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PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

2013-01-01

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Physiology of citrus fruiting Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-modelo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área.

Domingo J. Iglesias; Manuel Cercós; José M. Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A. Naranjo; Gabino Ríos; Esther Carrera; Omar Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio Lliso; Raphael Morillon; Francisco R. Tadeo; Manuel Talon

2007-01-01

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Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

2005-05-01

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Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

Ortelli D; Edder P; Corvi C

2005-05-01

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Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A?eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ?0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

Chen W; Jiao B; Su X; Zhao Q; Qin D; Wang C

2013-06-01

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Evaluation of the Nutritive Potential of the Peels of Some Citrus Fruit Varieties as Feedingstuffs in Livestock Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four (4) varieties of citrus fruit namely Citrus limonum [lemon (Le), Citrus qurantifolia lime (Li)], Citrus sinensis washington (SOw) and Citrus sinensis Ibadan (SOi) were peeled separately, sun dried, milled using hammer mill machine and analyz...

O.I.A. Oluremi; I.A. Andrew; J. Ngi

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Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice  

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Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco),supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test). This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100) .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide). During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01). In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

Entezari Maliheh; Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza

2009-01-01

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Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

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Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar; M. Narayani; A. Subanthini; M. Jayakumar

2011-01-01

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Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants  

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Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit species when such fruits were selected for their physical resemblance to the native fruit species. Based on our review and case studies, we propose that fruit characteristics of native plant communities could dictate how well a non-native, fleshy-fruited plant species competes for dispersers with natives. Native bird preferences may be largely influenced by regional native fruits, such that birds are attracted to the colors, morphology, and infructescence structures characteristic of preferred native fruits. Non-native fruits exhibiting similar traits are likely to encounter bird communities predisposed to consume them. If those non-natives offer greater fruit abundance, energy content, or accessibility, they may outcompete native plants for dispersers.

Clare Aslan; Marcel Rejmanek

2012-01-01

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Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha MV; Kannan S

2013-02-01

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Differential toxigenic behaviour of Alternaria alternata isolates from citrus fruits  

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Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to elucidate differential toxigenic behaviour of pathogenic Alternaria alternata isolates from diseased citrus fruits and from the surface of healthy citrus fruits viz., mandarin orange var. Nagpur Santra, kinnow mandarin and sour lime. Majority of the tested A. alternata isolates produced tenuazonic acid (TeA) as the main mycotoxin whereas, alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin (ATX-I) were not detected from the diseased citrus tissues even by HPLC method. Highest amount of TeA was detected from A. alternata infected mandarins (6.3 to 9.4 mg/kg), followed by infected sour limes (1.6 to 6.1 mg/kg) and kinnow mandarins (0.4 to 1.9 mg/kg). Toxicity of tenuazonic acid is well documented but its tolerance limit in food and feed is not yet fixed.

ROZY BAMBA* and GEETA SUMBALI

2012-01-01

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Solid fuel from wastes of paper and citrus fruits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high-quality solid fuel is prepared by compounding a mixture of 20-70% thermoplastic resin-containing residue generated from decomposition of wastepaper-cellulose and 30-80% citrus-fruit wastes at 100-300/sup 0/, and by molding the compounded mixture into greater than or equal to 5mm-size pellets. Thus, pellets obtained from 1:1 (by weight) residue-citrus waste mixture had a water absorption of 3.4%, a compression strength of 160 kg/sq.cm, a calorific value of 7440 kcal/kg and good impact strength, and very good combustibility.

1983-09-09

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Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

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Full Text Available Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 MPa while the extraction efficiency over 80% was obtained for lemon and shikuwasa but it was about 60% for daidai peel slurry. The extracted oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS to compare the compositions of oils among these peel slurries. The compositions of extracted oils differed qualitatively and quantitatively from each other of feed materials in such a way that the monoterpenes (C10H16) content varied 89.23 to 93.20% with the type of peel slurry, while limonene as a major compound. Oxygenated compounds in these oils represented 8.84, 5.5 and 4.49% in lemon, daidai and shikuwasa peel slurry, respectively. The obtained product with the composition was almost the similar with the other citrus oils extracted from fresh fruit peels.

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2005-01-01

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Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

2009-07-01

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Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

1966-01-01

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Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

Martinelli F; Uratsu SL; Albrecht U; Reagan RL; Phu ML; Britton M; Buffalo V; Fass J; Leicht E; Zhao W; Lin D; D'Souza R; Davis CE; Bowman KD; Dandekar AM

2012-01-01

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Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

2012-05-31

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An aqueous solution for treating nefrolithiasis comprising active ingredients from citrus fruits of the genus Citrus (Citrus limonum, Citrus aurantifolia) in the family Rutaceae and of the leaves of seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an aqueous solution for treating nefrolithiasis comprising a synergistic combination of active ingredients extracted from fruits of citrus genus (Citrus limonum, Citrus aurantifolia), of the Rutaceae family, and from the leaves of seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera), preferably from spontaneous plants capable of producing seagrape.

CIANNI VINCENZO

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Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

1999-09-03

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Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Seedless Citrus Production: Pollen Germination and Fruit Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seedlessness is a desirable characteristic in citrus fruits sold for fresh consumption. Gamma irradiation is widely used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Here, different clones of the self-incompatible parthenocarpic ‘Moncada’ mandarin, obtained by gamma irradiation, were studied to assess seedless...

Almudena Bermejo; José Pardo; Antonio Cano

 
 
 
 
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In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml). This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml), C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml), C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml), C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml), C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml), C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml) extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

Muthiah PL

2012-01-01

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THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry), RC-CN (rose hip) and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn).

Irina Ancu; Gheorghe Mladin; Alina Nuta; Monica Sturzeanu; Sergiu Ancu; Madalina Butac; Madalina Militaru

2012-01-01

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Flavonoid composition of fruit tissues of citrus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

An HPLC analysis was performed on the concentrations of flavonoids in 42 species and cultivars of the Citrus genus and those of two Fortunella and one Poncirus species according to the classification system established by Tanaka. The composition of 8 flavanones and 9 flavone/ols for these species was determined in the albedo, flavedo, segment epidermis and juice vesicle tissues, and those in the fruit and peel tissues were calculated from the composition data of the tissues. A principal component analysis showed that such neohesperidosyl flavonoids as neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, and rhoifolin had large factor loading values in the first principal component for each tissue. The flavonoid composition of citrus fruits was approximately the same within each section of Tanaka's system, except for the species in the Aurantium section and those with a peculiar flavonoid composition such as Bergamot (C. bergamia), Marsh grapefruit (C. paradisi), Sour orange (C. aurantium), and Shunkokan (C. shunkokan). The Aurantium section included both naringin-rich and hesperidin-rich species. PMID:16428836

Nogata, Yoichi; Sakamoto, Koji; Shiratsuchi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Toshinao; Yano, Masamichi; Ohta, Hideaki

2006-01-01

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Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of ?-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including ?-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid ?-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with ?-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with ? rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

Murillo E; Giuffrida D; Menchaca D; Dugo P; Torre G; Meléndez-Martinez AJ; Mondello L

2013-10-01

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Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

2013-04-01

26

Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

Lloyd AC; Hamacek EL; Smith D; Kopittke RA; Gu H

2013-04-01

27

Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100-1 g) and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100-1 g). Amla (Indian gooseberry) fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100-1 g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100-1 g of edible portion of the fruits). Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100-1 g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100-1 g) among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100-1 g). The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100-1 g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100-1 g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100-1 g of fruits.

Dipak Kumar Paul; Ranajit Kumar Shaha

2004-01-01

28

Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

Mohammed Yesuf

2013-01-01

29

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta) had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

Muthiah PL

2012-01-01

30

[Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].  

Science.gov (United States)

With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

1976-01-01

31

[Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m.

Romminger K; Hoppe H

1976-01-01

32

Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Car...

Dipak Kumar Paul; Ranajit Kumar Shaha

33

Analyzing pH: Comparing Citrus Fruits, Stain Removers and a Green Product  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity will introduce pH testing of cleaning products, citrus fruits, and then analyzes a mystery Green product. Students will compare and contrast findings to discover an earth friendly product.

34

78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

2013-01-22

35

78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

2013-04-16

36

[Effects of light on carotenoid biosynthesis and color formation of citrus fruit peel].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of shading fruit with opaque paper bag at the late stage of fruit enlargement on the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid and in "Hongshigan" citrus (C. reticulata x C. sinensis) fruit peel and its color were examined. The results showed that after shading, the chlorophyll content in peel decreased quickly, which resulted in its earlier color shifting. In contrast, the contents of total carotenoids and each carotenoid component did not increase, but decreased significantly. At the stage of fruit riping, both chlorophyll in shaded and unshaded fruit disappeared, and the shaded fruit, owing to its lower level of carotenoids, had a lighter color than the unshaded fruit. The sugar content in peel of shaded fruit did not differ obviously from that of unshaded fruit at the earlier stage, but dropped markedly at the late stage of shading. Removing the enclosing paper bag from shaded fruit at the late stage of shading resulted in the increase of sugar, and correspondingly in the increase of carotenoid, especially of beta-cryptoxanthin accumulation with consequent darkening of fruit color. These results stressed the effect of light on stimulating carotenoid synthesis, especially the accumulation of beta-cryptoxanthin in citrus fruit peel. The light is the enviromental signal essential for carotenoid synthesis in citrus fruit during certain stage of fruit development.

Tao J; Zhang S; An X; Zhao Z

2003-11-01

37

Citrus fruit intake and breast cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between dietary intake of citrus fruits and breast cancer risk. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles on diet and breast cancer up to January 2012. All of the epidemiological studies that assessed dietary intake of citrus fruits and presented risk estimates of the association between citrus fruits intake and risk of breast cancer were reviewed. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for highest versus lowest intake of dietary citrus fruits level were extracted. Overall summary OR was calculated by using a fixed-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six case-control studies out of five articles were eligible. Overall summary OR showed a 10% reduction in risk of breast cancer associated with high intake of citrus fruits (summary OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96; p<0.001); results were consistent across the studies (I (2)=0). Visual inspection of the results did not suggest a publication bias. CONCLUSION: Pooled results from observational studies showed an inverse association between citrus fruits intake and the risk of breast cancer.

Song JK; Bae JM

2013-03-01

38

Temperature Effects on Vitamin C Content in Citrus Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss in vitamin C contents of some fruit juice namely, orange, lemon, lime and grape stored under different conditions was investigated. The juices from the samples were extracted, stored at room temperature in plastic bottles. The juices were all analyzed for their vitamin C content by oxidation and reduction method. Results revealed that vitamin C concentration is more in orange juice as compared to grape, lemon and lime juice respectively in this order: at 20oC, 612.15 > 454.47 > 305.57 > 270.75 . 80oC, 550.87 > 380.16 > 248.85 > 222.58 and the rate at which vitamin C is loss during storage depends on the type of storage method employed, for example, handling and storage; oxygen is the most destructive ingredient in juice, causing degradation of vitamin C. Juice should be discouraged from being display in the hot weather above room temperature in order to maintain production concentration. The citrus fruits were found to follow a similar pattern of loss.

P.C. Njoku; A.A. Ayuk; C.V. Okoye

2011-01-01

39

Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of health...

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent

40

Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.

Geng P; Chen S; Hu M; Rizwan-Ul-Haq M; Lai K; Qu F; Zhang Y

2011-12-01

42

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

43

Flavonoid profiling in three citrus varieties native to the Republic of Korea using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: contribution to overall antioxidant activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixture of flavonoid components was isolated from the fruit peel of three varieties of citrus native to Republic of Korea, Citrus leiocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka (CLHT), Citrus aurantium L. (CAL) and Citrus erythrosa Hort. (CEH), via 70% methanol extraction followed by ethyl acetate elution over a silica gel cartridge. The flavonoid components of the mixture were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in positive-ion mode and a comparison of the reported data. Among 17 characterized components, two flavanones, four flavones and two coumarin derivatives in the fruit peel of the three varieties were identified for the first time. The individual characterized components were quantified via HPLC-UV. The flavanones dominated in CAL, whereas the flavones prevailed in CLHT and CEH. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoid mixture of the fruit peel was determined via DPPH•, ABTS•? and reducing power assays. The antioxidant activity of CEH and CAL was greater than that of CLHT. PMID:21830229

Kim, Hae Gyeong; Kim, Gon-Sup; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Seo, On Nuri; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

2011-08-09

44

Flavonoid profiling in three citrus varieties native to the Republic of Korea using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry: contribution to overall antioxidant activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mixture of flavonoid components was isolated from the fruit peel of three varieties of citrus native to Republic of Korea, Citrus leiocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka (CLHT), Citrus aurantium L. (CAL) and Citrus erythrosa Hort. (CEH), via 70% methanol extraction followed by ethyl acetate elution over a silica gel cartridge. The flavonoid components of the mixture were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in positive-ion mode and a comparison of the reported data. Among 17 characterized components, two flavanones, four flavones and two coumarin derivatives in the fruit peel of the three varieties were identified for the first time. The individual characterized components were quantified via HPLC-UV. The flavanones dominated in CAL, whereas the flavones prevailed in CLHT and CEH. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoid mixture of the fruit peel was determined via DPPH•, ABTS•? and reducing power assays. The antioxidant activity of CEH and CAL was greater than that of CLHT.

Kim HG; Kim GS; Park S; Lee JH; Seo ON; Lee SJ; Kim JH; Shim JH; Abd El-Aty AM; Jin JS; Shin SC

2012-04-01

45

Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults.

Siskos EP; Konstantopoulou MA; Mazomenos BE; Jervis M

2007-08-01

46

Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (?1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

2010-01-01

47

Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (?1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

2010-01-01

48

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2013-09-04

49

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.

Rodrigo MJ; Alquézar B; Alós E; Medina V; Carmona L; Bruno M; Al-Babili S; Zacarías L

2013-09-01

50

Half-embryo test for identification of irradiated citrus fruit: collaborative study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A collaborative study on the use of the half-embryo test for the detection of irradiated citrus fruit was undertaken. Collaborative samples of seeds removed from citrus fruit, which were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.5 kGy, were examined by 12 participating laboratories. The percentage of correct identifications, whether irradiated or unirradiated, was 92% of 48 samples after 4 days incubation and 98% after 7 days incubation. Only one sample, irradiated with 0.2 kGy, was incorrectly identified. This collaborative study shows that irradiated citrus fruit can be identified using the half-embryo test and that the test can be applied in practice. (author).

Kawamura, Yoko; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Setagaya, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-11-01

51

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are sufficient and according to the OECD methodology a MRL proposal of 6 mg/kg is derived for propiconazole in citrus fruits. The existing EU MRLs for propiconazole in food commodities of animal origin need to be modified for ruminant kidney, fat and meat reflecting the feed intake of citrus pomace. For ruminant liver and milk the existing MRLs do not have to be modified. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of propiconazole on citrus fruits and residues in ruminant meat, fat and kidney will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-01-01

52

STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

2012-01-01

53

Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Seedless Citrus Production: Pollen Germination and Fruit Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seedlessness is a desirable characteristic in citrus fruits sold for fresh consumption. Gamma irradiation is widely used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Here, different clones of the self-incompatible parthenocarpic ‘Moncada’ mandarin, obtained by gamma irradiation, were studied to assess seedlessness, pollen germination, fruit characteristics and qua- lity attributes. Findings indicate that irradiation altered aspects other than seedlessness, such as pollen germination, and some of the clones presented different weight, size, acidity and maturity index. Fruit quality and nutritional bio- components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control ‘Moncada’ man-darin, while other clones showed significant differences. In general, all clones examined presented low seed numbers and re- duced pollen viability. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration.

Almudena Bermejo; José Pardo; Antonio Cano

2011-01-01

54

Quantitation of bioactive compounds in citrus fruits cultivated in Taiwan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of bioactive compounds in the edible portions of eight varieties of citrus fruits (Ponkan, Tonkan, Murcott, Wendun, Peiyou, Kumquat, Liucheng, and Lemon) cultivated in Taiwan. The amount of total polyphenol and flavonoid exceeded that of total carotenoid. Hesperidin was the major flavanone, which abounded in Liucheng and Tonkan (5.36 ± 0.145 and 4.13 ± 0.050 mg/g db, respectively). Naringin abounded in Peiyou and Wendun (1250 ± 0.82 and 2205 ± 11.1 ?g/g db, respectively). Diosmin was the major flavone, and Kumquat (0.699 ± 0.021 mg/g db) and Lemon (0.323 ± 0.004 mg/g db) had the highest contents. Kaempferol was the most abundant flavanol except in Wendun, Peiyou, and Kumquat, and Murcott had the highest content (1.04 ± 0.007 mg/g db). Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid, and Wendun and Lemon had the highest contents (103 ± 11.5 and 92.6 ± 8.90 ?g/g db, respectively). ?-Cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid (0.764 ± 0.031-6.67 ± 0.329 ?g/g db), followed by ?-carotene (0.435 ± 0.016-3.77 ± 0.154 ?g/g db), and these two compounds abounded in Murcott. Tonkan, Wendun, Peiyou, and Lemon had high levels of ascorbic acid. Total pectin levels ranged from 40.4 ± 1.65 to 87.3 ± 3.69 mg/g db.

Wang YC; Chuang YC; Ku YH

2007-01-01

55

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

J.P. Michaud

2003-01-01

56

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

Michaud JP

2003-01-01

57

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

Michaud, J P

2003-03-20

58

Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part I: metabolic profiling in elicited fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Penicillium spp. are among the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit. Induction of natural resistance in fruits constitutes one of the alternatives to chemical fungicides. Here, we investigated the involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the induction of resistance in Navelate oranges by examining changes in the metabolic profile of upon eliciting citrus fruits. By using both HPLC-PDA-FD and HPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS allowed the identification of several compounds that seem to be relevant for induced resistance. In elicited fruits, a greater diversity of phenolic compounds was observed in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) when compared to the albedo (inner white part). Moreover, only small changes were detected in the most abundant citrus flavonoids. The coumarin scoparone was among the compounds with the highest induction upon elicitation. Two other highly induced compounds were identified as citrusnin A and drupanin aldehyde. All three compounds are known to exert antimicrobial activity. Our results suggest that phenylpropanoids and their derivatives play an important role in the induction of resistance in citrus fruit.

Ballester AR; Lafuente MT; de Vos RC; Bovy AG; González-Candelas L

2013-01-01

59

Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

Hallman GJ; Thomas DB

2011-02-01

60

Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate. PMID:21404840

Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author)

1993-01-01

62

An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and [gamma]-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author).

Tabner, B.J.; Tabner, V.A. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science Div.)

1993-03-01

63

Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. The vitamin C contents in fresh juice were determined by a two step oxidation-reduction titration. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by tukey, multiple range test.Results : Mean ascorbic acid contents of commonly used citrus were 85.4±18.3 mg/100 of juice (ranging from 57.9 to 131.6). The highest amount of vitamin C were found in Shahsavari orange 131.6 ± 4.2 and Sanguinello 100.7 ± 2.2 and the lowest amounts were in Tangelo 57.9 ± 2.3 and Unshiu 70.2 ± 2.2 mg/100 of juice. There was no correlation between Ascorbic acid contents and amount of citric acid in juice.Conclusion : Significant differences were found in vitamin C contents of citrus fruits. In order to increase the intake of vitamin C in daily diet, consuming fruits with higher contents of vitamin C is recommended.

M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; S.J. Hosseinimehr; M. Mahmodi; M.R. Gayekhloo; M. Hoseiani

2005-01-01

64

A comparison of the peel oil components of Australian native lime (Microcitrus australe) and Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The essential oil components extracted from the pericarp layer of two varieties of lime fruit, viz. Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and an Australian native lime (Microcitrus australe) have been analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-three components were identified in M australe and 34 in C aurantifolia. The compound types comprised monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and coumarins. For the more volatile monoterpenoid compounds, the major component was limonene, with significant amounts of gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, geranial, neral, neryl acetate and geranyl acetate. From an examination of the nature and contents of individual components, there was no indication that any one compound might be responsible for the predominant aroma impact. The possible contribution to aroma differences due to quantitative differences in the amounts of these components is discussed. However, sensory evaluation indicated that there was little or no difference between the aromas of the two oils.

Craske JD; Suryadi N; Wootton M

2005-02-01

65

Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author)

1996-01-01

66

Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and {gamma}-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author).

Tabner, B.J.; Tabner, V.A. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

67

Citrus chlorophyllase dynamics at ethylene-induced fruit color-break: a study of chlorophyllase expression, posttranslational processing kinetics, and in situ intracellular localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit color-break is the visual manifestation of the developmentally regulated transition of chloroplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening and often involves biosynthesis of copious amounts of carotenoids concomitant with massive breakdown of chlorophyll. Regulation of chlorophyll breakdown at different physiological and developmental stages of the plant life cycle, particularly at fruit color-break, is still not well understood. Here, we present the dynamics of native chlorophyllase (Chlase) and chlorophyll breakdown in lemon (Citrus limon) fruit during ethylene-induced color-break. We show, using in situ immunofluorescence on ethylene-treated fruit peel (flavedo) tissue, that citrus Chlase is located in the plastid, in contrast to recent reports suggesting cytoplasmic localization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Chlases. At the intra-organellar level, Chlase signal was found to overlap mostly with chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting association of most of the Chlase protein with the photosynthetic membranes. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the kinetics of chlorophyll breakdown was not uniform in the flavedo cells. Chlorophyll quantity at the cellular level was negatively correlated with plastid Chlase accumulation; plastids with reduced chlorophyll content were found by in situ immunofluorescence to contain significant levels of Chlase, while plastids containing still-intact chlorophyll lacked any Chlase signal. Immunoblot and protein-mass spectrometry analyses were used to demonstrate that citrus Chlase initially accumulates as an approximately 35-kD precursor, which is subsequently N-terminally processed to approximately 33-kD mature forms by cleavage at either of three consecutive amino acid positions. Chlase plastid localization, expression kinetics, and the negative correlation with chlorophyll levels support the central role of the enzyme in chlorophyll breakdown during citrus fruit color-break. PMID:18633118

Azoulay Shemer, Tamar; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar; Belausov, Eduard; Lovat, Nicole; Krokhin, Oleg; Spicer, Victor; Standing, Kenneth G; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Eyal, Yoram

2008-07-16

68

Citrus chlorophyllase dynamics at ethylene-induced fruit color-break: a study of chlorophyllase expression, posttranslational processing kinetics, and in situ intracellular localization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fruit color-break is the visual manifestation of the developmentally regulated transition of chloroplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening and often involves biosynthesis of copious amounts of carotenoids concomitant with massive breakdown of chlorophyll. Regulation of chlorophyll breakdown at different physiological and developmental stages of the plant life cycle, particularly at fruit color-break, is still not well understood. Here, we present the dynamics of native chlorophyllase (Chlase) and chlorophyll breakdown in lemon (Citrus limon) fruit during ethylene-induced color-break. We show, using in situ immunofluorescence on ethylene-treated fruit peel (flavedo) tissue, that citrus Chlase is located in the plastid, in contrast to recent reports suggesting cytoplasmic localization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Chlases. At the intra-organellar level, Chlase signal was found to overlap mostly with chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting association of most of the Chlase protein with the photosynthetic membranes. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the kinetics of chlorophyll breakdown was not uniform in the flavedo cells. Chlorophyll quantity at the cellular level was negatively correlated with plastid Chlase accumulation; plastids with reduced chlorophyll content were found by in situ immunofluorescence to contain significant levels of Chlase, while plastids containing still-intact chlorophyll lacked any Chlase signal. Immunoblot and protein-mass spectrometry analyses were used to demonstrate that citrus Chlase initially accumulates as an approximately 35-kD precursor, which is subsequently N-terminally processed to approximately 33-kD mature forms by cleavage at either of three consecutive amino acid positions. Chlase plastid localization, expression kinetics, and the negative correlation with chlorophyll levels support the central role of the enzyme in chlorophyll breakdown during citrus fruit color-break.

Azoulay Shemer T; Harpaz-Saad S; Belausov E; Lovat N; Krokhin O; Spicer V; Standing KG; Goldschmidt EE; Eyal Y

2008-09-01

69

Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit.

Müller C; David L; Chi? V; Pînzaru SC

2014-02-01

70

Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit. PMID:24128550

Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chi?, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cint?

2013-09-07

71

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the ...

European Food Safety Authority

72

Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P?0.05) in HMO-treated plots (8.4), followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6) and untreated plots (22.5). However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage.

Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng

2011-01-01

73

Seasonal abundance and suppression of fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a citrus orchard in Sarawak.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P?0.05) in HMO-treated plots (8.4), followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6) and untreated plots (22.5). However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage.

Leong SC; Kueh RJ

2011-01-01

74

Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita/ Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sement (more) es. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo. Abstract in english Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and (more) seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

Bataglia, Ondino C.; Rodriguez, Ody; Hiroce, Rúter; Gallo, José Romano; Furlani, Pedro Roberto; Furlani, Ângela Maria C.

