phloem, with greater rate from the 62 dda, due to the activity of the vascular cambium. Xylem and phloem continued developing until the end of the study (118 dda, but from the 76 dda the active phloem area remained constant due to the development of internal fiber layers. During the period of study the concentration of AIA in the pedicel as in the fruit was noticeably superior during postanthesis, and soon it diminished sharply. The maximum levels of IAA fitted with processes of cellular division and differentiation in pedicel and with the slow phase of growth of the fruit. Growth kinetic of pedicel and fruit were noticeably similar, being observed a greater rate of increase in fruit dry mass during the period of greater development of the secondary vascular tissue, mainly of xylem.

  2. Vascularización del pedicelo y crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis var. Salustiana y su relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético / Pedicel development and fruit growth in Citrus sinensis ‘Salustiana’ and their relation with indol-acetic acid content

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Libia E, Laskowski; Consuelo, Monerri; Amparo, García-Luis; José Luis, Guardiola.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer el proceso de vascularización del pedicelo y el crecimiento inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var. Salustiana en relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. [...] Desde la antesis hasta 118 días después de antesis (dda) se colectaron estructuras reproductivas y en el laboratorio se determinaron los cambios anatómicos y el crecimiento de la superficie en sección transversal del pedicelo y el incremento en masa seca del fruto. Simultáneamente se cuantificó el ácido indolacético (AIA) en estos órganos empleando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). El incremento en la superficie transversal del pedicelo estuvo determinado por el aumento en superficie en la sección transversal del xilema y el floema, con mayor tasa a partir de los 62 dda, debido a la actividad del cambium vascular. El xilema y el floema continuaron desarrollándose hasta el final del estudio, pero a partir de los 76 dda la superficie del floema activo se mantuvo constante debido al desarrollo de capas internas de fibras. Durante el período de crecimiento estudiado, la concentración de AIA tanto en los pedicelos como en el fruto fue marcadamente superior durante la post-antesis y luego disminuyó abruptamente. Los máximos niveles de AIA coincidieron con los procesos de división celular y diferenciación en el pedicelo y con la fase lenta de crecimiento del fruto. Las cinéticas de crecimiento del pedicelo y fruto fueron muy similares, observándose una mayor tasa de incremento en materia seca del fruto durante el período de mayor desarrollo del tejido vascular secundario, principalmente del xilema. Abstract in english Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Salustiana with the objective to establish the relationship between indol-acetic acid content and, fruit and pedicel development during the initial growth stage. Reproductive structures of different trees from an or [...] chard in Museros (Valencia, Spain) were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis and used to determine cross-sectional area of pedicel, anatomical changes, dry mass of fruit, and indol-acetic acid (IAA) content using HPLC. The increase in cross-sectional area of pedicel was related to the increase in cross-sectional area of xylem and phloem, with greater rate from the 62 dda, due to the activity of the vascular cambium. Xylem and phloem continued developing until the end of the study (118 dda), but from the 76 dda the active phloem area remained constant due to the development of internal fiber layers. During the period of study the concentration of AIA in the pedicel as in the fruit was noticeably superior during postanthesis, and soon it diminished sharply. The maximum levels of IAA fitted with processes of cellular division and differentiation in pedicel and with the slow phase of growth of the fruit. Growth kinetic of pedicel and fruit were noticeably similar, being observed a greater rate of increase in fruit dry mass during the period of greater development of the secondary vascular tissue, mainly of xylem.

  3. Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.) / Horticultural techniques for improving orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L.) size and quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Cabezas-Gutiérrez; Carlos Andrés, Rodríguez E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante 'Flying Dragon', se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa [...] al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), en plantas de 9 años de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i) el anillado de ramas productivas influyo significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incremento el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii) la aplicación de sacarosa mejoro la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana. Abstract in english Seeking to improve the fruit quality of Sweet Orange grafted on the dwarf rootstock 'Flying Dragon', the present research study tested a series of techniques, namely branch ringing, partial defoliation, fruit thinning, foliar fertilization, sucrose application to the foliage and pruning of non-produ [...] ctive branches. The work was carried out on 9 year old trees in a comercial orchard in the north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia). In comparing the treatment results to the control, it was observed that: i) productive branch ringing significantlyinfluenced total fruit production per plant and increased fruit retention on the tree by 38%; ii) sucrose application improved fruit internal quality through increasing total soluble solid content by 10% and reducing acidity by 36%. Neither fruit thinning nor foliar fertilization showed any significant differences with the control. It can be concluded that the combination of branch ringing and external application of sucrose can be useful for improving orange fruit quality in the Colombian coffee zone.

  4. Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-06-28

    The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and that integration of fungicide applications and hot water dips may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, as a consequence of increased effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16787020

  5. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  6. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  8. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P vitamin C (r = 0.56, P fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  9. Control of Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri by male sterile technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 56000 and 95000 irradiated sterile males of Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri (Chen) were released in Zhonglian orange orchard of about 34 heactares in Huishui county, Guizhou province in 1987 and 1989 respectively. The release ratio of sterile to native fruit fly was 12.5:1 and 45:1 respectively. The rate of damaged orange by Chinese citrus fly Dacus citri (Chen) dropped from 5-8% in general to 0.005%. The dispersal distance of the fly was estimated to be 1500 meters

  10. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  11. Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) / Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Guadarrama; Yexsi, Peña.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presen [...] te estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden loc [...] ated in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under storage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

  12. Rapid screening of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus disease Haunglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees suspected of infection by citrus greening pathogens is...

  13. Plant growth, Leaf Nutrient status, fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco as influenced by potassium (K fertigation with four potash fertilizer sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different potassium (K fertilizers applied through fertigation system during three different seasons on yield and quality behaviors of 14-16 years Nagpur mandarin an experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The Nagpur mandarin plants requires potassium which, when applied in different amounts during the flower bud initiation to before fruit maturity can affect the yield and quality of fruit as well. The treatments in experiment consisted of; T1 - fertigation with potassium chloride [KCL], T2- fertigation with potassium nitrate [KNO3], T3- fertigation with potassium sulphate [K2SO4] and T4- fertigation with mono potassium phosphate [KH2PO4] @ 150 g K2O/plant. The recommended fertigation dose was 500:150:150 (N:P:K and given through these treatments along with various fertilizers combination of urea of phosphate, urea, and P2O5 acid. Nitrogen elemnet was given from October to January month and N, P and K all were given from February to June month. Each fertigation treatment was given at 15 days interval and fruit yield and quality were measured at harvest. Results showed the highest response of the fruit yield (31.13 t/ha with treatment mono potassium phosphate followed by in fertigation with potassium nitrate (29.4 t/ha. The total soluble solids was highest (10.49 0Brix in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate followed by fertigation with potassium sulphate (10.48 0Brix. Highest juice content (38.76 % and low acidity (0.77 % was found in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (sweetness indicator was observed in Mono potassium Phosphate (13.6 followed by Potassium sulphate (13.1.

  14. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as suitable quality indexes indicating proper conditions for storage. PMID:25829574

  15. Respiratory Weight Loss in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers, Fruits of Valencia Oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) And Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Stored Using Plant Derived Materials as Protective Coatings in Zaria, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Bako; Adams, F.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of applying locally derived plant products, namely oil from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds and juice extracted from lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) fruits on respiratory weight loss of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers and fruits of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during storage under ambient conditions, in the Savanna region of Nigeria. Rate of weight loss during early ...

  16. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  17. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF, availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results: Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >?25 was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d. Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion: Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents.

  18. TAMANHO ÓTIMO DE AMOSTRAS DE FRUTOS E DE SEMENTES PARA DETERMINAÇÃO DA POLIEMBRIONIA EM CITROS / OPTIMUM SAMPLE SIZE OF FRUITS AND SEEDS FOR POLYEMBRYONY DETERMINATION IN CITRUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CATIANE QUEIROZ DE JESUS, SANTOS; EDUARDO AUGUSTO, GIRARDI; ELVIS LIMA, VIEIRA; CARLOS ALBERTO DA SILVA, LEDO; WALTER DOS SANTOS, SOARES FILHO.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Poliembrionia e apomixia nucelar são atributos importantes, tanto no melhoramento e seleção de porta-enxertos de citros, como para sua multiplicação comercial. Avaliou-se a poliembrionia e estimouse o tamanho ótimo de amostras de frutos e de sementes de genótipos de citros para determinar o [...] número de sementes por fruto, número de embriões por semente e taxa de poliembrionia. As plantas-matrizes que forneceram os frutos e sementes estão instaladas na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Avaliaram-se: tangerineiras ‘Sunki Tropical’, ‘Sunki Maravilha’, ‘Sunki da Flórida’, ‘Sunki Comum’, ‘Dancy’ e ‘Cleópatra’; limoeiros ‘RugosoJambhiri’, ‘Rugoso da Flórida’, ‘Rugoso Comum’, ‘Volkameriano Lagoa Grande’ e ‘Cravo Santa Cruz’; e os híbridos limoeiro ‘Cravo’ x tangerineira ‘Sunki Maravilha’, tangerineira ‘Sunki da Flórida’ x citrangequat ‘Thomasville’ e híbrido de limeira-ácida ‘Tahiti’ obtido por polinização aberta. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, estimando-se equações de máxima curvatura para determinação de tamanho ótimo de amostras de frutos e de sementes a partir de 20 ou 100 frutos e de 156 sementes por variedade, respectivamente. A produção de sementes e a poliembrionia variaram expressivamente entre os genótipos avaliados, podendo estes serem classificados em cinco grupos de produção de sementes e de taxa de poliembrionia, respectivamente, compreendendo os intervalos de 2 a 28 sementes e de 12 a 100%. O tamanho ótimo estimado para as amostras foi de nove frutos uniformes, dez e 23 sementes, para determinar, respectivamente, o número médio de sementes por fruto, o número médio de embriões por semente e a taxa de poliembrionia por contagem direta, pois esses valores representam os tamanhos ótimos que atendem a todos os grupos de variedades estudadas. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Polyembryony and nucellar apomixis are important traits for citrus rootstocks breeding and selection and for commercial multiplication. This study evaluated the polyembryony and estimated the optimal sample size of citrus rootstocks fruits and seeds for fruit seed number, seed embryo numbe [...] r and polyembryony rate, respectively. Fruits and seeds were collected from mother plants in the experimental field of Embrapa Manioc and Fruitculture, in Cruz das Almas, state of Bahia, Brazil. Rootstock species evaluated were: ‘Sunki Tropical’, ‘Sunki Maravilha’,‘Sunki da Florida’, ‘Sunki Comum’, ‘Dancy’ and ‘Cleopatra’ mandarins; ‘Rugoso Jambhiri’, ‘Rugoso da Florida’, ‘Rugoso Comum’ and ‘Volkameriano Lagoa Grande’ lemons; ‘Santa Cruz’ Rangpur lime; and the hybrids ‘Rangpur’ lime x ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin, ‘Sunki da Florida’ mandarin x citrangequat ‘Thomasville’ and an open pollinated hybrid of ‘Tahiti’ lime. Data was submitted to descriptive analysis and equations of maximum curvature were estimated for determination of fruit and seed sample optimal size using 20 or 100 fruits and 156 seeds per genotype, respectively. Seed production and polyembryony varied significantly among the genotypes, which could be grouped by seed production and by polyembryony rate in five classes, respectively comprising intervals of 2 to 28 seeds and 12 to 100%. Optimal size sample was respectively of nine uniform fruits, ten and 23 seeds to determine fruit seed mean number, seed embryo mean number and polyembryony rate by direct counting, because these sample levels were sufficient for all genotypes evaluated.

  19. Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto G. Villela

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II. Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

  20. Food quality and safety in export fresh fruit horticultural products: Implying in the labor process of agribusiness related to sweat citrus fruit in Entre Rios province Calidad y seguridad alimentaria en productos frutihortícolas frescos de exportación: Implicaciones en los procesos laborales de la agroindustria de cítricos dulces de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Tadeo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s the world market increases the demand of fresh fruit horticultural products in order to satisfy customers who require standardised products and "just in time" delivery. Meanwhile a great number of food quality and safety regulations are developed which are also concerned in workers wellfare, prohibition of children work and inverorment protection. This article shows the results of a study about citrus fruit and agribusiness related to citrus fruit in Entre Rios province, the main sweet citrus fruit producer in Argentina . Such study deals with food quality and health features of export sweet citrus fruit which are sent to other counter-seasonal markets. We use qualitative information gathered in the years 2005 and 2006 by means of direct survey to packaging export companies, citrus producers, entreproneurs, harvest workers and packaging workers. We add statistic information in this study, as well.A comienzos de 1990 el mercado mundial incrementa la demanda de productos frutihortícolas en estado fresco, destinada a satisfacer a consumidores que requieren productos estandarizados y envíos "just in time". Simultáneamente, aparecen numerosas normas de calidad y seguridad alimentaria, públicas y privadas, tendientes a la obtención de productos sanos e inocuos, a la vez que se interesan por la protección de los trabajadores, prohibición del trabajo infantil y cuidado del medio ambiente. Este artículo presenta resultados de un estudio de caso referido a la agroindustria de cítricos de la provincia de Entre Ríos, principal productora de cítricos dulces del país. Se indaga en los criterios de calidad y sanidad alimentaria en cítricos dulces de exportación a mercados de contraestación y su repercusión en los procesos de trabajo. Utilizamos información cualitativa obtenida en los años 2005 y 2006 (encuestas directas a empresas empacadoras exportadoras, entrevistas en profundidad a productores citrícolas, empresarios, trabajadores cosecheros y del empaque complementada con información estadística.

  1. Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, N.F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K.D.; Duong, L.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J.P.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range of other hosts. Recently, necrotic spots similar to those caused by G. citricarpa were observed on fruit of Citrus maxima intercepted in consignments exported from Asia. In these spots, pycnidia and...