1977-01-01

75

Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

Ondino C. Bataglia; Ody Rodriguez; Rúter Hiroce; José Romano Gallo; Pedro Roberto Furlani; Ângela Maria C. Furlani

1977-01-01

76

Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months...

Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng

77

[One new chroman glycoside derivative from unmatured fruits of Citrus aurantium].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of the unmatured fruits of Citrus aurantium. METHOD: The AcOEt fraction of the methanol extracts of the unmatured fruits of C. aurantium were subjected on column chromatographies including silica gel, RP-18 and HPLC. Compound structures isolated were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. RESULT: Three compounds were isolated from the unmatured fruits of C. aurantium, which were identified as citrauranoside (1), limonexin (2) and limonin (3). CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a new chroman glycoside derivative, named as citrauranoside.

Peng WW; Yan H; Tan NH

2013-01-01

78

Effects of postharvest chlorine and wax treatments on surface microflora of lime fruit in relation to citrus bacteriosis disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus bacteriosis (CB), a suspected form of citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri[X. c. pv. citri]), is expressed as lesions on leaves and twigs of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) as well as on other citrus plants in Colima, Mexico. Immersion of Mexican and Persian lime fruit in 200 ppm Cl, as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), for 2 min is a prerequisite for movement of fruit out of CB quarantine areas even though no bacteriosis symptoms have been observed on fruit. In addition, most Mexican citrus packers spray fruit with a protective wax coating before shipping. The effects of these treatments on lime surface microflora were evaluated. Total bacteria were reduced by 82–99+%, and fungi, by 81–100% in assays of fruit washings from limes treated with 50–900 ppm Cl as NaOCl. Nevertheless, total bacterial populations of 2.7 × 102–2.9 × 103 cfu/cm2 of fruit surface survived Cl concentrations above the mandated 200-ppm level. No naturally occurring Xanthomonas spp. were recovered from fruit washings, although bacteria artificially inoculated in high concentrations were recovered at least 2 wk later on lime surfaces. Presumptive X. c. pv. citri was not eradicated when intact or wounded fruit were artificially inoculated with high concentrations of cells, then immersed in 200 ppm Cl for 2 min. The protective wax used in Colima did not increase the efficacy of Cl treatment.

Stapleton JJ

1986-11-01

79

Expression and functional analysis of two lycopene ?-cyclases from citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, two LCYb genes (CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2) were isolated from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.) and their functions were analyzed by the color complementation assay in lycopene-accumulating E. coli cells. The results showed that CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 shared high identity at the amino acid level among the three citrus varieties. The N-terminal region of the two proteins encoded by CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 was predicted to contain a 51-residue chloroplastic transit peptide, which shared low similarity. In Satsuma mandarin, the secondary structures of the CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 encoding proteins without the transit peptide were quite similar. Moreover, functional analysis showed that both enzymes of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 participated in the formation of ?-carotene, and when they were co-expressed with CitLCYe, ?-carotene could be produced from lycopene in E. coli cells. However, although CitLCYb2 could convert lycopene to ?-carotene in E. coli cells, its extremely low level of expression indicated that CitLCYb2 did not participate in the formation of ?-carotene during the green stage in the flavedo. In addition, the high expression levels of CitLCYb1 and CitLCYb2 during the orange stage played an important role in the accumulation of ?,?-xanthophylls in citrus fruits. The results presented in this study might contribute to elucidate the mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in citrus fruits.

Zhang L; Ma G; Shirai Y; Kato M; Yamawaki K; Ikoma Y; Matsumoto H

2012-10-01

80

Comparative evaluation of 12 immature citrus fruit extracts for the inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoform activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study we found that 50% ethanol extracts of immature fruits of Citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) have anti-allergic effects against the Type I, II and IV allergic reactions. However, many adverse interactions between citrus fruit, especially grapefruit juice, and drugs have been reported due to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the competitive inhibitory effects of extracts from immature citrus fruit on CYP activity. Extracts were prepared from 12 citrus species or cultivars, and were tested against three kinds of major CYPs, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes. We also estimated the amounts of flavonoids (narirutin, hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin) and furanocoumarins (bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin) in each extract using HPLC. Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) showed the greatest inhibition of CYP activities, while Citrus unshiu which has an antiallergic effect, showed relatively weak inhibitory effects. Extracts having relatively strong inhibitory effects for CYP3A4 tended to contain higher amounts of naringin, bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. These results, providing comparative information on the inhibitory effects of citrus extracts on CYP isoforms, suggest that citrus extracts containing high levels of narirutin and hesperidin and lower levels of furanocoumarins such as C. unshiu are favorable as antiallergic functional ingredients. PMID:18451520

Fujita, Tadashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Niwa, Toshiro; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Masuda, Megumi; Matsuda, Hideaki; Iwaki, Masahiro

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis). The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

Issa Roy J.

2012-01-01

82

Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

2013-04-01

83

Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management.

McKenna MM; Hammad EM; Farran MT

2013-12-01

84

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

2010-01-01

85

Antitumor potential of Citrus limetta fruit peel in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae), commonly known as sweet lime in English and Mousambi in India, has been traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. This study explored the relationship between Citrus limetta fruit peel and its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of peel of Citrus limetta fruits (MECL) was evaluated against EAC cell line in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor EAC cells in mice, MECL was administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight i.p. daily for nine consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for the estimation of tumor growth (tumor volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts), and hematologic parameters (red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin). The rest were kept alive for assessment of survival parameters, i.e. median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. Intraperitoneal administration of MECL at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for nine days to the carcinoma induced mice demonstrated a significant (PC. limetta fruit peel against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss mice.

Sriparna Kundusen; Asis Bala; Biswakanth Kar; Sanjib Bhattacharya; Upal K. Mazumder; Malaya Gupta; Pallab K. Haldar

2012-01-01

86

Identification and characterization of chitin synthase genes in the postharvest citrus fruit pathogen Penicillium digitatum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we carried out the isolation and characterization of chitin synthase genes (CHS) of the main citrus fruit postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum. Using distinct sets of degenerate primers designed from conserved regions of CHS genes of yeast and filamentous fungi, PCR methods, and a DNA genomic library, five putative CHS genes (PdigCHSI, PdigCHSII, PdigCHSIII, PdigCHSV, and PdigCHSVII) were identified, isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Phylogenetic analyses, sequence identity, and domain conservation support the annotation as CHS. A very high sequence identity and strong synteny were found with corresponding regions from the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. Gene expression of P. digitatum CHS genes during mycelium axenic growth, under oxidative and osmotic stress conditions, and during infection of citrus fruits was confirmed and quantified using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). PdigCHSIII had the highest expression among the five genes by one order of magnitude, while PdigCHSII had the lowest. However, PdigCHSII was strongly induced coincident with conidial production, suggesting a role in conidiogenesis. The expression of PdigCHSI, PdigCHSIII, PdigCHSV, and PdigCHSVII was upregulated during infection of citrus fruit. PdigCHSV and PdigCHSVII coexpressed in most of the experiments carried out, and they are separated by a 1.77 kb intergenic region and arranged in opposite directions.

Gandía M; Harries E; Marcos JF

2012-06-01

87

[Analysis of imazalil and its major metabolite in citrus fruits by GC-FTD].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simplified simultaneous analytical method of imazalil (IZ) and its major metabolite, alpha-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (IZM), in citrus fruits was developed, and commodities samples were investigated. A homogenate of citrus fruits was extracted with ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The crude extract was partitioned between 0.025 mol/L of sulfuric acid and ethyl acetate. The analytes were extracted from the aqueous fraction under basic conditions with ethyl acetate. The extract solution was purified with an ENVI-Carb cartridge, and then analyzed by GC-FTD and GC/MS. Recoveries of IZ and IZM added to grapefruit at the level of 0.05 microgram/g were 90.0 and 108.7%, and those in the case of lemon were 100.4 and 93.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.01 microgram/g in samples. By this method, IZ and IZM were analyzed in 46 citrus fruits on the market and were detected simultaneously in some samples.

Kimura N; Nagayama T; Takano I; Kobayashi M; Tamura Y; Tateishi Y; Kitayama K; Saito K

2003-02-01

88

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P < 0.01) with fruit firmness. Although this study aimed to determine the range of potential hosts for C. radicicola, to date the only natural host in the world is considered to be lemon.

Mohammad R Mirzaee; Mojtaba Mohammadi; Ali Azari Nasrabad

2009-01-01

89

Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and aroma concentrates are discussed in relation to sensory quality. Analytical methods for compounds affecting quality, and methods for detection of adulteration in different citrus products are briefly reviewed. The importance of sensorily evaluating quality of citrus products to select and develop quality control indices is emphasized. Areas where further research are required are indicated. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid further study and research.

Ranganna S; Govindarajan VS; Ramana KV

1983-01-01

90

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's mult (more) iple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P

Mirzaee, Mohammad R; Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Nasrabad, Ali Azari

2009-10-01

91

Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of physiological drop of citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of physiological drop of the main citrus species grown in China were investigated. Among the flavonoids, hesperidin was found mostly in mandarin and sweet orange, naringin was found mostly in sour orange, pummelo, grapefruit and a hybrid (Gaocheng), narirutin was found in most varieties, neohesperidin was found in Gaocheng and Huyou, and nobiletin and tangeretin were found in most varieties. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic acids present, ferulic acid and caffeic acid were the dominant in most cases. There was a greater amount of free (extractable) than bound (insoluble) phenolic acids. Levels of limonoids were higher in Foyou, Eureka lemon, and Gaocheng than those in the other cultivars. The highest level of synephrine was found in Ponkan and Weizhang Satsuma. AA was highest in Ponkan and Weizhang Satsuma and lowest in Huyou, pummel, and lemon. These results suggest that physiological drop of citrus fruits have good potential as sources of different bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Physiological drop of citrus fruits may be a good resource of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, limonoids, synephrine, and a good material of nutraceuticals.

Sun Y; Qiao L; Shen Y; Jiang P; Chen J; Ye X

2013-01-01

92

Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia ...

Michaud, J.P.

93

Naringin and Neohesperidin Levels during Development of Leaves, Flower Buds, and Fruits of Citrus aurantium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway.

Castillo J; Benavente O; Del Río JA

1992-05-01

94

Naringin and Neohesperidin Levels during Development of Leaves, Flower Buds, and Fruits of Citrus aurantium  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway.

Castillo, Julian; Benavente, Obdulio; del Rio, Jose A.

1992-01-01

95

A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids.

González-Candelas Luis; Alamar Santiago; Sánchez-Torres Paloma; Zacarías Lorenzo; Marcos Jose F

2010-01-01

96

Activity of citrus canker lesions on leaves, shoots and fruit of grapefruit in a Florida orchard from June 2010 to January 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude export to certain markets. Characterizing the population dynamics of bacteria in canker lesions in commercial orchards can help gauge risk associated with diseased fruit entering fresh markets. The aim...

97

Physiological and biochemical studies on irradiated citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma irradiation (1-3 kGy) on the physiological and biochemical parameters of irradiated citurs fruit (cv. 'Kinnow') was studied during storage. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 kGy and above caused skin damage to the fruit and the extent of damage was proportionate to the radiation dose. Irradiated 'Kinnows' lost slightly more weight (non-significant) during storage. The rate of CO/sub/2 and C/sub/2H/sub/4 production increased due to irradiation. Differences in the biochemical constituents due to irradiation were not significant. Organoleptic evaluation revealed unacceptibility of the irradiated 'Kinnows' which due mainly to skin injury. (author)

1987-01-01

98

Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

2012-11-01

99

Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where, since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation no symptoms of citrus canker were observed, neither in their vicinities. The PHL Panel concluded that the transmission of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on asymptomatic citrus fruit was more likely when the fruit were collected from infested than from non-infested areas and groves. Symptomatic fruit carries more Xcc cells than asymptomatic fruit and the packinghouse disinfectant treatments do not achieve the eradication of Xcc. The application of management option 2 (i.e. ‘allow distribution of all types and varieties of commercially packed citrus fruit to all US States, subject to packinghouse treatment with APHIS-approved disinfectant. No packinghouse phytosanitary inspection is required’) selected by USDA will result in an increase in the Xcc load of citrus fruit consignments and in a subsequent increase in the probability of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase the probability of introduction of Xcc into new areas.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2011-01-01

100

Study of Fruit Diversity and Selection of Elite Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Genotypes in Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) fruits are cultivated in terai, mid hill and high hill districts of Nepal. It is cross-pollinated crop and has a high variation in fruit characters within the species. Fruit character is the main basis of genotype selection. Study of fruit diversity is of utmost importance to select the elite genotypes for breeding and variety development program. Therefore, total of 620 fruit samples were collected and evaluated in the main production season of the year 2010 and 2011, from 62 bearing trees. Samples were collected from three agro-ecological domains, representing terai, mid hill and high hill areas of eastern Nepal. Elite landraces were selected on the basis of scoring fruit characters. High variation in vitamin C was observed between the terai (57.4 mg) and high hill (72.5 mg) samples. Amount of juice was 36.8% in mid hill and 44.1% in terai samples. Higher percent of juice and total soluble solids (TSS) observed in terai samples but tritable acidity (TA) and vitamin C was low as compare to high hills. There was significantly negative correlation found in fruit weight, fruit diameter, juice percent and seed number, whereas significantly positive correlation was in pulp and vitamin C, with altitude range. Total landraces were separated in five major cluster group. Variation in the level of similarity was observed among the cluster groups. The variability distance of fruit characters was highest in cluster group II (–17.45%) and lowest in cluster group V (58.5%). On the basis of scoring number of fruit characters, total four elite genotypes i.e. LD-49 from mid hills, LD-23 and LT-17 from higher hills and LM-44 from terai were selected for conservation, breeding and variety development purpose.

Ram Lal Shrestha; Durga Datta Dhakal; Durga Mani Gautum; Krishna Prasad Paudyal; Sangita Shrestha

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of reducing sample size on density estimates of citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) on citrus fruit: simulated sampling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consequence of reducing sample size on the accuracy and precision of estimates of citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), densities on oranges was investigated. The sample unit was a 1-cm2 surface area on fruit. Sampling plans consisting of 360, 300, 200, 160, 80, 48, 36, or 20 samples per 4 ha were evaluated through computer simulations by using real count data from 32 data sets of 600 sample units per 4 ha. The original and reduced sampling plans were hierarchical with different numbers of sample areas per 4 ha, trees per area, fruit per tree, and samples per fruit. Individual estimates (n=100 simulations per data set) using each plan were sometimes considerably below or above target densities. In an original set of count data with a mean of six mites per cm2, simulations of 36 samples per 4 ha produced individual estimates ranging from one to 16 mites per cm2, whereas 80 samples per 4 ha produced estimates ranging from two to 10 mites per cm2. The plans consisting of 36 or more samples were projected to provide precision levels of 0.25 (SEM/mean) or better at densities of five or more mites per cm2 based on log-data, a projection that needs to be verified under real-grove situations. Each plan consistently provided mite detection in these sampling simulations except those consisting of 20 or 36 samples, which sometimes failed to detect mites when the target density was less than five mites per cm2. The study provided insight into the probable precision, accuracy and detection thresholds for eight candidate sampling plans varying from relatively low to high resource input.

Hall DG; Childers CC; Eger JE

2005-06-01

102

The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange) and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange) and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun) Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3) : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange) and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun) was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%). Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree) and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively). Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm) while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

Lim, M.; Te-chato, S.

2006-01-01

103

Effect of Uni-Packaging on the Post Harvest Behavior of Citrus Fruits in N.W.F.P.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 45 days storage experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Uni-Packaging treatments on the shelf life of citrus fruits. Different treatments were polyethylene bags of 0.0254mm, 0.0508mm thickness and control. The result showed that the uni-packaging had no significant effect on the pH of citrus fruit. Weight loss increased significantly as storage increased. Maximum weight loss observed in control and minimum weight loss in thick packaging (0.0508mm). The T.S.S increased during storage but individual packaging had non-significant effect on the T.S.S. Ascorbic acid decreased from 1.59-0.63% during storage. The organoleptic properties evaluation revealed that individual packaging had significant effect on the external appearance, taste and texture. Thick packaging perform significant effect in prolonging the shelf life of citrus fruit.

I. Hussain; M. Asif; M. Ahmed; M. Khan; I. Shakir

2004-01-01

104

Occurrence of Osthole in Commonly Available Citrus Fruits Analyzed With GC-MS and LC-QTOF-MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary: Osthole (CAS 484-12-8) is a compound with numerous possible therapeutic applications. Its occurrence was reported in Cnidium monnieri. In our practice we noted that osthole is present in citrus fruits. The purpose of the study was to examine and quantitatively assess the occurrence of osthole in commercially available citrus fruits. Grapefruit, pomelo, citron, and orange from various markets in Saudi Arabia were collected and subjected to QuEChERS/DPX extraction. As identification techniques, GC-MS (full scan and SIM) and high resolution LC-QToF-MS (MSe mode with three transitions) were applied. Osthole was identified in grapefruit, pomelo, and citron. Orange was practically free of osthole. The highest concentrations of osthole were found in the peel of all fruits, in the range of 7.0-78.5 mg/kg. In conclusion may be stated that the peel of examined citrus fruits may be considered as a valuable and easily available source of osthole. Industrial relevance: The peels of lemon fruits (grapefruit, citron, pomelo), which are treated as a food waste, contain osthole and may appear as valuable source of this compound after proper treatment. Keywords: osthole; GC-MS; LC-ToF-MS; citrus fruits

I I Al-Doush; T J Mahier; M Al Tufail; M J Bogusz

2012-01-01

105

A novel nonchemical method for quarantine treatment of fruits: California red scale on citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for removing or killing California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), from citrus fruit as a postharvest treatment was evaluated. The process subjects the fruit to vacuum, steam, and vacuum that physically removes red scale from the fruit and kills those scales that are not removed from the fruit. Different numbers of cycles and steam temperatures were compared for efficacy in removing scale from lemons or killing those that remained. Multiple (two to three) cycles removed up to 96% of first molt scales on the fruit, but they were much less effective in removing other stages, especially those that had advanced beyond the second instar. However, it was extremely effective in killing the scales remaining on the fruit. Although this process does not eliminate cosmetic damage caused by scale presence, it might be used in combination with high-pressure washers currently used in packing houses to allow importers and exporters to meet the most stringent quarantine requirements. Because of its killing power, this technique should be tried on other insects and commodities to see whether it can be substituted for certain uses of methyl bromide. PMID:15666737

Fuester, Roger W; Kozempel, Michael F; Forster, Lisa D; Goldberg, Neal; Casillas, Laura I; Swan, Kenneth S

2004-12-01

106

A novel nonchemical method for quarantine treatment of fruits: California red scale on citrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for removing or killing California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), from citrus fruit as a postharvest treatment was evaluated. The process subjects the fruit to vacuum, steam, and vacuum that physically removes red scale from the fruit and kills those scales that are not removed from the fruit. Different numbers of cycles and steam temperatures were compared for efficacy in removing scale from lemons or killing those that remained. Multiple (two to three) cycles removed up to 96% of first molt scales on the fruit, but they were much less effective in removing other stages, especially those that had advanced beyond the second instar. However, it was extremely effective in killing the scales remaining on the fruit. Although this process does not eliminate cosmetic damage caused by scale presence, it might be used in combination with high-pressure washers currently used in packing houses to allow importers and exporters to meet the most stringent quarantine requirements. Because of its killing power, this technique should be tried on other insects and commodities to see whether it can be substituted for certain uses of methyl bromide.

Fuester RW; Kozempel MF; Forster LD; Goldberg N; Casillas LI; Swan KS

2004-12-01

107

CITRUS SYRUP  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Syrup of kg/1000 liters contains: sugar 700-800, citric acid 1,20-1,30 and vanilla 0,01-0,03 and l/1000 liters - citrus infusion 15-30, citrus essential oil 0,2-0,5, or citrus essence 0,5-1,5, color 0,7-1,0, fruit infusion 0,2-1,0, or fruit essence 0,22-0,5.

KUTATELADZE LUARA; GARDAFKHADZE AMIRAN; KAPANADZE TAMAZ; GIGOLASHVILI DAVID

108

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Extract from Buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Fruit Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antimicrobial substances were extracted from buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) fruit peel (flavedo and albedo) using various solvent such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and methanol. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated using the disc diffusion method, growth inhibition (%) with fungi growth and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Antimicrobial substance of EtOAc extracts of flavedo and albedo were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography (CC). Further purification to the albedo active fraction resulted in two active compounds, ?-sitosterol (1) and oleic acid (2). Antibacterial activities of the compounds against Gram-negative and positive bacteria by using MIC and was 270-350 ppm in ?-sitosterol and 150-350 ppm in oleic acid. Their extracts could well be useful to prevent oxidation in fruit juices and essential oils of food products as well as for health supplements.

Matook Saif Mokbel; Fumio Hashinaga

2005-01-01

109

Bioavailability of insect growth regulators in citrus and stone fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to offer data about the bioavailability of flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb in common commodities like mandarin, apricot and peach. The in vitro bioavailability of the compounds was studied not only in fresh fruit but also in standards and canned food in order to establish possible differences according to the matrix. The gastric digestion was simulated with porcine pepsin at pH 2, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal digestion was simulated with porcine pancreatin at pH 7, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal absorption was simulated with cellulose dialysis tubing filled with a solution of sodium carbonate. No in vitro bioavailability was observed in mandarin, peach and apricot samples spiked at the concentrations generally found in the market for the raw and processed commodities. In standards, the dialysis started at the level of 0.25 mg/kg. This is an approximation to the pesticide digestion and absorption in humans. PMID:18399436

Paya, P; Mulero, J; Oliva, J; Camara, M A; Zafrilla, P; Barba, A

2007-01-01

110

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity....

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

111

Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

2013-04-17

112

Preliminary Evaluation for Comparative Antioxidant Activity in the Water and Ethanol Extracts of Dried Citrus Fruit (Citrus unshiu) Peel Using Chemical and Biochemical in Vitro Assays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel were determined using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Chemical assays were used for evaluat...

113

[Analytical results of post-harvest pesticides in citrus fruits and fruits juices by GC-MS (SIM) and HPLC with fluorescent detector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Determination of 6 kinds of post-harvest pesticides (DP, OPP, TBZ, 2,4-D, Imazalil and Benomyl) in citrus fruits and fruits juices was carried out by GC-MS (SIM) and HPLC with fluorescent detector. DP for 16 samples, OPP for 27 samples, TBZ for 12 samples, 2,4-D for 10 samples, imazalil for 20 samples and Benomyl for 4 samples were detected in total 32 samples.

Tonogai Y; Tsumura Y; Nakamura Y; Ito Y

1992-01-01

114

Effect of blue and red LED light irradiation on ?-cryptoxanthin accumulation in the flavedo of citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

?-Cryptoxanthin (?-cry), an antioxidant abundant in citrus fruits, plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, especially cancers. In the present study, to increase the content of ?-cry in citrus flavedo, the effects of blue (470 nm) and red (660 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) lights on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the flavedo of Satsuma mandarin. The results showed that accumulation of ?-cry was induced by red light, while it was not affected by blue light. The accumulation of ?-cry under red light was attributed to simultaneous increases in the expression of CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb1, CitLCYb2, CitHYb, and CitZEP. The results presented herein might provide new strategies to enhance the commercial and nutritional value of citrus fruits.

Ma G; Zhang L; Kato M; Yamawaki K; Kiriiwa Y; Yahata M; Ikoma Y; Matsumoto H

2012-01-01

115

Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLD? and CsPLD?, and CssPLA2? and CssPLA2? was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLD? expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLD? in full-mature fruit. CsPLD? gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2? expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2? expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation.

Romero P; Gandía M; Alférez F

2013-09-01

116

Interplay between ABA and phospholipases A(2) and D in the response of citrus fruit to postharvest dehydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and phospholipases A2 and D (PLA2 and PLD) in the response of citrus fruit to water stress was investigated during postharvest by using an ABA-deficient mutant from 'Navelate' orange named 'Pinalate'. Fruit from both varieties harvested at two different maturation stages (mature-green and full-mature) were subjected to prolonged water loss inducing stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) in full-mature fruit. Treatment with PLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (AT) and PLD inhibitor lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) reduced the disorder in both varieties, suggesting that phospholipid metabolism is involved in citrus peel quality. Expression of CsPLD? and CsPLD?, and CssPLA2? and CssPLA2? was studied by real-time RT-PCR during water stress and in response to ABA. CsPLD? expression increased in mature-green fruit from 'Navelate' but not in 'Pinalate' and ABA did not counteract this effect. ABA enhanced repression of CsPLD? in full-mature fruit. CsPLD? gene expression decreased in mature-green 'Pinalate', remained unchanged in 'Navelate' and was induced in full-mature fruit from both varieties. CssPLA2? expression increased in mature-green fruit from both varieties whereas in full-mature fruit only increased in 'Navelate'. CssPLA2? expression increased in mature-green flavedo from both varieties, but in full-mature fruit remained steady in 'Navelate' and barely increased in 'Pinalate' fruit. ABA reduced expression in both after prolonged storage. Responsiveness to ABA increased with maturation. Our results show interplay between PLA2 and PLD and suggest that ABA action is upstream phospholipase activation. Response to ABA during water stress in citrus is regulated during fruit maturation and involves membrane phospholipid degradation. PMID:23800664

Romero, Paco; Gandía, Mónica; Alférez, Fernando

2013-06-10

117

Effect of Uni-Packaging on the Post Harvest Behavior of Citrus Fruits in N.W.F.P.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 45 days storage experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Uni-Packaging treatments on the shelf life of citrus fruits. Different treatments were polyethylene bags of 0.0254mm, 0.0508mm thickness and control. The result showed that the uni-packaging had no significant effect on the pH o...

I. Hussain; M. Asif; M. Ahmed; M. Khan; I. Shakir

118

PUTATIVE PROTEASE INHIBITOR GENE DISCOVERY AND TRANSCRIPT PROFILING DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT AND LEAF DAMAGE IN GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI MAEF.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven putative protease inhibitor (PPI) cDNAs, representing four protein families, were isolated from a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Maef. Cv. Marsh) immature fruit flavedo cDNA library. Clones represented: legume Kuntiz inhibitors (LkiL-1, LkiL-2, LkiL-3), potato trypsin inhibitor I (PtiIL-1), serp...

119

A FIELD COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS AND TRAPS FOR CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY, ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (LOEW) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE), IN FLORIDA CITRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies in citrus were conducted to compare the following as attractants for Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew): torula yeast-borax; propylene glycol (10%); a two-component lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine; a two-component lure consisting of ammonium bicarbonate...

120

Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparison of ascorbate metabolism in fruits of two citrus species with obvious difference in ascorbate content in pulp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus fruit is widely consumed and provides ascorbate for human health. The ascorbate content in pulp is generally higher in orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) than in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). However, what contributes to such difference is still unknown. In the present study, ascorbate accumulation, expression profiles of genes involved in L-galactose pathway and activity changes of enzymes related with L-ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation and recycling were investigated during fruit development and ripening in fruit pulp of Satsuma mandarin and orange. As fruit ripens, total ascorbate (T-ASC) or AA content increased in mandarin whereas fluctuated on a relatively high level in orange. Concentrations of T-ASC or AA in pulp of orange were over 1.5-fold higher than that in pulp of Satsuma mandarin during fruit ripening. Further analysis showed that each transcript of four genes (encoding GDP-D-mannose-3',5'-epimerase, GDP-L-galactose-pyrophosphatase, L-galactose dehydrogenase and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase respectively) in orange was almost on a higher level and the activities of oxidation enzymes (ascorbate oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were lower during fruit ripening as compared with Satsuma mandarin. As ascorbate pool size is decided by the combination of biosynthesis, oxidation and recycling, therefore, higher expression of four genes along with lower activity of oxidation enzymes should contribute at least partially to the higher ASC accumulation in orange pulp.

Yang XY; Xie JX; Wang FF; Zhong J; Liu YZ; Li GH; Peng SA

2011-12-01

122

Allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste from food processing industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allelopathic potential of Citrus junos fruit waste after juice extraction was investigated. Aqueous methanol extracts of peel, inside and seeds separated from the fruit waste inhibited the growth of the roots and shoots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), timothy (Pheleum pratense L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the peel extract was greatest and followed by that of the inside and seed extracts in all bioassays. Significant reductions in the root and shoot growth were observed as the extract concentration was increased. The concentrations of abscisic acid-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-GE) in peel, inside and seeds separated from the C. junos fruit waste were determined, since ABA-GE was found to be one of the main growth inhibitors in C. junos fruit. The concentration was greatest in the peel, followed by the inside and seeds; there was a good correspondence between these concentrations and the inhibitory activities of the extracts. This suggests that ABA-GE may also be involved in the growth inhibitory effect of C. junos waste. These results suggested that C. junos waste may possess allelopathic potential, and the waste may be potentially useful for weed management. PMID:15158515

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yukitoshi

2004-09-01

123

A TaqMan PCR Method for Routine Diagnosis of the Quarantine Fungus Guignardia citricarpa on Citrus Fruit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With respect to disease risk for the quarantine fungus Guignardia citricarpa on citrus fruit an accurate diagnosis for routine analysis is required. Also, when inspections have to be performed on imported citrus fruits, a fast detection method is urgently needed. A fast automated DNA extraction method based on magnetic beads combined with a real-time PCR assay was optimized to improve and advance the routine diagnosis of citrus black spot disease. Real-time PCR was used for detection of the pathogen G. citricarpa in planta. A specific primer/TaqMan probe combination that discriminates between G. citricarpa and the harmless citrus endophyte Guignardia mangiferae, was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the multi-copy rDNA gene. Co-amplification of target DNA along with an internal competitor DNA fragment made the diagnostic assay more reliable to check for false negatives. The real-time PCR was specific, since no cross reaction was observed with a series of citrus pathogens and related species. The diagnostic assay was performed on lesions dissected from imported diseased oranges. Comparison between the conventional PCR and the real-time PCR methods showed that the TaqMan method was more sensitive.

Gent-Pelzer MPEvan; Brouwershaven IRvan; Kox LFF; Bonants PJM

2007-06-01

124

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7). The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%), and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco), satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch) e híbridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco), por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5%) e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'.

Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Elizete Beatriz Radmann

2005-01-01

125

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars/ Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco), satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch) e híbridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco), por intermédio de marcado (more) res isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5%) e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata (more) Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7). The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%), and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.

Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso de; Radmann, Elizete Beatriz

2005-08-01

126

Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively. PMID:20162090

Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

2006-11-13

127

Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively.

Aibinu I; Adenipekun T; Adelowotan T; Ogunsanya T; Odugbemi T

2006-01-01

128

Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira; Paulo Roberto Cecon

2008-01-01

129

Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit. [Citrus paradisi Macf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas exchange, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO/sub 2/ exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO/sub 2/ during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of /sup 14/C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo).

Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

1986-04-01

130

Fast CE analysis of adrenergic amines in different parts of Citrus aurantium fruit and dietary supplements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A CE method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of the adrenergic amines synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and in dietary supplements. The analytes were separated on a fused silica capillary (50 microm id, 40.0 cm effective length, 48.5 cm total length) using a BGE composed of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5, 50 mM) and applying a 30 kV potential. The samples were injected hydrodynamically at 50 mbar for 25 s. The use of photodiode array detection (lambda=195 nm) allowed the quantification of the analytes and the control of peak purity. The method has been fully validated, obtaining satisfactory values of precision and extraction yield. The analytes are extracted with water from the dried whole fruits or fruit parts (endocarp, mesocarp and exocarp) or from the commercial formulations and directly injected into the CE apparatus. The results obtained were satisfactory in terms of precision (RSD < 5.7%) and accuracy (recovery > 89%). Thus, the method has demonstrated to be suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in C. aurantium extracts, for dietary supplement quality control and for food adulteration identification.

Mercolini L; Mandrioli R; Trerè T; Bugamelli F; Ferranti A; Raggi MA

2010-08-01

131

Fast CE analysis of adrenergic amines in different parts of Citrus aurantium fruit and dietary supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

A CE method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of the adrenergic amines synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and in dietary supplements. The analytes were separated on a fused silica capillary (50 microm id, 40.0 cm effective length, 48.5 cm total length) using a BGE composed of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5, 50 mM) and applying a 30 kV potential. The samples were injected hydrodynamically at 50 mbar for 25 s. The use of photodiode array detection (lambda=195 nm) allowed the quantification of the analytes and the control of peak purity. The method has been fully validated, obtaining satisfactory values of precision and extraction yield. The analytes are extracted with water from the dried whole fruits or fruit parts (endocarp, mesocarp and exocarp) or from the commercial formulations and directly injected into the CE apparatus. The results obtained were satisfactory in terms of precision (RSD 89%). Thus, the method has demonstrated to be suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in C. aurantium extracts, for dietary supplement quality control and for food adulteration identification. PMID:20645392

Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Trerè, Teria; Bugamelli, Francesca; Ferranti, Anna; Raggi, Maria Augusta

2010-08-01

132

Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C) and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml) and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml) as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml) of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml), total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml), and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content (67.97 mg/100 ml). C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

2013-01-01

133

Host plant and temperature effects on Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) a native parasitoid of the exotic brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), is an exotic pest of citrus in the United States that was introduced into Florida in 1995. The native parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has demonstrated acceptance of the brown citrus aphid as a host. This experiment evaluated the effect of citrus host plants on brown citrus aphid parasitism by L. testaceipes, and the effect of temperature on development of the parasitoid. The levels of parasitism achieved by L. testaceipes were similar among brown citrus aphid populations on five citrus cultivars used as host plants for the aphids (range 34-36%). The percentage of adult parasitoid emergence was highest on 'Duncan grapefruit' (82%) and significantly lower on 'Mexican lime' (63%) than on any of the other citrus cultivars. The proportion of adults that were female was significantly higher on 'Duncan grapefruit' (81%) than on any of the other cultivars. The results demonstrate that the effects of multiple trophic levels can influence parasitoid performance in a cascading manner. The developmental periods for both male and female L. testaceipes on the brown citrus aphid declined from 21 to 9 d with ascending temperatures in the range 18-27°C. The developmental threshold was 10.4°C and the degree-day (DD) requirement for development was 158.7 DD, indicating that the temperature conditions experienced in Florida are conducive to rapid development of L. testaceipes on the brown citrus aphid.

Weathersbee AAIII; McKenzie CL; Tang YQ

2004-05-01

134

ANTI TYPHOID ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRUIT PEEL CITRUS SINENSIS (L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.

Vivek Kumar R

2010-01-01

135

Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by {gamma}-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 {approx} 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 {approx} 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 {approx} 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 {approx} 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the {gamma}-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation.

Yang, Hee Sun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

136

Syringicin, a new alpha-elicitin from an isolate of Phytophthora syringae, pathogenic to citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary structure of syringicin (syr), a new acidic alpha-elicitin, isolated from culture filtrates of Phytophthora syringae, causal agent of citrus fruit rot, has been determined using a combined approch based on Edman degradation and MALDI-MS (TTCTT TQQTA AYVAL VSILS DSSFN QCATD SGYSM LTATA LPTTA QYKLM CASTA CKTMI TKIVS LNAPD CELTV PTSGL VLNVY SYANG FSSTC ASL). Syr has 98 amino acids with a M(r) of 10194.6+/-0.2, which was determined by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ES-MS) and in agreement with three disulphide bridges, located between Cys3-Cys71, Cys27-Cys56 and Cys51-Cys95. Syr induces a hypersensitive response and electrolyte leakage in tobacco. These are characteristic elicitor properties of the group and in agreement with the molecular mechanism recently proposed for this kind of protein. Finally, its possible applications in biological agriculture and biomedicine are briefly discussed.

Capasso R; Cristinzio G; Di Maro A; Ferranti P; Parente A

2001-09-01

137

Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 ? 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 ? 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 ? 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 ? 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the ?-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation

2009-01-01

138

Postharvest disinfestation treatments for deciduous and citrus fruits of the Western Cape, South Africa: a database analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Effective postharvest disinfestation of export fruits from the Western Cape province of South Africa would help to reduce rejections due to the presence of insects. However, there is normally only a limited opportunity between controlling the insects and damaging the produce. A widely used agent in disinfestation procedures, methyl bromide, was scheduled to be withdrawn in many countries in 2005 due to its ozone-depleting properties. The main alternatives are irradiation, (more) extreme temperatures, forced air, vapour-heat methods and the use of controlled atmospheres. A literature survey was used to identify postharvest treatments with the highest likelihood of success in killing insect contaminants without damaging the fruit. Data from 284 scientific articles relating to these kinds of disinfestation were entered into a database (PQUAD). Queries were run to determine the most intensively studied fruits and pests. The tolerances of the commodities were compared with those of the pests at family level. Where pest tolerances were lower than those of the fruit, the treatment was regarded as a possible candidate for use. Methyl bromide, controlled atmospheres and irradiation were identified as the most widely used against pests. Irradiation appeared to control insects at doses that did not damage deciduous produce. Citrus appeared to be more susceptible to damage, however, than deciduous fruits. Low temperature also seemed to be less detrimental to deciduous fruit than to citrus. Deciduous fruit is already preserved in cold storage, making this an inexpensive option to combat insects. Cold treatment appeared to control members of the Pseudococcidae, Tephritidae and Tortricidae; more work is required on the other pest families. Controlled atmospheres also had a high chance of success for both citrus and deciduous fruits.

Pryke, J.S.; Pringle, K.L.

2008-04-01

139

Citrus fruit and fabacea secondary metabolites potently and selectively block TRPM3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The melastatin-related transient receptor potential TRPM3 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel that can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) and heat. TRPM3-deficient mice show an impaired perception of noxious heat. Hence, drugs inhibiting TRPM3 possibly get in focus of analgesic therapy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Fluorometric methods were used to identify novel TRPM3-blocking compounds and to characterize their potency and selectivity to block TRPM3 but not other sensory TRP channels. Biophysical properties of the block were assessed using electrophysiological methods. Single cell calcium measurements confirmed the block of endogenously expressed TRPM3 channels in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. KEY RESULTS: By screening a compound library, we identified three natural compounds as potent blockers of TRPM3. Naringenin and hesperetin belong to the citrus fruit flavanones, and ononetin is a deoxybenzoin. Eriodictyol, a metabolite of naringenin and hesperetin, was still biologically active as a TRPM3 blocker. The compounds exhibited a marked specificity for recombinant TRPM3 and blocked PregS-induced [Ca(2+)]i signals in freshly isolated DRG neurones. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The data indicate that citrus fruit flavonoids are potent and selective blockers of TRPM3. Their potencies ranged from upper nanomolar to lower micromolar concentrations. Since physiological functions of TRPM3 channels are still poorly defined, the development and validation of potent and selective blockers is expected to contribute to clarifying the role of TRPM3 in vivo. Considering the involvement of TRPM3 in nociception, TRPM3 blockers may represent a novel concept for analgesic treatment.

Straub I; Mohr F; Stab J; Konrad M; Philipp SE; Oberwinkler J; Schaefer M

2013-04-01

140

Packing systems and patterns of physical damage in post-harvest citrus fruit decay in Jammu markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) were packed and marketed in wooden boxes with paddy straw as cushioning material whereas kinnow mandarin and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) fruits were transported, bulk-packed in gunny bags, to the market. The nature of damage in mandarin was compression bruises and cuts on the fruits. Kinnow mandarin and lime had bruises due to rough handling, compression bruises due to over-filling and over stacking of bags, vibration bruises in transit and storage houses. Besides, Kinnow fruits had stalk puncture wounds. These injuries predisposed the fruits to fungal infections leading to fruit rots. Infections and cullage losses are, therefore, a direct consequence of rough handling and unhygienic storage conditions. A spectrum of post-harvest pathogens caused a variety of fruit rots viz., blue mold rot (Penicillium italicum), green mold rot (Penicillium digitatum, P. chrysogenum), Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus rots, black mold rot (Aspergillus niger), core rot (Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera), soft rot (Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizophus stolonifer), stem-end rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum). Among other pathogens Penicillium spp. inflicted major fruit losses during winter months whereas Aspergillus spp. were responsible for sizeable losses during summer and monsoon months.

V.S. VERMA and M.L. TIKOO

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacities of citrus fruits to inhibit midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expressed in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight citrus fruits such as ama-natsu, banpeiyu, Dekopon, hassaku, hyuga-natsu, completely matured kinkan (Tamatama), takaoka-buntan and unshu-mikan were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and grapefruit juice (white, Tropicana-Kirin). The addition of a fruit juice prepared from banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan or Tamatama caused the inhibition of the microsomal CYP3A activity. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (2.5 and 5.0%, v/v). The fruit juice from banpeiyu showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a banpeiyu juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity to about 20% of control without a fruit juice. The elongation of the preincubation period of a fruit juice from banpeiyu (5.0%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction (5 to 15 min) led to the enhancement of the CYP3A inhibition (5% of control). Thus, we discovered ingredients of banpeiyu to be inhibitor(s) or mechanism-based inhibitor(s) of human CYP3A activity, but the inhibitory effects of them were somewhat lower than those of grapefruit. PMID:12951492

Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Hidaka, Muneaki; Takamura, Norito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Arimori, Kazuhiko

2003-09-01

142

Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The capacities of citrus fruits to inhibit midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expressed in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight citrus fruits such as ama-natsu, banpeiyu, Dekopon, hassaku, hyuga-natsu, completely matured kinkan (Tamatama), takaoka-buntan and unshu-mikan were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and grapefruit juice (white, Tropicana-Kirin). The addition of a fruit juice prepared from banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan or Tamatama caused the inhibition of the microsomal CYP3A activity. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (2.5 and 5.0%, v/v). The fruit juice from banpeiyu showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a banpeiyu juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity to about 20% of control without a fruit juice. The elongation of the preincubation period of a fruit juice from banpeiyu (5.0%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction (5 to 15 min) led to the enhancement of the CYP3A inhibition (5% of control). Thus, we discovered ingredients of banpeiyu to be inhibitor(s) or mechanism-based inhibitor(s) of human CYP3A activity, but the inhibitory effects of them were somewhat lower than those of grapefruit.

Fujita K; Hidaka M; Takamura N; Yamasaki K; Iwakiri T; Okumura M; Kodama H; Yamaguchi M; Ikenoue T; Arimori K

2003-09-01

143

Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

2003-12-01

144

Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics.

Sharon-Asa L; Shalit M; Frydman A; Bar E; Holland D; Or E; Lavi U; Lewinsohn E; Eyal Y

2003-12-01

145

Quantitative evaluation of auraptene and umbelliferone, chemopreventive coumarins in citrus fruits, by HPLC-UV-FL-MS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An analytical strategy, based on the development of two HPLC methods with spectrophotometric (UV), spectrofluorometric (FL), and mass spectrometric (MS) detection, has been developed to investigate the presence of and to quantitate two important chemopreventive coumarins, auraptene and umbelliferone, in foodstuffs. The analytes were determined in fruits, and fruit parts, of plants belonging to the Citrus , Poncirus , and Fortunella genera, to test their nutraceutical potential. The method validation has been carried out according to international guidelines, with good results in terms of precision (RSD < 6.9%) and extraction yields (>91%). Application to the quantitative analysis of auraptene and umbelliferone in several kinds of citrus fruits was successful, providing reliable and consistent data. Exploiting three different kinds of detection, the analytical methodology proposed herein has been demonstrated to be sound but versatile, as well as reliable. Performances and results were compared and always found in good agreement among themselves. Thus, this approach is suitable for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of auraptene and umbelliferone in citrus fruits, with the aim of evaluating their nutraceutical potential.

Mercolini L; Mandrioli R; Ferranti A; Sorella V; Protti M; Epifano F; Curini M; Raggi MA

2013-02-01

146

Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange), Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi), Bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), Lemon (C. limon) and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%), Shahsavari orange (25%) and Sanguinello (20 %) on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6%) was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour) orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively).Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), Lemon (C. limon). Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; M. Azadbakht

2006-01-01

147

Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe.

Dhiman A; Nanda A; Ahmad S

2011-07-01

148

Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics for the Discovery of Biomarkers of Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Citrus Fruit as a Case Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elucidation of the relationships between genotype, diet, and health requires accurate dietary assessment. In intervention and epidemiological studies, dietary assessment usually relies on questionnaires, which are susceptible to recall bias. An alternative approach is to quantify biomarkers of intake in biofluids, but few such markers have been validated so far. Here we describe the use of metabolomics for the discovery of nutritional biomarkers, using citrus fruits as a case study. Three study designs were compared. Urinary metabolomes were profiled for volunteers that had (a) consumed an acute dose of orange or grapefruit juice, (b) consumed orange juice regularly for one month, and (c) reported high or low consumption of citrus products for a large cohort study. Some signals were found to reflect citrus consumption in all three studies. Proline betaine and flavanone glucuronides were identified as known biomarkers, but various other biomarkers were revealed. Further, many signals that increased after citrus intake in the acute study were not sensitive enough to discriminate high and low citrus consumers in the cohort study. We propose that urine profiling of cohort subjects stratified by consumption is an effective strategy for discovery of sensitive biomarkers of consumption for a wide range of foods.

Pujos-Guillot E; Hubert J; Martin JF; Lyan B; Quintana M; Claude S; Chabanas B; Rothwell JA; Bennetau-Pelissero C; Scalbert A; Comte B; Hercberg S; Morand C; Galan P; Manach C

2013-03-01

149

VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), ?-terpene (2.6 %) and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, l-limonene, ?- terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. ?-Thujene and trans-?-caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110?C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis-?-farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Ali Mohammed; Ansari Shahid Husain

2011-01-01

150

Isolation and identification of insecticidal components from Citrus aurantium fruit peel extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three active components were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation of bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) fruit peel petroleum ether extract. Silica gel fractionation of the extract yielded a fraction that inflicted up to 96% mortality to adults of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) three days post-treatment. Subsequent HPLC purification of the active fraction resulted in the isolation of three components, eluted in fractions F 222, F 224, and F 226, that induced adult mortality. Considering the data obtained from UV, FTIR, MS, and (1)H NMR spectra, they were identified as 7-methoxy-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2 H-1-benzopyran-2-one (osthol), 4-methoxy-7 H-furo[3,2- g]benzopyran-7-one (bergapten), and 4-(( E)-3'-methyl-5'-(3'',3''-dimethyloxiran-2''-yl)pent-2'-enyloxy)-7 H-furo[3,2- g][1]benzopyran-7-one (6',7'-epoxybergamottin). Our results are in concordance with those reported in the literature and were further verified by direct comparison to authentic components. 6',7'-Epoxybergamottin was toxic when tested individually, while bergapten and osthol were found to act synergistically to 6',7'-epoxybergamottin.

Siskos EP; Mazomenos BE; Konstantopoulou MA

2008-07-01

151

Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II). Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

Gilberto G. Villela; José Danilo Pecci

1943-01-01

152

Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C.

1985-01-01

153

In vivo sucrose stimulation of colour change in citrus fruit epicarps: Interactions between nutritional and hormonal signals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During ripening, citrus fruit-peel undergoes 'colour break', a process characterized by the conversion of chloroplast to chromoplast. The process involves the progressive loss of chlorophylls and the gain of carotenoids, changing peel colour from green to orange. In the present work, the in vivo and in vitro effects of supplemented nutrients (sucrose and nitrogen) and phytohormones (gibberellins [GA] and ethylene) on colour change in fruit epicarp of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu (Mak.) Marc., cv. Okitsu), were studied. The rate of colour break was correlated positively with sucrose content and negatively with nitrogen content. The removal of leaves blocked natural sucrose build-up and nitrogen reduction in the peel. Defoliation also inhibited chlorophyll disappearance and carotenoid accumulation, thereby preventing colour break. In vivo sucrose supplementation promoted sucrose accumulation and advanced colour break. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, colour change promoted by sucrose was unaffected by ethylene but delayed by GA3. In non-supplemented plants, ethylene accelerated colour break while GA3 had no detectable effects. Ethylene inhibitors effectively counteracted the sucrose effects on colour change. Collectively, these results suggest that the chloroplast to chromoplast conversion in citrus fruit epicarps is stimulated by sucrose accumulation. The sugar regulation appears to operate via ethylene, whereas GA may act as a repressor of the sucrose-ethylene stimulation.

Iglesias DJ; Tadeo FR; Legaz F; Primo-Millo E; Talon M

2001-06-01

154

Effect of sucrose?based polymers on quality of Satsuma mandarin fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa Wase)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the effects of an edible coating (sucrose?based polymers, SBP) on postharvest fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa Wase) were investigated. All the fruit except the control was sprayed with SBP solution at a concentration of 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 1.0% (v/v), respectively, and then stored at room temperature (25?°C, 85% relative humidity) for 25?days. Results showed that 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% SBP treatment could significantly increase the soluble solids concentrations (SSC), vitamin C (Vc), total sugars, total carotenoids, the ratio of SSC to titratable acidity (TA) (SSC/TA), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activities, while the decay rate, TA and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were greatly reduced. In contrast, 1.0% SBP treatment resulted in fruit browning, despite maintaining fruit quality. Our present study provided the theoretical data for the practical application of the SBP on the citrus fruit quality of during postharvest storage.