  2. Interferência da redução no volume de aplicação sobre o controle da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' / Interference of spray volume reduction in citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) control in 'Valência' citrus fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Demétrius de, Araújo; Carlos Gilberto, Raetano; Hamilton Humberto, Ramos; Marcel Belatto, Spósito; Evandro Pereira, Prado.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico do agente causal da mancha-preta-dos-citros (MPC) tem merecido destaque pelo excessivo número de pulverizações, elevando sobremaneira os custos de produção na citricultura. A busca por melhorias na eficiência das pulverizações e reduções na quantidade dos produtos fitossanitários [...] já tem sido realizada, mas os resultados dessa prática ainda não são consistentes para que possa ser aplicado em escala comercial. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a interferência da redução no volume de aplicação, sobre o controle químico da mancha preta em frutos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial com plantas de 16 anos de idade, da variedade Valência durante o ano agrícola 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de três volumes de calda, 3,5; 4,5 e 8,5 L planta-1, aplicados por pulverizador de jato transportado Arbus 2000/Export, com ramal especial de bicos, utilizando-se fungicidas e períodos recomendados para o controle da doença em um total de quatro pulverizações e mais um tratamento testemunha (sem pulverização). As avaliações de incidência e severidade da doença ocorreram através de escala visual diagramática de notas em duas épocas (pré-colheita e colheita), em três alturas (baixo, médio e alto) da planta e mais três setores horizontais (entrada, frontal e saída) em dois lados da planta. Os frutos caídos foram contados quinzenalmente, em plantas previamente selecionadas, do início da maturação até a colheita com a quantificação da produção (kg planta-1). A incidência e severidade da doença foram menores quando as pulverizações foram realizadas com 8,5 L planta-1 na primeira época de avaliação (pré-colheita), porém na colheita, não houve diferenças entre os mesmos parâmetros, quando pulverizados 4,5 ou 8,5 L planta-1. Nenhum tratamento reduziu a doença no setor alto da planta, em comparação a testemunha. Os setores da planta com os frutos mais expostos aos raios solares, lado direito e alto da planta, apresentaram maior incidência e severidade da doença. A redução no volume de 8,5 para 4,5 L planta-1 pode ser praticada na citricultura sem prejuízo do nível de controle da MPC. Abstract in english The chemical control of the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS) has been highlighted for the excessive required number of sprayings, considerably increasing citrus production costs. Improvements in the spray efficiency and reductions in the quantity of phytosanitary products have already been se [...] arched, but the results of that practice are not consistent yet for its use at commercial scale. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interference of reduced spray volumes in black spot control in citrus fruits. The experiment was carried out in commercial citrus orchard with 16-year-old plants of 'Valencia' variety, during 2007 agricultural season. Treatments consisted of three spray volumes: 3.5; 4.5 and 8.5 liters.plant-1, applied with Arbus 2000/Export airblast sprayer with special manifold of hydraulic nozzles, using fungicides and periods recommended for the disease control, totaling four sprayings plus a control treatment (without spray). The disease incidence and severity were evaluated by visual diagrammatic scale of notes in two different periods (preharvest and harvest), at three plant heights (low, middle and top) and three horizontal sections (entrance, frontal and exit) in two sides of the plant. The fallen fruits were counted every fifteen days, for previously selected plants, from the beginning of maturation to harvest, and the production was quantified (kg.plant-1). The disease incidence and severity were significantly lower when sprayings were done with 8.5 liters.plant-1 in the first evaluation period (pre-harvest), but in the harvest period there were not differences between the same parameters when 4.5 or 8.5 liters.plant-1 were sprayed. None of those treatments reduced the disease on the top section of plants, compared to control. The plant sections with fruits

  3. Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia C., Kupper; Nelson, Gimenes-Fernandes; Antonio de, Goes.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.) (QPFC), sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro iso [...] lados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE), uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp.) (PFD), under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. [...] and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF) in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

  4. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OfTHREE NATIVE FRUITS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH (CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu ABADIO FINCO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and Physical analysis, Antioxidant activity (AA and Total Phenolic Content (TPC were evaluated on three Typical Savannah fruits: Buriti (Mauricia flexuosa, Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica and Murici (Byrsonima crassifólia H.B. K (L Kunth. The nutritional composition found was in accordance to those available in the literature and the fruits can be considered as vitamin C food source. Buriti had the highest values ofantioxidant activity (IC50 value=17.31±5.34mg/mL. Cagaita and Murici had similar antioxidant activities with IC50 values of5.5±0.30mg/mL and 6.56±0.22mg/ mL, respectively (p<0.05. Results show the potential of Brazilian Savannah fruits to be used as foods either in diets or by the food industry. Further studies are needed to investigate better the antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds in Brazilian Savannah fruits.

  6. Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

    1987-04-01

    Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

  7. In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata F., Calegario; Mônica T.V., Labate; Luís A., Peroni; Dagmar Ruth, Stach-Machado; Maxuel O., Andrade; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A., Labate; Marcos A., Machado; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection [...] and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

  8. Efecto de la aplicación de ácido indol-acético e inhibidores de auxina sobre el desarrollo inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana / Effect of applications of IAA and auxin inhibitors on initial fruit development of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Libia E, Laskowski; Consuelo, Monerri; Amparo, García-Luis; José Luis, Guardiola.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la aplicación de auxina (AIA) y de sustancias inhibidoras de la actividad (PCIB) y el transporte de auxina (TIBA, NPA y HFCA) en el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Se emplearon frutos de 19 [...] y 30 mm de diámetro (a los 55 y 65 días luego de antesis) y se aplicaron las sustancias directamente al pedicelo. El NPA provocó una disminución en el crecimiento de los frutos sin alterar el desarrollo del pedicelo y no se observó efecto significativo al aplicar la antiauxina PCIB o el inhibidor del transporte TIBA. El inhibidor HFCA afectó la diferenciación del xilema, los frutos tratados fueron significativamente más pequeños, y el efecto fue mayor cuando se aplicó a frutos de menor diámetro. La aplicación de la auxina AIA inhibió el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y afectó significativamente el crecimiento del fruto. Los resultados ratifican la vinculación entre las auxinas, el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto. Abstract in english The effect of application of IAA, antiauxin (PCIB), and auxin transport inhibitors (HFCA, TIBA and NPA) on vascular development of pedicel and fruit growth was studied in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Substances were applied on pedicels of fruits having 19 and 30 mm in diameter (55 and [...] 65 days after anthesis). NPA depressed fruit growth although no effect was detected on pedicel development. No effect was observed on pedicel or fruit growth after TIBA and PCIB applications. The inhibitor HFCA altered the vessel differentiation pattern and fruits were significantly smaller, being higher the effect on the smaller fruits. IAA applications caused inhibition of pedicel vascular tissue development, and induced formation of smaller fruits. These results confirmed the relationship among auxins, pedicel vascular tissue development, and fruit growth.

  9. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas trees transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the species planted in the area with altered land use.

  10. Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros / Work safety in pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Leite de, Oliveira; Joaquim Gonçalves, Machado Neto.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias proporcionadas pelas condições de trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos em cultura de citros com o pulverizador de pistolas; avaliar a eficiência de medidas de proteção individual e coletiva para esses trabalhadores; deter [...] minar as regiões mais expostas do corpo dos trabalhadores; e classificar as condições de trabalho, sem e com as medidas de proteção testadas, quanto à segurança ocupacional das recomendações de agrotóxicos registrados para o controle das principais pragas e doenças dessa cultura. Verifica-se que, para o tratorista, pulverizando com o pulverizador de pistolas, a medida de proteção mais eficiente foi o conjunto AZR e, para o aplicador, os dois conjuntos avaliados foram eficientes. Para o tratorista, as regiões mais expostas do corpo foram as coxas + pernas - frente, os pés e as mãos; e, para o aplicador foram, os pés e as mãos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study envisaged the quantification of skin and respiratory exposures occasioned by work conditions during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers; the evaluation of the efficiency of individual and group protection measures for the workers; the determination o [...] f workers' most exposed body regions; and the classification of work conditions, with and without the tested work-safety protection measures as recommended for the registered pesticides used to control the main pests and diseases that attack these types of trees and fruits. The AZR protection equipment proved to be the most efficient for the tractor driver, when spraying using pistol sprayers. The two sets of individual protection equipment that were checked also proved to be efficient. The most exposed regions of the tractor driver's body were the thighs, the front of the legs, the feet and hands. The most exposed regions of the individual sprayer working on foot were the hands and feet.

  11. Nondestructive quality assessment of shogun mandarin fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun using compton scattering of gamma-ray technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punnary, K.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Compton scattering of gamma radiation was applied for nondestructive testing of the shogun mandarin fruits with good quality defined as no dry sack or dry fibrous structures inside. In principle, the scattering deviated angles to the left and right of a gamma ray that penetrates through a homogeneous fibrous structure meat of any orange fruit should be equal. The source Cs-137, with an initial gamma ray activity of 9.25 mCi, placed in a 7 cm thick lead shielding, was radiated through a 10 mm diameter collimator onto any single fruit to be tested. A NaI(Tl-detector, oriented perpendicular to both left and right of theincoming beam, was placed 5 cm from the fruit. Results showed that the net count rate of the scattering beam between the left and right counting for good-quality shogun mandarin with proper tissue for consumption was less than 85 counts per minute (average 83 cpm, whereas shogun mandarin with dry sack, which were unfit for consumption, had twice that rate or more (average 175 cpm.

  12. Flavonoid Composition of Citrus Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Corrado Caristi; Ugo Leuzzi; Claudia Gargiulli; Davide Barreca; Giuseppe Gattuso

    2007-01-01

    In the early nineties the presence of flavonoids in Citrus juices began to attract the attention of a number of researchers, as a result of their biological and physiological importance. This short review will explore two different aspects. The first part will focus on analytical techniques for the characterization of juices from different Citrus fruits regarding their flavonoid content (even if present in only trace amounts), concentrating on the most widely used methods (LC-MS and LC-MS-MS)...

  13. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Haag

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco, L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr., em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco. Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco, varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr., State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. Fruits were picked from 30 days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

  14. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritoidea) infestation in citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil / Infestação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) em citros no estado de São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton, Raga; Daniela A.O., Prestes; Miguel F., Souza Filho; Mário E., Sato; Romildo C., Siloto; Jorge A., Guimarães; Roberto A., Zucchi.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available No período de fevereiro de 1998 a maio de 2000, frutos de diferentes variedades e híbridos de citros foram coletados para determinar os níveis de infestação e o complexo de espécies de Tephritoidea/parasitóides, nas condições do estado de São Paulo. O total de 12.239 frutos (1.416,93 kg) foi coletad [...] o em 25 municípios. Do total das amostras foram recuperados 5.252 pupários e 3.039 adultos de Tephritoidea. Aproximadamente 78,1% dos adultos foram Tephritidae [77,1% de Anastrepha sp. e 1,0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)], e 21,9%, Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). Todas as fêmeas de Anastrepha foram identificadas como A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adultos de Braconidae, Diapriidae e Eucoilinae emergiram das amostras de citros. Os índices médios de infestação foram 0,4 pupário/fruto e 3,7 pupários/ kg de frutos. As laranjas doces foram as variedades cítricas mais susceptíveis ao ataque de espécies de Tephritoidea, em número de pupários/fruto. Em amostras isoladas, 'Tangerina Cravo' (Citrus reticulata) e 'Laranja Azeda' (Citrus aurantium) apresentaram os maiores índices de infestação por fruto (3,4 e 2,4 pupários, respectivamente). Algumas amostras de 'Kunquat' (Fortunella sp.) e 'Tangerina Cravo' alcançaram níveis altos de infestação (64,0 e 37,9 pupários/kg de frutos, respectivamente). As laranjas doces são as variedades mais suscetíveis à infestação de Tephritoidea no estado de São Paulo. O parasitóide D. areolatus (Opiinae) foi o braconídeo mais freqüente durante o levantamento. Abstract in english From February 1998 to May 2000, fruits of different citrus varieties and hybrids were collected in order to assess the fruit fly infestation levels and tephritoid/parasitoid complex in the state of São Paulo. A total of 12,239 fruits (1,416.93 kg) was collected in 25 municipalities. From all the sam [...] ples 5,252 puparia and 3,039 adults of Tephritoidea were recovered. About 78.1% of all adults collected were Tephritidae [77.1% de Anastrepha sp. and 1.0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)] and 21.9% were Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). All females of Anastrepha were identified as A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adults of Braconidae, Diapriidae and Eucoilinae emerged from the citrus samples. Mean infestation indices were 0.4 puparium/ fruit and 3.70 puparia/kg of fruits. Sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations when the number of puparia/fruit was considered. In isolated samples, 'Cravo mandarin' (Citrus reticulata) and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) showed the highest infestation indices (3.4 and 2.4 puparia/fruit, respectively). Some samples of 'Kunquat'' (Fortunella sp.) and 'Cravo' mandarin reached high levels of infestation (64.0 and 37.9 puparia/kg of fruits, respectively). The sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations in the state of São Paulo. The parasitoid Opiinae D. areolatus was the most abundant braconid species.

  15. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  16. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes...

  19. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  20. The Fruits of Literacy: Loss or Gain--Zitkala-Sa: Native American Author and Reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Heidemarie Z.

    Zitkala-Sa, a 19th century Native American woman who won second place in an 1896 Midwestern oratorical contest, resembles many students who daily cross borders--geographical, economic, linguistic, and cultural--balancing on a tightrope of assured losses and uncertain gains. Known as Gertrude Simmons before and Gertrude Bonnin after her marriage,…

  1. Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B1a and 14C residue on citrus fruits from a field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 8?g/mL solution of [14C]avermectin B1a, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, 14C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind 14C residue from oranges treated at the 10x rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (14C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B1a was 1a and 14C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B1a due to fruit type and application rate were observed

  2. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  3. Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo da Silva Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

  4. Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

  5. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros / Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton, Raga; Rogério Amaro, Machado; Welci, Dinardo; Pedro Carlos, Strikis.

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, [...] em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental d [...] esign used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7%) alone and added to natural orange juice (10%). Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  7. Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

  8. Cellulolytic enzymes associated with the fruit rots of Citrus sinensis caused by Aspergillus aculeatus and Botryodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisa, V A; Fajola, A O

    1983-01-01

    Botryodiplodia theobromae and Aspergillus aculeatus were inoculated in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) medium and on filter papers. Hydrolysis of the CMC medium and degradation of the filter papers were observed, indicating the production of C1 and Cx cellulases by the two rot pathogens. The C1 and Cx enzymes were also detected in filtrates of rotted orange fruits obtained by infection with the two pathogens. The cellulases could not induce rot development on their own. However, when they were added to pectinases in an enzyme inoculum, the incubation period for inducing rot development was shorter, thus establishing a secondary role for the cellulases in the rot development. Optimum conditions for the action of the cellulases included a neutral pH and temperature ranging from 25 to 30 degrees C. PMID:6624142

  9. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  10. Taxonomy, Ecology, and Management of Native and Exotic Fruit Fly Species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekesi, Sunday; De Meyer, Marc; Mohamed, Samira A; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-03-11

    Horticulture is one of the most important agricultural subsectors in Africa, providing income, creating employment opportunities, and enhancing food and nutritional security. However, tephritid fruit flies are responsible for both direct and indirect losses, with alien invasive species often having the most severe ecological and economic impact. In the past 20 years, systematic analysis of tephritids has provided comparative information on taxonomy, synonymy, and character-state differentiation. New molecular techniques are now available for identifying species, reconstructing phylogenies, and studying population genetic structures. Research on biology, host range and shifts, thermotolerance, and demography has provided useful information for developing predictive and ecological niche models to guide management methods. In recent years, the responses of various species to attractants have been documented. Several suppression methods, including the release of coevolved parasitoid species targeting invasives, have been promoted within the context of integrated pest management, leading to improvement in the quality and quantity of fruits and vegetables produced. However, there is still the need for wide-scale availability of these technologies to smallholder growers across Africa. PMID:26735644

  11. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  12. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  13. MANIPULATION OF THE FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY IN CITRUS TO DECREASE BITTER TASTE OR INCREASE THE FLAVONOID CONTENT TO HAVE BETTER ACCEPTABILITY OF FRUITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants. They have different roles throughout the plant kingdom such as photo reception, light screening, visual attraction, and health benefits for humans such as antioxidant, antithrombogenic, and antitumor activities. In citrus, flavonoi...