Tao Neng?Guo; Ao Ting?Ting; Liu Yue?Jin; Huang Shi?Rong

2012-05-01

155

Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

1990-01-01

156

Variation of Physiochemical Components of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Fruits at Different Sides of the Tree in Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the important commercial fruits cultivated from terai to high hill of Nepal. It is an important source of vitamin “C” (ascorbic acid) for human nutrition. Amount of juice, TSS (Total soluble solids), TA (Titrable acid) and vitamin C are the determining factors of quality of acid lime fruits which may vary according to bearing sides of the trees. The main objective of this study is, to determine the variation of fruit quality at different sides of the tree. Total of 15 bearing trees were selected randomly (5 trees per site) from three different agro ecological domain representing terai (1200 m asl) and samples were collected from the selected trees. Randomly ten fruits (from east, west, centre, north and south sides) were collected from each tree and analyzed for amount of vitamin C, TSS, TA and juice. Highest ascorbic acid 79.6 mg and 69.9 mg was observed in south side fruits whereas lowest 62.8 mg and 55.1 mg was observed in centre fruits in the high and mid hills zone respectively, but in terai, highest ascorbic acid 58.7 mg was observed in north side and lowest 41.8 mg was observed in centre. Highest amount of juice 43.9% was observed in south side fruits and lowest 36.6% in centre fruits, but amount of TSS 8.2% and TA 7.2% was observed in south side fruits and lowest 7.3% TSS and 7.0% TA was observed in centre fruits in high hills. In terai highest TSS 8.3% and TA 7.4% was observed in north side fruits and lowest TSS 7.3% and TA 6.7% was observed in centre fruits. Variation of TSS, TA percent and ascorbic acids was observed according to the agro ecological zone.

Ram Lal Shrestha; Durga Datta Dhakal; Durga Mani Gautum; Krishna Prasad Paudyal; Sangita Shrestha

2012-01-01

157

Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and aroma concentrates are discussed in relation to sensory quality. Analytical methods for compounds affecting quality, and methods for detection of adulteration in different citrus products are briefly reviewed. The importance of sensorily evaluating quality of citrus products to select and develop quality control indices is emphasized. Areas where further research are required are indicated. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid further study and research.

Ranganna S; Govindarajan VS; Ramana KV

1983-01-01

158

Shellac formulations to reduce epiphytic survival of coliform bacteria on citrus fruit postharvest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival of the coliform bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli was monitored in a neutral carboxymethylcellulose formulation and in shellac formulations with various pH and concentrations of ethanol and the preservative paraben; populations were subsequently measured from the surface of citrus fruit coated with these formulations. Numbers of the two bacteria increased over 24 h from 10(6) CFU/ml to approximately 10(8) CFU/ml in the carboxymethylcellulose solution, but over this time numbers remained little changed in the neutral solution of shellac. The Enterobacter was more tolerant of alcohol over a 3-h period: although its numbers in a shellac solution with 10% ethanol dropped from more than 10(6) CFU/ml to just over 10(3) CFU/ml. E. coli and a third species. Klebsiella pneunoniae, declined toward the limit of detection (5 CFU/ ml) during this time. The addition of morpholine to increase the formulation pH to 9.0 caused numbers of bacteria to plummet to an undetectable level within 30 to 60 min. On Ruby Red grapefruit and Valencia oranges in storage at 13 degrees C numbers of E. aerogenes and E. coli declined over 2 weeks from 10(5) CFU/cm2 to less than 2.5 x 10(1), but most of the loss in numbers occurred within 1 day. Numbers remained significantly less on shellacked fruit compared with those applied in the carboxymethylcellulose coating, and a shellac coating prepared from a pH 9 solution was more toxic to these species than one in which 12% ethanol had been added to the neutral formulation. The addition of the preservative paraben in the basic shellac was further inhibitory. PMID:11726155

McGuire, R G; Hagenmaier, R D

2001-11-01

159

Antibacterial activity and mode of action of a commercial citrus fruit extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This study addresses the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of BIOLL(+®), a commercial extract obtained from citrus fruits. METHODS AND RESULTS: Strong activities with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 10 ppm (for some Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains) to 80 ppm (for various Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli strains) were observed. Membrane integrity tests and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analyses were performed to shed light on the effects caused on molecular structure and composition. Physical effects, with formation of pores and leakage of intracellular components, and chemical effects, which were dependent on the bacterial species, were evident on cellular envelopes. Whereas for S. enterica and E. coli, changes were focused on the carboxylic group of membrane fatty acids, for B. hyodysenteriae, the main effects were found in polysaccharides and carbohydrates of the cell wall. CONCLUSIONS: The great antibacterial activity shown by BIOLL(+®) and its proposed dual physico-chemical mode of action, with species-specific cellular targets, show its attractiveness as an alternative to antibiotics. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Antibiotic resistance is becoming a serious problem. Our study characterizes a novel antimicrobial extract, which could represent an alternative to antibiotics for treatment or prevention of bacterial infectious diseases.

Álvarez-Ordóñez A; Carvajal A; Arguello H; Martínez-Lobo FJ; Naharro G; Rubio P

2013-07-01

160

Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-)(1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds.

Kumar DS; Rao S; Satyanaryana M; Kumar PP; Anitha N

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Routine application using single quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pesticides analysis in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method has been developed for the routine analysis of buprofezin, bupirimate, hexaflumuron, tebufenpyrad, fluvalinate and pyriproxyfen in citrus fruits. Extracts were obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol (80:20, v/v) as eluent. Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by addition of standard to sample blank extracts (samples containing no detectable residues). Mean recoveries obtained at fortification levels between 0.01 and 5 mg kg(-1) were 57-97% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 5 to 19%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.01-0.2 mg kg(-1) and lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Spanish legislation. The MSPD was compared with conventional ethyl acetate extraction, showing equivalent recoveries and precision. Although the sample is more concentrated (5-fold) by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethyl acetate than by MSPD, LOQs obtained by both techniques, were almost equal, because MSPD reduces matrix effects, baseline noise, and interfering peaks from the matrix. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of selected pesticides in real samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and triple quadrupole (TQ) have been used as confirmatory tool for positive samples according to a recent No. SANCO/10476/2003 European Union Guideline. PMID:16130755

Soler, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

2005-09-23

162

Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

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Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection) and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality). More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour) from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

Lourdes Maria Gamito; Darclet Terezinha Malerbo-Souza

2006-01-01

163

Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits; Avaliacao e aceitacao de morangos e citros irradiados  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1999-11-01

164

Towards the Biological Control of Post Harvest Blue Mold of Citrus sinensis Fruits in Egypt I-isolation and Characterization of Antagonistic Strain of Streptomyces alni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wet rot-diseased Citrus sinensis fruits were collected from Kafr El-Ziat Station for citrus exportation. The fungal pathogen was isolated and identified as Penicillium italicum. Sixty eight bacterial isolates (eubacteria and actinomycetes) were screened for their antagonistic activities against the fungal pathogen, Penicillium italicum. Thirty one isolates (identified and unidentified) showed antifungal activity against the pathogen and unidentified actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Citrus sinensis trees, exhibited the highest activity. Cultural, physiological and biochemical studies were performed to characterize and identify the most active actinomycete. Depending on the results of these studies, the most active antifungal actinomycete was identified as Streptomyces alni. The sterilized cultural filtrate of Streptomyces alni was applied to Citrus sinensis fruits and inhibited the fungal infection until 27 days of storage, but slight symptoms of infection appeared after one month of storage under humid conditions.

Essam A. Azab; Soad M. Abu El-Souod; Mostafa A. El-Sayed; Mervat F. Fareed

2006-01-01

165

Phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the most important centres of origin for the genus Citrus L., China is rich in wild mandarin germplasm. In this study, phenolic compounds in the peels of 14 wild mandarin genotypes native to China were determined and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC methods. We found that Nieduyeju had the highest total phenol content (51.14mg/gDW), and Wulongsuanju had the highest total flavonoid content (20.66mg/gDW). Hesperidin, the dominant flavonoid, was observed to be highest in Guangxihongpisuanju (55.98mg/gDW). Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid analyzed, and Nieduyeju (7780.17?g/g DW) and Guangxihongpisuanju (13,607.19?g/gDW) had the highest contents of extractable and bound phenolic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potency composite (APC) index showed obvious variations ranging from 58.84 to 98.89 in the studied wild mandarins, among them, Nieduyeju had the highest APC index. Overall, Guangxihongpisuanju, Nieduyeju, Cupigoushigan and Daoxianyeju contained more phenolics and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the mandarin cultivars Satsuma and Ponkan. PMID:24128530

Zhang, Yuanmei; Sun, Yujing; Xi, Wanpeng; Shen, Yan; Qiao, Liping; Zhong, Liezhou; Ye, Xingqian; Zhou, Zhiqin

2013-08-11

166

Phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As one of the most important centres of origin for the genus Citrus L., China is rich in wild mandarin germplasm. In this study, phenolic compounds in the peels of 14 wild mandarin genotypes native to China were determined and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC methods. We found that Nieduyeju had the highest total phenol content (51.14mg/gDW), and Wulongsuanju had the highest total flavonoid content (20.66mg/gDW). Hesperidin, the dominant flavonoid, was observed to be highest in Guangxihongpisuanju (55.98mg/gDW). Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid analyzed, and Nieduyeju (7780.17?g/g DW) and Guangxihongpisuanju (13,607.19?g/gDW) had the highest contents of extractable and bound phenolic acid, respectively. Antioxidant potency composite (APC) index showed obvious variations ranging from 58.84 to 98.89 in the studied wild mandarins, among them, Nieduyeju had the highest APC index. Overall, Guangxihongpisuanju, Nieduyeju, Cupigoushigan and Daoxianyeju contained more phenolics and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the mandarin cultivars Satsuma and Ponkan.

Zhang Y; Sun Y; Xi W; Shen Y; Qiao L; Zhong L; Ye X; Zhou Z

2014-02-01

167

Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: From field harvest to the consumer's table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. RESULTS: Mature 'Kamei' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7 kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a broad picture of differential accumulation of proteins and metabolites in postharvest citrus fruit, and gives new insights into HT improved fruit disease resistance during subsequent storage of 'Kamei' Satsuma mandarin. Interpretation of the data for the proteins and metabolites revealed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lignin play important roles in heat treatment induced fruit resistance to pathogens and physiological disorders.

Yun Z; Gao H; Liu P; Liu S; Luo T; Jin S; Xu Q; Xu J; Cheng Y; Deng X

2013-01-01

168

Use of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria to evaluate surface disinfectants for canker quarantine treatment of citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Florida citrus packinghouses are required by quarantine regulations to use chlorine or sodium orthophenylphenate (SOPP) to surface-sanitize asymptomatic fruit to eradicate a bacterial disease currently classified as citrus canker (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri). Treatments with chlorine or SOPP in soak or spray applications require exposures for 2 and 1 min, respectively, whereas soap formulations of SOPP applied during washing require 45 sec. In this study, applications of chlorine or SOPP during washing for 30 sec were as effective as the longer exposures currently required. Wash applications of dual quaternary ammonium compounds, formulations of chlorine dioxide, or peracetic acid for a similar time were equally effective. X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was used in these studies as the assay bacterium because it responded similarly to the canker bacterium in in vitro disinfectant tests and could be used outside of quarantine facilities.

Brown GE; Schubert TS

1987-04-01

169

Purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from Citrus sinensis var. Valencia fruit tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preliminary survey demonstrated activity for alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-D-mannosidase, alpha-L-arabinosidase, beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-xylosidase, and beta-D-galactosidase in orange fruit flavedo and albedo tissue. alpha-L-Rhamnosidase was not detected. Subsequently, a beta-glucosidase was purified from mature fruit rag tissue (composed of intersegmental septa, squeezed juice sacs, and fruit core tissue) of Citrus sinensis var. Valencia. The beta-glucosidase exhibited low levels of activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside (13.5%) and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (7.0%), compared to its activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, 100%). The enzyme was purified by a combination of ion exchange (anion and cation) and gel filtration (Superdex and Toyopearl HW-55S) chromatography. It has an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa by denaturing electrophoresis or 55 kDa by gel filtration chromatography (BioGel P-100). Hydrolysis of pNPG demonstrated a pH optimum between 4.5 and 5.5. At pH 5.0 the temperature optimum was 40 degrees C. At pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C the K(m) for pNPG was 0.1146 mM and it had a V(max) of 5.2792 nkatal x mg(-1) protein (katal = 0.06 International Units = the amount of enzyme that produces, under standard conditions, one micromol of product per min). Of the substrates tested, the enzyme was most active against the disaccharide cellobiose (1-->4), but was not active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside. High levels of activity also were observed with the disaccharides laminaribiose (1-->3), gentiobiose (1-->6), and sophorose (1-->2). Activity greater than that observed with pNPG was obtained with the flavonoids hesperetin-7-glucoside and prunin (naringenin-7-glucoside), salicin, mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside (a cyanogenic substrate), and sinigrin (a glucosinolate). The enzyme was not active against amygdalin, coniferin, or limonin glucoside.

Cameron RG; Manthey JA; Baker RA; Grohmann K

2001-09-01

170

Preliminary Evaluation for Comparative Antioxidant Activity in the Water and Ethanol Extracts of Dried Citrus Fruit (Citrus unshiu) Peel Using Chemical and Biochemical in Vitro Assays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel were determined using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Chemical assays were used for evaluation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power of both extracts and their total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant activities were investigated. Biochemical assays were performed to evaluate the inhibition activities of AAPH-induced rat RBC hemolysis and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue cells. Linear correlation between the antioxidant activities of both extracts were determined by chemical assays, and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed >95% DPPH radical scavenging and >85% hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and higher reducing capacity at the same level of 3200 ppm. In the inhibition activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, water extracts showed a strong activity in concentration-dependent mode up to 1600 ppm with no statistical difference found between 1600 and 3200 ppm (P > 0.05). In the inhibition activity of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, ethanol extracts showed the higher inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation than those of water extracts at the same concentration with no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in the range of 800 to 3200 ppm. The extracts of dried Citrus unshiu peel may be considered as potential antioxidant ingredients of functional food depending on the conditions at which reactive oxygen species are implicated.

Joo-Shin Kim

2013-01-01

171

Chemometric characterization of fruit juices from Spanish cultivars according to their phenolic compound contents: I. Citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The data set composed by phenolic compound profiles of 83 Citrus juices (determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was evaluated by chemometrics to differentiate them according to Citrus species (sweet orange, tangerine, lemon, and grapefruit). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among Citrus species and even the Citrus subclass. Most of the information contained in the full data set can be captured if only 15 phenolic compounds (concentration ?10 mg/L), which can be quantified with fast and accurate methods in real samples, are introduced in the models; a good classification which allows the confirmation of the authenticity of juices is achieved by linear discriminant analysis. Using this reduced data set, fast and routine methods have been developed for predicting the percentage of grapefruit in adulterated sweet orange juices using principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The PLS model has provided suitable estimation errors.

Abad-García B; Berrueta LA; Garmón-Lobato S; Urkaregi A; Gallo B; Vicente F

2012-04-01

172

Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp.) de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp.) of potential use as rootstock  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki.The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp.), and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo; Ary Apparecido Salibe

2002-01-01

173

A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

Raasmaja A; Lecklin A; Li XM; Zou J; Zhu GG; Laakso I; Hiltunen R

2013-06-01

174

Determination of abamectin in citrus fruits using SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC-UV detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new pretreatment method, SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was proposed for the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples for the first time. In this method, fruit samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by SPE. Then, the SPE was used as a disperser solvent in the next dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step for further purification and enrichment of abamectin. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency of the proposed method were investigated and optimized. Good linearity of abamectin was obtained from 0.005 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1a and from 0.05 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1b with correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.998 for B1a and 0.991 for B1b , respectively. The LODs were 0.001 and 0.008 mg/kg (S/N = 3) for B1a and B1b , respectively. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87 to 96% with the RSD less than 11% (n = 3). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples.

Rezaee M; Mashayekhi HA; Saleh A; Abdollahzadeh Y; Naeeni MH; Fattahi N

2013-08-01

175

Inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by a polymethoxyflavone from young fruits of Citrus unshiu in rat primary astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal activation of astrocytes (e.g., the overproduction of cytokines and nitric oxide) is relevant to neurodegenerative disease. It is important, therefore, to search for inhibitors of the abnormal activation of astrocytes that can be derived from natural substances. This study focused on the effects of extracts from young fruits of Citrus unshiu on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The methanol extract of young citrus inhibited NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. After reverse-phase extraction of the extract, we found that polymethoxyflavone, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeletin inhibited NO production by primary astrocytes. These polymethoxyflavones also inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein and mRNA expression by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. To evaluate possible applications of these neuroprotective agents in vivo, we examined the effects of young citrus fruit on delayed neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA1 neurons of the Mongolian gerbil after global ischemia. Oral administration of young citrus fruit significantly suppressed delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 neurons. This suggests a possible application of young citrus fruit as a neuroprotective agent. PMID:23047093

Ihara, Hideshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Ida, Tomoaki; Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Okada, Toshiya; Kozaki, Shunji

2012-10-07

176

Inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by a polymethoxyflavone from young fruits of Citrus unshiu in rat primary astrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormal activation of astrocytes (e.g., the overproduction of cytokines and nitric oxide) is relevant to neurodegenerative disease. It is important, therefore, to search for inhibitors of the abnormal activation of astrocytes that can be derived from natural substances. This study focused on the effects of extracts from young fruits of Citrus unshiu on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The methanol extract of young citrus inhibited NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. After reverse-phase extraction of the extract, we found that polymethoxyflavone, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeletin inhibited NO production by primary astrocytes. These polymethoxyflavones also inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein and mRNA expression by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. To evaluate possible applications of these neuroprotective agents in vivo, we examined the effects of young citrus fruit on delayed neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA1 neurons of the Mongolian gerbil after global ischemia. Oral administration of young citrus fruit significantly suppressed delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 neurons. This suggests a possible application of young citrus fruit as a neuroprotective agent.

Ihara H; Yamamoto H; Ida T; Tsutsuki H; Sakamoto T; Fujita T; Okada T; Kozaki S

2012-01-01

177

Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC?? values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC?? value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods. PMID:20100535

Ramful, Deena; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Evelyne; Aruoma, Okezie I

2010-01-25

178

Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC?? values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC?? value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods.

Ramful D; Bahorun T; Bourdon E; Tarnus E; Aruoma OI

2010-11-01

179

Field comparison of chemical attractants and traps for Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies in citrus were conducted to compare the following as attractants for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew): torula yeast-borax; propylene glycol (10%); a two-component lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine; a two-component lure consisting of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine; and a three-component lure consisting of ammonium bicarbonate, methylamine hydrochloride, and putrescine. Various combinations of these attractants in glass McPhail, plastic McPhail-type (Multi-Lure), and sticky panel traps were investigated in two replicated studies. In one study on wild flies, the most effective and least complex trap-lure combination tested was the Multi-Lure with propylene glycol baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine. This trap-lure combination captured significantly more female and male flies than the standard glass McPhail baited with torula yeast-borax in water. All of the trap-lure combinations were female biased, with an overall average of 80.8% (SEM 1.4) flies captured being female. A second study on laboratory-reared, irradiated flies indicated no significant differences among these trap-lure combinations with respect to number of flies recaptured, although rankings based on mean number of flies recovered per trap per day supported results of the first study. The percentage of flies recaptured that were female (83.0%, SEM 0.9) was statistically the same as in the first study. Weekly percentage recovery of flies during the second study was low, possibly due to our fly release strategy. Future release/recovery studies with laboratory-reared flies would benefit from some basic research on release strategies by using different trap densities and on relating recapture rates of laboratory-reared flies (nonsterile and sterile) to capture rates of wild flies. PMID:16334334

Hall, D G; Burns, R E; Jenkins, C C; Hibbard, K L; Harris, D L; Sivinski, J M; Nigg, H N

2005-10-01

180

Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple and accurate method has been developed to simultaneously separate and determine 10 bioactive compounds in citrus fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. DAD has been performed at 273, 283 and 324nm for quantification of the alkaloids, flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acids. MS was also employed to identify the each analyte. Ten analytes (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) demonstrated good linearity (r ?0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. The method revealed high average recovery (range, 92.1-97.9%) and good precision with interday and intraday variations with less than 4.71%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.11?g/ml, while the limits of quantification (LOQs) were defined in the range of 0.08-0.39?g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to analyse three types of bioactive constituents in eight citrus hybrids pulps and eight citrus hybrids peels, which has been successfully cultivated in China.

He D; Shan Y; Wu Y; Liu G; Chen B; Yao S

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple and accurate method has been developed to simultaneously separate and determine 10 bioactive compounds in citrus fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. DAD has been performed at 273, 283 and 324nm for quantification of the alkaloids, flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acids. MS was also employed to identify the each analyte. Ten analytes (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) demonstrated good linearity (r?0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. The method revealed high average recovery (range, 92.1-97.9%) and good precision with interday and intraday variations with less than 4.71%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.11?g/ml, while the limits of quantification (LOQs) were defined in the range of 0.08-0.39?g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to analyse three types of bioactive constituents in eight citrus hybrids pulps and eight citrus hybrids peels, which has been successfully cultivated in China.

He D; Shan Y; Wu Y; Liu G; Chen B; Yao S

2011-07-01

182

Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and accurate method has been developed to simultaneously separate and determine 10 bioactive compounds in citrus fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. DAD has been performed at 273, 283 and 324nm for quantification of the alkaloids, flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acids. MS was also employed to identify the each analyte. Ten analytes (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, octopamine, synephrine and tyramine) demonstrated good linearity (r?0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. The method revealed high average recovery (range, 92.1-97.9%) and good precision with interday and intraday variations with less than 4.71%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.11?g/ml, while the limits of quantification (LOQs) were defined in the range of 0.08-0.39?g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to analyse three types of bioactive constituents in eight citrus hybrids pulps and eight citrus hybrids peels, which has been successfully cultivated in China. PMID:23140749

He, Dongxiu; Shan, Yang; Wu, Yuehui; Liu, Guozhu; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

2011-01-07

183

Efficacy of lufenuron bait station technique to control mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata in Citrus Orchards in Northern Tunisia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of the lufenuron bait stations as a component of an integrated pest management program (IPM) was tested in three citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata during the three years 2005, 2006 and 2007. the technique was based on the use of the insect growth regulator lufenuron transferred via a gel bait Fr adult flies to prevent the hatching of eggs laid in fruits and induce a subsequent population reduction. The evaluation of the effect of the treatments was based on the assessment of adult Medfly population reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures in McPhail traps baited with the synthetic lure trimedlure and insecticide together with the evaluation of fruit damage. Results indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions of 12.72 pour cent during 2005, 34.99 pour cent and respectively 78.85 pour cent, 62.84 pour cent in fields 1, 2 and 3 during 2007 compared to standard chemical treatments. Fruit damage assessment showed generally significant differences between the two treatments reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures.

184

[Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management. PMID:20098931

Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

185

[Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of Sao Paulo].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

Giustolin TA; Lopes JR; Querino RB; Cavichioli RR; Zanol K; Azevedo Filho WS; Mendes MA

2009-11-01

186

Effect of Inflorescence Types on Fruits Quality of Owari Cultivar of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present studies were envisaged to determine the effect of inflorescence pattern on the fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer Citrange (TR), Sour Orange (SO) and Trifoliate Orange (TF) in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture, Ege University, Izmir Turkey. Physical fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and height of fruits developed from leafy inflorescence were significantly higher as compared with leafless fruits. Fruit peel color (L, a, b and a/b ratio), specific gravity and electrical conductivity percentage (EC%) was significantly higher in leafless fruits than leafy fruits but peel thickness and peel thickness index were higher for leafy fruits than that of leafless ones. Fruit internal quality parameters such as fruit juice percentage and vitamin C contents were significantly higher in leafless fruits as compared with leafy ones.