  14. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos ...

  15. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia Cristina, Kupper; José Antonio Miranda, Bellotte; Antonio de, Goes.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de prod [...] ução e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2); três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77) e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39) foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis) e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii) foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3) foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%). Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2), em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença. Abstract in english Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF), caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this wor [...] k aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2), three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77) and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39) were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis) and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii) were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3) presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%). Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2), it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp. decreased the pathogen germination. The

  16. Quantitative analysis of flavanones from citrus fruits by using mesoporous molecular sieve-based miniaturized solid phase extraction coupled to ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wan; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Li-Qing; Zhu, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Hu, Shuai-Shuai

    2015-08-01

    An analytical procedure based on miniaturized solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for determination of six flavanones in Citrus fruits. The mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 as a solid sorbent was characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, compared with reported extraction techniques, the mesoporous SBA-15 based SPE method possessed the advantages of shorter analysis time and higher sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the different nature of the tested compounds, all of the parameters, including the SBA-15 amount, solution pH, elution solvent, and the sorbent type, were investigated in detail. Under the optimum condition, the instrumental detection and quantitation limits calculated were less than 4.26 and 14.29ngmL(-1), respectively. The recoveries obtained for all the analytes were ranging from 89.22% to 103.46%. The experimental results suggested that SBA-15 was a promising material for the purification and enrichment of target flavanones from complex citrus fruit samples. PMID:26129982

  17. Effect of Inflorescence Types on Fruits Quality of Owari Cultivar of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar Iqbal; Fatih Sen; N.A. Virk

    2004-01-01

    Present studies were envisaged to determine the effect of inflorescence pattern on the fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer Citrange (TR), Sour Orange (SO) and Trifoliate Orange (TF) in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture, Ege University, Izmir Turkey. Physical fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and height of fruits developed from leafy inflorescence were significantly higher as compared with leafless fruits. Fruit peel color (L, a, b and a/...

  18. Efeito da interação abelha-flor na produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effect of bee-flower interaction on fruit production in orange sweet crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Efecto de las interaccion abeja-flor en la producción de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Darclet, Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; André, Luiz Halak.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia floral, a biodiversidade e comportamento de polinizadores em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade “Pera-rio”, em diferentes localidades e anos e seu efeito na produção dos frutos. A frequência dos insetos foi obtida por contag [...] em nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7h00 às 18h00, com três repetições. Para a porcentagem de frutifi cação, foram marcados 300 botões florais, sendo 150 deles mantidos descobertos e 150 cobertos, impedindo a visita dos insetos. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto a contagem, número de gomos e sementes, pesagens (g), altura (cm), largura (cm), espessura da polpa (mm), pH e volume do suco (ml). Os insetos mais frequentes observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, seguidas por outras espécies de himenópteros, lepidópteros, vespídeos e coleópteros. As abelhas africanizadas preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen e preferiram visitar as flores no período da manhã. Foi observado aumento de 9,6% na fecundação das flores e de 7,35% na produção de frutos livremente visitadas. A abelha africanizada foi espécie mais frequente e constante nas flores. Houve aumento na porcentagem de frutificação das flores, com a presença dos insetos. Os frutos que receberam a visita dos polinizadores foram maiores, mais doces, com maior número de sementes e quantidade de suco. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la biología floral, la biodiversidad y el comportamiento de los polinizadores en la floración de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedad Pera-rio, en seis diferentes lugares, en seis años y su efecto en la producción de fruta . La frecuencia de los [...] insectos se obtuvo contando los primeros 10 minutos de cada hora, de 7h00 a 18h00, con tres repeticiones. Para el porcentaje de yemas fructíferas fueron marcados e selecionados 300 botones florales, 150 descubiertos y 150 cubiertos, evitando las visitas de los insectos. Se evaluó la cantidad de frutos, número de brotes y las semillas, de ensayo (g), altura (cm), anchura (cm), espesor de la pulpa (mm), pH y volumen de jugo (ml). Los insectos más frecuentes observados fueron la abeja Apis mellifera, otros Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea y Coleoptera. Las abejas africanizadas colectaron principalmente néctar que polen, mientras que las Trigona spinipes, colectaron prioritariamente polen que néctar y los lepidópteros (mariposas) se alimentan de néctar. Hubo un aumento del 9,6% en la fecundación de las flores y 7,35% en la producción de frutas libremente visitadas. Las abejas africanizadas fueron más frecuentes en las flores. Hubo un aumento en el porcentaje de flores frutales, con la presencia de insectos. Los frutos que fueron visitadas por los polinizadores eran más grandes, más dulce, con más semillas y contenido de jugo. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the floral biology, biodiversity and behavior of pollinators in flowering orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variety “Pera-Rio”, in six different places, in six years, and its effect on fruit production. The frequency of insects was obtained by counting the [...] fi rst 10 minutes at a time, from 7h00 to 18h00, with three replications. For fruit set, 300 fl ower buds were marked, 150 discovered and 150 of them kept covered, preventing the visit of the insects. Fruits were evaluated for count, number of buds and seeds, weighed (g), height (cm), width (cm), flesh thickness (mm), volume (ml) and pH juice. The insects more frequent observed were honeybees Apis mellifera, others Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea and Coleoptera (beetles). Africanized bees preferred to collect nectar compared to pollen. Trigona spinipes bees preferred to collect pollen compared to nectar and Lepidoptera (butterfl ies) feeding on nectar. It was observed 9.6% increase in fertilization of the fl owers and 7.35% in fruit production visited freely. The Africanized honeybee was more frequent species

  19. Identificação e quantificação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones em municípios produtores de citros no Rio Grande do Sul Identification and quantification of native arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi of citrus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os esporos de FMA presentes em viveiros e pomares de citros no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo e de raízes de dez viveiros e doze pomares de oito municípios produtores de citros, nas quais avaliaramse conteúdo nutricional, número de esporos por 100 g de solo seco e colonização das radicelas, e determinaramse as espécies autóctones. As espécies, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, foram: Glomus macrocarpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobiculata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.The objective of this work was to identify and quantify AMF spores present in citrus nurseries and orchards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Soil and root samples were collected at ten nurseries and twelve citrus orchards. Mineral composition of the soil samples was determined as well as the number of spores in 100 g of dry soil, root colonization and native species taxonomic identification. AMF species, in decreasing order of occurrence were: Glomus macro- carpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobi- culata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.

  20. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia / Influence of water deficit on growth and development of fruits valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the piedmont of Meta department, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Lucía, Garzón Correa; Javier Enrique, Vélez-Sánchez; Javier Orlando, Orduz Rodríguez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlad [...] a de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia). Los tratamientos (T) de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g), estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo), fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05) en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P Abstract in english In Colombia the area planted with citrus is marginal when compared to the potential area for cultivation, due to factors such as water deficit, nutrition and efficiency of fruit formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit by controlled application of water through so [...] il profile in orange crop var.Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the foothills Meta department, Colombia. The irrigation treatments (T) were: T1 = 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = control = 0% ETc. Irrigation was applied from the beginning of flowering in February to fruit formation in April 2011. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replicates per treatment. The variables evaluated were: soil moisture (qg), plant water status (Ytallo), phenology, budding, flowering, formation, growth and fruit quality. The trees in the T1 had a higher number and size of fruit, but found no differences (P > 0.05) in yield and quality compared to the control, the qg and Ytallo were different (P

  1. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  2. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

  3. Identificación of ovule and seed genes from Citrus clementina

    OpenAIRE

    García-Lor, Andrés; García-Martínez, José-Luis; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable trait in fresh fruit. Citrus varieties, such as Clementine mandarin and other related species, show parthenocarpic fruit development without seeds due to self-incompatibility. In spite of that, these fruits frequently contain seeds as a result of cross-pollination by insects with compatible pollen from other citrus cultivars grown nearby. To solve this problem using a biotechnological approach we aim at the destruction of ovules and/or seeds by directing the...

  4. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

  5. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; XING, FENG; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  6. Preferência para oviposição e ciclo de vida de mosca-negra- dos-citros Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em espécies frutíferas / Oviposition preference and life cycle of citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby on fruit crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislane da Silva, Lopes; Raimunda Nonata Santos de, Lemos; José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Luiz Junior Pereira, Marques; Daniele Lavra, Vieira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby conhecida popularmente como mosca-negra-dos-citros é considerada praga quarentenária A2 no Brasil e ocasiona prejuízo em diversas frutíferas, principalmente em citros (laranja, limão e tangerina). Poucas são as pesquisas relacionadas aos seus aspectos biológicos nas condi [...] ções ambientais brasileiras. Nesse sentido, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a preferência de oviposição e a duração do ciclo de vida de A. woglumi em diferentes hospedeiros. A pesquisa foi conduzida em casa de vegetação, durante o período de março de 2009 a março de 2010. Foram realizados testes de preferência sem chance de escolha em seis hospedeiros, simultaneamente, em períodos de 48 e 72 horas, além da biologia comparada em mangueira e laranjeira. Foram observados nos testes que A. woglumi apresenta preferência por ovipositar nas espécies cítricas (limoeiro, laranjeira e tangerineira), mantendo um padrão de não preferência em cajueiro e goiabeira. Os hospedeiros laranjeira e mangueira não interferiram no ciclo biológico da praga. Abstract in english Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, popularly known as the citrus blackfly is considered A2 quarantine pest in Brazil and causes damage in many fruit crops, especially citrus (orange, lemon and tangerine). Few researches related to biological aspects are carried out in Brazilian environmental conditions. T [...] he present research aimed to determine the oviposition preference and duration of the life cycle of A. woglumi on different hosts. The research was carried out in a greenhouse during the period of March 2009 to March 2010. Tests of preference were done with no chance of choice in six hosts, in periods of 48 and 72 hours, beyond the comparative biology in mango and orange trees. A. woglumi showed preference for laying eggs on citrus species (lemon, orange and mandarin), maintaining a pattern of non-preference in cashew and guava trees. The orange and mango hosts did not interfere in the life cycle of the pest.

  7. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  8. Actividad antifúngica del aceite esencial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre hongos postcosecha en frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.) / Anti-fungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus sinensis L.) over post-harvest fungi in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clemencia, Guédez; Luis, Cañizalez; Laura, Avendaño; José, Scorza; Carmen, Castillo; Rafael, Olivar; Yolanda, Méndez; Libert, Sánchez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos postcosecha causan pudriciones que afectan la calidad de los frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Actualmente los aceites esenciales son considerados una alternativa a los fungicidas químicos para controlar estos hongos. En este estudio se evaluó la actividad antifúngica del aceite esenc [...] ial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre los hongos Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer y Aspergillus flavus, en medio de cultivo Papa Dextrosa Agar (PDA) en un diseño completamente al azar. Los resultados mostraron que existe un efecto inhibidor del aceite esencial de naranja (AEN) en el crecimiento micelial de los hongos in vitro, superior al 80% a concentración de AE de 1%, y 100% de inhibición a concentraciones de 2,5% y 5% de AE (p Abstract in english Post-harvest fungi produce rotting that affects the quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) At present, essential oils are considered an alternative to chemical anti-fungal substances for controlling these fungi. In this study we evaluated the antifungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus [...] sinensis L.) over Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillum indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus flavus, in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) culture medium in a completely random design. The results showed that there is an inhibitory effect of essential orange oil (EOO) over the in vitro mycelium growth of fungi, higher than 80% at a 1% EOO concentration and 100% inhibition at 2.5% and 5% EOO concentrations (p

  9. Performance of Different Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) Genotypes on Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Rootstock under the Climatic Conditions of Peshawar

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Nabi; Tasleem Jan; Sharafat Gul; Nadia Kanwal; Umer Rahim

    2004-01-01

    Eight grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) genotypes namely Ruby Red, Red Blush, Marsh JBC-430, Reed, Red Mexican, Shamber, White-I local and White-II local on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock were planted at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan during the year 1996. These genotypes were evaluated for fruit maturity, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of seeds per fruit, number of segments per fruit, juice percentage, rind percentage, fruit texture, rind colour, ...

  10. 7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...insured will be all of each citrus tree crop designated in the...production of fresh fruit or for juice; (4) That is irrigated...8), we do not insure any citrus trees: (1) During the...planted with another crop, citrus trees interplanted with...

  11. Citrus Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  12. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fatty acids and correlation by principal component analysis of exotic and native fruits from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra B., Ribeiro; Elton G., Bonafé; Beatriz C., Silva; Paula F., Montanher; Oscar O., Santos Júnior; Joana S., Boeing; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As capacidades antioxidante de sete frutas nativas e exóticas do Brasil foram avaliadas usando os métodos DPPH•, ABTS•+ e FRAP, além da determinação do conteúdo de fenólicos totais e composição de ácidos graxos. Murici e dovialis apresentaram os maiores conteúdos de compostos fenólicos (243,42 e 205 [...] ,98 mg EAG 100 g-1, respectivamente), e maiores capacidades antioxidante pelo método de FRAP (24,97 e 23,70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectivamente). Pelos métodos de DPPH• e ABTS•+, dovialis apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, 9,59 e 10,41 ET g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores dos ácidos alfa-linolênico e linoleico foram encontrados na siriguela (107,86 mg AG g-1 LT) e tomatinho do mato (215,50 mg AG g-1 LT), respectivamente. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos ácidos graxos gerou três significantes PCs, que representaram 99,75% do conjunto de dados da variância. Os dados de PCA das análises de antioxidantes geraram dois significantes PCs, representando 97,00% do total de variância. Abstract in english The antioxidant capacities of seven exotic and native fruits from Brazil were evaluated using DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP assays, in addition to their total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Murici and dovialis presented the highest total phenolic contents (243.42 and 205.98 mg GAE 100 g-1, re [...] spectively), and the highest antioxidant capacities by the FRAP assay (24.97 and 23.70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectively). In the DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays, dovialis presented the highest antioxidant capacity, 9.59 and 10.41 TE g-1, respectively. The highest alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid contents were found in siriguela (107.86 mg FA g-1 TL) and tomatinho do mato (215.50 mg FA g-1 TL), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids yielded three significant PCs, which accounted for 99.75% of the data set total variance. The PCA data of the antioxidant analyses yielded two significant PCs, which accounted for 97.00% of the total variance.

  13. Fruit splitting occurrence of Shogun mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun in southern Thailand and alleviation by calcium and boron sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarawipa, R.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit splitting is a serious problem of Shogun mandarin in southern Thailand. To alleviate this impact, the applications of calcium and boron by spraying were investigated. An experiment was established in a farmer orchard (at Amphur Sadao, Songkhla province where four-year plants were grown at 6 m x 6 m spacing. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, and 16 trees were used. There were 4 treatments (1. control or water spray, 2. 1% CaCl2 spray or C treatment, 3. 0.8% boric acid spray or B treatment and 4. 1% CaCl2+ 0.8% boric acid spray or C+B treatment with 4 replicates. The application was started at 4 months after fruit-setting, the sprays were done at 1 month intervals. It was found that the occurrence of fruit-splitting started at 3 months after fruit-setting, and there were 4 causes of fruit-splitting: 1. scab (28.33%, 2. sun scald (11.11%, 3. sun burn (7.78% and 4. no primary peel damage (52.78%. Various patterns of fruit splitting were found: vertical, horizontal, oblique and informal shape. The treatments of calcium and boron sprays did not affect on fruit growth or fruit size compared with the control, but they significantly enhanced fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS and total acidity (TA. The treatments of C, B, and C + B can reduce the percentages of fruit splitting to 5.56, 8.89 and 6.67%, respectively, and they were significantly different from that of the control (52.22%. It is suggested that calcium and boron sprays can alleviate fruit splitting in Shogun mandarin, and fruit quality is also enhanced.

  14. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    OpenAIRE

    SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick ...

  15. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region / Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Camargo, Neves; André José de, Campos; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, S [...] ão Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, [...] and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  16. HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16 and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22 three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36, five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29 four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40, seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39, seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7–9, 17, 21, 31 and 37, three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30, and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38 were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay. The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products.

  17. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  18. Induction and selection of citrus mutant by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have subjected to gamma-irradiation to citrus buds and then grafted onto mature citrus tree. Mutant citrus branch lines have been induced. As a result of first selection, we found the several mutant lines showing interesting phenotypes such as higher sugar content. We have selected several branches showing good qualities such as higher sweetness and/or lower acidity. Some branch lines showed over 13 .deg. Brix sugar content and below 0.9% acidity. Other mutant branch lines showed the changes of shape, size, peel thickness, and fiber contents or distribution of fruits. The results suggest that gamma-irradiation is an effective tool for induction of citrus mutant lines

  19. Induction and selection of citrus mutant by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    We have subjected to gamma-irradiation to citrus buds and then grafted onto mature citrus tree. Mutant citrus branch lines have been induced. As a result of first selection, we found the several mutant lines showing interesting phenotypes such as higher sugar content. We have selected several branches showing good qualities such as higher sweetness and/or lower acidity. Some branch lines showed over 13 .deg. Brix sugar content and below 0.9% acidity. Other mutant branch lines showed the changes of shape, size, peel thickness, and fiber contents or distribution of fruits. The results suggest that gamma-irradiation is an effective tool for induction of citrus mutant lines.

  20. Role bending: complex relationships between viruses, hosts and vectors related to citrus leprosis, an emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems, resulting in an unmarketable product. The disease is caused by a set of unrelated cytoplasmic cileviruse...

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for discrimination of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves from uninfected leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus and is a threat to the U.S. industry. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees su...

  2. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Mehta; Marilia Santos, Silva; Simone, Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine, Carrer; Marco Aurélio, Takita; Natália F., Martins.

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to seq [...] uence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile). Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  3. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  4. Population genetic structure and approximate Bayesian computation analyses reveal the southern origin and northward dispersal of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Cao, Li-Jun; Gong, Ya-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta is one of the most destructive orchard pests. Assumed to be native to China, the moth is now distributed throughout the world. However, the evolutionary history of this moth in its native range remains unknown. In this study, we explored the population genetic structure, dispersal routes and demographic history of the OFM in China and South Korea based on mitochondrial genes and microsatellite loci. The Mantel test indicated a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in the populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure (baps) identified four nested clusters, while the geneland analysis inferred five genetic groups with spatial discontinuities. Based on the approximate Bayesian computation approach, we found that the OFM was originated from southern China near the Shilin area of Yunnan Province. The early divergence and dispersal of this moth was dated to the Penultimate glaciation of Pleistocene. Further dispersal from southern to northern region of China occurred before the last glacial maximum, while the expansion of population size in the derived populations in northern region of China occurred after the last glacial maximum. Our results indicated that the current distribution and structure of the OFM were complicatedly influenced by climatic and geological events and human activities of cultivation and wide dissemination of peach in ancient China. We provide an example on revealing the origin and dispersal history of an agricultural pest insect in its native range as well as the underlying factors. PMID:26132712

  5. Visible Light Image-Based Method for Sugar Content Classification of Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. PMID:26811935

  6. Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP / Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Marcel B., Spósito; Lilian, Amorim.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packingh [...] ouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias) não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados. Abstract in english The purposes of this work were a) to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS) incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in [...] 2004/05 and 2005/06; b) to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days) was not significant in collected fruits.

  7. Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Fischer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packinghouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados.The purposes of this work were a to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in 2004/05 and 2005/06; b to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days was not significant in collected fruits.

  8. Efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e potássica na produção e na qualidade de frutos de laranjeira-'Valência' / Effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on production and fruit quality of citrus 'Valência'

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCELO CARMINATI DE, ALMEIDA; JOSÉ GERALDO, BAUMGARTNER.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os critérios para recomendação de adubação nitrogenada e potássica em pomares cítricos carecem de experimentação regional. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos de doses combinadas de N e de K2O para a laranjeira-Valência cultivada em solo representativo do município de Adolfo, Norte d [...] o Estado de São Paulo, de citricultura desenvolvida. Em delineamento tipo fatorial 3 x 3, com 3 repetições, foram combinadas as doses de 94; 188 e 376 kg ha-1 de N, como nitrato de amônio e 38; 75 e 150 kg ha-1 de K2O, como cloreto de potássio, durante três safras (1997 a 1999). Anualmente, foram feitas avaliações de diagnose foliar para nitrogênio e potássio, de produção e de análise de suco para acidez titulável e teor total de sólidos solúveis. Os dados obtidos mostraram que os pomares mantiveram a produtividade com as doses mínimas de N e de K2O durante os três anos, não havendo resposta em produção às doses crescentes desses nutrientes. Os teores foliares de N e de K mantiveram-se dentro das faixas consideradas adequadas, nos tratamentos com doses mínimas de N e de K2O, nas três safras. Apenas no segundo ano, em que a produção foi diminuída por fatores climáticos, foram observados efeitos significativos de combinações de doses de N e de K2O sobre a acidez e o teor de sólidos solúveis do suco. Abstract in english Nitrogen and potassium fertilization criteria for citrus orchards was not clearly stablished yet, based on regional experimentation. This experiment was carried out in order to compare the effects of combined levels of N and K fertilization on citrus orchard of 'Valência', cultivaded in Adolfo (Nort [...] hen of São Paulo State -- Brazil). Three levels of nitrogen, 94, 188 and 376 kg.ha-1 as ammonium nitrate and three levels of potassium, 38, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 of K2O as potassium chloride, were combined in factorial design 3 x 3 with 3 replications, during three harvest (1997 to 1999). Fruit productions, fruit tecnological analysis and foliar diagnosis were evaluated yearly. Data showed that the trees kept the productivity with the mininum levels of N and K2O for three years and no response in productivity was observed in this period. Only in the second year, when yield was decreased by climatic factors, it was observed effects of combined levels of N and K2O on juice acidity and soluble solids contents.

  9. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchetti Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-?, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1? and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography. Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-? by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-? or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients.

  10. 2006 University Citrus Pest Management Guide: Tristeza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major cause of the decline and eventual death of trees on sour orange rootstocks. Initially, affected trees have small leaves and twig dieback. Diseased trees often produce a crop of very small fruit. Eventually, large limbs die back and the tree gradually declines...

  11. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer S; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Elvin Asay

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed...

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  13. Effects of parental nativity and length of stay in the US on fruit and vegetable intake among WIC-enrolled preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Langellier, B A; Wang, M C; Koleilat, M; Whaley, S E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to US culture is negatively associated with fruits and vegetables (F&V) intake. Our goal was to investigate how parent's nativity and length of stay in the US influences preschoolers' F&V intake. We analyzed survey data from 2,352 children, aged 36-60 months, who participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County. Using multiple linear regression, we examined children's F&V intake by parent's nativity and years in the US, adjusting for possible confounders. Children of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for children of US born parents and of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for ?10 years. Children of newer immigrant families may be at greater risk for consuming poor-quality diets. Research to identify determinants of poor diet quality among children of immigrant families may increase the effectiveness of WIC in addressing this population's nutritional needs. PMID:25179897

  14. Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado / Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Miranda, Lopes; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Ismael da Silva, Gomes; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de éste [...] res metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %), seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %). A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%). A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado. Abstract in english Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.) are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profil [...] es of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %); araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %), followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %). The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %). Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

  15. The Effects of Some Citrus Rootstocks on Fruit Productivity of Some Important Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon and Mandarin Cultivars in Çukurova Region

    OpenAIRE

    TUZCU, Önder

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out under Çukurova (East Mediterranean region) conditions in order to determine the most definite effects of Common sour orange, Brasilian sour orange, Yuzu, Troyer and Carizzo citranges, Beneke trifoliate orange, Cleopatra mandarin, Volkameriana, Taiwanica, Rough lemon, Citrumelo 1452 rootstocks on the fruit yield of the Washington Navel, Valencia Late, Moro Blood and Shamouti oranges; Marsh Seedless and Redblush grapefruits; Kütdiken and Italyan Memeli lemons and S...

  16. Gibberellins Contents in Leafy Fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.) in Relation to Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar Iqbal; Ismail Karacali

    2004-01-01

    Present studies were designed to find out the role of endogenous Gibberellin like compounds in production of low quality in leafy fruits of Satsuma mandarin. Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy and leafless fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer citrange, Sour orange and Trifoliate orange rootstock was tested with lettuce hypocotyl elongation test. Results showed that Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets was considerably higher than the leafless fruitlets in Troyer cit...

  17. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil / Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Antônio, Chiaradia; José Maria, Milanez; Renato, Dittrich.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mo [...] sca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly [...] installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed and environmental temperature were executed. Maximum and minimum temperature had more interference on these pests than the other environmental factors. Analysis of non-linear regression were applied with monthly accumulate number of these flies and showed top of captured flies in March to June. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) was the predominant fruit fly.

  18. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Chiaradia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mosca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas.Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed and environmental temperature were executed. Maximum and minimum temperature had more interference on these pests than the other environmental factors. Analysis of non-linear regression were applied with monthly accumulate number of these flies and showed top of captured flies in March to June. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 was the predominant fruit fly.

  19. Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" / Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Lílian, Amorim.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado intern [...] o, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri) e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum). Abstract in english Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were col [...] lected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri), and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum).

  20. Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Fischer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum.Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were collected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri, and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum.

  1. Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

    2010-01-20

    Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

  2. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures. PMID:26619868

  4. [Historical and pharmalogical study of Citrus hassaku.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minchinori; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Harima, Shouichi

    2005-01-01

    The original plant of Citrus hassaku Hort. Tanaka was found at the Jyoudo Temple in Inno-shima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan by Ekei Shounin in the Edo Era. Citrus hassaku has been called "jagada" when it was first discovered. Since this fruit was seasoned for eating around "hassaku" (August 1st of the lunar calendar), it was given the scientific name as "C. hassaku." Today, the fresh raw fruits of C. Hassaku are cultivated as a seasonal food, and the most famous producing district of C. hassaku fruit is Wakayama Prefecture, representing about 60% of the Japanese output. The immature fruits of C. hassaku and its three main flavanone glycosides (naringin, neohesperidin and narirutin) was found to shown inhibitory activities on a compound 48/80 induced histamine released from mast cells, and anti-allergic effects on dinitrofluorobenzen (DNFB)-induced triphasic skin reactions in mice. The contents of the three flavanone glycosides in the immature fruits were higher than those in mature fruits. The application of extracts from the immature fruits of C. hassaku to skin care for patients with atopitic dermatitis has resulted in improving effects for 76% of the patients. Similar efficacy was obtained for patients pollinosis. PMID:16217907

  5. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7% alone and added to natural orange juice (10%. Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

  6. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado / Total phenolics and condensed tannins in native fruits from Brazilian savanna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wesley Silveira, Rocha; Renata Miranda, Lopes; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividad [...] e de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 %) e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros. Abstract in english The native fruits from Brazilian savanna are arousing increasing interest due to their nutritional and functional properties combined with the potential to add value and conserve the biodiversity of this biome. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant capacity to neutralize free radicals generated i [...] n the body that are associated with many chronic degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three extraction solutions (acetone 70%, ethanol 95% and methanol 99.8 %) and determining the levels of phenolic compounds in 10 species of native fruits from Brazilian savanna, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds and vanillin method for condensed tannins. Acetone 70 % proved to be the best solvent extractor for total phenolics and condensed tannins in fruits of Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp. and for total phenolics in Brosimium gaudichaudii and for condensed tannins in Jaracatia spinosa. The ethanol 95 % was more efficient in the extraction of total phenolics of Jaracatia spinosa and condensed tannins of Brosimium gaudichaudii. The methanol 99.8 % was more efficient in the extraction of condensed tannins of Eugenia dysenterica. The contents of phenolic compounds ranged between 90 and 327 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. punicifolia respectively. The levels of condensed tannins ranged between 4 and 291 mg of catechin equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. calcyna respectively. Evaluated species of fruit from Brazilian savanna can be considered good sources of total phenolic compounds, although the specific nature of different types should be evaluated in future studies.

  7. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  8. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas / Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdely Ferreira, Kinupp; Ingrid Bergman Inchausti de, Barros.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA), Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua [...] composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem. Abstract in english The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA), Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil), presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly reg [...] ard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents, 69 species distributed in 58 genus and 33 botanical families were selected to the study, totalizing 76 analyses of different edible portions. Besides the N converted in protein, the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S, and B were analyzed. Several species revealed promising contents of protein and minerals with higher values than commercial species with similar uses. Despite of their suitability and abundance in the MRPA region and the significant contents of protein and minerals, the great majority of these species remain unknown or underutilized. Studies and effective incentives to the economical uses of the neglected species could contribute to the conservation, valorization of the indigenous species, and to a more diverse and healthful human diet.

  9. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdely Ferreira Kinupp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem.The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA, Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly regard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents, 69 species distributed in 58 genus and 33 botanical families were selected to the study, totalizing 76 analyses of different edible portions. Besides the N converted in protein, the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S, and B were analyzed. Several species revealed promising contents of protein and minerals with higher values than commercial species with similar uses. Despite of their suitability and abundance in the MRPA region and the significant contents of protein and minerals, the great majority of these species remain unknown or underutilized. Studies and effective incentives to the economical uses of the neglected species could contribute to the conservation, valorization of the indigenous species, and to a more diverse and healthful human diet.

  10. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Emilio; Giorgini, Massimo; Cascone, Pasquale; Carpenito, Simona; van Achterberg, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii. PMID:26840953

  11. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Maruti J. Dhanavade; Chidamber B. Jalkute; Jai S. Ghosh; Kailash D. Sonawane

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich s...