Nasar Iqbal; Fatih Sen; N.A. Virk

2004-01-01

187

Effect of an invasive and native ant on a field population of the black citrus aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive ants often enter into facultative mutualisms that frequently lead to outbreaks of the hemipteran partner. Native ants may also enter into similar mutualisms but often these do not lead to outbreaks. However, field studies comparing the impact of an invasive and native ant on a honeydew-producing hemipteran are lacking. We monitored numerical changes of the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, tended by adjacent colonies of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and the endemic odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile, during 2005, 2006, and 2007. Ant-tended aphid numbers were higher than those of untended aphids, with L. humile-tended and T. sessile-tended T. aurantii populations being comparable in 2005 and 2007. However, in 2006, a severe storm, with heavy rainfall, reduced T. sessile and aphid populations in areas occupied by T. sessile, whereas L. humile and aphids tended by L. humile were not reduced. This suggested that T. sessile foraging activity and hemipteran-tending was negatively impacted by severe weather. A laboratory experiment simulating rainfall striking the surface of a leaf showed that T. sessile foraging activity declined sharply under severe simulated rainfall conditions, whereas foraging activity of L. humile did not. Maintaining populations of honeydew-producing Hemiptera across broad climatic conditions may be one mechanism by which L. humile gains a competitive advantage over native ants occupying overlapping niches. PMID:20021757

Powell, B E; Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

2009-12-01

188

Effect of an invasive and native ant on a field population of the black citrus aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive ants often enter into facultative mutualisms that frequently lead to outbreaks of the hemipteran partner. Native ants may also enter into similar mutualisms but often these do not lead to outbreaks. However, field studies comparing the impact of an invasive and native ant on a honeydew-producing hemipteran are lacking. We monitored numerical changes of the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, tended by adjacent colonies of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and the endemic odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile, during 2005, 2006, and 2007. Ant-tended aphid numbers were higher than those of untended aphids, with L. humile-tended and T. sessile-tended T. aurantii populations being comparable in 2005 and 2007. However, in 2006, a severe storm, with heavy rainfall, reduced T. sessile and aphid populations in areas occupied by T. sessile, whereas L. humile and aphids tended by L. humile were not reduced. This suggested that T. sessile foraging activity and hemipteran-tending was negatively impacted by severe weather. A laboratory experiment simulating rainfall striking the surface of a leaf showed that T. sessile foraging activity declined sharply under severe simulated rainfall conditions, whereas foraging activity of L. humile did not. Maintaining populations of honeydew-producing Hemiptera across broad climatic conditions may be one mechanism by which L. humile gains a competitive advantage over native ants occupying overlapping niches.

Powell BE; Brightwell RJ; Silverman J

2009-12-01

189

Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L.) osbeck ): II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2). A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia) . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha) were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m) with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

Ricardo Victoria Filho; Célio S. Moreira; Natalino Y. Shimoama; Rosa K. Shinohar

1991-01-01

190

Honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wild cherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

Cayuela L; Ruiz-Arriaga S; Ozers CP

2011-11-01

191

NON-TARGET IMPACT OF SPINOSAD GF-120 BAIT-SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF THE MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN TEXAS CITRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Bait sprays containing the toxicant Spinosad (GF-120), were applied in citrus groves where the Mexican fruit fly was detected in surveillance traps. Reduction in sterile fly captures in the treated groves was 47-63% compared to control groves. There were no detectable effects on specific indicato...

192

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detec...

Yinshi Sun; Jianhua Wang; Shubo Gu; Zhengbo Liu; Yujie Zhang; Xiaoxia Zhang

193

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

2011-01-01

194

[Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486-1874 ms, T2: 163-281 ms, T2*: 2.3-3.2 ms; pears: T1: 1631-1969 ms, T2: 119-133 ms, T2* : 10.1-10.6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055-2632 ms, T2: 497-998 ms, T2* : 151-182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561-1669 ms, T2: 93-119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011-1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2* : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes.

Werz K; Braun H; Vitha D; Bruno G; Martirosian P; Steidle G; Schick F

2011-09-01

195

Enzymatic formation of ?-Citraurin from ?-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin by Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 in the Flavedo of Citrus Fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, to investigate the pathway of ?-citraurin biosynthesis, carotenoids contents and the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in two citrus varieties of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), 'Yamashitabeni-wase', which accumulates ?-citraurin predominantly, and 'Miyagawa-wase', which does not accumulate ?-citraurin. The results suggested that CitCCD4 was a key gene contributing to the biosynthesis of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of 'Yamashitabeni-wase', the expression of CitCCD4 increased rapidly from September, which was consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of 'Miyagawa-wase', the expression of CitCCD4 remained at an extremely low level during the ripening process, which was consistent with the absence of ?-citraurin. Functional analysis showed that the CitCCD4 enzyme exhibited substrate specificity. It cleaved ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin at the 7,8 or 7',8' position. But other carotenoids tested in the present study (lycopene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin) were not cleaved by CitCCD4 enzyme. The cleavage of ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin by CitCCD4 enzyme led to the formation of ?-citraurin. Additionally, with ethylene and red LED light treatments, the gene expression of CitCCD4 was up-regulated in the flavedo of 'Yamashitabeni-wase'. These increases in the expression of CitCCD4 were consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin in the two treatments. These results might provide new strategies to improve the carotenoids contents and compositions of citrus fruits.

Ma G; Zhang L; Matsuta A; Matsutani K; Yamawaki K; Yahata M; Wahyudi A; Motohashi R; Kato M

2013-08-01

196

Content changes of bitter compounds in 'Guoqing No.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during fruit development of consecutive 3 seasons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main bitter compounds (nomilin, limonin and naringin) in the fruit tissues of 'Guoqing No.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were determined throughout the fruit development of 3 consecutive growing seasons. Although fluctuating largely at the corresponding developing stages of the 3years, the contents of these compounds in fruit tissues mostly displayed a declining trend, which implied that the rhythm of the metabolism of these bitter compounds was not consistent among years and was largely growing season dependent. Regarding their distribution, fruit flavedo might be a weak sink that contained the lowest level of naringin, while the segment membrane accumulated large amount of limonin and nomilin, which indicated a possible tissue bias pattern for biosynthesis or accumulation of those compounds. Partial correlation coefficient analysis revealed a synergistic accumulation of naringin and the two limonoid aglycones in fruit tissues during fruit development, indicating an integrated metabolism of flavonoids and limonoids.

Li S; Wang Z; Ding F; Sun D; Ma Z; Cheng Y; Xu J

2014-02-01

197

Hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides and degradation of the corresponding aglycones from dried immature Citrus fruit by human fecal flora in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis of the flavanone glycosides contained in dried immature Citrus fruit, originating from Citrus aurantium L (Family Rutaceae), and degradation of their aglycones in human fecal flora have been analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the flavanone glycosides and their corresponding aglycones in human fecal flora. The separation of compounds was performed with an ODS column by isocratic and stepwise gradient elution with 0.5 % (v/v) acetic acid-acetonitrile. As a result, the hydrolysis rate of hesperidin and narirutin (flavanone rutinoside) was faster than that of naringin and neohesperidin (flavanone neohesperioside). When the half-life time of each flavanone glycoside was carefully calculated (under the mixed conditions with the human fecal flora), hydrolysis of the flavanone rutinoside turned out to be approximately two times faster than of flavanone neohesperioside. The observed degradation rates of both aglycones was found not to be different. Therefore, it seems that the hydrolysis rate of flavanone glycosides in dried immature citrus fruit with human fecal flora is closely related to the steric hindrance of the sugar. This finding might be effectively used for further pharmacokinetics research on the flavanone glycosides of dried immature Citrus fruit. PMID:18975261

Wang, Xijun; Sakurai, Tetsuro; Chen, Xi; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zenghui; Sun, Qinglong; Sun, Wenjun; Cao, Hongxin

2008-10-30

198

BINOMIAL SAMPLING TO ESTIMATE CITRUS RUST MITE (ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE) DENSITIES ON ORANGE FRUIT  

Science.gov (United States)

Binomial sampling based on the proportion of samples infested was investigated as a method for estimating mean densities of citrus rust mites, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) and Aculops pelekassi (Keifer), on oranges. Data for the investigation were obtained by counting the number of motile mites...

199

Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of lime, Citrus aurantifolia swingle fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lime fruits irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilising the market demand, revealed that irradiation of lime fruits, with 100 Gy gamma radiation proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of fruits upto 22 days of storage as compared to control and higher doses of irradiation. (author)

2006-01-01

200

Effects of Waxing Materials, Storage Conditions on Protein, Sugar and ash Contents of Citrus Fruits Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was carried out on five different species of citrus fruits namely: Citrus paradise (grapefruit); C aurantium (sour orange); C auratifolia (lime); C reticulate (tangerine) and C sinensis (sweet orange). The fruits were immersed in a mixture of detergent solution and petroleum jelly and wrapped with aluminium foil and stored both at room and refrigerated temperatures for a period of 12 weeks.Fruits not treated and stored at room temperature served as control.The fruits that were immersed in a mixture of detergent solution and petroleum jelly had the lowest changes in protein and sugar contents.This was followed by fruits immersed in a mixture of detergent solution and petroleum jelly and put in the refrigerator without wrapping with aluminium foil.And the fruits immersed in a mixture of detergent solution and petroleum jelly and wrapped with aluminium foil and stored at room temperature.In terms of performance all the fruits given the above treatment were better when compared to the control stored at room temperature with no treatment applied Irrespective of the kind of treatment applied ,sweet orange had the highest protein contents followed by tangerine, grapefruit, lime and sour orange. As for the sugar contents, sweet orange also had the highest contents followed by tangerine,grapefruit, sour orange and lime in that order.

AREKEMASE Musa Olusegun; OYEYIOLA Ganiyu Passy; DANIEL Salem Terwase

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

El Estrés Hídrico en Cítricos (Citrus spp.): Una revisión/ Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review/ O estresse hídrico em cítricos (Citrus spp): Uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os cítricos constituem o principal produto frutícola no mundo pelas suas vantagens e benefícios. Uma umidade adequada e homogênea no solo garante sua qualidade e produção, ainda nos países subtropicais onde existe distribuição uniforme da precipitação. A maioria das áreas citrícolas, contam com infraestrutura de risco localizado, o que incrementa a eficiência no uso da agua. Porém, a pressão sobre os recursos hídricos faz necessário estudar o comportamen (more) to em condiçöes adversas para manejar eficientemente o planejamento da irrigação. Nesta revisão apresenta-se o efeito do déficit hídrico nos cítricos. Além disto, algumas respostas fisiológicas e anatômicas pelos cítricos ao déficit e o efeito do estresse hídrico sobre a produção e o crescimento vegetativo. Finalmente, apresentam-se alguns resultados da aplicação de irrigação deficitária, como forma de poupar água sem afetar a produção. Abstract in spanish Los cítricos constituyen el principal producto frutícola a nivel mundial por sus ventajas y beneficios. Una humedad adecuada y homogénea en el suelo garantiza su calidad y producción, incluso en los países subtropicales donde existen distribuciones uniformes de la precipitación. La mayoría de las áreas de cítricos cuentan con infraestructura de riego localizado, lo que incrementa la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Sin embargo, la presión sobre los recursos hídri (more) cos hace necesario seguir estudiando el comportamiento ante condiciones adversas para manejar eficientemente la programación del riego. En este artículo se presenta el efecto del déficit hídrico en los cítricos. Además de algunas respuestas fisiológicas y anatómicas que manifiestan los cítricos a este déficit y que efecto tiene un estrés hídrico sobre la producción y el crecimiento vegetativo. Por último se recopilan algunos resultados de la aplicación de riego deficitario como una forma de ahorrar agua sin afectar la producción. Abstract in english Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits. Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns. Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, thereby increasing water-use efficiency. However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigatio (more) n scheduling. This paper deals with the effect of water stress on citric plants, as well as some of their physiological and anatomical responses to such deficit and what effect hydric stress has on vegetable production and growth. Some results are compiled regarding deficit irrigation (DI) as a way to save water without affecting production.

Vélez, Javier E; Álvarez-Herrera, Javier G; Alvarado-Sanabria, Oscar H

2012-12-01

202

Integration of Metabolomics and Subcellular Organelle Expression Microarray Increases Understanding of the Organic Acid Changes in Post-harvest Citrus Fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citric acid plays an important role in fresh fruit flavor and its adaptability to post-harvest storage conditions. In order to explore organic acid regulatory mechanisms in post-harvest citrus fruit, systematic biological analyses were conducted on stored Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP) (Citrus grandis) fruits. High-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), subcellular organelle expression microarray, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and conventional physiological and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The results showed that the concentration of organic acids in HBP underwent a regular fluctuation. GC-MS based metabolic profiling indicated that succinic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamine contents increased, but 2-oxoglutaric acid content declined, which further confirmed that the GABA shunt may have some regulatory roles in organic acid catabolism processes. In addition, the concentration of organic acids was significantly correlated with senescence-related physiological processes, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and perioxidase (POD) activities, which showed that organic acids could be regarded as important parameters for measuring citrus fruit post-harvest senescence processes.

Sun X; Zhu A; Liu S; Sheng L; Ma Q; Zhang L; Nishawy EM; Zeng Y; Xu J; Ma Z; Cheng Y; Deng X

2013-06-01

203

Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Raga, Adalton

1996-12-31

204

Effect of gamma radiation on the titrable acidity and vitamin c content of citrus fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess effect of gamma radiation on the acidity and vitamin C content of the Citrus macroptera (Satkora) and Citrus assamensis (Ginger lime). Irradiation with doses 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 kGy were applied to assess the effect on the titrable acidity and vitamin C contents every one week interval for total five weeks. Both titrable acidity and vitamin C content of C. macroptera, and C. assamensis are sensitive to both gamma radiation and storage time; have decreased with increase of radiation does as well as storage time and this changes of vitamin C and titrable acidity content with gamma radiation and increasing storage period have found statistically significant.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-01-01

205

Oral Dose of Citrus Peel Extracts Promotes Wound Repair in Diabetic Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon), Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise) and Orange (Citrus sinensis) promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatm...

M. Ahmad; M.N. Ansari; A. Alam; T.H. Khan

206

Studies on the sugar and organic acid in fruits of Citrus unshiu Marc. By sup(14)C tracer method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of spraying Cl- and SOsub(4)sup(2-) solutions on sugar, organic acid and amino acid levels in citrus(C. unshiu Marc.) fruit juice were examined using the sup(14)C tracer method. Each sup(14)C-labelled compound under investigation was measured during the three weeks after /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation. The total carbon compound, which was measured as the specfic activity(cpm/ml) of sup(14)C, was transported more into the fruit juice within one week after sup(14)COsub(2) assimilation with the SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatment than with the Clsup(-) treatment. The sup(14)C-specific activity changes of the sugar fraction were very similar in both Clsup(-) and SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatments although the organic acid fraction was reduced more by SOsub(4)sup(2-). The specific activity ratio of the sugar fraction to organic acid was increased rapidly when treated with Clsup(-). This indicates that SOsub(4)sup(2-) plays a role in raising the ratio of sugar to organic acid. It was found that the sup(14)C-specific activity in the amino acid fraction was higher when Clsup(-) was applied.

U, Z.K.; Kim, H.D.; Kang, S.S.; Yoo, K.J. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

1983-09-01

207

Cell wall modifications and ethylene-induced tolerance to non-chilling peel pitting in citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-chilling peel pitting (NCPP), a storage disorder resulting in the formation of depressed areas in the peel of many citrus cultivars, is reduced by ethylene treatments. We hypothesized that this effect may be associated with biochemical changes of cell wall components. Therefore, we extracted cell wall material from albedo and flavedo tissues of 'Navelate' oranges stored in air, conditioned with ethylene (2?LL(-1)) for 4 days and subsequently transferred to air, or continuously stored in an ethylene-enriched atmosphere (2?LL(-1)). Uronic acids and neutral sugars were extracted into five fractions enriched in specific wall polymers namely water-, CDTA-, Na2CO3-, and 1 and 4M KOH-soluble fractions. Pectin insolubilization was found in control fruit at long storage times. Ethylene treatments, alleviating NCPP, increased polyuronide solubility in the albedo and had a slight effect on the flavedo. Ethylene-treated fruit showed greater content of water-soluble neutral sugars and a larger proportion of hemicelluloses readily extractable with 1M KOH, with a concomitant reduction in the 4M KOH-soluble fraction. This suggests that the protective role of ethylene on NCPP is associated with an increased solubilization of the wall of albedo cells.

Vicente AR; Manganaris GA; Minas IS; Goulas V; Lafuente MT

2013-09-01

208

Cell wall modifications and ethylene-induced tolerance to non-chilling peel pitting in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-chilling peel pitting (NCPP), a storage disorder resulting in the formation of depressed areas in the peel of many citrus cultivars, is reduced by ethylene treatments. We hypothesized that this effect may be associated with biochemical changes of cell wall components. Therefore, we extracted cell wall material from albedo and flavedo tissues of 'Navelate' oranges stored in air, conditioned with ethylene (2?LL(-1)) for 4 days and subsequently transferred to air, or continuously stored in an ethylene-enriched atmosphere (2?LL(-1)). Uronic acids and neutral sugars were extracted into five fractions enriched in specific wall polymers namely water-, CDTA-, Na2CO3-, and 1 and 4M KOH-soluble fractions. Pectin insolubilization was found in control fruit at long storage times. Ethylene treatments, alleviating NCPP, increased polyuronide solubility in the albedo and had a slight effect on the flavedo. Ethylene-treated fruit showed greater content of water-soluble neutral sugars and a larger proportion of hemicelluloses readily extractable with 1M KOH, with a concomitant reduction in the 4M KOH-soluble fraction. This suggests that the protective role of ethylene on NCPP is associated with an increased solubilization of the wall of albedo cells. PMID:23849112

Vicente, Ariel R; Manganaris, George A; Minas, Ioannis S; Goulas, Vlasios; Lafuente, María T

2013-05-13

209

Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1); Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2); Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3); and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4) with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA) was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis) during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha) with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha). Fruit weight (154.7 g), TSS (10.22 0Brix) and juice percent (40.77%) was found with automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times. The automatic drip irrigation scheduling can be better substitute for manual drip irrigation operation and enhancing the water use efficiency.  

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2013-01-01

210

Fruit picking tool for e.g. apples, pears, citrus fruits has metal distal section hinged to proximal bamboo section  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fruit- picking tool consists of a rod (1) with a hand grip at the proximal end linked via a cable (6) to a two-part fruit picking clamp (5) at the distal end. The rod is assembled in sections, each linked to the adjacent section by a hinge. The rod proximal section is encased within a sleeve (7). The distal section of the rod has a swivel-action release lock holder (8). The distal section is a metal rod and the proximal section is a bamboo rod.

PREISIG WERNER

211

Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L.) osbeck ): II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos/ Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 rep (more) etições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2). A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem. Abstract in english The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia) . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application (more) rates(kg /ha) were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m) with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

Victoria Filho, Ricardo; Moreira, Célio S.; Shimoama, Natalino Y.; Shinohar, Rosa K.

1991-01-01

212

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-01-01

213

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

Donmez D; Simsek O; Izgu T; Aka Kacar Y; Yalcin Mendi Y

2013-01-01

214

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-07-25

215

Enzymatic Formation of ?-Citraurin from ?-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin by Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 in the Flavedo of Citrus Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the pathway of ?-citraurin biosynthesis, carotenoid contents and the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in two varieties of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), Yamashitabeni-wase, which accumulates ?-citraurin predominantly, and Miyagawa-wase, which does not accumulate ?-citraurin. The results suggested that CitCCD4 (for Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4) was a key gene contributing to the biosynthesis of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 increased rapidly from September, which was consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Miyagawa-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 remained at an extremely low level during the ripening process, which was consistent with the absence of ?-citraurin. Functional analysis showed that the CitCCD4 enzyme exhibited substrate specificity. It cleaved ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin at the 7,8 or 7',8' position. But other carotenoids tested in this study (lycopene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin) were not cleaved by the CitCCD4 enzyme. The cleavage of ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin by CitCCD4 led to the formation of ?-citraurin. Additionally, with ethylene and red light-emitting diode light treatments, the gene expression of CitCCD4 was up-regulated in the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase. These increases in the expression of CitCCD4 were consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin in the two treatments. These results might provide new strategies to improve the carotenoid contents and compositions of citrus fruits. PMID:23966550

Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Matsuta, Asami; Matsutani, Kazuki; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Wahyudi, Anung; Motohashi, Reiko; Kato, Masaya

2013-08-21

216

Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of diosmin, hesperidin and naringin in different citrus fruit juices and pharmaceutical formulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diosmin, hesperidin and naringin are flavonoid glycosides that occur naturally in citrus fruits. They exert a variety of pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and free radical scavenging and antiulcer effects and also inhibit selected cytochrome P-450 enzymes resulting in drug interactions. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diosmin, hesperidin and naringin in different citrus fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparations. Diosmin, hesperidin, naringin and the internal standard rhoifolin were separated using tetrahydrofuran/water/acetic acid (21:77:2, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 34 degrees C, using a C8 reversed-phase column. The method was linear in the 0.25-20.0 microg/ml concentration range for all three flavonoid glycosides (r>0.999). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of all three flavonoid glycosides in several samples of different citrus fruit juices sold in Greece and for the determination of diosmin and hesperidin in pharmaceutical preparations.

Kanaze FI; Gabrieli C; Kokkalou E; Georgarakis M; Niopas I

2003-09-01

217

Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part II: gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue.

Ballester AR; Teresa Lafuente M; González-Candelas L

2013-01-01

218

Comparison of Essential Oils of Clove, Thyme and Imazalil Fungicide on Blue Mold ( Penicillium italicum Wehemer) of Citrus Fruits in Storage  

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Full Text Available Pathogens are the most important factors inducing postharvest losses on citrus fruit. Experiments were conducted as a CRD with 4 replications on sweet lime (Citrus limetta) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were pure essential oils of clove and thyme and in 25% ethanol solution at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% and imazalil (2 ml/l). Results indicated that in the first year, pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of blue mold of Valencia orange fruit from 90 % (control) to 0 and 12.5 %, respectively. Pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of sweet lime in the first year of experiment from 95 % (control) to 0 and 6 %, respectively. In the second year, with the same treatments decay percentage of blue mold was reduced from 90 % (control) to 0. Solutions of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 % of clove and thyme oil extracts in 25 % ethanol solution reduced decay percentage of sweet lime fruits form 85 % (control) to 65, 41 and 26 % for thyme oil and to 60, 30 and 22.5 % for clove oil. Comparison of pure clove and thyme oil extract with imazalil showed that pure clove and thyme oil extracts were not significantly different with fungicide treatment. Treatments of clove and thyme oils in 25 % ethanol treatment were not as effective as fungicide.

Z. Karimi; M. Rahemi

2008-01-01

219

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ/ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilh (more) as, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial. Abstract in english This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the t (more) otal of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Souza, Jorge Ferreira de; Souza, Silvana Aparecida da Silva; Aguiar - Menezes, Elen de Lima; Ferrara, Fernando Antônio Abrantes; Nascimento, Stenilson Araújo; Rodrigues, William Costa; Cassino, Paulo César Rodrigues

2008-04-01

220

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar - Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

Pinto Mda S; Ranilla LG; Apostolidis E; Lajolo FM; Genovese MI; Shetty K

2009-04-01

222

Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

2009-04-01

223

Transcriptome changes during fruit development and ripening of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcriptome of the fruit pulp of the sweet orange variety Anliu (WT) and that of its red fleshed mutant Hong Anliu (MT) were compared to understand the dynamics and differential expression of genes expressed during fruit development and ripening. Results The transcriptomes of WT and MT were sampled at four developmental stages using an Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 19,440 and 18,829 genes were detected in MT and WT, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed 24 expression patterns for the set of all genes detected, of which 20 were in common between MT and WT. Over 89% of the genes showed differential expression during fruit development and ripening in the WT. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes revealed that cell wall biosynthesis, carbohydrate and citric acid metabolism, carotenoid metabolism, and the response to stress were the most differentially regulated processes occurring during fruit development and ripening. Conclusion A description of the transcriptomic changes occurring during fruit development and ripening was obtained in sweet orange, along with a dynamic view of the gene expression differences between the wild type and a red fleshed mutant.

Yu Keqin; Xu Qiang; Da Xinlei; Guo Fei; Ding Yuduan; Deng Xiuxin

2012-01-01

224

Assimilation of 14CO2 and 14C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assimilation and metabolism of 14CO2 was compared to that of [U-14C] sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of 14CO2 by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more 14CO2 than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the 14C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from 14CO2 in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous [U-14C] sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO2 assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose

1987-01-01

225

Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

Itoh K; Masuda M; Naruto S; Murata K; Matsuda H

2009-10-01

226

Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects. PMID:19603253

Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

2009-07-15

227

Purification of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Substance of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Fruit Peel  

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Full Text Available The extracts of buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) fruit peel were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and paper disc diffusion methods. Non-polar extracts exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, while polar extracts exhibited significant antioxidative activity. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of flavedo were separated with silica gel column chromatography (CC) and four active fractions A, B, C and D (14:1, 9:1, 5:1 and 1:1) were obtained from the eluents of benzene:acetone. The inhibitory activity of isolated compounds using Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) against Gram-negative and positive bacteria strong antimicrobial was recorded as follows oxypeucedanin hydrate (100-290 ppm), oleic acid (150-350 ppm), meranzin hydrate (620-850 ppm) and linoleic acid (700-950 ppm). The antioxidant inhibition concentration 50% (IC50) for isolated components strongest activities were recorded as follows sitosterol linoleate described as a new isolated compound from the plants (95 ppm), meranzin hydrate, (160 ppm), isomeranzin (245 ppm) and oxypeucedanin hydrate (330 ppm) was recorded.

Matook Saif Mokbel; Yuka Watanabe; Fumio Hashinaga; Toshihiko Suganuma

2006-01-01

228

Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

2005-01-01

229

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole and ethephon application  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research compares effects of the compound 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP), a plant growth regulator that selectively promotes abscission in mature citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis), and the ethylene-releasing agent ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid). Application of CMNP and ethephon to mature citrus fruit reduced fruit detachment force and changed peel color from green to orange. More total chlorophyll was extracted from flavedo in early season (November) than late season (January), and both compounds caused a similar reduction in chlorophyll. In contrast, total carotenoid content was similar in November and January. Both abscission compounds increased total carotenoids, but induction was greater in January, and CMNP was more effective in both months. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity increased after CMNP but not ethephon application. Electrolyte leakage increased 2 h after CMNP treatment, and total protein content was reduced by 50% after 72 h. Ethephon caused only minor changes in electrolyte leakage and total protein content. Inhibition of PLA2 activity with aristolochic acid did not reduce leakage but inhibited total protein loss and reduced visual peel damage associated with CMNP. Ultrastructural observations indicated decreased number, and length of starch grains 3 h after CMNP treatment. A transient increase in soluble sugars was measured 3 h after CMNP application. Ethephon had little effect on soluble sugar content and changes in starch grains. Collectively, the results indicate that CMNP and ethephon induced color change in peel and advanced mature fruit abscission. However, CMNP but not ethephon promoted other physiological changes associated with senescence.

Alferez Fernando; Pozo Luis; Burns JacquelineK

2006-05-01

230

Chemical composition and antioxidant/antidiabetic potential of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foods provide essential and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolemic activities, which have been related to vitamins A, C, and E and phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify potential sources of bioactive compounds through the determination of flavonoids and ellagic acid contents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity and alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps. Camu-camu, cambuci, uxi, and tucuma and commercial frozen pulps of cambuci, cagaita, coquinho azedo, and araca presented the highest antioxidant capacities. Cambuci and cagaita exhibited the highest alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the main flavonoids present in most of the samples. Ellagic acid was detected only in umbu, camu-camu, cagaita, araca, and cambuci. According to the results, native Brazilian fruits can be considered as excellent sources of bioactive compounds.

De Souza Schmidt Gonçalves AE; Lajolo FM; Genovese MI

2010-04-01

231

Mass and volume modelling of tangerine (Citrus reticulate) fruit with some physical attributes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are instances in which it is desirable to determine relationships among fruit physical attributes. For example, fruits are often graded on the basis of size and projected area, but it may be more economical to develop a machine which would grade by mass or volume. Therefore, the relationships between mass/volume (either mass or volume) and other physical attributes of fruit are needed. In this study three Iranian varieties of tangerine were selected and the various models for predicting mass/volume of tangerine from its dimensions, projected area, and volume/mass were established. The models were divided into three classifications: 1 – single and multiple variable regressions of tangerine dimensions, 2 – single and multiple variable regressions of projected areas, 3 – estimating tangerine mass/volume based on its volume/mass. The results revealed that mass and volume modelling on the basis of intermediate diameter, on any projected area, and the measured volume are the best models. Based on the results, mass and volume modelling, respectively on the basis of the actual volume and one projected area, were identified as the best models. The highest determination coefficient in all the models was obtained for volume modelling based on projected area as R2 = 0.97. Finally, volume modelling from economical stand-point was recommended as the most reliable modelling.

M. Khanali; M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti; A. Tabatabaeefar; H. Mobli

2007-01-01

232

Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly associated with a major mobilization of mineral elements and with other previously known metabolic and photosynthetic changes. The expression of CcGCC1 was associated with peel ripening since CcGCC1 down-regulation correlated with a delay in colour break induced by genetic, developmental and hormonal causes.

Ríos Gabino; Naranjo Miguel A; Rodrigo María-Jesús; Alós Enriqueta; Zacarías Lorenzo; Cercós Manuel; Talón Manuel

2010-01-01

233

Estimativa da produção de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos por meio da massa de frutos/ Production estimation of citrus rootstock seeds using fruit weight  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A diversificação do uso de porta-enxertos é de suma importância, especialmente pelo fato de que a citricultura depara-se com um número crescente de doenças que afetam pomares enxertados. O objetivo foi determinar a quantidade de caixas de frutos necessária para a obtenção de uma massa determinada de sementes. Foram tomadas medidas de massa de fruto, número de frutos por caixa, número de sementes por fruto e número de sementes por caixa de nove porta-enxertos. (more) O número máximo de caixas necessárias para obtenção de um quilo de sementes foi de 5,43 para o 'limão-cravo' e o número mínimo foi de 1,01, para o genótipo 'Rangpur' x 'Swingle'. Abstract in english Diversification of rootstocks is crucial, especially because the citrus industry is facing a growing number of diseases affecting orchards. The objective of this study was to determine the number of boxes of citrus needed to obtain a specific mass of seeds. Measurements of fruit weight, fruit number per box, number of seeds per fruit and seed number per box of nine rootstocks were recorded. The maximum number of boxes needed to obtain 1 kg of seeds was 5.43 for the Lemon 'Cravo' and the minimum was 1.01 for genotype Rangpur x Swingle.

Zucoloto, Moises; Costa, Marcio Gama da; Carvalho, Lorena Moreira; Santos, Dierlei dos; Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes de

2011-02-01

234

Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid treated with nitrite in the presence of ethanol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been shown that the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCCA), a mutagen precursor in soy sauce treated with nitrite, was strongly increased when it was treated with nitrite in the presence of alcohols. We found that the mutagenicity of MTCCA treated with 50 mM nitrite at pH 3, 37 degrees C for 60 min in the presence of 7.5% ethanol was reduced by the addition of citrus fruits sudachi (Citrus sudachi), lemon (C. limon) and yuzu (C. junos), to the reaction mixture. The mutagenicity-reducing activity per weight of flavedos (outer colored portions of peel) of the citrus fruits was considerably higher than that of the juices. The juices of the other citrus fruits commercially available in Japan also had mutagenicity-reducing activity against the nitrite-treated MTCCA. Among the many components of citrus fruits, dietary fibers lignin and pectin showed strong antimutagenic activity in the reaction mixture, suggesting that the mixed fractions of these components including lignin, pectin, D-limonene, naringin, hesperidin, ascorbic acid and citric acid reduce the mutagenicity of MTCCA in the reaction mixture containing nitrite and ethanol.

Higashimoto M; Yamato H; Kinouchi T; Ohnishi Y

1998-07-01

235

Ectopic expression of a fruit phytoene synthase from Citrus paradisi Macf. promotes abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant responses to environmental stresses and an absolute requirement for stress tolerance. Recently, a third phytoene synthase (PSY3) gene paralog was identified in monocots and demonstrated to play a specialized role in stress-induced ABA formation, thus suggesting that the first committed step in carotenogenesis is a key limiting step in ABA biosynthesis. To examine whether the ectopic expression of PSY, other than PSY3, would similarly affect ABA level and stress tolerance, we have produced transgenic tobacco containing a fruit-specific PSY (CpPSY) of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.). The transgenic plants contained a single- or double-locus insertion and expressed CpPSY at varying transcript levels. In comparison with the wild-type plants, the CpPSY expressing transgenic plants showed a significant increase on root length and shoot biomass under PEG-, NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress. The enhanced stress tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the increased endogenous ABA level and expression of stress-responsive genes, which in turn was correlated with the CpPSY copy number and expression level in different transgenic lines. Collectively, these results provide further evidence that PSY is a key enzyme regulating ABA biosynthesis and that the altered expression of other PSYs in transgenic plants may provide a similar function to that of the monocot's PSY3 in ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. The results also pave the way for further use of CpPSY, as well as other PSYs, as potential candidate genes for engineering tolerance to drought and salt stress in crop plants.

Cidade LC; de Oliveira TM; Mendes AF; Macedo AF; Floh EI; Gesteira AS; Soares-Filho WS; Costa MG

2012-12-01

236

Ectopic expression of a fruit phytoene synthase from Citrus paradisi Macf. promotes abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant responses to environmental stresses and an absolute requirement for stress tolerance. Recently, a third phytoene synthase (PSY3) gene paralog was identified in monocots and demonstrated to play a specialized role in stress-induced ABA formation, thus suggesting that the first committed step in carotenogenesis is a key limiting step in ABA biosynthesis. To examine whether the ectopic expression of PSY, other than PSY3, would similarly affect ABA level and stress tolerance, we have produced transgenic tobacco containing a fruit-specific PSY (CpPSY) of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.). The transgenic plants contained a single- or double-locus insertion and expressed CpPSY at varying transcript levels. In comparison with the wild-type plants, the CpPSY expressing transgenic plants showed a significant increase on root length and shoot biomass under PEG-, NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress. The enhanced stress tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the increased endogenous ABA level and expression of stress-responsive genes, which in turn was correlated with the CpPSY copy number and expression level in different transgenic lines. Collectively, these results provide further evidence that PSY is a key enzyme regulating ABA biosynthesis and that the altered expression of other PSYs in transgenic plants may provide a similar function to that of the monocot's PSY3 in ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. The results also pave the way for further use of CpPSY, as well as other PSYs, as potential candidate genes for engineering tolerance to drought and salt stress in crop plants. PMID:23011078

Cidade, Luciana C; de Oliveira, Tahise M; Mendes, Amanda F S; Macedo, Amanda F; Floh, Eny I S; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Soares-Filho, Walter S; Costa, Marcio G C

2012-09-26

237

Anti-degranulating activity in rat basophil leukemia RBL-2H3 cells of flavanone glycosides and their aglycones in citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anti-degranulating activity of flavonoids present in Citrus fruits was comprehensively evaluated. Among these, hesperetin and naringenin, respectively aglycones of hesperidin and narirutin, showed significant activity. The targets of hesperetin and naringenin were found: hesperetin inhibited phosphorylation of Syk and Akt, while naringenin suppressed the expression of Lyn and inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that hesperetin and naringenin inhibit degranulation by suppression of pathway signals and reduce the symptoms of allergy by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, which leads to the suppression of cytokines. In addition, hesperetin showed inhibitory activity against the degranulation induced by calcium ionophores, indicating that hesperetin exerts its inhibitory activity by stabilizing the membrane structure.

Murata K; Takano S; Masuda M; Iinuma M; Matsuda H

2013-07-01

238

A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite differences in morphology, the genera representing 'true citrus fruit trees' are sexually compatible, and their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Most of the important commercial 'species' of Citrus are believed to be of interspecific origin. By studying polymorphisms of 27 nuclear genes, the average molecular differentiation between species was estimated and some phylogenetic relationships between 'true citrus fruit trees' were clarified. METHODS: Sanger sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from 18 genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis pathways and nine putative genes for salt tolerance was performed for 45 genotypes of Citrus and relatives of Citrus to mine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indel polymorphisms. Fifty nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also analysed. KEY RESULTS: A total of 16 238 kb of DNA was sequenced for each genotype, and 1097 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 indels were identified. These polymorphisms were more valuable than SSRs for inter-taxon differentiation. Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that Citrus reticulata and Fortunella form a cluster that is differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). These results confirm the taxonomic subdivision between the subgenera Metacitrus and Archicitrus. A few genes displayed positive selection patterns within or between species, but most of them displayed neutral patterns. The phylogenetic inheritance patterns of the analysed genes were inferred for commercial Citrus spp. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous molecular polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), which are potentially useful for the analysis of interspecific genetic structures, have been identified. The nuclear phylogenetic network for Citrus and its sexually compatible relatives was consistent with the geographical origins of these genera. The positive selection observed for a few genes will help further works to analyse the molecular basis of the variability of the associated traits. This study presents new insights into the origin of C. sinensis.

Garcia-Lor A; Curk F; Snoussi-Trifa H; Morillon R; Ancillo G; Luro F; Navarro L; Ollitrault P

2013-01-01

239

Gibberellins Contents in Leafy Fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.) in Relation to Fruit Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present studies were designed to find out the role of endogenous Gibberellin like compounds in production of low quality in leafy fruits of Satsuma mandarin. Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy and leafless fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer citrange, Sour orange and Trifoliate orange rootstock was tested with lettuce hypocotyl elongation test. Results showed that Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets was considerably higher than the leafless fruitlets in Troyer citrange. Like wise Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Sour orange and Trifoliate orange was also higher than that of leafless fruitlets. Comparison of the leafy fruitlets indicated that maximum gibberellin like activities were noted in case of Trifoliate rootstock which was followed by Troyer citrange and Sour orange, respectively.

Nasar Iqbal; Ismail Karacali

2004-01-01

240

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ?valencia? (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela/ Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ?Valencia? (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ?Valencia? (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) injertada sobre limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq) ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos du (more) rante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005) y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006). El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio. Abstract in english One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ?Valencia? (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) grafted on ?Volkameriano? (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale) located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission ( (more) dropping) of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch). The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005) and 229 days (February to September 2006). The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

Pérez de Camacaro, María; Jiménez, Aracelis

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of diosmin, a flavonoid glycoside in citrus fruits, on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of citrus flavonoids on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux were examined in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 was measured using 10 citrus flavonoids for preliminary screening. Among the flavonoids tested, diosmin significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in Caco-2 cells. In the bidirectional transport of digoxin, diosmin increased the apical-to-basal (A-to-B) transport but decreased the basal-to-apical (B-to-A) transport in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. The digoxin transport ratio (B-A/A-B) was estimated to be 2.3 at a concentration of 50 microM of diosmin, which was significantly lower than the 15.2 found in the control. The apparent Ki values for P(app,A-B) and P(app,B-A) were 16.1 and 5.7 microM, respectively. These results demonstrated that diosmin effectively inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in Caco-2 cells. Diosmin is one of the main components in citrus fruits, and the intake of food supplements containing this compound may potentially increase the absorption of drugs able to act as P-gp substrates. The clinical relevance of this interaction should be further evaluated using in vivo experiments.

Yoo HH; Lee M; Chung HJ; Lee SK; Kim DH

2007-09-01

242

Effects of diosmin, a flavonoid glycoside in citrus fruits, on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of citrus flavonoids on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux were examined in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 was measured using 10 citrus flavonoids for preliminary screening. Among the flavonoids tested, diosmin significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in Caco-2 cells. In the bidirectional transport of digoxin, diosmin increased the apical-to-basal (A-to-B) transport but decreased the basal-to-apical (B-to-A) transport in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. The digoxin transport ratio (B-A/A-B) was estimated to be 2.3 at a concentration of 50 microM of diosmin, which was significantly lower than the 15.2 found in the control. The apparent Ki values for P(app,A-B) and P(app,B-A) were 16.1 and 5.7 microM, respectively. These results demonstrated that diosmin effectively inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in Caco-2 cells. Diosmin is one of the main components in citrus fruits, and the intake of food supplements containing this compound may potentially increase the absorption of drugs able to act as P-gp substrates. The clinical relevance of this interaction should be further evaluated using in vivo experiments. PMID:17676865

Yoo, Hye Hyun; Lee, Mijin; Chung, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2007-08-04

243

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits.

Zhu J; Dai XJ; Fang JJ; Zhu HM

2013-01-01

244

Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrus Microcarpa Bunge (Family Rutaceae) Fruit Peel Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage in Male BFAD- Sprague Dawley Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Philippine Department of Health stated that liver cancer is the third common forms of cancer for both males andfemales, hence the need for more hepatoprotective agents. Silymarin, from milk thistle is the most well knownhepatoprotective agent (Prahan and Girish, 2006) but due to availability and economic concerns with the use of milkthistle other sources were explored. Fruit peels constitute a bulk in Philippine wastes. If such wastes can be used ashepatoprotective agents, then wastes will be decreased and new sources of important products may be discovered.This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Citrus microcarpa Bunge fruit peel extract relative to thecommercially available Silymarin preparations. The chemical components of the fruit peels were analyzed to ascertainpharmacologic value.The study used an experimental research design using BFAD- Sprague Dawley rats as subjects. The hepatoprotectiveactivity was evaluated based on changes in the liver morphology- gross examination and differences in serum liverenzyme levels- bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase(AP) within and among the groups of rats. There was a significant decrease in ALT, AST and AP levels among ratsadministered with the fruit peel extract. Silymarin significantly decreased bilirubin levels. These suggest a comparablehepatoprotective activity between Silymarin and the fruit peel extract tested. Phytochemical analysis showed that thefruit peel extract contained flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides.Quantitative analysis on the chemical components of the fruit peel extract is suggested to facilitate the study of its exactmechanism of action. Research on the protective ability of the fruit peel extract on other organ systems is recommended.It is also suggested that other chemical liver toxicity inducers be used to observe the range of hepatoprotective activity ofthe fruit peel extract studied.

Casimiro,M. F.; Gutierrez M.; Leano D. R.; Solidum J. N.

2010-01-01

245

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais/ Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletad (more) os em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the (more) laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Machado, Daniel Lucas Magalhães; Struiving, Tiago Barbosa; Santos, Dierlei dos; Souza, Silvana Aparecida da Silva; Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes de

2012-12-01

246

Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures.

D'Aquino S; Palma A; Angioni A; Schirra M

2013-01-01

247

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks/ Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos (more) 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L (more) .) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

Stuchi, Eduardo Sanches; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Lemo, Rodrigo Rodas; Cantuarias-Avilés, Tatiana

2009-06-01

248

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'.

Eduardo Sanches Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo Martins; Rodrigo Rodas Lemo; Tatiana Cantuarias-Avilés

2009-01-01

249

Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone in citrus fruits, reduces TAFI expression in HepG2 cells through transcriptional inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, carboxypeptidase B2) is a 58-kDa plasma glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes as an inactive form. TAFI is activated by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex, and activated TAFI (TAFIa) plays an important role in regulating the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis through inhibition of fibrinolysis. It has been suggested that high levels of TAFI in circulating plasma increase the risks of cardiovascular death and acute phase in ischaemic stroke. However, the mechanisms of regulating TAFI expression have been unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nobiletin (a polymethoxy flavonoid contained in the rind of citrus fruits) on TAFI gene (CPB2) and TAFI antigen expression in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nobiletin decreased the release of TAFI antigen from HepG2 cells into conditioned medium in parallel with decreased levels of CPB2 mRNA and antigen. The half-life time of CPB2 mRNA in nobiletin-treated cells was unchanged compared to that of untreated control cells. Using nobiletin-treated cells that were transfected with a luciferase CPB2 promoter reporter plasmid, activity decreased to half of that in untreated control cells. A series of luciferase reporter constructs containing 5´-flanking region deletions of the human CPB2 gene showed that the sequences from -150 bp to -50 bp were essential for transcription of CPB2 and contained an AP-1 binding sequence at ~ -119 bp to - 99 bp in the CPB2 promoter. The amount of complexed nuclear protein and sequences from ~ -119 bp to -99 bp was decreased in nobiletin-treated cells. ChIP assays showed that c-Jun bound to the ~ -119 bp to -99 bp region of the CPB2 promoter and that the amount of the immunocomplex decreased after nobiletin treatment. Therefore, nobiletin-induced repression of CPB2 transcription might involve AP-1 inhibition and/or prevention of AP-1 binding in a specific region on the CPB2 gene in HepG2 cells.

Takada K; Seike T; Sasaki T; Masuda Y; Ito A; Ishii H

2013-06-01

250

Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone in citrus fruits, reduces TAFI expression in HepG2 cells through transcriptional inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, carboxypeptidase B2) is a 58-kDa plasma glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes as an inactive form. TAFI is activated by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex, and activated TAFI (TAFIa) plays an important role in regulating the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis through inhibition of fibrinolysis. It has been suggested that high levels of TAFI in circulating plasma increase the risks of cardiovascular death and acute phase in ischaemic stroke. However, the mechanisms of regulating TAFI expression have been unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nobiletin (a polymethoxy flavonoid contained in the rind of citrus fruits) on TAFI gene (CPB2) and TAFI antigen expression in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nobiletin decreased the release of TAFI antigen from HepG2 cells into conditioned medium in parallel with decreased levels of CPB2 mRNA and antigen. The half-life time of CPB2 mRNA in nobiletin-treated cells was unchanged compared to that of untreated control cells. Using nobiletin-treated cells that were transfected with a luciferase CPB2 promoter reporter plasmid, activity decreased to half of that in untreated control cells. A series of luciferase reporter constructs containing 5´-flanking region deletions of the human CPB2 gene showed that the sequences from -150 bp to -50 bp were essential for transcription of CPB2 and contained an AP-1 binding sequence at ~ -119 bp to - 99 bp in the CPB2 promoter. The amount of complexed nuclear protein and sequences from ~ -119 bp to -99 bp was decreased in nobiletin-treated cells. ChIP assays showed that c-Jun bound to the ~ -119 bp to -99 bp region of the CPB2 promoter and that the amount of the immunocomplex decreased after nobiletin treatment. Therefore, nobiletin-induced repression of CPB2 transcription might involve AP-1 inhibition and/or prevention of AP-1 binding in a specific region on the CPB2 gene in HepG2 cells. PMID:23572161

Takada, Kimihiko; Seike, Toru; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Ishii, Hidemi

2013-03-28

251

New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to colonize new regions. PMID:23135361

Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

2012-11-08

252

New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to colonize new regions.

Ferragut F; Navia D; Ochoa R

2013-02-01

253

Vascularización del pedicelo y crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis var. Salustiana y su relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético Pedicel development and fruit growth in Citrus sinensis ‘Salustiana’ and their relation with indol-acetic acid content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer el proceso de vascularización del pedicelo y el crecimiento inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var. Salustiana en relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. Desde la antesis hasta 118 días después de antesis (dda) se colectaron estructuras reproductivas y en el laboratorio se determinaron los cambios anatómicos y el crecimiento de la superficie en sección transversal del pedicelo y el incremento en masa seca del fruto. Simultáneamente se cuantificó el ácido indolacético (AIA) en estos órganos empleando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). El incremento en la superficie transversal del pedicelo estuvo determinado por el aumento en superficie en la sección transversal del xilema y el floema, con mayor tasa a partir de los 62 dda, debido a la actividad del cambium vascular. El xilema y el floema continuaron desarrollándose hasta el final del estudio, pero a partir de los 76 dda la superficie del floema activo se mantuvo constante debido al desarrollo de capas internas de fibras. Durante el período de crecimiento estudiado, la concentración de AIA tanto en los pedicelos como en el fruto fue marcadamente superior durante la post-antesis y luego disminuyó abruptamente. Los máximos niveles de AIA coincidieron con los procesos de división celular y diferenciación en el pedicelo y con la fase lenta de crecimiento del fruto. Las cinéticas de crecimiento del pedicelo y fruto fueron muy similares, observándose una mayor tasa de incremento en materia seca del fruto durante el período de mayor desarrollo del tejido vascular secundario, principalmente del xilema.Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Salustiana with the objective to establish the relationship between indol-acetic acid content and, fruit and pedicel development during the initial growth stage. Reproductive structures of different trees from an orchard in Museros (Valencia, Spain) were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis and used to determine cross-sectional area of pedicel, anatomical changes, dry mass of fruit, and indol-acetic acid (IAA) content using HPLC. The increase in cross-sectional area of pedicel was related to the increase in cross-sectional area of xylem and phloem, with greater rate from the 62 dda, due to the activity of the vascular cambium. Xylem and phloem continued developing until the end of the study (118 dda), but from the 76 dda the active phloem area remained constant due to the development of internal fiber layers. During the period of study the concentration of AIA in the pedicel as in the fruit was noticeably superior during postanthesis, and soon it diminished sharply. The maximum levels of IAA fitted with processes of cellular division and differentiation in pedicel and with the slow phase of growth of the fruit. Growth kinetic of pedicel and fruit were noticeably similar, being observed a greater rate of increase in fruit dry mass during the period of greater development of the secondary vascular tissue, mainly of xylem.

Libia E Laskowski; Consuelo Monerri; Amparo García-Luis; José Luis Guardiola

2008-01-01

254

Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and that integration of fungicide applications and hot water dips may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, as a consequence of increased effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16787020

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-06-28

255

Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O  

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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, resp...