  12. Vitamin C and total phenols quantification in calli of native passion fruit induced by combinations of Picloram and Kinetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Artioli-Coelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the center of origin of passion fruit and has an important natural variability of the genus Passiflora. Several wild species of this genus are resistant to some pests and diseases and many are considered as medicinal. The aim of this research was to induce callus from in vitro Passiflora gibertii leaf explants for quantification of vitamin C and total phenols. Once the appropriate auxin/cytokine balance promotes callus formation and may optimize the production of secondary compounds and vitamins, calli were induced using a half-strength MS medium with a combination of the auxin Picloran (PIC and the cytokine Kinetin (KIN. The vitamin C and total phenols were quantified by colorimetric methods from calli after different culture periods. The calli induction was strongly dependent of the combination PIC/KIN. It was observed high vitamin C content (94.8mg 100g-1 during the calli induction period in MS+4.14µM PIC+ 0.207µM KIN. Higher PIC/KIN concentrations promoted an increase in the vitamin C content after three subcultures. The higher PIC (8.28µM/KIN (0.828µM concentration was the higher was the total phenols production (66mg tannic acid 100g-1 of fresh callus during the calli induction period.

  13. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ FUERTES, BEGOÑA; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. P...

  14. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso) Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria C Colecio-Juárez; Rubria E Rubio-Núnez; José E Botello-Álvarez; Gloria M Martinez-González; José L Navarrete-Bolanos; Hugo Jiménez-Islas

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso), is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identific...

  15. Citrus improvement using mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by the citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; consequently, most of the commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Rio Red, the most planted grapefruit in Texas has also dark-red flesh and originated by thermal neutrons irradiation of the pinkish Ruby Red grapefruit buds in the third vegetative progeny. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programs, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in USA, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding program and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programs in USA will be provided. (author)

  16. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas / Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio de Carvalho, Pires; Osvaldo Kiyoshi, Yamanishi; José Ricardo, Peixoto; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Marcelo Alves de Figueiredo, Sousa.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis), apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes [...] da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE) as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP), as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE). As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida), seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0'), com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento. Abstract in english Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit [...] Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea), P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG). The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida) followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0') with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

  17. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless Pineapple orange, and the University of Florida a seedless Murcot tangor. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding programme and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programmes in the US will be provided. (author)

  18. Caracterização físico-química de frutos cítricos apirênicos produzidos em Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit produced in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dierlei dos, Santos; Pedro Henrique Monteiro, Matarazzo; Danieele Fabíola Pereira da, Silva; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Daiane Cristina Marques dos, Santos; Cícero Cartaxo de, Lucena.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de sementes em frutos cítricos é uma característica altamente desejável e há demanda crescente por esses frutos, por consumidores mais exigentes. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se, avaliar algumas características físicoquímicas dos frutos de oito variedades apirênicas, recém-introduzidas na Zo [...] na da Mata Mineira. Avaliaram-se cinco frutos de cada uma das três plantas que compõem cada acesso no matrizeiro. Os frutos foram colhidos e levados ao laboratório, onde foram determinados a coloração da casca e polpa, altura e diâmetro do fruto, espessura da casca, presença de granulação, contagem do número de gomos, rendimento de suco, ATT, SST e ratio (SST/ATT). As variedades 'Okitsu' e 'Ortanique' apresentaram melhor coloração de casca e polpa. A granulação foi observada em 'Okitsu', 'Clemenules', 'Nova' e 'Marisol'. 'Salustiana', 'Navelina' e 'Ortanique' apresentaram os melhores rendimentos de suco e ausência total de granulação. Os maiores teores de SST e ATT foram observados em 'Salustiana' e 'Clemenules'. O ratio, no intervalo considerado adequado, foi observado nas variedades 'Navelina' e 'Navelate', caracterizando a melhor adaptação. 'Ortanique' teve bom desempenho em todas as características avaliadas, exceto no ratio, por sua baixa acidez. As variedades 'Navelina', 'Navelate' e 'Ortanique', no conjunto geral das características, foram as que apresentaram frutos de melhor qualidade. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of eight apirenic fresh fruit varieties recently introduced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. The varieties 'Okitsu' and 'Ortanique' showed better color of peel and pulp. Granulation was observed in 'Okitsu', 'Clemenules', [...] 'Nova' and 'Marisol'. 'Salustiana', 'Navelina' and 'Ortanique' showed the best yields of juice and total absence of granulation. The highest levels of total soluble solids and total tritable acidity were observed in 'Salustiana' and 'Clemenules'. Ratio, in the interval considered appropriate, was observed in the varieties 'Navelina' e 'Navelate' featuring the best adaptation. Ortanique' had good performance for all parameters assessed, except for ratio because of their low acidity. Varieties 'Navelina', 'Navelate' and 'Ortanique', in the overall set of features, showed the best quality fruits.

  19. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryz Melinski Serciloto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três diferentes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1 e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas, em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez titulável (AT; quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT, e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in three different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1 and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0.05%. For each cultivar, twenty fruits per tree were sampled in four different times to determine the soluble solids concentration (SS, titratable acidity (TA, quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box, juice yield, "ratio" (SS/TA and average fruit weight. The effects of MBTA varied according to the concentration and phenological phase of application. The MBTA at 8 mg L-1 concentration, sprayed on 25% of the open flowers, increased the soluble solids concentration, acidity, the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and the yield. The same treatment also decreased the average fruit weight and did not affect the juice yield and the "ratio". The average increase was from 0.49 to 0.65% on soluble solids concentration, from 0.11 to 0.13 kg on the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and 20.4 kg/tree on yield.

  20. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chryz Melinski, Serciloto; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro; Silvio, Tavares.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três difere [...] ntes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1) e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas), em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS); acidez titulável (AT); quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT), e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade. Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in t [...] hree different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1) and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers) in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0.05%. For each cultivar, twenty fruits per tree were sampled in four different times to determine the soluble solids concentration (SS), titratable acidity (TA), quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box, juice yield, "ratio" (SS/TA) and average fruit weight. The effects of MBTA varied according to the concentration and phenological phase of application. The MBTA at 8 mg L-1 concentration, sprayed on 25% of the open flowers, increased the soluble solids concentration, acidity, the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and the yield. The same treatment also decreased the average fruit weight and did not affect the juice yield and the "ratio". The average increase was from 0.49 to 0.65% on soluble solids concentration, from 0.11 to 0.13 kg on the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and 20.4 kg/tree on yield.

  1. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  2. Mediterranean fruit fly control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the overall endeavour to increase the world's food supply, the production of vitamin-rich fruits, though not as vital as cereals and other staples, cannot be ignored. Each year tens of millions of dollars worth of stone and citrus fruits are ruined by a pest known as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). It is found in Central and South America, Africa, Australia, Asia, the Mediterranean Basin and Hawaii. Its control, by irradiation, is a small but important field in which the peaceful uses of atomic energy can help increase the sum total of foodstuff in the famine-facing countries of the world today. (author)

  3. Control of the Chinese citrus fly, Dacus citri (Chen), using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial rearing of the Chinese citrus fly, Dacus citri (Chen), is described. It was found that the appropriate irradiation stage for sterilization treatment is at the last pupal phase, one or two days before emergence, and that 9 krad of irradiation is a suitable dose for sterilizing D. citri. A total of 56,000 and 95,000 irradiated sterile males of D. citri were released in the Zhonglian orchard (about 34 ha) in Huishui County, Guizhou Province, in 1987 and 1989, respectively. The release ratio of sterile to native fruit flies was 12.5:1 and 45:1. The percentage of oranges damaged by D. citri dropped from 7.5 to 0.005. (author). 5 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Citrus biotechnology: Achievements, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sandeepa; Rajam, Manchikatla V

    2009-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important commercial and nutritional fruit crops in the world, hence it needs to be improved to cater to the diverse needs of consumers and crop breeders. Genetic manipulation through conventional techniques in this genus is invariably a difficult task for plant breeders as it poses various biological limitations comprising long juvenile period, high heterozygosity, sexual incompatibility, nucellar polyembryony and large plant size that greatly hinder cultivar improv...

  5. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, H.J., van

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

  6. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  7. Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world and Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

  8. Genomics meets induced mutations in citrus: identification of deleted genes through comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world while Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the Citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

  9. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  10. Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and ...

  11. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V) Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Khaskheli, Mazhar I.; Saima Q. Memon; Sajida Parveen; Muhammad Y. Khuhawar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study As (V) was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsor...

  12. Characterizing culturable microflora of nectarines: bacteria and their potential for biological control of postharvest fruit decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms isolated from fruit surfaces have been used to control postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces during fruit ...

  13. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  14. Evaluación económica de la producción de cítricos cultivados en el Piedemonte del Departamento del Meta durante 12 años / Economic evaluation of citrus fruit grown in the foothills of the Meta department for 12 years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Mateus C; Xiomara, Pulido C; Albert, Gutiérrez; Javier O, Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información sobre los costos de producción e ingresos en suelos de terraza alta del piedemonte del Meta para los cultivos de tangelo Minneola, naranja Valencia, mandarina Arrayana durante 12 años y lima Tahití por 8 años (por muerte de las plantas por tristeza de los cítricos. Los cul [...] tivos se establecieron en 1997 en el C.I. La Libertad y manejados con las recomendaciones desarrolladas por Corpoica en los Llanos Orientales. La información se presenta por hectárea de cultivo en promedio de 10 ha de naranja, 5 de mandarina, 5 de tangelo y 2 de lima Tahití. Los valores son los precios medios del kg de fruta vendida en el árbol y de los insumos del año 2009, (una vez obtenida la información). A la naranja, la mandarina y la lima se asignó el mismo capital para ser establecidos y cultivados, mientras que en el tangelo se invirtió un poco menos debida al uso de un menor número de plantas por ha, pero con la misma cantidad de insumos por planta que los otros cultivos. La mejor producción y rentabilidad la presentó la naranja Valencia con una tasa interna de retorno (TIR) de 34.31 %, seguido por la lima Tahití (8 años de cultivo), tangelo Minneola y mandarina Arrayana con una TIR de 30.93, 17.08, y 13.88 % respectivamente. Con un valor presente neto (VPN) de 12 % la naranja Valencia obtuvo una utilidad neta de $15.800.000 por ha y una relación Beneficio- Costo (B-C) de 3.23. El VPN para la lima Tahití, el tangelo Minneola y la mandarina Arrayana fue de $4.960.000, 3.200.000 y 1.050.000; mientras que la relación B-C fue de: 2.04, 1.36 % y 1.11 %, respectivamente. La lima Tahití presento una producción acumulada menor. Es necesario continuar la investigación en los patrones, ecofisiología, sanidad de las plantas y de nutrición mineral con el fin de conocer el rendimiento potencial de cada uno de los cultivos de cítricos estudiados en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta. Abstract in english An economic analysis of twelve years of production costs and income is presented for well drained high terrace soils of the piedmont of Meta department on orchards 12 years of Minneola tangelo, Valencia orange, Arrayana tangerine for 8 years of Tahiti lime (due to premature death of plants by citrus [...] tristeza virus). The plants were established in 1997 in the La Libertad research center of Corpoica and followed the recommendations developed by Corpoica for citrus crops. The information is presented per hectare of orchard averaging 10 ha of orange, 5 ha of tangerine and tangelo and 2 ha of lime. The values are the average prices per kg of fruit sold in the tree and input the year 2009 (after obtaining the information). For orange, tangerine and lime was assigned the same capital to be established and cultivated, while the tangelo expenses were less due to a lower plant population per ha, but with the same amount of inputs to plant as other crops. The best production and profitability was for Valencia orange with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 34.31 %, followed by the Tahiti lime (8 years of cultivation), Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine with an IRR of 30.93, 17.08, and 13.88 % respectively. With a net present value (NPV) of 12 % Valencia oranges made a net profit of $ 15,800,000 per ha and a benefit-cost ratio (BC) of 3.23. The NPV for Tahiti lime, the Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine was $ 4,960,000 , 3.2 million and 1.05 million, while the BC ratio was: 2.04, 1.36% and 1.11% respectively. The Tahiti lime had a lower cumulative production. It is necessary to continue researching on patterns, ecophysiology, plant health and mineral nutrition in order to understand the potential performance of each citrus crop conditions studied in the foothills of Meta.

  15. First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

  16. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested fruits immersed in hot water were evaluated aiming to quantify the total of live and dead larvae, with one groupwas kept as control and not immersed. Quarantine safety using treatment with hot water at 46±1°C was reached at 32.0 and 35.3 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. At 50±1°C, quarantine safety was reached at 20.8 and 21.7 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. C. capitata mortality increased with the rise in temperature and exposure time.

  17. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Batista, Lopes; Carlos Henrique de, Brito; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque.

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C . capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade 'Dancy' infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aos tratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1ºC e [...] 50±1ºC, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1ºC foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1ºC, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0) infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar o total de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1ºC foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 50±1ºC, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermal treatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1ºC and 50±1ºC for [...] different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe) and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1ºC, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1ºC, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested fruits immersed in hot water were evaluated aiming to quantify the total of live and dead larvae, with one group was kept as control and not immersed. Quarantine safety using treatment with hot water at 46±1ºC was reached at 32.0 and 35.3 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. At 50±1ºC, quarantine safety was reached at 20.8 and 21.7 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. C . capitata mortality increased with the rise in temperature and exposure time.

  18. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  19. The IDA Peptide Controls Abscission in Arabidopsis and Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estornell, Leandro H.; Wildhagen, Mari; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Butenko, Melinka A.

    2015-01-01

    Organ abscission is an important process in plant development and reproduction. During abscission, changes in cellular adhesion of specialized abscission zone cells ensure the detachment of infected organs or those no longer serving a function to the plant. In addition, abscission also plays an important role in the release of ripe fruits. Different plant species display distinct patterns and timing of organ shedding, most likely adapted during evolution to their diverse life styles. However, it appears that key regulators of cell separation may have conserved function in different plant species. Here, we investigate the functional conservation of the citrus ortholog of the Arabidopsis peptide ligand INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (AtIDA), controlling floral organ abscission. We discuss the possible implications of modifying the citrus IDA ortholog for citrus fruit production. PMID:26635830

  20. Determining some physical properties of bergamot (Citrus medica)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mobli; R. Mirasheh; Sharifi, M.; Jafari, A; M. Keramat Jahromi; Rafiee , S

    2007-01-01

    Physical properties are often required for designing post harvest handling/processing equipment for agricultural products. Bergamot is a species of citrus fruit. Physical properties of bergamot are necessary for equipment used in activities such as transportation, storage, grading, packing, and in food production processes like drying, jam production and so on. In this study some physical properties of bergamot were determined. Properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, v...

  1. New cyclic peptides from Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis SWINGLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Teruki; Nishimura, Koichi; Takeya, Koichi

    2002-06-01

    Two new cyclic peptides were isolated from the fruit peels of Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis SWINGLE. Their structures were elucidated as cyclo(-Gly-Asp-Leu-Thr-Val-Tyr-Phe-) and cyclo(-Gly-Leu-Pro-Trp-Leu-Ile-Ala-Ala-) by intensive two-dimensional (2D) NMR analysis and chemical evidence. PMID:12045349

  2. Controlled in vivo infestation of mandarin fruit with Ceratitis capitata for development of quarantine treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Jacas Miret, Josep Anton; Palou, Lluís; Beitia Crespo, Francisco José; Río, M.A. del

    2008-01-01

    Movement of citrus fruit from Ceratitis capitata-infested areas requires mandatory quarantine treatments. Development of such treatments requires the use of infested fruit. The in vivo approach is the most realistic way to obtain these fruit. However, it requires previous studies to determine the optimal fruit:fly ratio to minimize the number of decayed fruit and to maximize the number of flies per fruit obtained. In this study, the optimal fruit:fly ratio for the in vivo infestat...

  3. Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata. PMID:18943316

  4. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Li; Kunsong Chen; Jianzhen Huang; Chongde Sun; Jiukai Zhang; Yixiong Zheng; Fenglei Luo; Xiaoyan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit...

  5. Reação de porta-enxertos híbridos ao Citrus tristeza virus / Reaction of hybrid rootstocks to Citrus tristeza virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO E., MEISSNER FILHO; WALTER DOS S., SOARES FILHO; KARINNA V. C., VELAME; ELIZIO P., DIAMANTINO; MARIA S. A. S., DIAMANTINO.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tristeza causada pelo vírus da tristeza dos citros (Citrus tristeza virus, CTV) é uma das principais viroses dos citros (Citrus spp.) no Brasil. Alguns autores têm utilizado a intensidade de caneluras produzidas nos ramos para selecionar plantas com resistência ao vírus. Neste trabalho foi avaliad [...] a a reação de porta-enxertos híbridos, provenientes do programa de melhoramento genético de citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura ao CTV e elaboradas duas escalas, uma fotográfica e outra diagramática, para quantificação de resistência ao CTV. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, a maioria apresentou poucas caneluras, sendo portanto considerados resistentes à tristeza. Verificou-se a manutenção da resistência ao vírus nos híbridos produzidos a partir de progenitores que possuíam algum nível de resistência. Abstract in english Tristeza caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the main virus diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.) in Brazil. Some authors have used the intensity of stem pitting symptoms to select resistant plants to tristeza. This work evalueated the reaction of hybrid rootstocks from the citrus breeding pr [...] ogram of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. Two scales, for hybrid rootstock evaluation of resistance to CTV were elaborated, one photographic and the other diagrammatic. The majority of the analyzed rootstocks showed a low number of stem pitting and was considered resistant to the virus. Resistance was maintained in hybrids when the parent plants presented resistance to CTV.

  6. Reação de porta-enxertos híbridos ao Citrus tristeza virus Reaction of hybrid rootstocks to Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO E. MEISSNER FILHO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tristeza causada pelo vírus da tristeza dos citros (Citrus tristeza virus, CTV é uma das principais viroses dos citros (Citrus spp. no Brasil. Alguns autores têm utilizado a intensidade de caneluras produzidas nos ramos para selecionar plantas com resistência ao vírus. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a reação de porta-enxertos híbridos, provenientes do programa de melhoramento genético de citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura ao CTV e elaboradas duas escalas, uma fotográfica e outra diagramática, para quantificação de resistência ao CTV. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, a maioria apresentou poucas caneluras, sendo portanto considerados resistentes à tristeza. Verificou-se a manutenção da resistência ao vírus nos híbridos produzidos a partir de progenitores que possuíam algum nível de resistência.Tristeza caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the main virus diseases of citrus (Citrus spp. in Brazil. Some authors have used the intensity of stem pitting symptoms to select resistant plants to tristeza. This work evalueated the reaction of hybrid rootstocks from the citrus breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. Two scales, for hybrid rootstock evaluation of resistance to CTV were elaborated, one photographic and the other diagrammatic. The majority of the analyzed rootstocks showed a low number of stem pitting and was considered resistant to the virus. Resistance was maintained in hybrids when the parent plants presented resistance to CTV.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alquézar García, Berta; Zacarías García, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are the main pigments responsible of the colouration of Citrus fruits. The ?-cyclization of lycopene, catalysed by the lycopene ?-cyclases (?-LCY), seems to be a key regulatory step of the carotenoid pathway. In the present study, two ?-LCYs from orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), named Cs?-LCY1 and Cs?-LCY2 have been isolated and the activity of the encoded proteins was demonstrated by functional analysis. Cs?-LCY1 was expressed at low levels and remained relatively constant during...

  8. Physical properties of kumquat fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliliantabar, F.; Lorestani, A. N.; Gholami, R.

    2013-01-01

    Some physical properties of kumquat were investigated. Physical properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, density, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packaging coefficient were calculated. Mechanical properties such as the elasticity modulus, rupture force and energy required for initial rupture have been determined. The experiments were carried out at moisture content of 82.6% (w.b.). The results show that the kumquat fruit is one of the smallest fruit in the citrus family.

  9. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart.) nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense / Characterization of plants and fruit of araticum plant (Annona crassiflora Mart.) native to the Cerrado of Mato Grosso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex Caetano, Pimenta; Patricia Sedrez da Rosa e, Silva; Katia Christina, Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares, Koehler.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao di [...] âmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL) e transversal (DT), a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT), relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira. Abstract in english The araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) is a native fruit from the Brazilian Cerrado requiring studies to generate data to support research related to its domestication. This research aimed to study a population of araticunzeiro relating to the stem diameter and plant height, produc [...] tion, and physical and physical-chemical characterization of its fruits. Diameter of stem, height, and fruit yield of plants were measured. In the fruits, longitudinal (LD) and transverse (TD) diameters, the LD/TD ratio, the masses of fruit, peel, seed, and pulp were analyzed; and the pulp yield was calculated. In the pulp, determination of soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, pH, and moisture were performed. The trees had stem diameter of 10.4±3.1 cm and height of 3.7±0.7 m with an average yield of 6.0±3.6 fruits per plant. On average, fruits presented 14.2±1.4 LD, 15.2±2.2 TD, and 0.9±0.1 LD/TD ratio; they presented 1,565.5±508.5 g average mass; and masses of peel, seeds, and pulp presented 662.2±198.2 g, 179.8±66.2 g, and 723.5±276.7 g averages, respectively, with average pulp yield equal to 45.9±4.7% of the fruit. In pulp, SS average of 17.60±1.86 ºBrix, TA of 0.37±0.11% malic acid, SS/TA ratio of 52.23±17.64,4, 45±0.23 pH, and average humidity equal to 74.3±2.86%.. The araticunzeiro has physical and chemical characteristics that make it an alternative to the native Brazilian fruit production.

  10. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the "grapefruit juice effect". Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in creating species devoid of these toxic compounds in future breeding programs. PMID:26558757

  11. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in creating species devoid of these toxic compounds in future breeding programs. PMID:26558757

  12. Mutation breeding of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties with conventional breeding methods of improving grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars lead to the application of mutation breeding with X-rays and thermal neutrons. Thermal neutron treatment of seeds and budwood induced mutations affecting fruit characteristics, including seedy to seedless, red to redder flesh and redder peel colour. Two important commercial grapefruit cultivars were developed, 'Star Ruby' and 'Rio Red'. These two cultivars are now sold under the trademark RIO STAR and marketed as the premium grapefruit produced in Texas. (author). 10 refs

  13. Citrus paradisi: an effective bio-adsorbent for arsenic (v) remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study As(V) was removed by citrus paradise (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradise peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradise was 37.76 mg.g/sup -1/ at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH) groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradis peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples. (author)

  14. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  15. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

    2006-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

  16. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o52) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  17. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    OpenAIRE

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; Iino, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; Shida, Kan; Sakai, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary admi...

  18. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. PMID:25977000

  19. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tercilio, Calsa Jr.; Antonio, Figueira.

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those [...] from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark) or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits). Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC).

  20. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  1. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19 739, and a total of 73 797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  2. Bat Virus Downunder: The Hendra Virus and Its Relationship to Native Fruit Bats, Horses and Human --Learning and Teaching Opportunities for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    The fatal effect of the Hendra virus was noticed first in Queensland, Australia in 1994 when several horses died from an "unidentified cause". This was followed by the death of trainers and veterinarians called to assist affected horses. It is now known that the "unidentified cause", is a virus harboured in native Australian…

  3. Bat Virus Downunder: The Hendra Virus and Its Relationship to Native Fruit Bats, Horses and Human --Learning and Teaching Opportunities for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    The fatal effect of the Hendra virus was noticed first in Queensland, Australia in 1994 when several horses died from an "unidentified cause". This was followed by the death of trainers and veterinarians called to assist affected horses. It is now known that the "unidentified cause", is a virus harboured in native Australian…

  4. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia / Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Camargo, Neves; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas; Vanuza Xavier da, Silva; Marcos André de Souza, Prill; Sergio Ruffo, Roberto.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. F [...] oi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preli [...] minary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as matrix, and from these ones the following treatments were originated: 2 controls - 100% of pineapple and 100% of passion fruit; 1 blend using the matrix - 50% of pineapple + 50% of passion fruit; 7 blends of each matrix with which chosen fruit in the proportion of 1:1. The sodium benzoate and sulfur dioxide were added in the concentrations of 500 and 200 ppm, respectively, in all nectars and evaluated blends. The results regarding the nutritional composition of blends reflected a significative raise of nutritional values when compared to the matrix, as well when compared to the individual nectars of each fruit. The same behavior was observed even after 10 days of no refrigerated storage. Regarding the microbiological stability, just the blends in which buriti was used as component were damaged. The blends chemical analysis showed different standard in relation to the matrix, however, when submitted to the sensorial analysis, showed to be satisfactory by the panel. The compositions that more enjoyed the panel were the blends of both matrix associated to camu-camu and murici.

  5. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  6. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  7. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  8. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin

  9. Seedless citrus derived from selected promising mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional breeding on Citrus is laborious, time consuming and expensive because Citrus is highly heterozygous, polygenic plants with long juvenile period. Therefore, mutation breeding was carried out; bud woods of two Indonesian local commercial mandarin (Citrus reticulata L. Blanco) c v. SoE and Garut and pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) cv Nambangan were exposed to gamma rays at the doses of 20, 40 and 60 grays, and then irradiated bud woods were then budded onto rootstocks cv. Japanse citron. Three-years-old untreated and irradiated plants grown in pots were checked for fruit characters such as seeds number per fruit, and colour of flesh and skin. Selected promising mutant lines were found in terms of seedlessness in cvs SoE mandarin and Nambangan pummelo, and nearly seedless cultivars were found in cvs Soe, Garut and Nambangan when bud woods were irradiated at the doses 20 and 40 grays. The performance of promising mutant lines obtained are now being observed and propagated in fields to confirm their stability. (author)

  10. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  11. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Natural products for cancer-targeted therapy: citrus flavonoids as potent chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanto, Edy; Hermawan, Adam; Anindyajati

    2012-01-01

    Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches. Natural products being rich of flavonoids are those fruits belong to the genus citrus. Ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and Citrus aurantiifolia peels showed anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, co-chemotherapeutic and estrogenic effects. Several examples of citrus flavonoids that are potential as chemotherapeutic agents are tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, and naringin. Those flavonoids have been shown to possess inhibition activity on certain cancer cells' growth through various mechanisms. Moreover, citrus flavonoids also perform promising effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents against the growth of cancer cells. Some mechanisms involved in those activities are through cell cycle modulation, antiangiogenic effect, and apoptosis induction. Previous studies showed that tangeretin suppressed the growth of T47D breast cancer cells by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. While in combination with tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, respectively, it was proven to be synergist on several cancer cells. Hesperidin and naringenin increased cytotoxicitity of doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Besides, citrus flavonoids also performed estrogenic effect in vivo. One example is hesperidin having the ability to decrease the concentration of serum and hepatic lipid and reduce osteoporosis of ovariectomized rats. Those studies showed the great potential of citrus fruits as natural product to be developed as not only the source of co-chemotherapeutic agents, but also phyto-estrogens. Therefore, further study needs to be conducted to explore the potential of citrus fruits in overcoming cancer. PMID:22524801

  13. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  14. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tami Turner; Betty J. Burri

    2013-01-01

    Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

  15. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzani, Simona M.; Leonardo Schena; Antonio Ippolito

    2014-01-01

    Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated w...

  16. Determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y compuestos bioactivos de frutas nativas peruanas / Determination of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in native peruvian fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ritva, Repo de Carrasco; Christian René, Encina Zelada.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el tomate de árbol se destacó el contenido relativamente alto de fibra cruda 4,5 g/100 g de fruta. El tomate de árbol ( y el aguaymanto ( ) tuvieron mayor contenido de proteínas (1,9 g/100 g para ambos frutos) que las otras frutas estudiadas. En cuanto a compuestos fenólicos, la papaya de monte e [...] s la fruta que presentó mayor contenido de estos compuestos (167 mg de equivalente ácido gálico/g de fruto). El contenido de betalaínas en tuna roja ( ) fue de 68,95 mg/1000 mL. El aguaymanto tuvo el mayor contenido de ácido ascórbico (43,3 mg/100g), seguido por la papaya de monte (31,41 mg/100g) y el tomate de árbol seguida por la tuna roja 16,09 mg/100g y 22,75 mg/100g, respectivamente. El contenido de carotenoides fue mayor en el tomate de árbol (4 mg -caroteno/100 g) seguido por el aguaymanto con 2,64 mg - caroteno/100 g. La tuna roja presentó una capacidad de inhibición del radical DPPH mucho mayor que las otras tunas estudiadas (77,65 %). Comparando las diferentes frutas en cuanto a capacidad antioxidante medido por el método del DPPH, fue el de la papaya de monte (1936 228 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el tomate de árbol (853 52 g equivalente trolox/g de tejido); y la mayor capacidad antioxidante medida por el método del ABTS fue el de la papaya de monte (2141 71 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el aguaymanto (1066 28 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto). Finalmente, se concluyó que el estado de madurez influye en forma directamente proporcional al contenido de compuestos bioactivos en el aguaymanto, los que a su vez generan una mayor capacidad antioxidante en el fruto mientras más maduro esté. Abstract in english In the case of the tree tomato ( ) the relatively high crude fibre content stood out (4,5 g/100 g of fruit). The tree tomato and golden berry had higher protein content (1,9 g/100 g for both fruits) than the other fruits. Regarding to the mineral analysis, the prickle pears are very good sources of [...] phosphorus as well as calcium. On the other hand, the tree tomato is an excellent potassium source followed by golden berry and papaya( ). In addition golden berry is a relatively good source of iron and zinc. The mountain papaya is a very important source of phosphorus surpassing to the other fruits. All the samples presented significant difference as far as the content of total phenolic compounds, but mountain papaya is the fruit that presented the highest content of these compounds (167 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of fruit). The content of betalains in red prickle pear was of 68,95 mg/1000 mL. Golden berry had the highest vitamin C content (43,3 mg/100g) followed by mountain papaya (31,41 mg/100g). The lowest content of this vitamin was in the tree tomato followed by red prickle pear, 16,09 mg/100g and 22,75 mg/100g, respectively. The content of carotenoids was the highest in the tree tomato, (4 mg -carotene/100 g) followed by golden berry with 2,64 mg -carotene/100 g. Red prickle pear presented much greater capacity of inhibition of radical DPPH than the other varieties (77,65%). Comparing the different fruits regarding to the measurement of the antioxidant capacity, the mountain papaya (2141 71 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit) had the highest value followed by golden berry (1066 28 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit), tree tomato and red prickle pear. Finally, it was found that the grade of maturity had a direct effect to the antioxidant capacity.