Yu Qiao; Bi Jun Xie; Yan Zhang; Yun Zhang; Gang Fan; Xiao Lin Yao; Si Yi Pan

256

Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.)/ Horticultural techniques for improving orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L.) size and quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante 'Flying Dragon', se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), en plantas de 9 año (more) s de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i) el anillado de ramas productivas influyo significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incremento el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii) la aplicación de sacarosa mejoro la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana. Abstract in english Seeking to improve the fruit quality of Sweet Orange grafted on the dwarf rootstock 'Flying Dragon', the present research study tested a series of techniques, namely branch ringing, partial defoliation, fruit thinning, foliar fertilization, sucrose application to the foliage and pruning of non-productive branches. The work was carried out on 9 year old trees in a comercial orchard in the north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia). In comparing the treatment res (more) ults to the control, it was observed that: i) productive branch ringing significantlyinfluenced total fruit production per plant and increased fruit retention on the tree by 38%; ii) sucrose application improved fruit internal quality through increasing total soluble solid content by 10% and reducing acidity by 36%. Neither fruit thinning nor foliar fertilization showed any significant differences with the control. It can be concluded that the combination of branch ringing and external application of sucrose can be useful for improving orange fruit quality in the Colombian coffee zone.

Cabezas-Gutiérrez, Marco; Rodríguez E, Carlos Andrés

2010-01-01

257

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investi...

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna

258

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yinshi Sun; Jianhua Wang; Shubo Gu; Zhengbo Liu; Yujie Zhang; Xiaoxia Zhang

2010-01-01

259

Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in different parts of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C(18) column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. PMID:20714303

Sun, Yinshi; Wang, Jianhua; Gu, Shubo; Liu, Zhengbo; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoxia

2010-08-05

260

Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge)/ Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presente estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un (more) día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden located in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under st (more) orage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

Guadarrama, Ángel; Peña, Yexsi

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism. PMID:22953882

Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Yan, Youyou; Chen, Qingjun; Luo, Fenglei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-06-13

262

Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.

Zhang J; Sun C; Yan Y; Chen Q; Luo F; Zhu X; Li X; Chen K

2012-12-01

263

Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC–MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.

Zhang J; Sun C; Yan Y; Chen Q; Luo F; Zhu X; Li X; Chen K

2012-12-01

264

Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol ?, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol ?, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols ? and ? and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

Mitoshi M; Kuriyama I; Nakayama H; Miyazato H; Sugimoto K; Kobayashi Y; Jippo T; Kanazawa K; Yoshida H; Mizushina Y

2012-11-01

265

Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results: Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >?25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion: Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents.

Jennifer S. Johnson; Elizabeth D. Nobmann; Elvin Asay

2012-01-01

266

Poliembrionia em citrus  

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Full Text Available The studies on polyembryony in Citrus reported in this paper show that there is a great variability in the degree of polyembryony among the seeds, fruits and trees of a same form or variety of Citrus. Seeds from different crops of the same plant also show considerable variation in the degree of polyembryony. In order to obtain reliable data on the degree of polyembryony in Citrus the samples for study should include a great number of seeds taken from several fruits of different trees. Since there is a yearly variation on the degree of polyembryony it was found necessary to study samples from several crops. The average number of embryos was determined by direct examination of individual seeds. Determinations based on the number of plants developed from every seed always give lower results as many embryos do not grow into seedlings.

Sílvio Moreira; J. T. A. Gurgel; Lineu F. de Arruda

1947-01-01

267

Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

Ovruski S; Schliserman P; Aluja M

2003-08-01

268

Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

2003-08-01

269

Quantitative study of fruit flavonoids in citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-four Citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni) were examined for their flavonoid profiles of the edible part by reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Two hybrids (G-155 and G-156) contained higher amounts of natsudaidain than their parents, whereas the remainder of the hybrids had a character intermediate between those of King and Mukaku Kishu on the basis of polymethoxylated flavone composition. Principal component analysis revealed the distribution of the hybrids by quantifying 23 flavonoid contents.

Kawaii S; Tomono Y; Katase E; Ogawa K; Nonomura-Nakano M; Nesumi H; Yoshida T; Sugiura M; Yano M

2001-08-01

270

Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O  

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Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

Yu Qiao; Bi Jun Xie; Yan Zhang; Yun Zhang; Gang Fan; Xiao Lin Yao; Si Yi Pan

2008-01-01

271

Microdissection and molecular manipulation of single chromosomes in woody fruit trees with small chromosomes using pomelo (Citrus grandis) as a model. I. Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries by means of chromosome microdissection and microcloning will be useful for genomic research, especially for those species that have not been extensively studied genetically. Application of the technology of microdissection and microcloning to woody fruit plants has not been reported hitherto, largely due to the generally small sizes of metaphase chromosomes and the difficulty of chromosome preparation. The present study was performed to establish a method for single chromosome microdissection and microcloning in woody fruit species using pomelo as a model. The standard karyotype of a pomelo cultivar ( Citrus grandis cv. Guanxi) was established based on 20 prometaphase photomicrographs. According to the standard karyotype, chromosome 1 was identified and isolated with fine glass microneedles controlled by a micromanipulator. DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 kb to 2 kb were acquired from the isolated single chromosome 1 via two rounds of PCR mediated by Sau3A linker adaptors and then cloned into T-easy vectors to generate a DNA library of chromosome 1. Approximately 30,000 recombinant clones were obtained. Evaluation based on 108 randomly selected clones showed that the sizes of the cloned inserts varied from 0.5 kb to 1.5 kb with an average of 860 bp. Our research suggests that microdissection and microcloning of single small chromosomes in woody plants is feasible.

Huang D; Wu W; Zhou Y; Hu Z; Lu L

2004-05-01

272

Microdissection and molecular manipulation of single chromosomes in woody fruit trees with small chromosomes using pomelo (Citrus grandis) as a model. I. Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries by means of chromosome microdissection and microcloning will be useful for genomic research, especially for those species that have not been extensively studied genetically. Application of the technology of microdissection and microcloning to woody fruit plants has not been reported hitherto, largely due to the generally small sizes of metaphase chromosomes and the difficulty of chromosome preparation. The present study was performed to establish a method for single chromosome microdissection and microcloning in woody fruit species using pomelo as a model. The standard karyotype of a pomelo cultivar ( Citrus grandis cv. Guanxi) was established based on 20 prometaphase photomicrographs. According to the standard karyotype, chromosome 1 was identified and isolated with fine glass microneedles controlled by a micromanipulator. DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 kb to 2 kb were acquired from the isolated single chromosome 1 via two rounds of PCR mediated by Sau3A linker adaptors and then cloned into T-easy vectors to generate a DNA library of chromosome 1. Approximately 30,000 recombinant clones were obtained. Evaluation based on 108 randomly selected clones showed that the sizes of the cloned inserts varied from 0.5 kb to 1.5 kb with an average of 860 bp. Our research suggests that microdissection and microcloning of single small chromosomes in woody plants is feasible. PMID:14727028

Huang, D; Wu, W; Zhou, Y; Hu, Z; Lu, L

2004-01-16

273

Study on quality development of naval orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.)during storage of fruit kept on tree  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality change of 'Roberson' navel orange fruit kept on tree during December to the next April was studied. The acid content of juice decreased significantly with the time and the decreased range was finally 37.5 %. The total soluble solids?TSS? and sugar content of juice increased slightly,and the ratio of TSS/acid and sugar/acid increased greatly. Few change was observed with Vitamin C content, percentage of edible parts and percentage of juice during the whole period. After one month kept fruits on tree since mid-December, the fruit taste and the key quality factors were improved markedly, and reached or exceeded the indexes of high-quality fresh fruits. The chief reason for sugar/acid and TSS/acid increasing as well as fruit taste improving was the large-ranged decrease of acid content. The experimental result showed that the storage method by keeping fruit on tree for months can really improve the fruit quality of navel orange, and the ability of market competition for fresh fruits can also enhance when harvested at a proper time.

Chen Keling; Liu Jianjun; Luo Nan; Qin Shangmo; Yang Xingyi; Chen Shaobing; Li Hongwen; Zeng Deying

2005-01-01

274

Food quality and safety in export fresh fruit horticultural products: Implying in the labor process of agribusiness related to sweat citrus fruit in Entre Rios province Calidad y seguridad alimentaria en productos frutihortícolas frescos de exportación: Implicaciones en los procesos laborales de la agroindustria de cítricos dulces de Entre Ríos  

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Full Text Available In the early 1990s the world market increases the demand of fresh fruit horticultural products in order to satisfy customers who require standardised products and "just in time" delivery. Meanwhile a great number of food quality and safety regulations are developed which are also concerned in workers wellfare, prohibition of children work and inverorment protection. This article shows the results of a study about citrus fruit and agribusiness related to citrus fruit in Entre Rios province, the main sweet citrus fruit producer in Argentina . Such study deals with food quality and health features of export sweet citrus fruit which are sent to other counter-seasonal markets. We use qualitative information gathered in the years 2005 and 2006 by means of direct survey to packaging export companies, citrus producers, entreproneurs, harvest workers and packaging workers. We add statistic information in this study, as well.A comienzos de 1990 el mercado mundial incrementa la demanda de productos frutihortícolas en estado fresco, destinada a satisfacer a consumidores que requieren productos estandarizados y envíos "just in time". Simultáneamente, aparecen numerosas normas de calidad y seguridad alimentaria, públicas y privadas, tendientes a la obtención de productos sanos e inocuos, a la vez que se interesan por la protección de los trabajadores, prohibición del trabajo infantil y cuidado del medio ambiente. Este artículo presenta resultados de un estudio de caso referido a la agroindustria de cítricos de la provincia de Entre Ríos, principal productora de cítricos dulces del país. Se indaga en los criterios de calidad y sanidad alimentaria en cítricos dulces de exportación a mercados de contraestación y su repercusión en los procesos de trabajo. Utilizamos información cualitativa obtenida en los años 2005 y 2006 (encuestas directas a empresas empacadoras exportadoras, entrevistas en profundidad a productores citrícolas, empresarios, trabajadores cosecheros y del empaque) complementada con información estadística.

Nidia Tadeo

2008-01-01

275

Quantitative study of fruit flavonoids in citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni).  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four Citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni) were examined for their flavonoid profiles of the edible part by reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Two hybrids (G-155 and G-156) contained higher amounts of natsudaidain than their parents, whereas the remainder of the hybrids had a character intermediate between those of King and Mukaku Kishu on the basis of polymethoxylated flavone composition. Principal component analysis revealed the distribution of the hybrids by quantifying 23 flavonoid contents. PMID:11513699

Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Nonomura-Nakano, M; Nesumi, H; Yoshida, T; Sugiura, M; Yano, M

2001-08-01

276

The role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases in the regulation of carotenoid profiles during maturation in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between a carotenoid profile and gene expression for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, three citrus varieties that exhibit different 9-cis-violaxanthin levels in their juice sacs, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.; a variety accumulating a low level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck; variety accumulating a high level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.; a variety accumulating an undetectable level of 9-cis-violaxanthin) were used. Three cDNAs (CitCCD1, CitNCED2, and CitNCED3) were cloned. The recombinant CitCCD1 protein cleaved beta-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and all-trans-violaxanthin at the 9-10 and 9'-10' positions and 9-cis-violaxanthin at the 9'-10' position. The recombinant CitNCED2 and CitNCED3 proteins cleaved 9-cis-violaxanthin at the 11-12 position to form xanthoxin, a precursor of abscisic acid (ABA). The gene expression of CitCCD1 increased in the flavedos and juice sacs of the three varieties during maturation. In Satsuma mandarin, the gene expression of CitNCED2 and CitNCED3 increased noticeably, accompanying a massive accumulation of ABA in the flavedo and juice sacs. In Valencia orange, the gene expression of CitNCED3 increased with a slight elevation of the ABA level in the flavedo, whereas neither the gene expression of CitNCED2 nor the ABA level increased noticeably in the juice sacs. In Lisbon lemon, the gene expression of CitNCED2 increased remarkably, accompanying increases in the ABA level in the flavedo and juice sacs. These results suggest that, in the juice sacs, the efficient cleavage reaction for ABA synthesis reduces the 9-cis-violaxanthin level in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, whereas the low cleavage reaction maintains the predominant 9-cis-violaxanthin accumulation in Valencia orange. PMID:16714310

Kato, Masaya; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Okuda, Hitoshi; Yano, Masamichi

2006-05-19

277

Effect of Mediterranean ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations in citrus orchards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted an ant-exclusion experiment in a citrus orchard to evaluate the overall impact of three ant species native in the Mediterranean, Pheidole pallidula (Nylander), Plagiolepis schmitzii Forel, and Lasius grandis (Forel), on populations of Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (California red scale). The ant-exclusion was carried out in four experimental plots from March 2007 to November 2008. Another subset of four plots, adjacent to the ant-excluded plots, was used as control. We measured scale densities and percent parasitism on fruits at harvest in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, we sampled the seasonal trend of the scale on twigs and fruits in both treatments during 2008. California red scale densities in the ant-excluded treatment began to be significantly lower than in the ant-allowed control in May (1 mo after ant activity began), and this difference increased until November. Thus, the effect of the ants on California red scale density seems to be accumulative. At harvest, scale densities on fruits were significantly lower in the ant-excluded treatment. However, percent parasitism on fruits was similar between treatments. Finally, scale densities on the fruits of the ant-allowed plots were positively correlated with the number of ants that climbed to the citrus canopy. These results suggest that increases of scale densities induced by Mediterranean ants depend on the intensity of the ant-activity on citrus canopies.

Pekas A; Tena A; Aguilar A; Garcia-Marí F

2010-06-01

278

Effect of Mediterranean ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations in citrus orchards.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted an ant-exclusion experiment in a citrus orchard to evaluate the overall impact of three ant species native in the Mediterranean, Pheidole pallidula (Nylander), Plagiolepis schmitzii Forel, and Lasius grandis (Forel), on populations of Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (California red scale). The ant-exclusion was carried out in four experimental plots from March 2007 to November 2008. Another subset of four plots, adjacent to the ant-excluded plots, was used as control. We measured scale densities and percent parasitism on fruits at harvest in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, we sampled the seasonal trend of the scale on twigs and fruits in both treatments during 2008. California red scale densities in the ant-excluded treatment began to be significantly lower than in the ant-allowed control in May (1 mo after ant activity began), and this difference increased until November. Thus, the effect of the ants on California red scale density seems to be accumulative. At harvest, scale densities on fruits were significantly lower in the ant-excluded treatment. However, percent parasitism on fruits was similar between treatments. Finally, scale densities on the fruits of the ant-allowed plots were positively correlated with the number of ants that climbed to the citrus canopy. These results suggest that increases of scale densities induced by Mediterranean ants depend on the intensity of the ant-activity on citrus canopies. PMID:20550795

Pekas, A; Tena, A; Aguilar, A; Garcia-Marí, F

2010-06-01

279

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)  

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Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F. Calegario; Mônica T.V. Labate; Luís A. Peroni; Dagmar Ruth Stach-Machado; Maxuel O. Andrade; Juliana Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A. Labate; Marcos A. Machado; Elliot W. Kitajima

2012-01-01

280

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were ma (more) de to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Calegario, Renata F.; Labate, Mônica T.V.; Peroni, Luís A.; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth; Andrade, Maxuel O.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Labate, Carlos A.; Machado, Marcos A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos/ Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.) (QPFC), sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro isolados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metaból (more) itos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE), uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp.) (PFD), under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of met (more) abolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF) in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

Kupper, Katia C.; Gimenes-Fernandes, Nelson; Goes, Antonio de

2003-06-01

282

Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.) (QPFC), sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro isolados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE), uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno.The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp.) (PFD), under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF) in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

Katia C. Kupper; Nelson Gimenes-Fernandes; Antonio de Goes

2003-01-01

283

Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-04

284

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

285

Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 ? and ?) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

Iorio RA; Del Duca S; Calamelli E; Pula C; Lodolini M; Scamardella F; Pession A; Ricci G

2013-01-01

286

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CITRUS HYSTRIX AND CITRUS MAXIMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit was conducted using agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3215), Escherichia coli (MTCC 40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384). The maximum activity was observed against all organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 12.5mg/mL and 200mg/mL depending on microorganism and various extract. Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit were observed to have antibacterial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes.

Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*

2013-01-01

287

Efecto de la aplicación de ácido indol-acético e inhibidores de auxina sobre el desarrollo inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana/ Effect of applications of IAA and auxin inhibitors on initial fruit development of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de la aplicación de auxina (AIA) y de sustancias inhibidoras de la actividad (PCIB) y el transporte de auxina (TIBA, NPA y HFCA) en el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Se emplearon frutos de 19 y 30 mm de diámetro (a los 55 y 65 días luego de antesis) y se aplicaron las sustancias directamente al pedicelo. El NPA provocó una disminución en el crecimiento de los (more) frutos sin alterar el desarrollo del pedicelo y no se observó efecto significativo al aplicar la antiauxina PCIB o el inhibidor del transporte TIBA. El inhibidor HFCA afectó la diferenciación del xilema, los frutos tratados fueron significativamente más pequeños, y el efecto fue mayor cuando se aplicó a frutos de menor diámetro. La aplicación de la auxina AIA inhibió el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y afectó significativamente el crecimiento del fruto. Los resultados ratifican la vinculación entre las auxinas, el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto. Abstract in english The effect of application of IAA, antiauxin (PCIB), and auxin transport inhibitors (HFCA, TIBA and NPA) on vascular development of pedicel and fruit growth was studied in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Substances were applied on pedicels of fruits having 19 and 30 mm in diameter (55 and 65 days after anthesis). NPA depressed fruit growth although no effect was detected on pedicel development. No effect was observed on pedicel or fruit growth after TIBA and PC (more) IB applications. The inhibitor HFCA altered the vessel differentiation pattern and fruits were significantly smaller, being higher the effect on the smaller fruits. IAA applications caused inhibition of pedicel vascular tissue development, and induced formation of smaller fruits. These results confirmed the relationship among auxins, pedicel vascular tissue development, and fruit growth.

Laskowski, Libia E; Monerri, Consuelo; García-Luis, Amparo; Guardiola, José Luis

2008-12-01

288

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

289

Interferência da redução no volume de aplicação sobre o controle da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) em frutos de laranja 'Valência'/ Interference of spray volume reduction in citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) control in 'Valência' citrus fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O controle químico do agente causal da mancha-preta-dos-citros (MPC) tem merecido destaque pelo excessivo número de pulverizações, elevando sobremaneira os custos de produção na citricultura. A busca por melhorias na eficiência das pulverizações e reduções na quantidade dos produtos fitossanitários já tem sido realizada, mas os resultados dessa prática ainda não são consistentes para que possa ser aplicado em escala comercial. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa ob (more) jetivou avaliar a interferência da redução no volume de aplicação, sobre o controle químico da mancha preta em frutos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial com plantas de 16 anos de idade, da variedade Valência durante o ano agrícola 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de três volumes de calda, 3,5; 4,5 e 8,5 L planta-1, aplicados por pulverizador de jato transportado Arbus 2000/Export, com ramal especial de bicos, utilizando-se fungicidas e períodos recomendados para o controle da doença em um total de quatro pulverizações e mais um tratamento testemunha (sem pulverização). As avaliações de incidência e severidade da doença ocorreram através de escala visual diagramática de notas em duas épocas (pré-colheita e colheita), em três alturas (baixo, médio e alto) da planta e mais três setores horizontais (entrada, frontal e saída) em dois lados da planta. Os frutos caídos foram contados quinzenalmente, em plantas previamente selecionadas, do início da maturação até a colheita com a quantificação da produção (kg planta-1). A incidência e severidade da doença foram menores quando as pulverizações foram realizadas com 8,5 L planta-1 na primeira época de avaliação (pré-colheita), porém na colheita, não houve diferenças entre os mesmos parâmetros, quando pulverizados 4,5 ou 8,5 L planta-1. Nenhum tratamento reduziu a doença no setor alto da planta, em comparação a testemunha. Os setores da planta com os frutos mais expostos aos raios solares, lado direito e alto da planta, apresentaram maior incidência e severidade da doença. A redução no volume de 8,5 para 4,5 L planta-1 pode ser praticada na citricultura sem prejuízo do nível de controle da MPC. Abstract in english The chemical control of the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS) has been highlighted for the excessive required number of sprayings, considerably increasing citrus production costs. Improvements in the spray efficiency and reductions in the quantity of phytosanitary products have already been searched, but the results of that practice are not consistent yet for its use at commercial scale. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interference of reduced (more) spray volumes in black spot control in citrus fruits. The experiment was carried out in commercial citrus orchard with 16-year-old plants of 'Valencia' variety, during 2007 agricultural season. Treatments consisted of three spray volumes: 3.5; 4.5 and 8.5 liters.plant-1, applied with Arbus 2000/Export airblast sprayer with special manifold of hydraulic nozzles, using fungicides and periods recommended for the disease control, totaling four sprayings plus a control treatment (without spray). The disease incidence and severity were evaluated by visual diagrammatic scale of notes in two different periods (preharvest and harvest), at three plant heights (low, middle and top) and three horizontal sections (entrance, frontal and exit) in two sides of the plant. The fallen fruits were counted every fifteen days, for previously selected plants, from the beginning of maturation to harvest, and the production was quantified (kg.plant-1). The disease incidence and severity were significantly lower when sprayings were done with 8.5 liters.plant-1 in the first evaluation period (pre-harvest), but in the harvest period there were not differences between the same parameters when 4.5 or 8.5 liters.plant-1 were sprayed. None of those treatments reduced the disease on the top section of plants, compared to control. The pl

Araújo, Demétrius de; Raetano, Carlos Gilberto; Ramos, Hamilton Humberto; Spósito, Marcel Belatto; Prado, Evandro Pereira

2013-09-01

290

Solitary invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote fruit set of an invasive Solanum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our understanding of the effects of introduced invasive pollinators on plants has been exclusively drawn from studies on introduced social bees. One might expect, however, that the impacts of introduced solitary bees, with much lower population densities and fewer foragers, would be small. Yet little is known about the potential effects of naturalized solitary bees on the environment. We took advantage of the recent naturalization of an orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, in southern Florida to study the effects of this solitary bee on reproduction of Solanum torvum, an invasive shrub. Flowers of S. torvum require specialized buzz pollination. Through timed floral visitor watches and two pollination treatments (control and pollen supplementation) at three forest edge and three open area sites, we found that the fruit set of S. torvum was pollen limited at the open sites where the native bees dominate, but was not pollen limited at the forest sites where the invasive orchid bees dominate. The orchid bee's pollination efficiency was nearly double that of the native halictid bees, and was also slightly higher than that of the native carpenter bee. Experiments using small and large mesh cages (to deny or allow E. viridissima access, respectively) at one forest site indicated that when the orchid bee was excluded, the flowers set one-quarter as many fruit as when the bee was allowed access. The orchid bee was the most important pollinator of the weed at the forest sites, which could pose additional challenges to the management of this weed in the fragmented, endangered tropical hardwood forests in the region. This specialized invasive mutualism may promote populations of both the orchid bee and this noxious weed. Invasive solitary bees, particularly species that are specialized pollinators, appear to have more importance than has previously been recognized. PMID:19066971

Liu, Hong; Pemberton, Robert W

2008-12-09

291

Solitary invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote fruit set of an invasive Solanum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our understanding of the effects of introduced invasive pollinators on plants has been exclusively drawn from studies on introduced social bees. One might expect, however, that the impacts of introduced solitary bees, with much lower population densities and fewer foragers, would be small. Yet little is known about the potential effects of naturalized solitary bees on the environment. We took advantage of the recent naturalization of an orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, in southern Florida to study the effects of this solitary bee on reproduction of Solanum torvum, an invasive shrub. Flowers of S. torvum require specialized buzz pollination. Through timed floral visitor watches and two pollination treatments (control and pollen supplementation) at three forest edge and three open area sites, we found that the fruit set of S. torvum was pollen limited at the open sites where the native bees dominate, but was not pollen limited at the forest sites where the invasive orchid bees dominate. The orchid bee's pollination efficiency was nearly double that of the native halictid bees, and was also slightly higher than that of the native carpenter bee. Experiments using small and large mesh cages (to deny or allow E. viridissima access, respectively) at one forest site indicated that when the orchid bee was excluded, the flowers set one-quarter as many fruit as when the bee was allowed access. The orchid bee was the most important pollinator of the weed at the forest sites, which could pose additional challenges to the management of this weed in the fragmented, endangered tropical hardwood forests in the region. This specialized invasive mutualism may promote populations of both the orchid bee and this noxious weed. Invasive solitary bees, particularly species that are specialized pollinators, appear to have more importance than has previously been recognized.