  17. MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

  18. Coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatings (waxes) are applied to apples, citrus, stone fruits, avocados, tomatoes and cucumbers prior to marketing in order to reduce water loss and shrinkage, create a modified atmosphere inside the produce, slow down senescence and ageing, impart shine, and allow for better quality and marketing pr...

  19. Evaluación de calidad de frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) / Evaluation of quality in fruits of seven native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Juárez-López; R., Castro-Brindis; T., Colinas-León; P., Ramírez-Vallejo; M., Sandoval-Villa; D. W., Reed; L., Cisneros-Zevallos; S., King.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad en frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, y JCPRV-76, cultivados en hidroponía sin recirculación y bajo invernadero. Como testigo se usó u [...] n híbrido comercial de jitomate tipo "cherry" (H-790). Se evaluó firmeza, días para alcanzar 7% de pérdida de peso (DPP), pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, contenido de licopeno, de ?-caroteno y de ácido ascórbico. Se encontraron diferencias (P?0.05) en todas las variables, excepto en pH, el cual varió de 4.1 a 4.4. En firmeza, H-790 superó 19.5% al genotipo nativo que presentó mayor resistencia (JCPRV-05). En DPP, H-790 superó en 20.6% a JCPRV-10 que presentó el mayor lapso de los genotipos nativos. En sólidos solubles totales, JCPRV-05 superó a H-790 en 10%. En acidez titulable, JCPRV-43 superó 23% a H-790. Respecto al contenido de licopeno, JCPRV-09 fue superior 6.1% a H-790. En contenido de ?-caroteno, JCPRV-76 superó 4.0% a H-790, y en contenido de ácido ascórbico, JCPRV-76 superó 35.4% a H-790. Con excepción de firmeza, DPP y pH de frutos, la mayoría de los genotipos nativos evaluados superaron al híbrido comercial (H-790) en todos los parámetros. Se consideró que estos materiales podrían ser usados como fuente de germoplasma en programas de mejoramiento genético del jitomate para incrementar la calidad interna de los frutos de esta especie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of seven genotypes native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, and JCPRV-76 were grown in hydroponics without recirculation and under greenhouse. A commercial cherry toma [...] to hybrid was used as a control (H-790). Firmness, days at 7% of weight loss (DWL)), pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, lycopene, ?-carotene and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. There were significant differences in all variables, except pH, which ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. In firmness, H-790 exceeded by 19.5% to the native genotype which showed the highest penetration resistance (JCPRV-05). In DWL, H-790 exceeded by 20.6% to JCPRV-10 which presented the greatest period of native genotypes. In total soluble solids, JCPRV-05 exceeded by 10% to H-790. In acidity, JCPRV-43 exceeded by 23% to H-790. In regard to the lycopene content, JCPRV-09 was 6.1% higher than H-790. In ?-carotene content, JCPRV-76 exceeded by 4.0% to H-790; JCPRV-76 exceeded by 35.4% to H-790 in ascorbic acid content. Except for firmness, pH and DPP fruit, most native evaluated genotypes exceeded to commercial hybrid (H-790) for all parameters. It was considered that these materials could be used as a source of germplasm in breeding programs of tomato in order to increase the internal quality of fruits of this specie.

  20. Caracterização química de frutos de jenipapeiros nativos do Recôncavo Baiano visando ao consumo natural e industrialização Chemical characterization of native jenipapo fruits from the Recôncavo Baiano region aiming in natura fruit consumption and industrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Souza Hansen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a variabilidade química de frutos de jenipapeiro com potencial econômico para o Recôncavo Baiano. Foram identificadas 100 árvores de jenipapeiro distribuídas em seis municípios do Recôncavo Baiano, onde se coletaram 10 frutos por planta para realização das análises químicas. As variáveis estudadas foram: pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, ácido ascórbico (AA, acidez titulável (AT, relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável (SS/AT, açúcares redutores (AR, não-redutores (ANR e totais (AST. Para a interpretação dos resultados, utilizaram-se análise descritiva e coeficiente de Correlação de Pearson. As análises dos frutos nas safras de 2004/2005 apresentaram valores médios iguais a 3,44 e 3,39 para o pH; 1,40% e 1,42% de AT; 17,18 ºBrix e 16,8 ºBrix para SS; 2,76 mg.100g-1 e 2,65 mg.100g-1 de ácido ascórbico; 9,26% e 8,95% de AR; 3,39% e 3,31% de ANR; 12,61% e 12,28% de AST; 12,37 e 12,00 para SS/AT. Os resultados permitiram concluir que existe variabilidade para os caracteres analisados, possibilitando a exploração econômica dos frutos para o consumo in natura e industrialização; que o SS contribui para a maioria dos caracteres, com exceção da vitamina C, e os genótipos JP12, JP39, JP41, JP59, JP73, JP79, JP80, JP83, JP89, JP90 e JP99 podem ser recomendados para utilização nas condições agroecológicas do Recôncavo Baiano.The objective of the present work was to identify the variability in the chemical constituents of jenipapo fruit with economic potential for the Recôncavo Baiano Region. One-hundred jenipapo fruit trees, distributed in six counties of the Recôncavo Baiano Region region, were identified and 10 fruit per plant were collected for the chemical analyses. The variables studied were: pH, soluble solids (SS, ascorbic acid content (AA, titrable acidity (TEA, soluble solids and titrable acidity ratio (SS/TEA, reducing sugars (RS, non-reducing sugars (NRS and total sugars (TS. Descriptive analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used in order to interpret the data. The fruit analysis in the 2004/2005 harvest period presented average values equal to 3.44 and 3.39 for pH; 1.40 and 1.42 for TEA; 17.18 ºBrix and 16.81 ºBrix for SS; 2.76 mg 100g-1 and 2.65 mg 100g-1 for ascorbic acid; 9.26% and 8.95% for RG; 3.39% and 3.31% for NRG; 12.61% and 12.28% for TG; 12.37 and 12.00 for SS/TEA. The results concluded that there is variability for the characteristics analyzed, enabling the economic exploration of the fruits for in natura consumption as well as industrialization, and the genotypes JP 12, JP 39, JP 41, JP 59, JP 73, JP 79, JP 80, JP 83, JP 89, JP 90, and JP 99, can be recommended to the agro-ecological conditions of the Recôncavo Baiano region.

  1. Caracterização química de frutos de jenipapeiros nativos do Recôncavo Baiano visando ao consumo natural e industrialização / Chemical characterization of native jenipapo fruits from the Recôncavo Baiano region aiming in natura fruit consumption and industrialization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela de Souza, Hansen; Simone Alves, Silva; Antonio Augusto Oliveira, Fonseca; Orlando Antonio de Souza, Hansen; Natiana Oliveira, França.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a variabilidade química de frutos de jenipapeiro com potencial econômico para o Recôncavo Baiano. Foram identificadas 100 árvores de jenipapeiro distribuídas em seis municípios do Recôncavo Baiano, onde se coletaram 10 frutos por planta para realização das a [...] nálises químicas. As variáveis estudadas foram: pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SS), ácido ascórbico (AA), acidez titulável (AT), relação entre sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável (SS/AT), açúcares redutores (AR), não-redutores (ANR) e totais (AST). Para a interpretação dos resultados, utilizaram-se análise descritiva e coeficiente de Correlação de Pearson. As análises dos frutos nas safras de 2004/2005 apresentaram valores médios iguais a 3,44 e 3,39 para o pH; 1,40% e 1,42% de AT; 17,18 ºBrix e 16,8 ºBrix para SS; 2,76 mg.100g-1 e 2,65 mg.100g-1 de ácido ascórbico; 9,26% e 8,95% de AR; 3,39% e 3,31% de ANR; 12,61% e 12,28% de AST; 12,37 e 12,00 para SS/AT. Os resultados permitiram concluir que existe variabilidade para os caracteres analisados, possibilitando a exploração econômica dos frutos para o consumo in natura e industrialização; que o SS contribui para a maioria dos caracteres, com exceção da vitamina C, e os genótipos JP12, JP39, JP41, JP59, JP73, JP79, JP80, JP83, JP89, JP90 e JP99 podem ser recomendados para utilização nas condições agroecológicas do Recôncavo Baiano. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to identify the variability in the chemical constituents of jenipapo fruit with economic potential for the Recôncavo Baiano Region. One-hundred jenipapo fruit trees, distributed in six counties of the Recôncavo Baiano Region region, were identified and 10 fruit [...] per plant were collected for the chemical analyses. The variables studied were: pH, soluble solids (SS), ascorbic acid content (AA), titrable acidity (TEA), soluble solids and titrable acidity ratio (SS/TEA), reducing sugars (RS), non-reducing sugars (NRS) and total sugars (TS). Descriptive analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used in order to interpret the data. The fruit analysis in the 2004/2005 harvest period presented average values equal to 3.44 and 3.39 for pH; 1.40 and 1.42 for TEA; 17.18 ºBrix and 16.81 ºBrix for SS; 2.76 mg 100g-1 and 2.65 mg 100g-1 for ascorbic acid; 9.26% and 8.95% for RG; 3.39% and 3.31% for NRG; 12.61% and 12.28% for TG; 12.37 and 12.00 for SS/TEA. The results concluded that there is variability for the characteristics analyzed, enabling the economic exploration of the fruits for in natura consumption as well as industrialization, and the genotypes JP 12, JP 39, JP 41, JP 59, JP 73, JP 79, JP 80, JP 83, JP 89, JP 90, and JP 99, can be recommended to the agro-ecological conditions of the Recôncavo Baiano region.

  2. Identification of citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR)-like proteins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Morais do, Amaral; Daniel, Saito; Eduardo Fernandes, Formighieri; Edenilson, Rabello; Adriane N. de, Souza; Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Siu Mui, Tsai.

    Full Text Available Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) proteins, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, have been recently shown to play a role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, nothing is known about their expression in citrus. To investigate the occurrence of PDR homol [...] ogues in citrus species, we have surveyed EST sequences from different tissues and conditions of the Citrus Expressed Sequence Tags (CitEST) database, through sequence similarity search analyses and inspections for characteristic PDR domains. Multiple sequence alignments, prediction of transmembrane topology and phylogenetic analysis of PDR-like proteins were additionally performed. This study allowed the identification of nine putative proteins showing characteristic PDR features in citrus species under various conditions, which may indicate a potential correlation between PDRs and stress and metabolism of citrus plants. Moreover, a tissue-specific putative PDR-like protein was found in sweet orange fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the identification of citrus ESTs encoding PDR-like proteins as well as the first to identify a putative full ABC transporter with specific expression in fruits.

  3. Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' / Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zuzinaide Vidal, Bomfim; Romulo da Silva, Carvalho; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de, Carvalho.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae). Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorph [...] a longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp.) na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg) foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas) a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck) e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck). Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo. Abstract in english Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: B [...] raconidae) on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg) were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours) release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae pupae were obtained, of which 3.963 Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) adults and 1.115 parasitoids of Braconidae family emerged. Three species of opiinae were identified before releasing. The higher relative frequency was of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), followed by Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck). 24 and 48 hours after release the exotic parasitoid D. longicaudata on the field, the parasitism rate increased from 15.86% to 20.42% and 45.19%, respectively. It was found that the release of exotic species D. longicaudata has no negative effects on the occurrence of native parasitoids and helps to complement the natural biological control of A. obliqua in fruits of 'umbu-cajá' conditions of this study.

  4. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  5. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ashraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is the leading fruit of Pakistan and famous worldwide especially kinnow cultivar because of its pleasant taste and remarkable quality. The yield of citrus per hectare in Pakistan is almost half of potential due to non-adoption of recommended horticultural practices by citrus growers. Adopting a decision regarding the improvement of practices is usually influenced by various factors including farmers' socio-economic attributes. In order to determine the relationship between socio-economic aspects and the awareness and adoption of recommended citrus production practices the present study was carried out in Sargodha district from central Punjab, Pakistan. The Study was based upon cross sectional survey research design due to availability of sampling frame, probability (random sampling was applied for sample selection. Through random sampling, 120 citrus growers were selected as sample. Structured questionnaire administered through interview was used as a research instrument. Analysis of the data collected from the targeted citrus growers revealed a highly significant influence of education on awareness and adoption. Moreover, significant association was found between citrus cultivation area and awareness and adoption of improved practices. Age also showed significant association with awareness and adoption. Moreover, dominancy of middle aged farmers and illiteracyin the study area strongly point the need of provision of formal and non-formal education and training program for farmers. Young generation needs to be focused and reorientation of youth clubs may help in better way to gain the utmost outcome.

  6. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Effects of Gamma-Irradiation Mutagenesis for Induction of Seedlessness, on the Quality of Mandarin Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv; Ron Porat; Nir Carmi

    2014-01-01

    Gamma irradiation mutagenesis is a technique commonly used to induce seedlessness in citrus fruits. We compared fruit quality traits of eight different seeded mandarin varieties within the Israeli citrus breeding collection with those of their corresponding gamma-irradiated low-seeded mutants. The mandarin varieties compared were: “Rishon” with “Kedem”; “Michal” with irradiated “Michal”; “Merav” with “Meravit”; “Vered” with “Vardit”; “Ora” with “Or”; “Murcott” with “Mor...

  8. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl.(Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn.(Melastomataceae and Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. The applied methodology was the qualitative evaluation of the phenological data (florescence and fruiting observed every fifteen days during the year 2004. The climatic variables as temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation and photoperiod were obtained daily to verify its relation with the phenophasis. The results showed that from all studied species, six of them presented reproductive phenology between January and August, while the others just had aninterruption in the reproductive period during winter, except Aspilia montevidensis, which presented florescence and fruiting throughout the year.

  9. Can insecticides protect citrus from HLB infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, is a lethal bacterial disease of citrus causing devastating yield losses in Florida and many other citrus-growing areas of the world. The presumptive bacterial agent, C. Liberibacter asiaticus, is vectored by an exotic, invasive insect, Asian citrus psyllid...

  10. Study on storage effect and tissue structure of citrus carpodermis irradiation with electronic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both observations of the tissue structure of citrus carpodermis irradiated with electronic beams and the storage effect during stockpiling period show that when the citrus fruit is treated at the dose of 0.5 kGy, its tissue structure of carpodermis can maintain its normal status and waxy layer is thick; cells and spongy parenchyma cells in carpodermis arrange closely. When the dose is increased up to 3 kGy, the fruits are destroyed seriously. During whole storage period, the decay rate of the treated fruits at 0.5 kGy is lower than that of CK. Loss of weight is less (all of the fruits are plump and have fairly special flavour), and nutritive elements such as vitamin C, total acid and total sugar approach to CK

  11. Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Moravvej; S. Abbar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. para...

  12. Antimutagenicity effect of Citrus nobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Entezari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus nobilis . The Citrus nobilis was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium(TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. In Ames Test the Citrus nobilis prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of Citrus nobilis was 72.46% . This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity effect of Citrus nobilis.

  13. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

  14. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vector of citrus huanglongbing disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an important pest of citrus because it transmits phloem-limited bacteria [Candidatus Liberibacter spp., notably Ca. L. asiaticus (Las)], associated with huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening), currently considered the...

  15. A Factorial experiment on Citrus stock/scion combinations in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Pietro; Pala, Mario; Falqui, Daniela

    1992-01-01

    Five Citrus varieties ("Washington navel", "Tarocco", "Biondo comune", "Valencia" sweet oranges, and "Avana" mandarin) on different rootstocks (sour orange, "Troyer" citrange, citremon 1449, Poncirus trifoliata "Rubidoux", "Orlando" tangelo), and at two planting distances (4x4 m, 5x5 m) were evaluated for 3 years in a factorial experiment, with a completely randomized design. Observations were made on growth, productivity and fruit quality. Tree growth, productivity and fruit quality we...

  16. Influence of edapho-climatic factors on the sporulation and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Amazonian native fruit species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available De agosto de 1998 a maio de 2000 foi avaliada a colonização por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) e o número de esporos na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas, Paullinia cupana Mart. e Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., crescendo em um ecossistema de terra firme da Amazônia Central. A influência [...] de fatores climáticos e edáficos sobre as variáveis micorrízicas também foram avaliadas. O pH, Al, Mn e capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva do solo exibiram variações sazonais durante o período investigado. Variações temporais nos níveis de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos ocorreram, indicando sazonalidade. Além disso, os padrões de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos para ambas as espécies foram similares durante o período estudado. As variáveis micorrízicas foram relacionadas com os fatores climáticos e edáficos, entretanto, a intensidade e tipo de influência das características climáticas e de solo sobre o desenvolvimento dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tendem a variar com a estação e a espécie de planta hospedeira nas condições de Amazônia Central. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of two fruit species, Paullinia cupana Mart. and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., growing in a terra firme ecosystem in Central Amazonia were studied from August 1998 to May 2000. Climatic and edaphic factors were als [...] o determined to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. Soil pH, Al, Mn and effective cation exchange capacity exhibited seasonal variations during the investigation period. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. Moreover, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers for both host species were similar during the studied period. Mycorrhizal variables were related to climatic and edaphic factors, however, the intensity and type of influence of climatic and soil characteristics on AMF development tended to vary with the season and host plant species in Central Amazonia conditions.

  17. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  18. Metabolite signature of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infection in two citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Elizabeth L; Mishchuk, Darya O; Breksa, Andrew P; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2014-07-16

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, is caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and is a serious threat to the citrus industry. To understand the effect of CLas infection on the citrus metabolome, juice from healthy (n = 18), HLB-asymptomatic (n = 18), and HLB-symptomatic Hamlin (n = 18), as well as from healthy (n = 18) and HLB-symptomatic (n = 18) Valencia sweet oranges (from southern and eastern Florida) were evaluated using (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Differences in the concentration of several metabolites including phenylalanine, histidine, limonin, and synephrine between control or asymptomatic fruit and symptomatic fruit were observed regardless of the citrus variety or location. There were no clear differences between the metabolite profiles of Hamlin fruits classified by PCR as asymptomatic and control, suggesting that some of the control fruit may have been infected. Taken together, these data indicate that infection due to CLas presents a strong metabolic response that is observed across different cultivars and regions, suggesting the potential for generation of metabolite-based biomarkers of CLas infection. PMID:24959841

  19. Use of phosphite salts in laboratory and semi-commercial tests to control citrus postharvest decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many growers of citrus fruit and other crops often apply phosphite or phosphorous acid containing products before harvest. Phosphite fungicides include calcium or potassium phosphite salts, or the phosphite-generating fungicide fosetyl-aluminium (Aliette®, Bayer CropScience). Recently, two products ...

  20. Biotransformation of the citrus flavone tangeretin in rats. Identification of metabolites with intact flavane nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Breinholt, V.; Cornett, Claus; Dragsted, L. O.

    2000-01-01

    The present study mas carried out in order to investigate the in vivo biotransformation and excretion of the flavone, tangeretin, found in citrus fruits, by analysing urine and faeces samples from rats after repeated administration of 100 mg/kg body weight/day tangeretin. The formed metabolites...

  1. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the interstate movement of regulated nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus...

  2. An update on the effect of citrus greening on flavor and taste of orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been some anecdotal reports that Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, recently introduced in Florida, may impart off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the processing industry to determine what affect fruit from trees of various stages of infection would have on proce...

  3. EVALUATION OF SEEDLINGS EMERGENCE OF NATIVE FRUITS FROM “CERRADO” AVALIAÇÃO DA EMERGÊNCIA DE PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES FRUTÍFERAS NATIVAS DO CERRADO GOIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Tiveron Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to obtain preliminary information about sexual propagation of some species of native from “cerrado”, this study was carried out in nursery conditions, at Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás (Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from October 1991 to February 1992. The species studied and their percentage of seedlings emergence obtained were: baru (Dypterix alota Vog.; Fabaceae 68%, cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz.; Anacardiaceae 38.67%; gabiroba herbácea (Campomanesia sp; Myrtaceae 95%; mama-cadela (Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Moraceae 71.25%; mangaba (Harconia speciosa Gomez; Apocynaceae 45%; marmelada-de-cachorro [Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich.; Rubiaceae] 75.71%. The behaviour of these specie indicates the viability of sexual propagation.

    Visando a obter informações preliminares sobre a propagação sexuada de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do cerrado, realizou-se este estudo no período de outubro de 1991 a fevereiro de 1992, em condições de viveiro, na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás (Goiânia, GO. As espécies estudadas e as melhores porcentagens de emergência de plântulas que respectivamente apresentaram foram baru (Dypterix alata Vog.; Fabaceae 68%; cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz.; Anacardiaceae 38,67%; gabiroba herbácea (Campomanesia sp, Myrtaceae 95%; mama-cadela (Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc, Moraceae 71,25%; mangaba (Harcornia speciosa Gomez; Apocynaceae 45%, marmelada-de-cachorro [Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich.; Rubiaceae], 75,71%. O comportamento dessas espécies indica a viabilidade de sua propagação sexuada.

  4. Native listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the native language, and they can locate familiar word-forms in novel continuous-speech contexts. The skills acquired at this early stage form a necessary part of adult listening. However, the same native ...

  5. Development of Promising Seedless Citrus Mutants Through Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus are highly heterozygous, polygenic plants with a long juvenile period, whereby conventional breeding is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, mutation breeding was carried out. Bud woods of two Indonesian local commercial mandarin (Citrus reticulata L. Blanco) cv. SoE and Garut, and pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) cv Nambangan were exposed to Gamma-ray doses of 20, 40 and 60Gy, and irradiated bud woods were then budded onto rootstocks cv. Japanche citroen. Three-year-old untreated and irradiated plants grown in pots were checked for fruit characters such as seeds number per fruit, and color of flesh and skin. Selected promising mutant lines were found in terms of seedlessness in cvs SoE mandarin and Nambangan pummelo, and nearly seedless cultivars were found in cvs Soe, Garut and Nambangan when bud woods were irradiated at 20 and 40Gy. The performance of promising mutant lines obtained is now being observed and are propagated in the field to confirm their stability. (author)

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

  7. Influence of edapho-climatic factors on the sporulation and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Amazonian native fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of two fruit species, Paullinia cupana Mart. and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., growing in a terra firme ecosystem in Central Amazonia were studied from August 1998 to May 2000. Climatic and edaphic factors were also determined to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. Soil pH, Al, Mn and effective cation exchange capacity exhibited seasonal variations during the investigation period. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. Moreover, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers for both host species were similar during the studied period. Mycorrhizal variables were related to climatic and edaphic factors, however, the intensity and type of influence of climatic and soil characteristics on AMF development tended to vary with the season and host plant species in Central Amazonia conditions.De agosto de 1998 a maio de 2000 foi avaliada a colonização por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e o número de esporos na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas, Paullinia cupana Mart. e Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., crescendo em um ecossistema de terra firme da Amazônia Central. A influência de fatores climáticos e edáficos sobre as variáveis micorrízicas também foram avaliadas. O pH, Al, Mn e capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva do solo exibiram variações sazonais durante o período investigado. Variações temporais nos níveis de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos ocorreram, indicando sazonalidade. Além disso, os padrões de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos para ambas as espécies foram similares durante o período estudado. As variáveis micorrízicas foram relacionadas com os fatores climáticos e edáficos, entretanto, a intensidade e tipo de influência das características climáticas e de solo sobre o desenvolvimento dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tendem a variar com a estação e a espécie de planta hospedeira nas condições de Amazônia Central.

  8. Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, R. N.; O'Bannon, J. H.; Keen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month'...

  9. Combined Effect of Gamma Radiation and Cymbopogon Citratus L. Essential Oil on the Growth and Morphogenesis of Penicillium Digitatum Sacc. The Causal Agent of Green Mold of Citrus Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Penicillium digitatum Sacc. was completely inhibited by using 2.5 l/ml or 3 l/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method on Czapek's medium, respectively. Two kGy gamma radiation treatment decreased the severity of infection of green rot caused by P. digitatum from 100% to 9.8% after 2 weeks of storage. Also, pre-treatment of orange fruits by 2.5 l/ml C. citratus before 2 kGy irradiation prevented infection by green rot for 21 days and decreased the severity of infection to 9.5% for 28 days of storage at 20 C. The microscopic observation using scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out to study the ultra structure modifications of P. digitatum after treatment. The mycelium of the fungus fumigated with the sub-lethal dose of C. citratus showed large alteration and distortion in hyphal and spores morphology.

  10. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  11. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radibiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Faria, Jose Tadeu [Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dt-sp@agricultura.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  12. Desarrollo del fruto del Citrus Sinensis var. Salustiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia E Laskowski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar la anatomía del fruto de la naranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Salustiana durante su desarrollo y caracterizar su cinética de crecimiento. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. Se colectaron 10 estructuras reproductivas en desarrollo, desde la antesis hasta 118 días después (dda. Para el estudio histológico se realizaron cortes en fresco en micrótomo de congelación y de material incluido en parafina. El estudio de la dinámica de crecimiento incluyó el calculo de la superficie en sección transversal del fruto y tejidos por separado, incluyendo al pericarpo y lóculos. El fruto del cultivar Salustiana mostró un crecimiento ajustado a una curva sigmoidal, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 48 dda, asociado a la división celular y expansión de células del pericarpo; a continuación se incrementó la tasa de crecimiento, con un aumento lineal en superficie transversal a partir del día 76 dda hasta el final de la toma de datos, asociado con el desarrollo de los lóculos y la expansión celular de las vesículas. El fruto de Salustiana mostró una estructura anatómica general similar a las señaladas para C. sinensis y otras especies de Citrus, con un pericarpo compacto durante la mayor parte del estudio y diferenciación entre flavedo y albedo al final del estudio. El desarrollo de las glándulas fue esquizolisogénico y la diferenciación de vesículas ocurrió a partir de la epidermis y capas subepidérmicas, desde antesis hasta 48 dda.Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv Salustiana with the objective to study the development of the different anatomical parts and their kinetic growth. Ten reproductive structures of different cultivated trees from an orchard located in Museros (Valencia, Spain were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis (daa and used to determine transverse sections area of their anatomical parts: pericarp and locules. For anatomical observations with light microscopy, ten countings of each sampling were obtained with the freezing microtome or after inclusion in paraffin. The growth curve of the fruit of cv. Salustiana fitted a single sigmoide curve. Initial growth was related to both division and cellular expansion in the pericarp. Fruit transversal surface showed important increments as from 48 daa and the linear fruit development stage was initiated as from 76 daa, together with locules/vesicles expansion. The fruit showed an anatomical structure similar to the indicated for C. sinensis and other species of Citrus with clear differentiation between flavedo and albedo only at the end of the study. Secretory cavity fitted schizolysigenous ontogeny and vesicle differentiation derived from epidermal and subepidermal tissue of the endocarpo, from anthesis until 48 dda.

  13. Behaviour of spirotetramat residues and its four metabolites in citrus marmalade during home processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyu; Su, Xuesu; Jian, Qiu; Chen, Weijun; Sun, Dali; Gong, Lei; Jiang, Liyan; Jiao, Bining

    2016-03-01

    The effect of home processing on the residues of spirotetramat and its four metabolites (B-enol, B-glu, B-mono and B-keto) in citrus marmalade is comprehensively investigated in this paper by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A five-fold recommended dose of spirotetramat was applied to citrus fruit under field conditions and the processing included five steps: washing, peeling, pre-treatment for peel, mixing and boiling. The results showed that spirotetramat was the predominant component detected in unprocessed citrus, accounting for 64%. All the detected residues were primarily deposited on citrus peel, except for B-enol which was also present in the citrus pulp. Washing reduced spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto by 83%, 56%, 41% and 16%, respectively, and pre-treatment of the peel removed between 42% and 68% of the residues. Four compounds were all below the limit of detection after the mixing step. In the final product, only B-keto was detected at the concentration of 0.010 mg kg(-1). After the whole process, the processing factors for spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto were < 0.041, < 0.125, < 0.294 and 0.313, respectively, which indicated that home processing can significantly reduce residues of spirotetramat and its metabolites in citrus marmalade. PMID:26743711

  14. Antimutagenicity effect of Citrus nobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Maliheh Entezari; Seyed Javad Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus nobilis . The Citrus nobilis was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenic...

  15. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  17. Colonization of citrus and citrus-related germplasm by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious and devastating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp. and vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The disease has the potential to greatly limit the production of citrus in Florida and other citrus gr...

  18. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  19. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our "recipe" for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  20. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata. American Journal of Applied Sciences 6: 60: 1180-1185. Available at http...therefore, has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. Regulatory Flexibility Act This...

  1. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. We have prepared an...on the importation of propagative seed from countries where citrus greening...have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under OMB...

  2. Citrus-derived flavonoid naringenin exerts uterotrophic effects in female mice at human relevant doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke Miller; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hossaini, Alireza

    2004-01-01

    following ingestion of 400-760 ml of orange juice (Erlund et al. 2001). This could be taken to suggests that ingestion of orange juice and other citrus fruits and juices may give rise to sufficiently high tissue levels of naringenin in man to exert a biological effect.......Gavage administration of the citrus flavonoid naringenin, 3',4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanon for 4 consecutive days, to immature female mice (postnatal day 17-20) at 4 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. significantly increased uterine weights 3 and 4 times, respectively. Analysis of uterine oestrogen receptor a...

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Differentiation of the Causal Agent of Citrus Black Spot in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Wickert; Antonio de Goes; Andressa de Souza; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo Lemos

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important diseases that affect sweet orange orchards in Brazil is the Citrus Black Spot that is caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa. This disease causes irreparable losses due to the premature falling of fruit, as well as its severe effects on the epidermis of ripe fruit that renders them unacceptable at the fresh fruit markets. Despite the fact that the fungus and the disease are well studied, little is known about the genetic diversity and the structure of the fungi p...

  4. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant effect and low toxicity and of their potentialities as pharmaceuticals. Objectives: to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity and toxicity against Artemia salina of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from leaves of Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka, Citr