Liu H; Pemberton RW

2009-03-01

292

Flavonoids in tropical citrus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

HPLC with PDA and MS(2) detection was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in the tropical citrus species Citrus microcarpa , Citrus hystrix , Citrus medica var. 1 and 2, and Citrus suhuiensis . Most of these species contained high amounts of flavones, flavanones, and dihydrochalcone C- and/or O-glycosides, which were identified on the basis of HPLC retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, absorbance spectra, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Among the major compounds detected were apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-2?-O-rhamnoside, phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside, diosmetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, and hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. Most of the dihydrochalcone and flavone C-glycosides have not previously been detected in tropical citrus. C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside. Most of the tropical citrus flavanones were neohesperidoside conjugates, which are responsible for imparting a bitter taste to the fruit. Only C. suhuiensis fruit contains rutinoside, a nonbitter conjugate. PMID:21978223

Roowi, Suri; Crozier, Alan

2011-10-19

293

Flavonoids in tropical citrus species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HPLC with PDA and MS(2) detection was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in the tropical citrus species Citrus microcarpa , Citrus hystrix , Citrus medica var. 1 and 2, and Citrus suhuiensis . Most of these species contained high amounts of flavones, flavanones, and dihydrochalcone C- and/or O-glycosides, which were identified on the basis of HPLC retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, absorbance spectra, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Among the major compounds detected were apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-2?-O-rhamnoside, phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside, diosmetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-neohesperidoside, and hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. Most of the dihydrochalcone and flavone C-glycosides have not previously been detected in tropical citrus. C. microcarpa contained a high amount of phloretin-3',5'-di-C-glucoside. Most of the tropical citrus flavanones were neohesperidoside conjugates, which are responsible for imparting a bitter taste to the fruit. Only C. suhuiensis fruit contains rutinoside, a nonbitter conjugate.

Roowi S; Crozier A

2011-11-01

294

Chlorophyll breakdown by chlorophyllase: isolation and functional expression of the Chlase1 gene from ethylene-treated Citrus fruit and its regulation during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the isolation, functional expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding chlorophyllase, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the chlorophyll breakdown pathway. The Chlase1 cDNA from Valencia Orange (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia) was obtained by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on the amino acid sequence of the previously purified protein. Chlase1 encodes a protein of 329 amino acids, including a sequence domain characterizing serine-lipases and a putative chloroplast-directing transit peptide. The Chlase1 gene encodes an active chlorophyllase enzyme which catalyzes the dephytylation of chlorophyll as shown by in vitro recombinant enzyme assays. Chlorophyllase expression at the transcript level in Valencia orange peel was found to be low and constitutive during natural fruit development without significant increase towards color-break and ripening. However, ethylene treatment induced an increase in chlorophyllase transcript at all stages of development. An enhanced response to ethylene treatment was observed during the months of October and November, corresponding to the time of natural color-break. The senescence-delaying regulator gibberellin-A3 (GA3) inhibited the effect of ethylene on chlorophyllase transcript accumulation. The data presented suggest that chlorophyllase may not be the regulator of chlorophyll breakdown during natural fruit ripening but is consistent with the notion that chlorophyll is gradually degraded during ripening due to a negative balance between synthesis and breakdown. According to this model, exogenous application of ethylene accelerates chlorophyll breakdown due to increased de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase. Further experimentation on the regulation and role of chlorophyllase in planta will be facilitated by the gene tools established in this work. PMID:10652137

Jacob-Wilk, D; Holland, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Riov, J; Eyal, Y

1999-12-01

295

Chlorophyll breakdown by chlorophyllase: isolation and functional expression of the Chlase1 gene from ethylene-treated Citrus fruit and its regulation during development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the isolation, functional expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding chlorophyllase, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the chlorophyll breakdown pathway. The Chlase1 cDNA from Valencia Orange (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia) was obtained by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on the amino acid sequence of the previously purified protein. Chlase1 encodes a protein of 329 amino acids, including a sequence domain characterizing serine-lipases and a putative chloroplast-directing transit peptide. The Chlase1 gene encodes an active chlorophyllase enzyme which catalyzes the dephytylation of chlorophyll as shown by in vitro recombinant enzyme assays. Chlorophyllase expression at the transcript level in Valencia orange peel was found to be low and constitutive during natural fruit development without significant increase towards color-break and ripening. However, ethylene treatment induced an increase in chlorophyllase transcript at all stages of development. An enhanced response to ethylene treatment was observed during the months of October and November, corresponding to the time of natural color-break. The senescence-delaying regulator gibberellin-A3 (GA3) inhibited the effect of ethylene on chlorophyllase transcript accumulation. The data presented suggest that chlorophyllase may not be the regulator of chlorophyll breakdown during natural fruit ripening but is consistent with the notion that chlorophyll is gradually degraded during ripening due to a negative balance between synthesis and breakdown. According to this model, exogenous application of ethylene accelerates chlorophyll breakdown due to increased de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase. Further experimentation on the regulation and role of chlorophyllase in planta will be facilitated by the gene tools established in this work.

Jacob-Wilk D; Holland D; Goldschmidt EE; Riov J; Eyal Y

1999-12-01

296

Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr.), em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml) por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco). Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco), varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr.), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco); Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). Fruits were picked from 30 days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

H.P. Haag; L.E. Gutierrez; A.R. Dechen; F.A.A. Mourão Filho; C.S. Moreira

1993-01-01

297

Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo/ Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr.), em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frut (more) os 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml) por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco). Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco), varia entre 30 a 95. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr.), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco); Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). Fruits were picked from 30 (more) days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

Haag, H.P.; Gutierrez, L.E.; Dechen, A.R.; Mourão Filho, F.A.A.; Moreira, C.S.

1993-09-01

298

Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol ?, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol ?, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols ? and ? and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications. PMID:23088772

Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2012-10-31

299

Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction. PMID:19298708

Lin, Ying-Ku; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Huang, Chia-Hui; Ho, Hsiu-O

2009-03-01

300

Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction.

Lin YK; Sheu MT; Huang CH; Ho HO

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11-week-old C57BL/6J lean mice. Daily treatment of 11-week-old C57BL/KsBom-db (db/db) genetic diabetic mice with a dose corresponding to 10 x human-daily-dose for 6 weeks facilitated a significant weight loss as compared to the untreated controls. During treatment, the db/db mice were maintained on the carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the eyes from the treated animals showed a significant reduction in total fatty acid content accompanied by a 33% reduction in estimated Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (p = 0.039) as compared with controls. The fatty acid mobilization and a protection of the brittle C57BL/KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja

2006-01-01

302

Caracterização de cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar nove cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas de laranjeiras 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' e 'Salustiana'; de tangerineiras 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' e satsuma 'Okitsu'; e de híbridos 'Nova' e 'Ortanique', com quatro anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Trifoliata, cultivadas em vasos de 100 L. Vinte e oito descritores morfológicos foram selecionados, possibilitando a rápida e eficiente caracterização das cultivares, inclusive das laranjas doces. Os padrões obtidos estão de acordo com as relações filogenéticas das espécies estudadas, podendo ser utilizados em programas de certificação, melhoramento e conservação de germoplasma.The aim of this work was to characterize nine citrus fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors. Four yearold plants of sweet oranges 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana'; mandarins 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' and satsuma 'Okitsu'; and hybrids 'Nova' and 'Ortanique', grafted in Trifoliata and cultivated in pots of 100 L, were analyzed. Twenty eight morphological descriptors were selected, making possible a rapid and efficient characterization of the cultivars, including the sweet oranges. The standards obtained are in conformity with the phylogenetic relations among the species studied. The standards can be used in certification, breeding, and germplasm conservation programs.

Elizete Beatriz Radmann; Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

2003-01-01

303

Caracterização de cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos/ Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar nove cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas de laranjeiras 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' e 'Salustiana'; de tangerineiras 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' e satsuma 'Okitsu'; e de híbridos 'Nova' e 'Ortanique', com quatro anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Trifoliata, cultivadas em vasos de 100 L. Vinte e oito descritores morfológicos foram seleciona (more) dos, possibilitando a rápida e eficiente caracterização das cultivares, inclusive das laranjas doces. Os padrões obtidos estão de acordo com as relações filogenéticas das espécies estudadas, podendo ser utilizados em programas de certificação, melhoramento e conservação de germoplasma. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to characterize nine citrus fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors. Four yearold plants of sweet oranges 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana'; mandarins 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' and satsuma 'Okitsu'; and hybrids 'Nova' and 'Ortanique', grafted in Trifoliata and cultivated in pots of 100 L, were analyzed. Twenty eight morphological descriptors were selected, making possible a rapid and efficient characterization of the cu (more) ltivars, including the sweet oranges. The standards obtained are in conformity with the phylogenetic relations among the species studied. The standards can be used in certification, breeding, and germplasm conservation programs.

Radmann, Elizete Beatriz; Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso de

2003-09-01

304

Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

2007-11-08

305

Nondestructive quality assessment of shogun mandarin fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun) using compton scattering of gamma-ray technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compton scattering of gamma radiation was applied for nondestructive testing of the shogun mandarin fruits with good quality defined as no dry sack or dry fibrous structures inside. In principle, the scattering deviated angles to the left and right of a gamma ray that penetrates through a homogeneous fibrous structure meat of any orange fruit should be equal. The source Cs-137, with an initial gamma ray activity of 9.25 mCi, placed in a 7 cm thick lead shielding, was radiated through a 10 mm diameter collimator onto any single fruit to be tested. A NaI(Tl)-detector, oriented perpendicular to both left and right of theincoming beam, was placed 5 cm from the fruit. Results showed that the net count rate of the scattering beam between the left and right counting for good-quality shogun mandarin with proper tissue for consumption was less than 85 counts per minute (average 83 cpm), whereas shogun mandarin with dry sack, which were unfit for consumption, had twice that rate or more (average 175 cpm).

Punnary, K.; Chittrakarn, T.; Bhongsuwan, T.

2005-01-01

306

Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210Po, 226Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

2005-01-01

307

BIOAVAILABILITY OF CITRUS LIMONOIDS TO HUMANS  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus limonoids occur in significant quantities in citrus fruit and juice as water-soluble limonoid glucosides. They have demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in animal and cancer cell screens. In this study we examined the plasma of four groups of four healthy male and female subjects (n...

308

Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

Romulo da Silva Carvalho; Walter dos Santos Soares Filho; Rogerio Ritzinger

2010-01-01

309

Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postharvest treatments of potassium sorbate only controlled recently established infections of Penicillium digitatum on Femminello siracusano lemons but did not confer any persistent protection. The loss of efficacy of potassium sorbate to control green mould decay was related to its irregular deposition on the fruit surface, as revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy of oranges, and to the brief persistence of potassium sorbate residues. When treatment was done at 53°C, the co-application of potassium sorbate with thiabendazole reduced thiabendazole residues in Moro and Sanguinello oranges, compared to thiabendazole treatment alone. However, treatment efficacy against two isolates of P. digitatum (thiabendazole-sensitive and thiabendazole-resistant) notably improved, indicating that potassium sorbate and hot water potentiated thiabendazole activity. Potassium sorbate residues remarkably decreased during fruit storage and were not affected by the co-application of thiabendazole. PMID:23790859

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Fadda, Angela; Barberis, Antonio; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

2013-04-09

310

Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postharvest treatments of potassium sorbate only controlled recently established infections of Penicillium digitatum on Femminello siracusano lemons but did not confer any persistent protection. The loss of efficacy of potassium sorbate to control green mould decay was related to its irregular deposition on the fruit surface, as revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy of oranges, and to the brief persistence of potassium sorbate residues. When treatment was done at 53°C, the co-application of potassium sorbate with thiabendazole reduced thiabendazole residues in Moro and Sanguinello oranges, compared to thiabendazole treatment alone. However, treatment efficacy against two isolates of P. digitatum (thiabendazole-sensitive and thiabendazole-resistant) notably improved, indicating that potassium sorbate and hot water potentiated thiabendazole activity. Potassium sorbate residues remarkably decreased during fruit storage and were not affected by the co-application of thiabendazole.

D'Aquino S; Fadda A; Barberis A; Palma A; Angioni A; Schirra M

2013-11-01

311

Investigating herb-drug interactions: The effect of Citrus aurantium fruit extract on the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus aurantium extract has been largely used in weight loss and sports performance dietary supplements. However, the safety of C. aurantium-containing products has been questioned mainly due to the association of its use with adverse events in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the potential for herb-drug interactions among a standardized C. aurantium extract (GMP certificate) and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. aurantium (164mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50mg/kg, p.o.); in a second study, rats were pre-treated during 14days with C. aurantium (164mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Overall, after analysis of the pharmacokinetic data, it deserves to be highlighted the significant increase of the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone in rats pre-treated with C. aurantium extract, while the extent of systemic exposure was comparable between both groups. This paper reports, for the first time, data on the potential of herb-drug interaction between C. aurantium extract and amiodarone. However, specific clinical trials should be performed to confirm these results in humans. PMID:23886819

Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Falcão, Amílcar

2013-07-22

312

Investigating herb-drug interactions: The effect of Citrus aurantium fruit extract on the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus aurantium extract has been largely used in weight loss and sports performance dietary supplements. However, the safety of C. aurantium-containing products has been questioned mainly due to the association of its use with adverse events in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the potential for herb-drug interactions among a standardized C. aurantium extract (GMP certificate) and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. aurantium (164mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50mg/kg, p.o.); in a second study, rats were pre-treated during 14days with C. aurantium (164mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Overall, after analysis of the pharmacokinetic data, it deserves to be highlighted the significant increase of the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone in rats pre-treated with C. aurantium extract, while the extent of systemic exposure was comparable between both groups. This paper reports, for the first time, data on the potential of herb-drug interaction between C. aurantium extract and amiodarone. However, specific clinical trials should be performed to confirm these results in humans.

Rodrigues M; Alves G; Falcão A

2013-10-01

313

Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B1a and 14C residue on citrus fruits from a field study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An 8?g/mL solution of [14C]avermectin B1a, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, 14C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind 14C residue from oranges treated at the 10x rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (14C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B1a was 1a and 14C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B1a due to fruit type and application rate were observed

1989-01-01

314

Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendatio...

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

315

Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros/ Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvi (more) dopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested (more) were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7%) alone and added to natural orange juice (10%). Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Raga, Adalton; Machado, Rogério Amaro; Dinardo, Welci; Strikis, Pedro Carlos

2006-01-01

316

Chronic administration of Satsuma mandarin fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc.) improves oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruits and vegetables contain numerous antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamins, and phenolic phytochemicals. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants may reduce the risk for diabetes or its complications. In this study, we investigated the effects of the chronic administration of Satsuma mandarin fruit on an antioxidant defense system in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat liver. After a ten-week administration of Satsuma mandarin, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in the liver were evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione level in the STZ-induced diabetic rats liver decreased significantly compared with those in the age-matched normal rats. The glutathione-reductase (GR) activities did not differ significantly between these two groups. In contrast, the SOD, GR, and glutathione levels in the Satsuma mandarin (1% or 3%) diet-fed STZ-diabetic rat livers were significantly higher than those in the normal diet-fed STZ-diabetic rat livers. In addition, although the serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl-aminotransferase concentrations of normal diet-fed STZ-diabetic rats were significantly higher than those of the age-matched normal rats, these increments of serum liver enzymes were diminished by the chronic administration of Satsuma mandarin. These results suggest that Satsuma mandarin may act as a suppressor against liver cell damage and inhibit the progression of liver dysfunction induced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:16508175

Sugiura, Minoru; Ohshima, Makoto; Ogawa, Kazunori; Yano, Masamichi

2006-03-01

317

Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and ?-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile. PMID:22950419

Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori

2012-09-19

318

Effect of postharvest temperature and ethylene on carotenoid accumulation in the Flavedo and juice sacs of Satsuma Mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of postharvest temperature (5, 20, and 30 degrees C) and ethylene at different temperatures (20 and 5 degrees C) on carotenoid content and composition and on the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes was investigated in the flavedo and juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit. Under an ethylene-free atmosphere, storage at 20 degrees C rapidly increased the carotenoid content in flavedo and maintained the content in juice sacs. In contrast, storage at 5 and 30 degrees C gradually decreased the content in juice sacs but slowly increased that in flavedo. Under an ethylene atmosphere, storage at 20 degrees C enhanced the carotenoid accumulation in flavedo more dramatically than found under an ethylene-free atmosphere with distinct changes in the carotenoid composition but did not noticeably change the content and composition in juice sacs. In contrast, storage at 5 degrees C under an ethylene atmosphere repressed carotenoid accumulation with changes in the carotenoid composition in flavedo but did not clearly change the carotenoid content in juice sacs. Under an ethylene-free atmosphere, differences in the gene expression profile among the temperatures were observed but were not well-correlated with those in the carotenoid content in flavedo and juice sacs. Under an ethylene atmosphere, in flavedo, the gene expression of phytoene synthase (PSY) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) was slightly higher at 20 degrees C but lower at 5 degrees C than under an ethylene-free atmosphere. At 20 degrees C, the gene expression of several carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes promoted by ethylene seemed to be responsible for the enhanced accumulation of carotenoid in flavedo. In contrast, at 5 degrees C, the repressed gene expression of PSY and PDS by ethylene seemed to be primarily responsible for the repressed accumulation of carotenoid in flavedo. In juice sacs, the small response of the gene expression to ethylene seemed to be responsible for small changes in carotenoid accumulation under an ethylene atmosphere. PMID:19441837

Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Kato, Masaya; Nakajima, Naoko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

2009-06-10

319

Effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and ?-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile.

Matsumoto H; Ikoma Y

2012-10-01

320

Effect of postharvest temperature and ethylene on carotenoid accumulation in the Flavedo and juice sacs of Satsuma Mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of postharvest temperature (5, 20, and 30 degrees C) and ethylene at different temperatures (20 and 5 degrees C) on carotenoid content and composition and on the expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes was investigated in the flavedo and juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit. Under an ethylene-free atmosphere, storage at 20 degrees C rapidly increased the carotenoid content in flavedo and maintained the content in juice sacs. In contrast, storage at 5 and 30 degrees C gradually decreased the content in juice sacs but slowly increased that in flavedo. Under an ethylene atmosphere, storage at 20 degrees C enhanced the carotenoid accumulation in flavedo more dramatically than found under an ethylene-free atmosphere with distinct changes in the carotenoid composition but did not noticeably change the content and composition in juice sacs. In contrast, storage at 5 degrees C under an ethylene atmosphere repressed carotenoid accumulation with changes in the carotenoid composition in flavedo but did not clearly change the carotenoid content in juice sacs. Under an ethylene-free atmosphere, differences in the gene expression profile among the temperatures were observed but were not well-correlated with those in the carotenoid content in flavedo and juice sacs. Under an ethylene atmosphere, in flavedo, the gene expression of phytoene synthase (PSY) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) was slightly higher at 20 degrees C but lower at 5 degrees C than under an ethylene-free atmosphere. At 20 degrees C, the gene expression of several carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes promoted by ethylene seemed to be responsible for the enhanced accumulation of carotenoid in flavedo. In contrast, at 5 degrees C, the repressed gene expression of PSY and PDS by ethylene seemed to be primarily responsible for the repressed accumulation of carotenoid in flavedo. In juice sacs, the small response of the gene expression to ethylene seemed to be responsible for small changes in carotenoid accumulation under an ethylene atmosphere.

Matsumoto H; Ikoma Y; Kato M; Nakajima N; Hasegawa Y

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha preta em frutos cítricos Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic scale to evaluate black spot severity in citrus fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática, abrangendo os dois tipos prevalentes de sintomas de mancha preta em frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.), os de mancha dura e de falsa melanose, foi desenvolvida para padronizar a avaliação da severidade da doença. A escala foi elaborada considerando os limites máximos e mínimos de severidade da doença observados no campo. Os valores intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos para os sintomas do tipo mancha dura (0,5; 1,7; 5,0; 11,5; 22,5 e 49,0%) e do tipo falsa melanose (1,1; 4,5; 15,0; 31,0; 53,0 e 68,0%). Para a validação da escala, seis avaliadores quantificaram a severidade da doença a partir das imagens digitalizadas de 50 frutos com diferentes níveis de doença. Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala. Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores, utilizando a escala diagramática proposta, estimaram a severidade nos mesmos frutos avaliados anteriormente. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores e proporcionaram maior reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da mancha preta nos frutos e será usada em estudos epidemiológicos e de avaliação de estratégias de controle desta doença.A diagrammatic scale, showing the most common symptoms of black spot in citrus (Citrus spp.) fruits, hard spot and false melanose types, was developed to standardize severity assessment. The scale was elaborated considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field. The intermediate values followed logarithmic increments for hard spot (0.5, 1.7, 5.0, 11.5, 22.5, and 49.0%) and false melanose (1.1, 4.5, 15.0, 31.0, 53.0, and 68.0%) symptoms. To validate the scale, six raters quantified the disease severity of digitalized images of 50 fruits with black spot symptoms. Initially, the estimates of severity were done without the use of the scale. Then, the raters estimated the severity of the same fruits previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of greater precision and higher accuracy for all raters, besides being more highly reproducible among the different raters. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate black spot severity in citrus fruits and will be used in epidemiological studies and int he evaluation of control strategies for this disease.

Marcel B Spósito; Lilian Amorim; José Belasque Junior; Renato B Bassanezi; Renata de Aquino

2004-01-01

322

Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

1996-01-01

323

Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus Hirsutellathompsonii Fisher and partly through a decline in feed qual...

Brussel, E.W., van

324

Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

1997-01-01

325

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete Reis; Otto Carlos Koller; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Sergiomar Theisen; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Fernanda Severo Nichele; Rafael Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte Petry

2008-01-01

326

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos/ Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, (more) plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC. Abstract in english Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and (more) 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Reis, Bernadete; Koller, Otto Carlos; Schwarz, Sergio Francisco; Theisen, Sergiomar; Sartori, Ivar Antônio; Nichele, Fernanda Severo; Lorscheiter, Rafael; Petry, Henrique Belmonte

2008-06-01

327

Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos/ Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de produção e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes (more) de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2); três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77) e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39) foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis) e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii) foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3) foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%). Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2), em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença. Abstract in english Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF), caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sourc (more) es and named Bio1 and Bio2), three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77) and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39) were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis) and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii) were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3) presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%). Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2), it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp. decreased the p

Kupper, Katia Cristina; Bellotte, José Antonio Miranda; Goes, Antonio de

2009-12-01

328

Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: Hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake. PMID:24011420

Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman

2013-08-26

329

Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: Hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake.

Barfi B; Asghari A; Rajabi M; Barfi A; Saeidi I

2013-10-01

330

76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Science.gov (United States)

...injurious disease of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe chlorosis between veins on the...W.D. Pria, Jr., P.M. Lacava, et al. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in Sweet Orange Fruit and Seeds and Its...

2011-02-15

331

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Science.gov (United States)

...injurious disease of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe chlorosis between veins on...W.D. Pria, Jr., P.M. Lacava, et al. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in Sweet Orange Fruit and Seeds and Its...

2010-04-06

332

Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas/ Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasit? (more) ?ide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae w (more) ere recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

Carvalho, Romulo da Silva; Soares Filho, Walter dos Santos; Ritzinger, Rogerio

2010-10-01

333

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

Terol Javier; Soler Guillermo; Talon Manuel; Cercos Manuel

2010-01-01

334

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben  

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The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

2011-07-01

335

Flavonoid Composition of Citrus Juices  

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Full Text Available In the early nineties the presence of flavonoids in Citrus juices began to attract the attention of a number of researchers, as a result of their biological and physiological importance. This short review will explore two different aspects. The first part will focus on analytical techniques for the characterization of juices from different Citrus fruits regarding their flavonoid content (even if present in only trace amounts), concentrating on the most widely used methods (LC-MS and LC-MS-MS). The second part analyzes data reported in the literature regarding the composition of Citrus juices. The main components that have been detected so far are flavanone-O-glycosides and flavone-O- or -C-glycosides. The presence of such derivatives in various hand-squeezed and industrial juices is discussed, with special emphasis on their correlation to different species.

Giuseppe Gattuso; Davide Barreca; Claudia Gargiulli; Ugo Leuzzi; Corrado Caristi

2007-01-01

336

Relationship of Farmer`s Education with Adoption of Selected Citrus Growing Practices in Sargodha Tehsil  

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Citrus is one of the major fruits of Pakistan. Its importance has generally been recognized throughout the world. Punjab province contributes a major share in the total citrus production in the country. Sargodha Tehsil being the most important citrus growing area, was selected for this study. The pr...

Muhammad Asif Bajwa; Toheed Elahi Lodhi; Ahmad Saeed Khan

337

Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermesbrevis  

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The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was c...

Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

338

Plant growth, Leaf Nutrient status, fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) as influenced by potassium (K) fertigation with four potash fertilizer sources  

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To investigate the effect of different potassium (K) fertilizers applied through fertigation system during three different seasons on yield and quality behaviors of 14-16 years Nagpur mandarin an experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The Nagpur ...

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure; Anoop Srivastava

339

Diversidade de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha em citros, café e fragmento de floresta nativa do Estado de São Paulo Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the State of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e floresta estacional semidecidual com fisionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a influencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agroecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identificação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A floresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a floresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na floresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à floresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da floresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de insetos vetores e possíveis vetores de doenças de plantas cultivadas nos habitats avaliados indicam a necessidade da implantação do manejo de pragas nessa área.The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats.