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PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

2013-01-01

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78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella  

Science.gov (United States)

...0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus...importation of several varieties of fresh citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and...allow for the importation of fresh citrus fruit, including Citrus hybrids...

2013-02-06

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78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus  

Science.gov (United States)

...0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus...importation of several varieties of fresh citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and...allow for the importation of fresh citrus fruit, including Citrus hybrids...

2013-07-10

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Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

2004-10-01

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Physiology of citrus fruiting / Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-mo [...] delo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área. Abstract in english Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information [...] generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.

Domingo J., Iglesias; Manuel, Cercós; José M., Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A., Naranjo; Gabino, Ríos; Esther, Carrera; Omar, Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio, Lliso; Raphael, Morillon; Francisco R., Tadeo; Manuel, Talon.

2007-12-01

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Physiology of citrus fruiting / Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-mo [...] delo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área. Abstract in english Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information [...] generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.

Domingo J., Iglesias; Manuel, Cercós; José M., Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A., Naranjo; Gabino, Ríos; Esther, Carrera; Omar, Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio, Lliso; Raphael, Morillon; Francisco R., Tadeo; Manuel, Talon.

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7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture...Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced...

2010-01-01

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[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631

Kroyer, G

1986-03-01

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76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

...APHIS-2008-0140] Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal...Treatment Manual for certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the...cherries and certain species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into...

2011-03-30

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77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions  

Science.gov (United States)

...Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY...Insurance Regulations, Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions. The...Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions...

2012-12-21

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78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective April 16...corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions...

2013-04-16

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78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction...pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January...corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions...

2013-01-22

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7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or by collecting marketable fruit from the ground. Hedged...for better or more fruitful growth of the citrus fruit. Interplanted. Acreage...for better and more fruitful growth of the citrus fruit. Varieties....

2010-01-01

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Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed

Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

2002-01-01

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7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Lemons and Limes; (7) Citrus VII—Grapefruit for which freeze... Freeze. The formation of ice in the cells of the fruit caused...citrus fruit from Citrus IV, V, VII, and VIII to be unmarketable...Citrus fruit crops IV, V, VII, and VIII that are...

2010-01-01

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Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

Majd Ahmad

2009-10-01

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False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

2014-09-01

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Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar

2011-06-01

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Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-10-01

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Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
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7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fruit caused by low air temperatures. Harvest. The...better or more fruitful growth of the citrus fruit...better and more fruitful growth of the citrus fruit...on our estimate of the effect of the following...from the nearest juice plant will be used, if...

2010-01-01

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Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit species when such fruits were selected for their physical resemblance to the native fruit species. Based on our review and case studies, we propose that fruit characteristics of native plant communities could dictate how well a non-native, fleshy-fruited plant species competes for dispersers with natives. Native bird preferences may be largely influenced by regional native fruits, such that birds are attracted to the colors, morphology, and infructescence structures characteristic of preferred native fruits. Non-native fruits exhibiting similar traits are likely to encounter bird communities predisposed to consume them. If those non-natives offer greater fruit abundance, energy content, or accessibility, they may outcompete native plants for dispersers.

Marcel Rejmanek

2012-02-01

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Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 MPa while the extraction efficiency over 80% was obtained for lemon and shikuwasa but it was about 60% for daidai peel slurry. The extracted oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS to compare the compositions of oils among these peel slurries. The compositions of extracted oils differed qualitatively and quantitatively from each other of feed materials in such a way that the monoterpenes (C10H16 content varied 89.23 to 93.20% with the type of peel slurry, while limonene as a major compound. Oxygenated compounds in these oils represented 8.84, 5.5 and 4.49% in lemon, daidai and shikuwasa peel slurry, respectively. The obtained product with the composition was almost the similar with the other citrus oils extracted from fresh fruit peels.

Bhupesh C. Roy

2005-01-01

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Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

2009-07-01

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Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

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Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

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Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected...

Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Hosseinimehr, S. J.; Mahmodi, M.; Gayekhloo, M. R.; Hoseiani, M.

2005-01-01

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In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

Muthiah PL

2012-07-01

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An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

Jakobi, Steven

2010-01-01

30

Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels. PMID:18683945

Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

2008-09-10

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Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Seedless Citrus Production: Pollen Germination and Fruit Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seedlessness is a desirable characteristic in citrus fruits sold for fresh consumption. Gamma irradiation is widely used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Here, different clones of the self-incompatible parthenocarpic ‘Moncada’ mandarin, obtained by gamma irradiation, were studied to assess seedlessness, pollen germination, fruit characteristics and qua- lity attributes. Findings indicate that irradiation altered aspects other than seedlessness, such as pollen germination, and some of the...

Almudena Bermejo; Antonio Cano; José Pardo

2011-01-01

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Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

Mohammed Yesuf

2013-07-01

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Investigation of ?-Cryptoxanthin Fatty Acid Ester Compositions in Citrus Fruits Cultivated in Japan  

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Full Text Available In this study, a catalog of ?-cryptoxanthin (?CX and its fatty acid esters (?CXFAs in citrus fruits were constructed. The peel and pulp of citrus fruits from nine Japanese cultivars and one foreign cultivar were surveyed by supercritical fluid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC/QqQMS. In each citrus sample, the major components were ?CX and its laurate ester, myristate ester, palmitate ester, and oleate ester. However, the composition ratio of ?CXFA varied with the citrus breed and between the pulp and the peel of the fruit in most cultivars. The SFC/QqQMS system could be used to obtain new information about ?CXs and carry out further discussion on the feature and tendency of each citrus variety.

Katsuta Kan

2013-08-01

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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

Muthiah PL

2012-03-01

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Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100-1 g and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100-1 g. Amla (Indian gooseberry fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100-1 g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100-1 g of edible portion of the fruits. Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100-1 g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100-1 g among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100-1 g. The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100-1 g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100-1 g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100-1 g of fruits.

Dipak Kumar Paul

2004-01-01

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Analyzing pH: Comparing Citrus Fruits, Stain Removers and a Green Product  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity will introduce pH testing of cleaning products, citrus fruits, and then analyzes a mystery Green product. Students will compare and contrast findings to discover an earth friendly product.

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Effect of Scuffing Damage and Curing on Diffusion Rate of CO2 Through Citrus Fruit Peel  

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Full Text Available These studies were initiated to observe the effect of curing on the shelf life of damaged citrus fruits by reducing diffusion rate of CO2. The damaged peel had a higher diffusion rate of CO2 than undamaged fruit peel before curing. The effect of curing on peel was that the diffusion rate of CO2 through damaged and undamaged peel was reduced after curing. The peel of cured fruits did not show any change in diffusion rate of CO2 after 30 days of storage. Curing could be useful to reduce respiration/exchange of gases and in extending the storage life of damaged citrus fruit.

Muhammad Akram Tariq

2001-01-01

38

Temperature Effects on Vitamin C Content in Citrus Fruits  

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Full Text Available Loss in vitamin C contents of some fruit juice namely, orange, lemon, lime and grape stored under different conditions was investigated. The juices from the samples were extracted, stored at room temperature in plastic bottles. The juices were all analyzed for their vitamin C content by oxidation and reduction method. Results revealed that vitamin C concentration is more in orange juice as compared to grape, lemon and lime juice respectively in this order: at 20oC, 612.15 > 454.47 > 305.57 > 270.75 . 80oC, 550.87 > 380.16 > 248.85 > 222.58 and the rate at which vitamin C is loss during storage depends on the type of storage method employed, for example, handling and storage; oxygen is the most destructive ingredient in juice, causing degradation of vitamin C. Juice should be discouraged from being display in the hot weather above room temperature in order to maintain production concentration. The citrus fruits were found to follow a similar pattern of loss.

C.V. Okoye

2011-01-01

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Irradiation for international trade in agricultural products: The case of citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses the influence of irradiation techniques on the Uruguayan market and their repercussions on international trade, with emphasis on the important and steadily growing citrus sector. This growth of citrus cultivation in Uruguay has been based on increasing international trade, and therefore producers and exporters have shown particular interest in the plant protection requirements which the European Economic Community (EEC) may adopt to govern the import of citrus fruit into its area. Over the past few years, the sector has become a net exporter, increasing its turnover from one harvest to the next. However, it is currently facing problems caused by the citrus plant disease known as canker, which is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris, pv citri). The EEC is considering plant protection measures which could close its market to Uruguayan citrus fruit. Likewise, the North American market does not accept fruit from regions affected by canker. It is intended to treat fruit ready for export (wax-treated and packed) by irradiation at 0.7 kGy, combined with heat treatment for 5 min at 50 deg. C at the first rinsing stage during packing. Citrus fruit irradiation thus appears as an alternative treatment which would solve the problem by allowing a quality product to be offered on the foreign market, thereby improving commercial prospects as well as avoiding non-tariff barriers. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

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Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

 
 
 
 
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Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (?1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

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A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

Rodrigo, María J.

2013-09-04

43

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits  

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Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are sufficient and according to the OECD methodology a MRL proposal of 6 mg/kg is derived for propiconazole in citrus fruits. The existing EU MRLs for propiconazole in food commodities of animal origin need to be modified for ruminant kidney, fat and meat reflecting the feed intake of citrus pomace. For ruminant liver and milk the existing MRLs do not have to be modified. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of propiconazole on citrus fruits and residues in ruminant meat, fat and kidney will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-12-01

44

Influence of Gamma Irradiation on Seedless Citrus Production: Pollen Germination and Fruit Quality  

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Full Text Available Seedlessness is a desirable characteristic in citrus fruits sold for fresh consumption. Gamma irradiation is widely used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Here, different clones of the self-incompatible parthenocarpic ‘Moncada’ mandarin, obtained by gamma irradiation, were studied to assess seedlessness, pollen germination, fruit characteristics and qua- lity attributes. Findings indicate that irradiation altered aspects other than seedlessness, such as pollen germination, and some of the clones presented different weight, size, acidity and maturity index. Fruit quality and nutritional bio- components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control ‘Moncada’ man-darin, while other clones showed significant differences. In general, all clones examined presented low seed numbers and re- duced pollen viability. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration.

Almudena Bermejo

2011-05-01

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed  

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Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus group, to 0.5 mg/kg in pome fruits and to lower the existing MRL to 0.04 mg/kg in rape seed. Spain drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.5 mg/kg for the proposed uses on citrus fruits and pome fruits. No modification of the existing MRL is proposed for rape seed. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of phosmet and phosmet oxon in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that according to the internationally agreed methodology for estimation of the consumer exposure, the intended uses of phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed will not result in an exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-12-01

46

[Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. IV. Biological activities of immature fruits of different citrus species].  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological activities of the 50% ethanolic extract of Kijitsu, dried immature Citrus fruits prepared from C. hassaku Hort. ex Tanaka (H), C. natsudaidai Hayata (N) or allied plants (T, A) were observed. Weak toxicities, weak intestine or uterine relaxant activities, beta-adrenergic activities were shown by in vitro experiments and antiasthmatic activity by intraperitoneal administration. These activities among each extract did not differ. The content of flavonoids (narirutin, naringin hesperidin, neohesperidin) or synephrine did not show much difference among the four dried immature Citrus fruits. These results suggest that H can be used for medicine as the substitute for N, T or A which has been commonly used as Kijitsu. This method is generally applicable to the proof of the biological equivalency of the crude drug and its substitutes. PMID:1676750

Hosoda, K; Noguchi, M; Chen, Y P; Hsu, H Y

1991-03-01

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Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid. Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. The vitamin C contents in fresh juice were determined by a two step oxidation-reduction titration. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by tukey, multiple range test.Results : Mean ascorbic acid contents of commonly used citrus were 85.4±18.3 mg/100 of juice (ranging from 57.9 to 131.6. The highest amount of vitamin C were found in Shahsavari orange 131.6 ± 4.2 and Sanguinello 100.7 ± 2.2 and the lowest amounts were in Tangelo 57.9 ± 2.3 and Unshiu 70.2 ± 2.2 mg/100 of juice. There was no correlation between Ascorbic acid contents and amount of citric acid in juice.Conclusion : Significant differences were found in vitamin C contents of citrus fruits. In order to increase the intake of vitamin C in daily diet, consuming fruits with higher contents of vitamin C is recommended.

M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

2005-01-01

48

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. PMID:19770018

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-01-01

49

An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author)

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An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits.

Tabner, Brian J.; Tabner, Vivienne A.

1993-03-01

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Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels  

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Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits,...

Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Azadbakht, M.

2006-01-01

52

Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits.

Tabner, Brian J.; Tabner, Vivienne A.

1996-04-01

53

Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author)

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Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

2008-01-01

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Citrus Chlorophyllase Dynamics at Ethylene-Induced Fruit Color-Break: A Study of Chlorophyllase Expression, Posttranslational Processing Kinetics, and in Situ Intracellular Localization1[OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit color-break is the visual manifestation of the developmentally regulated transition of chloroplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening and often involves biosynthesis of copious amounts of carotenoids concomitant with massive breakdown of chlorophyll. Regulation of chlorophyll breakdown at different physiological and developmental stages of the plant life cycle, particularly at fruit color-break, is still not well understood. Here, we present the dynamics of native chlorophyllase (Chlase) and chlorophyll breakdown in lemon (Citrus limon) fruit during ethylene-induced color-break. We show, using in situ immunofluorescence on ethylene-treated fruit peel (flavedo) tissue, that citrus Chlase is located in the plastid, in contrast to recent reports suggesting cytoplasmic localization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Chlases. At the intra-organellar level, Chlase signal was found to overlap mostly with chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting association of most of the Chlase protein with the photosynthetic membranes. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the kinetics of chlorophyll breakdown was not uniform in the flavedo cells. Chlorophyll quantity at the cellular level was negatively correlated with plastid Chlase accumulation; plastids with reduced chlorophyll content were found by in situ immunofluorescence to contain significant levels of Chlase, while plastids containing still-intact chlorophyll lacked any Chlase signal. Immunoblot and protein-mass spectrometry analyses were used to demonstrate that citrus Chlase initially accumulates as an approximately 35-kD precursor, which is subsequently N-terminally processed to approximately 33-kD mature forms by cleavage at either of three consecutive amino acid positions. Chlase plastid localization, expression kinetics, and the negative correlation with chlorophyll levels support the central role of the enzyme in chlorophyll breakdown during citrus fruit color-break. PMID:18633118

Azoulay Shemer, Tamar; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar; Belausov, Eduard; Lovat, Nicole; Krokhin, Oleg; Spicer, Victor; Standing, Kenneth G.; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Eyal, Yoram

2008-01-01

56

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays.

Dossat Carole

2007-01-01

57

Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. PMID:24629952

Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

2014-08-01

58

Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit  

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Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

Ondino C. Bataglia

1977-01-01

59

Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.  

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Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

2014-08-01

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Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Efficient detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination conditions  

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This paper focuses on the detection of citrus fruits in the tree canopy under variable illumination and different degree occlusion. We applied a novel segmentation method to detect the visible parts of fruits by fusing the segmentation results of chromatic aberration map, normalized RGB model, and illumination map. This fusion method can detect the highlights, shadows and diffuse zones of fruit targets. The 3-D surface topography of the visible parts of fruits were recovered by the classical algorithm of shade from shading, the fruit targets were recovered by sphere fitting using these point cloud data, and the valid ones were chosen out by validity check. The results showed that the occlusion zones of targets were effectively recovered under various light conditions integrally using the proposed method.

Lu, Jun; Sang, Nong

2013-10-01

62

Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system  

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Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

Issa Roy J.

2012-01-01

63

Effect of Curing and Packaging on Damaged Citrus Fruit Quality  

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Full Text Available Sealing and curing was found favourable to maintain the fruit quality and to extend its shelf life upto 6-7 weeks. The treatments also helped in healing and inhibited softening. Higher O2 and lower CO2 contents were found in sealed-cured fruit bags. The combined treatment (sealing + curing + washing was found more effective than individual treatments.

Muhammad Akram Tariq

2001-01-01

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Estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos / Study of some fruit characteristics of eight citrus rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1976 se encuentra el principal transmisor del virus de los cítricos en Venezuela, Toxoptera citricida Kirk., en 1979 ocurre el primer foco de árboles muertos por el virus. Estos acontecimientos, hicieron que se introdujeran al país diferentes cultivares de cítricos para ser evaluados como portain [...] jertos. Sin embargo, poco es lo que se conoce sobre la característica del fruto de esos materiales citrícolas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), los citrumelos Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) y Yuma (YUM), los citranges Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) y Uvalde (UVA), mandarino Cleopatra (CLE) Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan y Citremon 1449 Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus limon L. Se tomaron cinco árboles por portinjerto de tamaño y vigor uniformes, a cada árbol se le cosecharon diez frutos al azar y se determinó peso promedio, diámetro distal y ecuatorial, y grosor de cáscara. Además, se calculó la relación entre ambos diámetros, número de semillas por frutos, por 100 g, por kg y peso promedio de la semilla. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos. Abstract in english In 1976 was found for the first time in Venezuela the citrus tristeza virus transmitter, the Toxoptera citricida Kirk., and in 1979 occurs the first outbreak by the death of trees. All of those successes brought about the introduction of different Citrus cultivars to be evaluated as rootstocks. Howe [...] ver, little is known about the fruit characteristics of the introduced rootstocks. The objective of this work was to study the fruit characteristics of eight Citrus rootstocks: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), the citrumelos Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) and Yuma (YUM), the citranges Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) and Uvalde (UVA), Cleopatra mandarin (CLE), Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan., and Citremon 1449 (CIT) Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus limon L. There were selected five trees for each rootstock of uniform size and vigor. From each tree ten fruits were harvested in a randomize form, and we measured the mean weight, distal and equatorial fruit diameter, thickness of rind and number of seeds. In addition, it was calculated the distal/equatorial relation, mean seed number by fruit in a 100 g and a kilogram base, and seed weight. In this paper it is shown the characteristics of the fruits of the evaluated rootstocks.

Edmundo E, Monteverde; Carlos, Marín R; José R, Ruiz.

2007-09-01

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Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit and bladder cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. To assess these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of currently available studies. We identified relevant articles by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random effect model. We included eight case-control studies and six cohort studies in the meta-analysis. There was a significant inverse association between citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in all pooled studies (RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and case-control studies (RR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92), but not in the cohort studies (RR: 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.07). Our results suggest that citrus fruit intake is related to decreased bladder cancer risk. Subsequent well-designed, large prospective studies are needed to obtain better understanding of this relationship. PMID:24932663

Liang, Sudong; Lv, Gaofei; Chen, Weikai; Jiang, Jianxin; Wang, Jingqun

2014-11-01

66

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

67

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

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Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine; moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola, grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush, orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin and lemon (cv. Lisbon. Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P < 0.01 with fruit firmness. Although this study aimed to determine the range of potential hosts for C. radicicola, to date the only natural host in the world is considered to be lemon.

Mohammad R Mirzaee

2009-10-01

68

X-ray detection of metallic mercury in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oranges which were injected with metallic mercury were x-rayed. It was found out that in x-rays of the shut original boxes with 100 oranges the metallic mercury could even be determined in quantities far below those of the poisened fruits. (orig.)

69

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one- [...] week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P

Mohammad R, Mirzaee; Mojtaba, Mohammadi; Ali Azari, Nasrabad.

70

Endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars.  

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Endogenous free polyamines (PAs), putrescine, spermidine and spermine, from developing fruitlets of Citrus species (Citrus unshiu Marc. and Citrus clementina Hort ex Tanaka) which differ in their parthenocarpic ability, and from uniflowered leafy and leafless inflorescences differing in their ability to set, have been determined by dansylation and separation of dansyl derivatives by HPLC. No significant differences in PAs content were observed between species or between leafy and leafless inflorescences which, nevertheless, significantly differed in fruit set. However, significant differences in their content were found in developing fruitlets, depending on the preceding flowering intensity of the tree and on the fruitlet load. These results suggest that, in Citrus, PAs may act as a nitrogen source rather than a regulator of fruit set. PMID:16146310

Arias, Mercedes; Carbonell, Juan; Agustí, Manuel

2005-08-01

71

Physiological and biochemical studies on irradiated citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma irradiation (1-3 kGy) on the physiological and biochemical parameters of irradiated citurs fruit (cv. 'Kinnow') was studied during storage. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 kGy and above caused skin damage to the fruit and the extent of damage was proportionate to the radiation dose. Irradiated 'Kinnows' lost slightly more weight (non-significant) during storage. The rate of CO/sub/2 and C/sub/2H/sub/4 production increased due to irradiation. Differences in the biochemical constituents due to irradiation were not significant. Organoleptic evaluation revealed unacceptibility of the irradiated 'Kinnows' which due mainly to skin injury. (author)

72

A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids.

González-Candelas Luis

2010-08-01

73

Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

2012-11-01

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The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun  

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Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

Lim, M.

2006-05-01

75

Effect of Uni-Packaging on the Post Harvest Behavior of Citrus Fruits in N.W.F.P.  

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Full Text Available A 45 days storage experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Uni-Packaging treatments on the shelf life of citrus fruits. Different treatments were polyethylene bags of 0.0254mm, 0.0508mm thickness and control. The result showed that the uni-packaging had no significant effect on the pH of citrus fruit. Weight loss increased significantly as storage increased. Maximum weight loss observed in control and minimum weight loss in thick packaging (0.0508mm. The T.S.S increased during storage but individual packaging had non-significant effect on the T.S.S. Ascorbic acid decreased from 1.59-0.63% during storage. The organoleptic properties evaluation revealed that individual packaging had significant effect on the external appearance, taste and texture. Thick packaging perform significant effect in prolonging the shelf life of citrus fruit.

I. Hussain

2004-01-01

76

Biological and physical approaches to improve induced resistance against green mold of stored citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health and environmental concerns have point out the need to improve or change several manufacturing steps in the food chain. In this context particular attention should be given to the technologies involved in fruits and vegetables production. Nearly all fresh fruit and vegetables are subjected to different periods of storage and/or shelf-life before of their consumption. This implies the need to protect the commodities from microbial spoilage. Some Citrus species (e.g. lemon and grapefruit) may be stored for several months before consumption and then post-harvest treatments are essential to contain green (Penicillium digitatum) and blue (P. italicum) moulds. Alternative approaches to chemicals usually have a lower efficacy in containing rots but fulfill the consumer's expectation. Among the alternative strategies, the improvement of host natural resistance is promising. In this regard, we report some results concerning the use of biotic (yeast) and abiotic agents as inducers of phytoalexin (i.e. scoparone and/or scopoletin) accumulation in Citrus rind and its importance in the control of fungal decay. In all experiments the inducers were applied on fruits before or 24 h after inoculation with P. digitatum and the rot severity was monitored 7 days later. The accumulation of phytoalexins was monitored according to a standard methodology by HPLC. In all experiments a positive correlation was found between increase of the phytoalexin scoparone in host tissue and reduction of decay. PMID:16637204

Arras, G; Dhallewin, G; Petretto, A; Marceddu, S; Loche, M; Agabbio, M

2005-01-01

77

Occurrence of Osthole in Commonly Available Citrus Fruits Analyzed With GC-MS and LC-QTOF-MS  

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Full Text Available Summary: Osthole (CAS 484-12-8 is a compound with numerous possible therapeutic applications. Its occurrence was reported in Cnidium monnieri. In our practice we noted that osthole is present in citrus fruits. The purpose of the study was to examine and quantitatively assess the occurrence of osthole in commercially available citrus fruits. Grapefruit, pomelo, citron, and orange from various markets in Saudi Arabia were collected and subjected to QuEChERS/DPX extraction. As identification techniques, GC-MS (full scan and SIM and high resolution LC-QToF-MS (MSe mode with three transitions were applied. Osthole was identified in grapefruit, pomelo, and citron. Orange was practically free of osthole. The highest concentrations of osthole were found in the peel of all fruits, in the range of 7.0-78.5 mg/kg. In conclusion may be stated that the peel of examined citrus fruits may be considered as a valuable and easily available source of osthole. Industrial relevance: The peels of lemon fruits (grapefruit, citron, pomelo, which are treated as a food waste, contain osthole and may appear as valuable source of this compound after proper treatment. Keywords: osthole; GC-MS; LC-ToF-MS; citrus fruits

M J Bogusz

2012-12-01

78

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

79

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

1017-10-01

80

Application of microorganisms, alone or in combination, to control postbloom fruit drop in citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14, ACB-33, ACB-37, and ACB-40) and Bacillus subtilis (ACB-66, ACB-69, ACB-77, and ACB-83) were tested separately or in mixtures for suppression of postbloom fruit drop in citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This work aimed at: (i) determining the incubation [...] time and temperature for production of cells of biocontrol agents; (ii) determining the effect of the isolates, separately or in mixture on the germination conidia of C. acutatum; (iii) evaluating the efficiency of antagonistic isolates on detached citrus flowers and under field conditions. The results of the interactions in vitro showed that there was little differentiation in cell production among the species, and the optimum temperature was 27ºC. The best time for multiplication of bacterial cells was 36 hours, whereas for Trichoderma, the production of conidia continued to increase up to 120 hours of incubation. The mixtures of the ACB-77 plus ACB-66, ACB-33, or ACB-37 inhibited pathogen germination from 84% to 89%. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that ACB69 alone gave 99% control. The use of mixture ACB-69 plus ACB-37 proved to be viable in the control of disease under field conditions, but the efficiency of the control was lowest than the obtained by applications of ACB-69 alone.

Mariana N., Klein; Aline C., Silva; Marcos R., Lopes; Katia C., Kupper.

 
 
 
 
81

Application of microorganisms, alone or in combination, to control postbloom fruit drop in citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14, ACB-33, ACB-37, and ACB-40) and Bacillus subtilis (ACB-66, ACB-69, ACB-77, and ACB-83) were tested separately or in mixtures for suppression of postbloom fruit drop in citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This work aimed at: (i) determining the incubation [...] time and temperature for production of cells of biocontrol agents; (ii) determining the effect of the isolates, separately or in mixture on the germination conidia of C. acutatum; (iii) evaluating the efficiency of antagonistic isolates on detached citrus flowers and under field conditions. The results of the interactions in vitro showed that there was little differentiation in cell production among the species, and the optimum temperature was 27ºC. The best time for multiplication of bacterial cells was 36 hours, whereas for Trichoderma, the production of conidia continued to increase up to 120 hours of incubation. The mixtures of the ACB-77 plus ACB-66, ACB-33, or ACB-37 inhibited pathogen germination from 84% to 89%. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that ACB69 alone gave 99% control. The use of mixture ACB-69 plus ACB-37 proved to be viable in the control of disease under field conditions, but the efficiency of the control was lowest than the obtained by applications of ACB-69 alone.

Mariana N., Klein; Aline C., Silva; Marcos R., Lopes; Katia C., Kupper.

2013-12-01

82

Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control with FLU applications of 100 mg/L at 50 degrees C and 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C resulted in ca. 0.8 mg/kg FLU fruit residues, in agreement with results on wounded citrus fruit. When equal concentrations and temperatures were applied, FLU treatments were as effective as IMZ. In vitro trials showed a low sensitivity to FLU against P. digitatum and P. italicum isolates. MIC values for the complete inhibition of mycelium growth were >or=100 microg/mL, while ED(50) values ranged from 0.1 to 1 microg/mL for P. digitatum and from 1 to >100 microg/mL for P. italicum. The latter result suggests that care should be taken to avoid exclusive application of FLU in a sustainable program for management of fruit decay. However, integrating fungicide application and hot water dip may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, by increasing the effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16104790

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

2005-08-24

83

Bioavailability of insect growth regulators in citrus and stone fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to offer data about the bioavailability of flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb in common commodities like mandarin, apricot and peach. The in vitro bioavailability of the compounds was studied not only in fresh fruit but also in standards and canned food in order to establish possible differences according to the matrix. The gastric digestion was simulated with porcine pepsin at pH 2, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal digestion was simulated with porcine pancreatin at pH 7, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal absorption was simulated with cellulose dialysis tubing filled with a solution of sodium carbonate. No in vitro bioavailability was observed in mandarin, peach and apricot samples spiked at the concentrations generally found in the market for the raw and processed commodities. In standards, the dialysis started at the level of 0.25 mg/kg. This is an approximation to the pesticide digestion and absorption in humans. PMID:18399436

Paya, P; Mulero, J; Oliva, J; Camara, M A; Zafrilla, P; Barba, A

2007-01-01

84

Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

2013-01-01

85

Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed f [...] rom crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira, Peres; José Rodrigo Regis, Lopes; Cristiane Bezerra da, Silva; Ana Carina Silva, Cândido; Euclésio, Simionatto; Márcia Regina Pereira, Cabral; Rita Machado, Oliveira; Janaina Thomasi, Facco; Cláudia Andréa Lima, Cardoso; Pedro Henrique, Simas.

86

Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed f [...] rom crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira, Peres; José Rodrigo Regis, Lopes; Cristiane Bezerra da, Silva; Ana Carina Silva, Cândido; Euclésio, Simionatto; Márcia Regina Pereira, Cabral; Rita Machado, Oliveira; Janaina Thomasi, Facco; Cláudia Andréa Lima, Cardoso; Pedro Henrique, Simas.

2013-12-01

87

Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

2014-01-01

88

Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection.

Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

2014-01-01

89

Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the correlation between the flavonoid content and NO production inhibitory activity of fruit peel extracts using 20 citrus plants. The contents of seven flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, rutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin) were determined by HPLC analysis. Each citrus peel extract varied in flavonoid content, but the contents of nobiletin and tangeretin, which were contained in all 20 fruit peels, showed a positive and significant correlation with each other (r=0.879, ptangeretin. Nobiletin showed a more potent NO production inhibitory activity (IC50=26.5 microM) compared to tangeretin (IC50=136.6 microM). This result supports the premise that nobiletin-rich citrus may provide protection against disease resulting from excessive NO production. PMID:17409518

Choi, Soo-Youn; Ko, Hee-Chul; Ko, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho; Park, Ji-Gweon; Kang, Shin-Hae; Han, Sang-Hun; Yun, Su-Hyun; Kim, Se-Jae

2007-04-01

90

Effect of blue and red LED light irradiation on ?-cryptoxanthin accumulation in the flavedo of citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Cryptoxanthin (?-cry), an antioxidant abundant in citrus fruits, plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, especially cancers. In the present study, to increase the content of ?-cry in citrus flavedo, the effects of blue (470 nm) and red (660 nm) light-emitting diode (LED) lights on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the flavedo of Satsuma mandarin. The results showed that accumulation of ?-cry was induced by red light, while it was not affected by blue light. The accumulation of ?-cry under red light was attributed to simultaneous increases in the expression of CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb1, CitLCYb2, CitHYb, and CitZEP. The results presented herein might provide new strategies to enhance the commercial and nutritional value of citrus fruits. PMID:22026557

Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Yahata, Masaki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru

2012-01-11

91

Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

2010-07-01

92

Comparison of ascorbate metabolism in fruits of two citrus species with obvious difference in ascorbate content in pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruit is widely consumed and provides ascorbate for human health. The ascorbate content in pulp is generally higher in orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) than in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). However, what contributes to such difference is still unknown. In the present study, ascorbate accumulation, expression profiles of genes involved in L-galactose pathway and activity changes of enzymes related with L-ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation and recycling were investigated during fruit development and ripening in fruit pulp of Satsuma mandarin and orange. As fruit ripens, total ascorbate (T-ASC) or AA content increased in mandarin whereas fluctuated on a relatively high level in orange. Concentrations of T-ASC or AA in pulp of orange were over 1.5-fold higher than that in pulp of Satsuma mandarin during fruit ripening. Further analysis showed that each transcript of four genes (encoding GDP-D-mannose-3',5'-epimerase, GDP-L-galactose-pyrophosphatase, L-galactose dehydrogenase and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase respectively) in orange was almost on a higher level and the activities of oxidation enzymes (ascorbate oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were lower during fruit ripening as compared with Satsuma mandarin. As ascorbate pool size is decided by the combination of biosynthesis, oxidation and recycling, therefore, higher expression of four genes along with lower activity of oxidation enzymes should contribute at least partially to the higher ASC accumulation in orange pulp. PMID:21925761

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Jin-Xia; Wang, Fang-Fang; Zhong, Jing; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Li, Guo-Huai; Peng, Shu-Ang

2011-12-15

93

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

94

Evaluation of the Nutritive Potential of the Peels of Some Citrus Fruit Varieties as Feedingstuffs in Livestock Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four (4 varieties of citrus fruit namely Citrus limonum [lemon (Le, Citrus qurantifolia lime (Li], Citrus sinensis washington (SOw and Citrus sinensis Ibadan (SOi were peeled separately, sun dried, milled using hammer mill machine and analyzed in the laboratory to determine yield, proximate composition and crude fibre fractions. The percent dry weight of the peels showed that the yield of sun dried peels which can be obtained per unit weight of fresh peels decreased in the order SOi > SOw > Le > Li. Highly significant variations (p<0.01 existed between the proximate constituents among the peel meal, and their dry matter of about 89% and crude protein of 9.30-10.96% are comparable to that of maize. Crude fibre and ash which were approximately 14% and 5% respectively are higher than 2.1% CF and 1.22% ash in maize. Acid detergent fibre was significantly different (p<0.05, while hemi-cellulose, cellulose, ADF and NDF were highly significantly different (p<0.01 among the peels. The ADF seems high in all the peels and growth trials are recommended with monogastric and ruminant animals to evaluate the replacement value of these citrus peel meals when incorporated into the diets of these farm animals.

O.I.A. Oluremi

2007-01-01

95

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch, and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco, utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7. The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%, and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco, satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch e híbridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco, por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5% e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'.

Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

2005-08-01

96

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars / Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco), satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch) e hí [...] bridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco), por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5%) e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin [...] (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7). The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%), and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.

Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Elizete Beatriz, Radmann.

97

Potassium sorbate residue levels and persistence in citrus fruit as detected by a simple colorimetric method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A colorimetric method that employed extraction of the macerated fruit, followed by a reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid, was used to quantify potassium sorbate residues in citrus fruit. A recovery of more than 90% in oranges and lemons was obtained. Potassium sorbate residues determined by this method and a standard high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were similar. Residues were proportionate to the potassium sorbate concentration in the treatment solution. In oranges stored at 15 degrees C, following the potassium sorbate treatments, residues declined initially rapidly and later more slowly, until residues stopped declining after 6 days. A brief double-dip rinse in tap water applied immediately after immersion of lemons in a 2% (wt/vol) potassium sorbate removed more than 90% of the potassium sorbate residue. The influence of high-pressure water washing (HPWW) on potassium sorbate residues in potassium-sorbate-treated fruit was determined. Potassium sorbate residues were more effectively reduced by rinsing oranges than lemons. PMID:19334786

Montesinos-Herrero, Clara; Smilanick, Joseph L; Hurley, J Michael; Palou, Lluís

2009-05-13

98

Effects of rootstock/scion combinations on the flavor of citrus fruit.  

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We examined sensory quality, total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels, and aroma volatiles compositions of 'Or' and 'Odem' mandarins grafted on sour orange (SO), Volkamer lemon (Volka), and US-812 rootstocks; 'Valencia' oranges grafted on SO, Volka, and ×639 rootstocks; and a new pummelo × grapefruit hybrid cv. 'Redson' grafted on SO, Volka, and macrophylla rootstocks. TSS and acidity levels of all species were lower in juice of fruits on Volka than on SO. Sensory quality evaluations revealed that 'Odem' mandarins and 'Redson' fruits grown on SO were preferred to those on Volka but the rootstocks had no notable effects on flavor perception of 'Or' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges. Chromatographic analysis revealed that contents of aroma volatiles, especially terpenes, in homogenized segments of 'Odem' and 'Redson' but not of 'Or' and 'Valencia' were significantly lower on Volka than on SO. Overall, the effects of rootstocks on citrus fruit flavor depended on specific rootstock/scion interactions. Furthermore, the flavor of some varieties grown on Volka was inferior to that on SO because of lower TSS and acidity levels and lower aroma volatiles contents. PMID:24219601

Benjamin, Gili; Tietel, Zipora; Porat, Ron

2013-11-27

99

ANTI TYPHOID ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRUIT PEEL CITRUS SINENSIS (L.  

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Full Text Available Typhoid fever (TF is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L. confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.

Vivek Kumar R

2010-11-01

100

Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by {gamma}-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 {approx} 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 {approx} 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 {approx} 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 {approx} 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the {gamma}-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation.

Yang, Hee Sun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

 
 
 
 
101

Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods. (author)

102

Study on diminution of pesticide residues in citrus fruits by ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The citrus fruits were irradiated at different doses(25 ? 200 kGy) to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, bromacil, phenthoate and norflurazon, and the rates of degradation were detected by using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.007 ? 0.105ppm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.024 ? 0.352 ppm, and the recoveries of 9 pesticides were in the range of 71.5 ? 106.5%. The results demonstrated that the ?-irradiation was effective method to remove pesticides such as diuron, dichlorbenil, trifluralin, dimetoate, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, and norflurazon. However, the bromacil and phenthoate showed lower removal rates in the rate of 40.5 and 54.8%, respectively, at 200 kGy irradiation

103

Syringicin, a new alpha-elicitin from an isolate of Phytophthora syringae, pathogenic to citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary structure of syringicin (syr), a new acidic alpha-elicitin, isolated from culture filtrates of Phytophthora syringae, causal agent of citrus fruit rot, has been determined using a combined approch based on Edman degradation and MALDI-MS (TTCTT TQQTA AYVAL VSILS DSSFN QCATD SGYSM LTATA LPTTA QYKLM CASTA CKTMI TKIVS LNAPD CELTV PTSGL VLNVY SYANG FSSTC ASL). Syr has 98 amino acids with a M(r) of 10194.6+/-0.2, which was determined by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ES-MS) and in agreement with three disulphide bridges, located between Cys3-Cys71, Cys27-Cys56 and Cys51-Cys95. Syr induces a hypersensitive response and electrolyte leakage in tobacco. These are characteristic elicitor properties of the group and in agreement with the molecular mechanism recently proposed for this kind of protein. Finally, its possible applications in biological agriculture and biomedicine are briefly discussed. PMID:11551548

Capasso, R; Cristinzio, G; Di Maro, A; Ferranti, P; Parente, A

2001-09-01

104

Quantitative evaluation of auraptene and umbelliferone, chemopreventive coumarins in citrus fruits, by HPLC-UV-FL-MS.  

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An analytical strategy, based on the development of two HPLC methods with spectrophotometric (UV), spectrofluorometric (FL), and mass spectrometric (MS) detection, has been developed to investigate the presence of and to quantitate two important chemopreventive coumarins, auraptene and umbelliferone, in foodstuffs. The analytes were determined in fruits, and fruit parts, of plants belonging to the Citrus , Poncirus , and Fortunella genera, to test their nutraceutical potential. The method validation has been carried out according to international guidelines, with good results in terms of precision (RSD 91%). Application to the quantitative analysis of auraptene and umbelliferone in several kinds of citrus fruits was successful, providing reliable and consistent data. Exploiting three different kinds of detection, the analytical methodology proposed herein has been demonstrated to be sound but versatile, as well as reliable. Performances and results were compared and always found in good agreement among themselves. Thus, this approach is suitable for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of auraptene and umbelliferone in citrus fruits, with the aim of evaluating their nutraceutical potential. PMID:23083450

Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Ferranti, Anna; Sorella, Vittorio; Protti, Michele; Epifano, Francesco; Curini, Massimo; Raggi, Maria Augusta

2013-02-27

105

Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

2006-01-01

106

Ethylene induces de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase, a chlorophyll degrading enzyme, in Citrus fruit peel.  

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Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 3.1.1.14) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruit peel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was determined. The purified enzyme was used as an immunogen for raising antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum was highly specific and on Western blots recognized both the heated and the nonheated form of Chlase. The antibodies also recognized the solubilized enzyme, as shown by an immunoprecipitation assay and by antigen-antibody capture assays in microtiter plates. Treatment with ethylene, which enhances degreening, increased Chlase activity 12-fold. Immunoblot analyses of crude extracts from ethylene-treated fruit detected a strong signal of the Chlase protein, while only a trace level of the enzyme protein could be detected in air. Gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine partly counteracted the ethylene-induced increase in Chlase activity as well as the immunodetected upsurge of the Chlase protein. Ethylene appears to enhance the degreening of citrus fruit through de novo synthesis of the Chlase protein, which in turn is inhibited by the senescence-delaying regulators, gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine. The Chlase enzyme protein may, therefore, serve as a model system for studying the hormonal molecular regulation of fruit ripening and senescence. PMID:11607429

Trebitsh, T; Goldschmidt, E E; Riov, J

1993-10-15

107

Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1100 to 2500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient ( R2). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R2 value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent classification of citrus according to the variety to which they belong and well-classified citrus according to their origin. The technique has potential in rapid determination of sugars content and to identify different varieties and origins of citrus in citrus juice industry.

Tewari, Jagdish C.; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A.

2008-12-01

108

Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

2014-09-01

109

77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions  

Science.gov (United States)

...able to search the electronic form of all comments...fees from limited resource farmers. FCIC believes...commodities'' as ``oranges,'' ``grapefruit...Early and mid-season oranges), Citrus II (Late oranges juice), Citrus...

2012-07-16

110

Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos / Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. [...] In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II). Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

Gilberto G., Villela; José Danilo, Pecci.

111

7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

...FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit...first arrival sampling. Citrus fruits imported from Peru are subject...inspector will sample and cut citrus fruits from each consignment...

2010-01-01

112

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

113

Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

114

Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata Ondersoek na vruggroei van Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata  

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Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA? on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA?, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA? , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA? treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA?, had no significant effect on juice quality.Die vruggroei van Minneola tangelo is volledig ondersoek en ’n soortgelyke groeipatroon (S-kromme aan die van onder sitrusvrugte is verkry. Die groeitempo verskil egter van ander sitruskultivars. Met die toediening van lae konsentrasies gibberelliensuur (GA? is daar ’n afname in groei, met die gevolg dat kleiner vrugte verkry word. Die 15 dpm GA?-behandeling het meer vrugte geproduseer as die kontrolebehandeling. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die GA?-vrugte is effens verlaag. GA? - behandelings het geen betekenisvolle invloed op die sapkwaliteit van vrugte gehad nie.

H. J. Esterhuizen

1991-07-01

115

Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

116

Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity. PMID:20410602

Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

2010-01-01

117

Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging  

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Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

Paiwan Buachan

2014-04-01

118

Towards the Biological Control of Post Harvest Blue Mold of Citrus sinensis Fruits in Egypt I-isolation and Characterization of Antagonistic Strain of Streptomyces alni  

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Full Text Available Wet rot-diseased Citrus sinensis fruits were collected from Kafr El-Ziat Station for citrus exportation. The fungal pathogen was isolated and identified as Penicillium italicum. Sixty eight bacterial isolates (eubacteria and actinomycetes were screened for their antagonistic activities against the fungal pathogen, Penicillium italicum. Thirty one isolates (identified and unidentified showed antifungal activity against the pathogen and unidentified actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Citrus sinensis trees, exhibited the highest activity. Cultural, physiological and biochemical studies were performed to characterize and identify the most active actinomycete. Depending on the results of these studies, the most active antifungal actinomycete was identified as Streptomyces alni. The sterilized cultural filtrate of Streptomyces alni was applied to Citrus sinensis fruits and inhibited the fungal infection until 27 days of storage, but slight symptoms of infection appeared after one month of storage under humid conditions.

Essam A. Azab

2006-01-01

119

Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of juices from Chinotto ( Citrus x myrtifolia Raf.) fruits at different ripening stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The qualitative and quantitative compositions of chinotto juice in two different maturation periods were determined via chromatographic separation of extracted aliquots of juice of Citrus x myrtifolia Raf. by using reverse-phase LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS. This provides a comprehensive chromatographic evaluation of 11 compounds (furanocoumarins and flavonoids C- and O-glycosides). Five flavonoids and two furanocoumarins were identified for the first time in chinotto juice: two C-glucosides (vicenin-2 and lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether), two O-glycosides (narirutin and rhoifolin), and a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone (brutieridin). Bergapten and epoxybergamottin were the primary furanocoumarins found. Overall, the juice from immature chinotto fruits is richer in bioactive compounds than that obtained from ripe fruits. The free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of juice from both green and ripe fruits were assessed, and results showed that the former is much more efficient in scavenging radical and superoxide species than the latter. PMID:20155909

Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Caristi, Corrado; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

2010-03-10

120

CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis  

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Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leav...

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp.) de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos / Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp.) of potential use as rootstock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, [...] incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki. Abstract in english The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp.), and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan [...] , C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Ary Apparecido, Salibe.

122

Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp. de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp. of potential use as rootstock  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki.The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp., and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo

2002-12-01

123

Nutritional Evaluation of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Fruit Peel as a Feed Resource in Broiler Production  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted with broiler chicks to evaluate the nutritional potential of Sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis peel as a feed resource. Sweet orange peels were sun dried, milled and used as a dietary substitute for maize. Six experimental diets coded as M100P0, M90P10, M80P20, M70P30, M60P40 and M50P50 were compounded such that Sweet Orange Peel Meal (SOPM substituted maize at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively in broiler starter and finisher diets. One hundred and eighty (180 day-old Anak titan chicks were randomly divided into six groups and one of each was allotted to a diet of three replicates. The birds which were raised in deep litter pens for sixty-three days were fed ad libitum and had access to fresh cool drinking water daily. Performance data: feed intake, water consumption, body weight, Body Weight Gain (BWG, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were collected during the feeding trial and carcass evaluation was done at the termination of the trial. In both starter and finisher phases, the diets had no effect (p>0.05 on feed intake, water consumption, body BWG and FCR but had significant effect (p0.05 among the dietary groups. The diets had no effect (p>0.05 on kidney, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and lung but had significant effect (p<0.01 on proventriculus and gizzard as the SOPM level increased. The organs were normal and there were no observable adverse effects on the health of broilers. SOPM can be a dietary substitute for maize up to 20% level in the diet for broiler.

C.D. Tuleun

2010-01-01

124

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines...and sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L...subpart. (a) The fruit must be...

2010-01-01

125

40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. ...STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the citrus products...

2010-07-01

126

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...interstock grapefruit, and the grafted scion Valencia orange. Potential production...the insurance period for tangerines. Scion. A detached living portion of a plant... A buckhorned citrus tree with a new scion grafted onto the interstock. 2....

2010-01-01

127

Efficacy of lufenuron bait station technique to control mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata in Citrus Orchards in Northern Tunisia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of the lufenuron bait stations as a component of an integrated pest management program (IPM) was tested in three citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata during the three years 2005, 2006 and 2007. the technique was based on the use of the insect growth regulator lufenuron transferred via a gel bait Fr adult flies to prevent the hatching of eggs laid in fruits and induce a subsequent population reduction. The evaluation of the effect of the treatments was based on the assessment of adult Medfly population reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures in McPhail traps baited with the synthetic lure trimedlure and insecticide together with the evaluation of fruit damage. Results indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions of 12.72 pour cent during 2005, 34.99 pour cent and respectively 78.85 pour cent, 62.84 pour cent in fields 1, 2 and 3 during 2007 compared to standard chemical treatments. Fruit damage assessment showed generally significant differences between the two treatments reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures

128

Histochemical evidence for the relationship between peel damage and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in gamma-irradiated citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first symptoms of radiation damage to citrus fruit were noted 24 to 48 hr after irradiation with 240 krad of gamma rays. At about the same time, radiation-damaged cells were observed in peel cross sections in the flavedo, the outer colored peel layers. The damaged cells were deformed and their protoplasts stained much darker with haematoxylin-safranin than protoplasts of intact cells. The cytoplasm in damaged cells either thickened at one side of the cell, sometimes filling up most of the cell space, or contracted into a small mass. Using several histochemical reagents, a considerable accumulation of phenolic compounds was found to occur in the damaged cells shortly after irradiation. No accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed in intact cells of irradiated fruit. It is suggested that the phenolic compounds which accumulate in flavedo cells following irradiation cause cell death and consequent peel necrosis (pitting). (author)

129

Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality  

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Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

Ricardo Victoria Filho

1991-01-01

130

7 CFR 906.5 - Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.5 Fruit. Fruit means either or both of the following citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus grandis, Osbeck, commonly called grapefruit, and (b) Citrus...

2010-01-01

131

Effect of Inflorescence Types on Fruits Quality of Owari Cultivar of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc.  

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Full Text Available Present studies were envisaged to determine the effect of inflorescence pattern on the fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer Citrange (TR, Sour Orange (SO and Trifoliate Orange (TF in the orchard of the Department of Horticulture, Ege University, Izmir Turkey. Physical fruit quality characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and height of fruits developed from leafy inflorescence were significantly higher as compared with leafless fruits. Fruit peel color (L, a, b and a/b ratio, specific gravity and electrical conductivity percentage (EC% was significantly higher in leafless fruits than leafy fruits but peel thickness and peel thickness index were higher for leafy fruits than that of leafless ones. Fruit internal quality parameters such as fruit juice percentage and vitamin C contents were significantly higher in leafless fruits as compared with leafy ones.

Nasar Iqbal

2004-01-01

132

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

133

Effect of an invasive and native ant on a field population of the black citrus aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive ants often enter into facultative mutualisms that frequently lead to outbreaks of the hemipteran partner. Native ants may also enter into similar mutualisms but often these do not lead to outbreaks. However, field studies comparing the impact of an invasive and native ant on a honeydew-producing hemipteran are lacking. We monitored numerical changes of the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii, tended by adjacent colonies of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and the endemic odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile, during 2005, 2006, and 2007. Ant-tended aphid numbers were higher than those of untended aphids, with L. humile-tended and T. sessile-tended T. aurantii populations being comparable in 2005 and 2007. However, in 2006, a severe storm, with heavy rainfall, reduced T. sessile and aphid populations in areas occupied by T. sessile, whereas L. humile and aphids tended by L. humile were not reduced. This suggested that T. sessile foraging activity and hemipteran-tending was negatively impacted by severe weather. A laboratory experiment simulating rainfall striking the surface of a leaf showed that T. sessile foraging activity declined sharply under severe simulated rainfall conditions, whereas foraging activity of L. humile did not. Maintaining populations of honeydew-producing Hemiptera across broad climatic conditions may be one mechanism by which L. humile gains a competitive advantage over native ants occupying overlapping niches. PMID:20021757

Powell, B E; Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

2009-12-01

134

7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with section 8 (Insured Crop) of the Basic Provisions (§ 457.8), the crop insured will be all the...county of each citrus crop designated in the Special...area; (c) That are irrigated; (d) That has produced an average yield of at least three...

2010-01-01

135

Separation and characterization of a salt-dependent pectin methylesterase from Citrus sinensis var. Valencia fruit tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pectin methylesterase (PME) from sweet orange fruit rag tissue, which does not destabilize citrus juice cloud, has been characterized. It is a salt-dependent PME (type II) and exhibits optimal activity between 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl at pH 7.5. The pH optimum shifted to a more alkaline range as the salt molarity decreased (pH 8.5-9.5 at 50 mM NaCl). It has an apparent molecular mass of 32.4 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, an apparent molecular mass of 33.5 kDa as determined by denaturing electrophoresis, and a pI of 10.1 and exhibits a single activity band after isoelectric focusing (IEF). It has a K(m) of 0.0487 mg/mL and a V(max) of 4.2378 nkat/mg of protein on 59% DE citrus pectin. Deblocking the N-terminus revealed a partial peptide composed of SVTPNV. De-esterification of non-calcium-sensitive pectin by 6.5% increased the calcium-sensitive pectin ratio (CSPR) from 0.045 +/- 0.011 to 0.829 +/- 0.033 but had little, if any, effect on pectin molecular weight. These properties indicate this enzyme will be useful for studying the PME mode of action as it relates to juice cloud destabilization. PMID:12643675

Cameron, Randall G; Savary, Brett J; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Baker, Robert A; Grohmann, Karel

2003-03-26

136

El Estrés Hídrico en Cítricos (Citrus spp.): Una revisión / Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review / O estresse hídrico em cítricos (Citrus spp): Uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Os cítricos constituem o principal produto frutícola no mundo pelas suas vantagens e benefícios. Uma umidade adequada e homogênea no solo garante sua qualidade e produção, ainda nos países subtropicais onde existe distribuição uniforme da precipitação. A maioria das áreas citrícolas, contam com infr [...] aestrutura de risco localizado, o que incrementa a eficiência no uso da agua. Porém, a pressão sobre os recursos hídricos faz necessário estudar o comportamento em condiçöes adversas para manejar eficientemente o planejamento da irrigação. Nesta revisão apresenta-se o efeito do déficit hídrico nos cítricos. Além disto, algumas respostas fisiológicas e anatômicas pelos cítricos ao déficit e o efeito do estresse hídrico sobre a produção e o crescimento vegetativo. Finalmente, apresentam-se alguns resultados da aplicação de irrigação deficitária, como forma de poupar água sem afetar a produção. Abstract in spanish Los cítricos constituyen el principal producto frutícola a nivel mundial por sus ventajas y beneficios. Una humedad adecuada y homogénea en el suelo garantiza su calidad y producción, incluso en los países subtropicales donde existen distribuciones uniformes de la precipitación. La mayoría de las ár [...] eas de cítricos cuentan con infraestructura de riego localizado, lo que incrementa la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Sin embargo, la presión sobre los recursos hídricos hace necesario seguir estudiando el comportamiento ante condiciones adversas para manejar eficientemente la programación del riego. En este artículo se presenta el efecto del déficit hídrico en los cítricos. Además de algunas respuestas fisiológicas y anatómicas que manifiestan los cítricos a este déficit y que efecto tiene un estrés hídrico sobre la producción y el crecimiento vegetativo. Por último se recopilan algunos resultados de la aplicación de riego deficitario como una forma de ahorrar agua sin afectar la producción. Abstract in english Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits. Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns. Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, th [...] ereby increasing water-use efficiency. However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling. This paper deals with the effect of water stress on citric plants, as well as some of their physiological and anatomical responses to such deficit and what effect hydric stress has on vegetable production and growth. Some results are compiled regarding deficit irrigation (DI) as a way to save water without affecting production.

Javier E, Vélez; Javier G, Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H, Alvarado-Sanabria.

2012-12-01

137

Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

138

Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of lime, Citrus aurantifolia swingle fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lime fruits irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilising the market demand, revealed that irradiation of lime fruits, with 100 Gy gamma radiation proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of fruits upto 22 days of storage as compared to control and higher doses of irradiation. (author)

139

Effects of naringin, a flavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that naringin can impart to the adult dopaminergic neurons the ability to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against Parkinson's disease with anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we would like to describe an important perspective on its possibility as a therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25317167

Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

2014-08-15

140

Effect of gamma radiation on the titrable acidity and vitamin c content of citrus fruits  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess effect of gamma radiation on the acidity and vitamin C content of the Citrus macroptera (Satkora and Citrus assamensis (Ginger lime. Irradiation with doses 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 kGy were applied to assess the effect on the titrable acidity and vitamin C contents every one week interval for total five weeks. Both titrable acidity and vitamin C content of C. macroptera, and C. assamensis are sensitive to both gamma radiation and storage time; have decreased with increase of radiation does as well as storage time and this changes of vitamin C and titrable acidity content with gamma radiation and increasing storage period have found statistically significant.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Raga, Adalton

1996-12-31

142

7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement...COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus...

2010-01-01

143

Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation  

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Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

2011-11-01

144

Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

145

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

2013-01-01

146

The Effect of Dried Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Fruit Pulp Meal on the Growth Performance of Rabbits  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted with thirty six mixed breeds of rabbits to assess the feeding value of sun dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis fruit pulp meal (SOPM. The sweet orange peel meal was analyzed for its proximate nutrients and its crude fibre constituents. The nutrients in SOPM were 7.71% CP, 9.6% CF, 2.12% EE, 5.18% ash, 75.31% NFE and 3756.14kcalME/kg. The crude fibre fractions were 15.04% cellulose, 20.46% hemi-cellulose, 38.28% NDF, 18.32% ADF and 3.28% ADL. The experimental rabbits were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments: T0, T5, T10, T15, T20 and T25 in which SOPM replaced maize at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%, respectively at the rate of six rabbits per dietary group. The rabbits were fed these diets for 84 days during which performance and nutrient digestibility were evaluated. Experimental diets had significant effects (p<0.05 on the body weight gain, water intake, water: feed ratio, protein efficiency ratio and final live weight. Coefficient of digestibility and nutrient digestibility, were not adversely affected by the inclusion of SOPM in the diets. This study has shown the possibility that sweet orange fruit pulp meal can be used as a replacement feedstuff for maize in the ration of grower rabbit up to a level of 20%.

F.M. Hon

2009-01-01

147

Recent introduction and recombination in Colletotrichum acutatum populations associated with citrus postbloom fruit drop epidemics in São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, have been severely affected by postbloom fruit drop disease (PFD), which is caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This disease leads to the drop of up to 100% of young fruits. Previous studies have assumed that this pathogen exhibits a clonal reproductive mode, although no population genetic studies have been conducted so far. Thus, the genetic structure of six C. acutatum populations from sweet orange orchards showing PFD symptoms was determined using nine microsatellite markers, enabling inference on predominant mode of reproduction. C. acutatum populations exhibit a nearly panmictic genetic structure and a high degree of admixture, indicating either ongoing contemporary gene flow at a regional scale or a recent introduction from a common source, since this pathogen was introduced in Brazil only very recently. Sharing haplotypes among orchards separated by 400 km suggests the natural dispersal of fungal propagules, with the possible involvement of pollinators. A significant population expansion was detected, which was consistent with an increase in host density associated with crop expansion toward new areas across the state. Findings of moderate to high levels of haplotypic diversity and gametic equilibrium suggest that recombination might play an important role in these pathogen populations, possibly via parasexual reproduction or a cryptic sexual cycle. This study provides additional tools for epidemiological studies of C. acutatum to improve prevention and management strategies for this disease. PMID:24423403

Ciampi-Guillardi, Maisa; Baldauf, Cristina; Souza, Anete Pereira; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Amorim, Lilian

2014-07-01

148

Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.  

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Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

2014-06-01

149

Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS. PMID:25212475

Xiang, Yu; Cao, Jinping; Luo, Fenglei; Wang, Dengliang; Chen, Wei; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2014-10-01

150

Enzymatic formation of ?-citraurin from ?-cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase4 in the flavedo of citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the pathway of ?-citraurin biosynthesis, carotenoid contents and the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in two varieties of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), Yamashitabeni-wase, which accumulates ?-citraurin predominantly, and Miyagawa-wase, which does not accumulate ?-citraurin. The results suggested that CitCCD4 (for Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4) was a key gene contributing to the biosynthesis of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 increased rapidly from September, which was consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Miyagawa-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 remained at an extremely low level during the ripening process, which was consistent with the absence of ?-citraurin. Functional analysis showed that the CitCCD4 enzyme exhibited substrate specificity. It cleaved ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin at the 7,8 or 7',8' position. But other carotenoids tested in this study (lycopene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin) were not cleaved by the CitCCD4 enzyme. The cleavage of ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin by CitCCD4 led to the formation of ?-citraurin. Additionally, with ethylene and red light-emitting diode light treatments, the gene expression of CitCCD4 was up-regulated in the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase. These increases in the expression of CitCCD4 were consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin in the two treatments. These results might provide new strategies to improve the carotenoid contents and compositions of citrus fruits. PMID:23966550

Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Matsuta, Asami; Matsutani, Kazuki; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Wahyudi, Anung; Motohashi, Reiko; Kato, Masaya

2013-10-01

151

Comparison of Essential Oils of Clove, Thyme and Imazalil Fungicide on Blue Mold ( Penicillium italicum Wehemer of Citrus Fruits in Storage  

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Full Text Available Pathogens are the most important factors inducing postharvest losses on citrus fruit. Experiments were conducted as a CRD with 4 replications on sweet lime (Citrus limetta and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were pure essential oils of clove and thyme and in 25% ethanol solution at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% and imazalil (2 ml/l. Results indicated that in the first year, pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of blue mold of Valencia orange fruit from 90 % (control to 0 and 12.5 %, respectively. Pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of sweet lime in the first year of experiment from 95 % (control to 0 and 6 %, respectively. In the second year, with the same treatments decay percentage of blue mold was reduced from 90 % (control to 0. Solutions of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 % of clove and thyme oil extracts in 25 % ethanol solution reduced decay percentage of sweet lime fruits form 85 % (control to 65, 41 and 26 % for thyme oil and to 60, 30 and 22.5 % for clove oil. Comparison of pure clove and thyme oil extract with imazalil showed that pure clove and thyme oil extracts were not significantly different with fungicide treatment. Treatments of clove and thyme oils in 25 % ethanol treatment were not as effective as fungicide.

M. Rahemi

2008-10-01

152

COMPARATIVE DISAPPEARANCE OF DIOXATHION, MALATHION, OXYDEMETONMETHYL AND DIALIFOR FROM FLORIDA CITRUS LEAF AND FRUIT SURFACES  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface residue disappearance rates of dioxathion, malathion, and oxydemetonmethyl, and dialifor were the same for fruit and leaves, and they increase with temperature. Disappearance rates were in the order of malation, oxydemetonmethyl, dialifor, dioxathion (from largest to smal...

153

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ / Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os [...] espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial. Abstract in english This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to Nove [...] mber, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Jorge Ferreira de, Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Elen de Lima, Aguiar - Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes, Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo, Nascimento; William Costa, Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues, Cassino.

154

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Jorge Ferreira de Souza

2008-04-01

155

Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p???0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

2012-12-01

156

Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L.) osbeck ): II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos / Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L.) osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Ci [...] trus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2). A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem. Abstract in english The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus [...] orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia) . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha) were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m) with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

Ricardo, Victoria Filho; Célio S., Moreira; Natalino Y., Shimoama; Rosa K., Shinohar.

157

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.  

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Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-07-01

158

Assimilation of 14CO2 and 14C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assimilation and metabolism of 14CO2 was compared to that of [U-14C] sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of 14CO2 by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more 14CO2 than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the 14C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from 14CO2 in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous [U-14C] sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO2 assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose

159

Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects. PMID:19603253

Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

2009-10-01

160

Purification of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Substance of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck Fruit Peel  

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Full Text Available The extracts of buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck fruit peel were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and paper disc diffusion methods. Non-polar extracts exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, while polar extracts exhibited significant antioxidative activity. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract of flavedo were separated with silica gel column chromatography (CC and four active fractions A, B, C and D (14:1, 9:1, 5:1 and 1:1 were obtained from the eluents of benzene:acetone. The inhibitory activity of isolated compounds using Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC against Gram-negative and positive bacteria strong antimicrobial was recorded as follows oxypeucedanin hydrate (100-290 ppm, oleic acid (150-350 ppm, meranzin hydrate (620-850 ppm and linoleic acid (700-950 ppm. The antioxidant inhibition concentration 50% (IC50 for isolated components strongest activities were recorded as follows sitosterol linoleate described as a new isolated compound from the plants (95 ppm, meranzin hydrate, (160 ppm, isomeranzin (245 ppm and oxypeucedanin hydrate (330 ppm was recorded.

Matook Saif Mokbel

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...determine your loss on a unit basis. In the event you are unable to provide separate acceptable...the result of section 10(b)(3) is negative, no indemnity will be due); (5...be affected by subsequent fresh-fruit marketing. However, the 50 percent...

2010-01-01

162

Studies on the postharvest physiology and storage of citrus fruit, (8)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolism of acid and sugar of mandarin fruit after harvest was investigated. Each 0.1 ? Ci of citrate-1.5-14C(pH 3.49), glucose-1-14C (pH 7.0, G-1-14C) and glucose-6-14C(pH 7.0, G-6-14C) are injected into segments of the mandarin fruit through the peel, and metabolism was measured by the tracing method. The injected citrate-1,5-14C was decarboxylated immediately. One third out of the injected amount is discharged as 14C out of the fruit through 10 days after injection. On the contrary, the rate metabolism of G-1-14C and G-6-14C were comparatively slow. The amount of discharged 14CO2 was 6.5% and 6.3% of the total amount through 50 days respectively. Their rate of decarboxylation was faster than that of G-1-14C. It was suggested that the injected glucose was decomposed through the Hexose monophosphate pathway and then decomposed through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway gradually. The 14C injected into sarcocarp was metabolized to sugar, amino acid, protein and pectin at a high speed, and the existence of acid was 50% or less after 10 days. On the contrary, the metabolism of glucose-14C was slow, and about 80% was left in the neutral section after 50 days. In the soluble section of the fruit, the transfer from glucose to acid and amino acid was 20% after 50 days. The conclusion is that the rate of turnover of citric acid in mandarin fruit can be considerably high, even after harvest. (Iwakiri, K.)

163

Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

164

Changes in the levels of polymethoxyflavones and flavanones as part of the defense mechanism of Citrus sinensis (cv. Valencia Late) fruits against Phytophthora citrophthora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytophthora citrophthora causes serious losses in Citrus fruits through brown rot lesion. The effect of infection with P. citrophthora on Citrus sinensis (cv. Valencia Late) fruits was studied, with particular reference to the levels of the flavanones hesperidin and isonaringin and the polymethoxyflavones sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and heptamethoxyflavone, because flavonoids are most probably involved as natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this genus. Changes in the levels of these flavonoids were detected after infection. The hesperidin and isonaringin contents fell by 13 and 67%, respectively, whereas the contents of their corresponding aglycons, hesperetin and naringenin, increased, suggesting the hydrolyzing effect of this fungus on the glycosylated flavanones. The heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, sinensetin, and tangeretin levels increased by 48, 28, 26, and 24%, respectively. The in vitro study revealed that these compounds acted as antifungal agents, the most active being the aglycons (naringenin and hesperetin), followed by the polymethoxyflavones and flavanone glycosides. The participation of these flavonoids in the defense mechanism of this Citrus species is discussed. PMID:15053528

del Río, J A; Gómez, P; Baidez, A G; Arcas, M C; Botía, J M; Ortuño, A

2004-04-01

165

Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Although the greatest variety of Brazilian flora is in the Amazon region, the Southern region of Brazil also has an estimated number of at least 5,000 species of vascular native plants. These species have been neglected as potential food sources, remaining unknown and under-utilized and limiting the [...] potential variety in the diet of Brazilians and other peoples. Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The essential element concentrations in the fruit samples were higher or similar to the values reported for traditional fruits. The araticum-do-mato fruit samples had high concentrations of the elements Ca, K, and Cu, and trace elements such as Pb and Sr. Mandacaru-de-três-quinas had predominance of Ba, Bi, and Ga, and the essential elements Mg and Mn. Uvaia and guabiroba had the highest levels of Al and Cr, but uvaia had high levels of Fe and Zn. The pindo palm had high amounts of Cd and Ni, and the yellow guava had high concentrations of Na, while red guava had high levels of Co.

Marina Couto, Pereira; Wiliam, Boschetti; Roger, Rampazzo; Paulo Gustavo, Celso; Plinho Francisco, Hertz; Alessandro de Oliveira, Rios; Márcia, Vizzotto; Simone Hickmann, Flores.

2014-06-01

166

Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly associated with a major mobilization of mineral elements and with other previously known metabolic and photosynthetic changes. The expression of CcGCC1 was associated with peel ripening since CcGCC1 down-regulation correlated with a delay in colour break induced by genetic, developmental and hormonal causes.

Cercós Manuel

2010-12-01

167

Ethylene induces de novo synthesis of chlorophyllase, a chlorophyll degrading enzyme, in Citrus fruit peel.  

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Chlorophyllase (Chlase; EC 3.1.1.14) was extracted from plastid fractions of ethylene-treated orange fruit peel and purified 400-fold to homogeneity by gel filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE of nonheated protein. SDS/PAGE of nonheated purified enzyme indicated that Chlase activity is associated with a single protein band migrating at an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa whereas the heated purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of ...

Trebitsh, T.; Goldschmidt, E. E.; Riov, J.

1993-01-01

168

7 CFR 905.4 - Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.4 Fruit. Fruit means any or all varieties of the following types of citrus fruits grown in the production area: (a) Citrus sinensis, Osbeck, commonly called “oranges”; (b)...

2010-01-01

169

Estimativa da produção de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos por meio da massa de frutos / Production estimation of citrus rootstock seeds using fruit weight  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A diversificação do uso de porta-enxertos é de suma importância, especialmente pelo fato de que a citricultura depara-se com um número crescente de doenças que afetam pomares enxertados. O objetivo foi determinar a quantidade de caixas de frutos necessária para a obtenção de uma massa determinada de [...] sementes. Foram tomadas medidas de massa de fruto, número de frutos por caixa, número de sementes por fruto e número de sementes por caixa de nove porta-enxertos. O número máximo de caixas necessárias para obtenção de um quilo de sementes foi de 5,43 para o 'limão-cravo' e o número mínimo foi de 1,01, para o genótipo 'Rangpur' x 'Swingle'. Abstract in english Diversification of rootstocks is crucial, especially because the citrus industry is facing a growing number of diseases affecting orchards. The objective of this study was to determine the number of boxes of citrus needed to obtain a specific mass of seeds. Measurements of fruit weight, fruit number [...] per box, number of seeds per fruit and seed number per box of nine rootstocks were recorded. The maximum number of boxes needed to obtain 1 kg of seeds was 5.43 for the Lemon 'Cravo' and the minimum was 1.01 for genotype Rangpur x Swingle.

Moises, Zucoloto; Marcio Gama da, Costa; Lorena Moreira, Carvalho; Dierlei dos, Santos; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

2011-02-01

170

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) injertada sobre [...] limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq) ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005) y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006). El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio. Abstract in english One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus s [...] inensis L. Osbeck) grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale) located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping) of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch). The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005) and 229 days (February to September 2006). The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

María, Pérez de Camacaro; Aracelis, Jiménez.

2009-08-01

171

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck injertada sobre limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005 y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006. El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio.One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch. The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005 and 229 days (February to September 2006. The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

María Pérez de Camacaro

2009-08-01

172

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) injertada sobre [...] limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq) ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005) y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006). El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio. Abstract in english One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus s [...] inensis L. Osbeck) grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale) located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping) of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch). The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005) and 229 days (February to September 2006). The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

María, Pérez de Camacaro; Aracelis, Jiménez.

173

Assessment of Toxic Effects of the Methanol Extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via Biochemical and Hematological Evaluation in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera) is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05) and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05) from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract. PMID:25369061

Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Md. Rakib; Hasan, Md. Mahadi; Hossain, Md. Monir; Alam, Md. Robiul; Hasan, Mohammad Raquibul; Islam, A. F. M. Mahmudul; Rahman, Tasmina; Rana, Md. Sohel

2014-01-01

174

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

2013-01-01

175

Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

2009-04-01

176

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

2012-12-01

177

Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

178

Variation of Physiochemical Components of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle Fruits at Different Sides of the Tree in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle is one of the important commercial fruits cultivated from terai to high hill of Nepal. It is an important source of vitamin “C” (ascorbic acid for human nutrition. Amount of juice, TSS (Total soluble solids, TA (Titrable acid and vitamin C are the determining factors of quality of acid lime fruits which may vary according to bearing sides of the trees. The main objective of this study is, to determine the variation of fruit quality at different sides of the tree. Total of 15 bearing trees were selected randomly (5 trees per site from three different agro ecological domain representing terai (<600 m asl, mid hills (600 to 1200 m asl and high hill areas (>1200 m asl and samples were collected from the selected trees. Randomly ten fruits (from east, west, centre, north and south sides were collected from each tree and analyzed for amount of vitamin C, TSS, TA and juice. Highest ascorbic acid 79.6 mg and 69.9 mg was observed in south side fruits whereas lowest 62.8 mg and 55.1 mg was observed in centre fruits in the high and mid hills zone respectively, but in terai, highest ascorbic acid 58.7 mg was observed in north side and lowest 41.8 mg was observed in centre. Highest amount of juice 43.9% was observed in south side fruits and lowest 36.6% in centre fruits, but amount of TSS 8.2% and TA 7.2% was observed in south side fruits and lowest 7.3% TSS and 7.0% TA was observed in centre fruits in high hills. In terai highest TSS 8.3% and TA 7.4% was observed in north side fruits and lowest TSS 7.3% and TA 6.7% was observed in centre fruits. Variation of TSS, TA percent and ascorbic acids was observed according to the agro ecological zone.

Ram Lal Shrestha

2012-12-01

179

Chemical composition and antioxidant/antidiabetic potential of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods provide essential and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolemic activities, which have been related to vitamins A, C, and E and phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify potential sources of bioactive compounds through the determination of flavonoids and ellagic acid contents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity and alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps. Camu-camu, cambuci, uxi, and tucuma and commercial frozen pulps of cambuci, cagaita, coquinho azedo, and araca presented the highest antioxidant capacities. Cambuci and cagaita exhibited the highest alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. Quercetin and kaempferol derivatives were the main flavonoids present in most of the samples. Ellagic acid was detected only in umbu, camu-camu, cagaita, araca, and cambuci. According to the results, native Brazilian fruits can be considered as excellent sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:20337450

De Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Any Elisa; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés

2010-04-28

180

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks / Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O es [...] paçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro co [...] unty, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins; Rodrigo Rodas, Lemo; Tatiana, Cantuarias-Avilés.

 
 
 
 
181

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks / Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O es [...] paçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro co [...] unty, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins; Rodrigo Rodas, Lemo; Tatiana, Cantuarias-Avilés.

2009-06-01

182

77 FR 40076 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of the Citrus Flavanones Hesperetin, Hesperidin, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Syndrome and Insulin Resistance with Citrus Flavanones.'' The patent rights...is a flavonoid compound found in citrus fruits. Large epidemiological studies have...flavonoid-rich foods, such as citrus, with reduced cardiovascular...

2012-07-06

183

7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT...905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment...Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership...

2010-01-01

184

CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE / FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), que afeta principalmente as [...] variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março. Abstract in english The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) that affects mainly th [...] e sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

ROSE MARY, PIO; KEIGO, MINAMI; JOSÉ ORLANDO DE, FIGUEIREDO.

185

New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to colonize new regions. PMID:23135361

Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

2013-02-01

186

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citr [...] us sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [...] L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Daniel Lucas Magalhães, Machado; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving; Dierlei dos, Santos; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

2012-12-01

187

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citr [...] us sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [...] L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Daniel Lucas Magalhães, Machado; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving; Dierlei dos, Santos; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

188

76 FR 78225 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Citrus...  

Science.gov (United States)

...concerning the importation of fruits and vegetables into the...contained in ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7...these regulations, fresh citrus (grapefruit, limes...of Peru and growers of citrus fruit in Peru. Estimated...

2011-12-16

189

7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts...905.31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee...shall be the duty of the Citrus Administrative Committee...crop of each variety of fruit, and to make...

2010-01-01

190

Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.) / Horticultural techniques for improving orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L.) size and quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante 'Flying Dragon', se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa [...] al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), en plantas de 9 años de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i) el anillado de ramas productivas influyo significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incremento el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii) la aplicación de sacarosa mejoro la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana. Abstract in english Seeking to improve the fruit quality of Sweet Orange grafted on the dwarf rootstock 'Flying Dragon', the present research study tested a series of techniques, namely branch ringing, partial defoliation, fruit thinning, foliar fertilization, sucrose application to the foliage and pruning of non-produ [...] ctive branches. The work was carried out on 9 year old trees in a comercial orchard in the north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia). In comparing the treatment results to the control, it was observed that: i) productive branch ringing significantlyinfluenced total fruit production per plant and increased fruit retention on the tree by 38%; ii) sucrose application improved fruit internal quality through increasing total soluble solid content by 10% and reducing acidity by 36%. Neither fruit thinning nor foliar fertilization showed any significant differences with the control. It can be concluded that the combination of branch ringing and external application of sucrose can be useful for improving orange fruit quality in the Colombian coffee zone.

Marco, Cabezas-Gutiérrez; Carlos Andrés, Rodríguez E.

2010-01-01

191

Aspects of the regulator and physical-chemical properties of phenylalanine ammoniacliase of the fruit tissue of citrus sinensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurence of PAL as an enzyme containing calmodulin as an integral part of its structure is discussed against the background of the important regulatory function of the enzyme in secondary plant metabolism. This study also forms the basis of the investigation into the effect of gamma radiation on citrus tissue which leads to the induction of phenylalanineammoniacliase

192

Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and that integration of fungicide applications and hot water dips may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, as a consequence of increased effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16787020

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-06-28

193

Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) / Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presen [...] te estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden loc [...] ated in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under storage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

Ángel, Guadarrama; Yexsi, Peña.

2013-04-01

194

Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) / Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presen [...] te estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden loc [...] ated in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under storage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

Ángel, Guadarrama; Yexsi, Peña.

195

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yujie Zhang

2010-08-01

196

Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in different parts of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C(18) column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. PMID:20714303

Sun, Yinshi; Wang, Jianhua; Gu, Shubo; Liu, Zhengbo; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoxia

2010-08-01

197

Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest areas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sit...

Lander, Ta; Harris, Sa; Boshier, Dh

2009-01-01

198

Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism. PMID:22953882

Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Yan, Youyou; Chen, Qingjun; Luo, Fenglei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-12-01

199

Poliembrionia em citrus  

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Full Text Available The studies on polyembryony in Citrus reported in this paper show that there is a great variability in the degree of polyembryony among the seeds, fruits and trees of a same form or variety of Citrus. Seeds from different crops of the same plant also show considerable variation in the degree of polyembryony. In order to obtain reliable data on the degree of polyembryony in Citrus the samples for study should include a great number of seeds taken from several fruits of different trees. Since there is a yearly variation on the degree of polyembryony it was found necessary to study samples from several crops. The average number of embryos was determined by direct examination of individual seeds. Determinations based on the number of plants developed from every seed always give lower results as many embryos do not grow into seedlings.

Sílvio Moreira

1947-01-01

200

Comprehensive insights on how 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid retards senescence in post-harvest citrus fruits using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Auxin-like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a high-efficiency anti-stalling agent for the post-harvest fresh fruit industry, has had its use restricted due to environmental concerns. However, no other substitutes for 2,4-D are available to the post-harvest industry. Insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of 2,4-D on fruit quality preservation will provide a theoretical basis for exploring new safe and effective anti-stalling agents. This study comprehensively analysed changes in the peel of Olinda Valencia orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] induced by 500 ppm 2,4-D using 'omic'-driven approaches. Transcriptional profiling revealed that transcriptional factor (mainly AP2/ERF, WRKY, and NAC family members), transport, and hormone metabolism genes were over-represented and up-regulated within 24h post-treatment (HPT). Stress defence genes were up-regulated, while cell wall metabolism genes were down-regulated after 48 HPT. However, secondary metabolism genes, especially phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis-related genes, were over-represented at all the time points. Comparative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of proteins implicated in stress responses (25%), hormone metabolism, and signal transduction (12%) significantly accumulated at the post-transcriptional level. Hormone levels detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 2,4-D significantly increased, while ethylene production (detected by gas chromatography) decreased after 2,4-D treatment. In addition, lignin and water content in the fruit peel also increased and the epicuticle wax ultrastructure was modified. In conclusion, 2,4-D retarded fruit senescence by altering the levels of many endogenous hormones and by improving stress defence capabilities by up-regulating defence-related genes and proteins. PMID:24215076

Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Zhang, Li; Wei, Qingjiang; Cheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

In vitro inhibition of postharvest pathogens of fruit and control of gray mold of strawberry and green mold of citrus by aureobasidin A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aureobasidin A (AbA), an antifungal cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic produced by Aureobasidium pullulans R106, has previously been shown to be effective against a wide range of fungi and protozoa. Here we report the inhibitory effects of AbA on spore germination, germ tuber elongation and hyphal growth of five pathogenic fungi including Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola, which are major pathogens causing postharvest diseases of a variety of fruits. AbA inhibited five pathogenic fungi by reducing conidial germination rates, delaying conidial germination initiation, restricting elongation of germ tuber and mycelium, as well as inducing abnormal alternations of morphology of germ tubes and hyphae of these fungi. The sensitivity of these fungi to AbA was pathogen species-dependent. P. digitatum was the most sensitive and M. fructicola the least. Importantly, AbA at 50 microg/ml was effective in controlling the citrus green mold and in reducing the strawberry gray mold incidence and severity, caused by P. digitatum and B. cinerea, respectively, after artificial inoculation. AbA and/or its analogs, therefore, hold promise as relatively safe and promising fungicide candidates to control postharvest decays of fruits, because AbA targets the inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, an enzyme essential for fungi but absent from mammals. PMID:17765990

Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Jiye; Gou, Ping; Mao, Cungui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Li, Hongye

2007-11-01

202

Enzymatic Formation of ?-Citraurin from ?-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin by Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 in the Flavedo of Citrus Fruit1[W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the pathway of ?-citraurin biosynthesis, carotenoid contents and the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in two varieties of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), Yamashitabeni-wase, which accumulates ?-citraurin predominantly, and Miyagawa-wase, which does not accumulate ?-citraurin. The results suggested that CitCCD4 (for Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4) was a key gene contributing to the biosynthesis of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 increased rapidly from September, which was consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin. In the flavedo of Miyagawa-wase, the expression of CitCCD4 remained at an extremely low level during the ripening process, which was consistent with the absence of ?-citraurin. Functional analysis showed that the CitCCD4 enzyme exhibited substrate specificity. It cleaved ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin at the 7,8 or 7?,8? position. But other carotenoids tested in this study (lycopene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin) were not cleaved by the CitCCD4 enzyme. The cleavage of ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin by CitCCD4 led to the formation of ?-citraurin. Additionally, with ethylene and red light-emitting diode light treatments, the gene expression of CitCCD4 was up-regulated in the flavedo of Yamashitabeni-wase. These increases in the expression of CitCCD4 were consistent with the accumulation of ?-citraurin in the two treatments. These results might provide new strategies to improve the carotenoid contents and compositions of citrus fruits. PMID:23966550

Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Matsuta, Asami; Matsutani, Kazuki; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Wahyudi, Anung; Motohashi, Reiko; Kato, Masaya

2013-01-01

203

Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp. (QPFC, sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro isolados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE, uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno.The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp. (PFD, under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

Katia C. Kupper

2003-06-01

204

Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.) (QPFC), sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro iso [...] lados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE), uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp.) (PFD), under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. [...] and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF) in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

Katia C., Kupper; Nelson, Gimenes-Fernandes; Antonio de, Goes.

205

Controle biológico de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Biological control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of citrus postbloom fruit drop disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve por finalidade estudar a potencialidade antagonística de isolados de Bacillus subtilis a Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.) (QPFC), sob condições de laboratório e de campo. Foram estudados 64 isolados de B. subtilis, quatro iso [...] lados de Bacillus spp. e um isolado de B. thuringiensis quanto à capacidade de inibir o desenvolvimento do patógeno em cultura pareada e quanto à produção de metabólitos com atividade antimicrobiana. Os isolados mais promissores foram testados em condições de campo para controle da doença. In vitro, todos os isolados de Bacillus spp. inibiram o crescimento de C. acutatum, não havendo diferenças significativas entre eles. Os isolados de Bacillus spp. produziram, in vitro, metabólitos capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial de C. acutatum, os quais mantiveram suas atividades capazes de causar a inibição, após autoclavagem a 120 ºC, durante 20 min. Dentre os sete isolados de B. subtilis testados para o controle da QPFC, em condições naturais, o ACB-69 diferiu da testemunha e de vários outros isolados, porém equiparou-se estatisticamente ao benomyl, proporcionando menor porcentagem de flores com sintomas e maior número médio de frutos efetivos. Ainda, sob condições de campo, isolados de cada uma das espécies Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii e T. aureoviride foram ineficientes, apresentando o mesmo comportamento da testemunha. Em relação aos métodos de avaliação da doença, a porcentagem de flores com sintomas foi mais eficiente do que o número médio de frutos efetivos (NMFE), uma vez que esses resultam do efeito direto do patógeno. Abstract in english The present study evaluated the antagonistic potential of different isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of post-bloom fruit drop of citrus (Citrus spp.) (PFD), under laboratory and field conditions. Sixty four isolates of B. subtilis, four isolates of Bacillus spp. [...] and one isolate of B. thuringiensis were evaluated in relation to their ability to inhibit the development of the plant pathogen in paired cultures and their production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The most promising isolates were tested for the control of the disease under field conditions. All the Bacillus spp. isolates induced strong inhibition on the growth of the plant pathogen. The isolates of Bacillus spp. produced, in vitro, metabolites capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. acutatum, and they maintained their activities in enough concentrations to cause the inhibition, even after submitted to 120 ºC, for 20 min. The inhibition of C. acutatum by B. subtilis was due to antibiosis. Among seven isolates of B. subtilis tested for the disease control, in natural conditions, the BCA-69 differed from the control, and was statistically similar to benomyl, presenting lower percentage of symptomatic flowers and higher average number of effective fruits. An isolate of each of the species of Trichoderma viride, T. pseudokoningii and T. aureovirde were also tested, in field conditions, for controlling PFD, and none differed from the control. The percentage of symptomatic flowers was more efficient than the average number of effective fruits (ANEF) in determining the effect of the applications of the biocontrol agents on disease control.

Katia C., Kupper; Nelson, Gimenes-Fernandes; Antonio de, Goes.

2003-06-01

206

Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

2003-08-01

207

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection [...] and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F., Calegario; Mônica T.V., Labate; Luís A., Peroni; Dagmar Ruth, Stach-Machado; Maxuel O., Andrade; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A., Labate; Marcos A., Machado; Elliot W., Kitajima.

2012-04-01

208

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F. Calegario

2012-04-01

209

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection [...] and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F., Calegario; Mônica T.V., Labate; Luís A., Peroni; Dagmar Ruth, Stach-Machado; Maxuel O., Andrade; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A., Labate; Marcos A., Machado; Elliot W., Kitajima.

210

Interferência da redução no volume de aplicação sobre o controle da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' / Interference of spray volume reduction in citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) control in 'Valência' citrus fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle químico do agente causal da mancha-preta-dos-citros (MPC) tem merecido destaque pelo excessivo número de pulverizações, elevando sobremaneira os custos de produção na citricultura. A busca por melhorias na eficiência das pulverizações e reduções na quantidade dos produtos fitossanitários [...] já tem sido realizada, mas os resultados dessa prática ainda não são consistentes para que possa ser aplicado em escala comercial. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a interferência da redução no volume de aplicação, sobre o controle químico da mancha preta em frutos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial com plantas de 16 anos de idade, da variedade Valência durante o ano agrícola 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de três volumes de calda, 3,5; 4,5 e 8,5 L planta-1, aplicados por pulverizador de jato transportado Arbus 2000/Export, com ramal especial de bicos, utilizando-se fungicidas e períodos recomendados para o controle da doença em um total de quatro pulverizações e mais um tratamento testemunha (sem pulverização). As avaliações de incidência e severidade da doença ocorreram através de escala visual diagramática de notas em duas épocas (pré-colheita e colheita), em três alturas (baixo, médio e alto) da planta e mais três setores horizontais (entrada, frontal e saída) em dois lados da planta. Os frutos caídos foram contados quinzenalmente, em plantas previamente selecionadas, do início da maturação até a colheita com a quantificação da produção (kg planta-1). A incidência e severidade da doença foram menores quando as pulverizações foram realizadas com 8,5 L planta-1 na primeira época de avaliação (pré-colheita), porém na colheita, não houve diferenças entre os mesmos parâmetros, quando pulverizados 4,5 ou 8,5 L planta-1. Nenhum tratamento reduziu a doença no setor alto da planta, em comparação a testemunha. Os setores da planta com os frutos mais expostos aos raios solares, lado direito e alto da planta, apresentaram maior incidência e severidade da doença. A redução no volume de 8,5 para 4,5 L planta-1 pode ser praticada na citricultura sem prejuízo do nível de controle da MPC. Abstract in english The chemical control of the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS) has been highlighted for the excessive required number of sprayings, considerably increasing citrus production costs. Improvements in the spray efficiency and reductions in the quantity of phytosanitary products have already been se [...] arched, but the results of that practice are not consistent yet for its use at commercial scale. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interference of reduced spray volumes in black spot control in citrus fruits. The experiment was carried out in commercial citrus orchard with 16-year-old plants of 'Valencia' variety, during 2007 agricultural season. Treatments consisted of three spray volumes: 3.5; 4.5 and 8.5 liters.plant-1, applied with Arbus 2000/Export airblast sprayer with special manifold of hydraulic nozzles, using fungicides and periods recommended for the disease control, totaling four sprayings plus a control treatment (without spray). The disease incidence and severity were evaluated by visual diagrammatic scale of notes in two different periods (preharvest and harvest), at three plant heights (low, middle and top) and three horizontal sections (entrance, frontal and exit) in two sides of the plant. The fallen fruits were counted every fifteen days, for previously selected plants, from the beginning of maturation to harvest, and the production was quantified (kg.plant-1). The disease incidence and severity were significantly lower when sprayings were done with 8.5 liters.plant-1 in the first evaluation period (pre-harvest), but in the harvest period there were not differences between the same parameters when 4.5 or 8.5 liters.plant-1 were sprayed. None of those treatments reduced the disease on the top section of

Demétrius de, Araújo; Carlos Gilberto, Raetano; Hamilton Humberto, Ramos; Marcel Belatto, Spósito; Evandro Pereira, Prado.

211

Interferência da redução no volume de aplicação sobre o controle da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' / Interference of spray volume reduction in citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) control in 'Valência' citrus fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle químico do agente causal da mancha-preta-dos-citros (MPC) tem merecido destaque pelo excessivo número de pulverizações, elevando sobremaneira os custos de produção na citricultura. A busca por melhorias na eficiência das pulverizações e reduções na quantidade dos produtos fitossanitários [...] já tem sido realizada, mas os resultados dessa prática ainda não são consistentes para que possa ser aplicado em escala comercial. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a interferência da redução no volume de aplicação, sobre o controle químico da mancha preta em frutos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial com plantas de 16 anos de idade, da variedade Valência durante o ano agrícola 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de três volumes de calda, 3,5; 4,5 e 8,5 L planta-1, aplicados por pulverizador de jato transportado Arbus 2000/Export, com ramal especial de bicos, utilizando-se fungicidas e períodos recomendados para o controle da doença em um total de quatro pulverizações e mais um tratamento testemunha (sem pulverização). As avaliações de incidência e severidade da doença ocorreram através de escala visual diagramática de notas em duas épocas (pré-colheita e colheita), em três alturas (baixo, médio e alto) da planta e mais três setores horizontais (entrada, frontal e saída) em dois lados da planta. Os frutos caídos foram contados quinzenalmente, em plantas previamente selecionadas, do início da maturação até a colheita com a quantificação da produção (kg planta-1). A incidência e severidade da doença foram menores quando as pulverizações foram realizadas com 8,5 L planta-1 na primeira época de avaliação (pré-colheita), porém na colheita, não houve diferenças entre os mesmos parâmetros, quando pulverizados 4,5 ou 8,5 L planta-1. Nenhum tratamento reduziu a doença no setor alto da planta, em comparação a testemunha. Os setores da planta com os frutos mais expostos aos raios solares, lado direito e alto da planta, apresentaram maior incidência e severidade da doença. A redução no volume de 8,5 para 4,5 L planta-1 pode ser praticada na citricultura sem prejuízo do nível de controle da MPC. Abstract in english The chemical control of the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS) has been highlighted for the excessive required number of sprayings, considerably increasing citrus production costs. Improvements in the spray efficiency and reductions in the quantity of phytosanitary products have already been se [...] arched, but the results of that practice are not consistent yet for its use at commercial scale. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interference of reduced spray volumes in black spot control in citrus fruits. The experiment was carried out in commercial citrus orchard with 16-year-old plants of 'Valencia' variety, during 2007 agricultural season. Treatments consisted of three spray volumes: 3.5; 4.5 and 8.5 liters.plant-1, applied with Arbus 2000/Export airblast sprayer with special manifold of hydraulic nozzles, using fungicides and periods recommended for the disease control, totaling four sprayings plus a control treatment (without spray). The disease incidence and severity were evaluated by visual diagrammatic scale of notes in two different periods (preharvest and harvest), at three plant heights (low, middle and top) and three horizontal sections (entrance, frontal and exit) in two sides of the plant. The fallen fruits were counted every fifteen days, for previously selected plants, from the beginning of maturation to harvest, and the production was quantified (kg.plant-1). The disease incidence and severity were significantly lower when sprayings were done with 8.5 liters.plant-1 in the first evaluation period (pre-harvest), but in the harvest period there were not differences between the same parameters when 4.5 or 8.5 liters.plant-1 were sprayed. None of those treatments reduced the disease on the top section of

Demétrius de, Araújo; Carlos Gilberto, Raetano; Hamilton Humberto, Ramos; Marcel Belatto, Spósito; Evandro Pereira, Prado.

2013-09-01

212

Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compar...

Leandro Camargo Neves; André José de Campos; Ronaldo Moreno Benedette; Jéssica Milanez Tosin; Edvan Alves Chagas

2012-01-01

213

Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros / Work safety in pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias proporcionadas pelas condições de trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos em cultura de citros com o pulverizador de pistolas; avaliar a eficiência de medidas de proteção individual e coletiva para esses trabalhadores; deter [...] minar as regiões mais expostas do corpo dos trabalhadores; e classificar as condições de trabalho, sem e com as medidas de proteção testadas, quanto à segurança ocupacional das recomendações de agrotóxicos registrados para o controle das principais pragas e doenças dessa cultura. Verifica-se que, para o tratorista, pulverizando com o pulverizador de pistolas, a medida de proteção mais eficiente foi o conjunto AZR e, para o aplicador, os dois conjuntos avaliados foram eficientes. Para o tratorista, as regiões mais expostas do corpo foram as coxas + pernas - frente, os pés e as mãos; e, para o aplicador foram, os pés e as mãos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study envisaged the quantification of skin and respiratory exposures occasioned by work conditions during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers; the evaluation of the efficiency of individual and group protection measures for the workers; the determination o [...] f workers' most exposed body regions; and the classification of work conditions, with and without the tested work-safety protection measures as recommended for the registered pesticides used to control the main pests and diseases that attack these types of trees and fruits. The AZR protection equipment proved to be the most efficient for the tractor driver, when spraying using pistol sprayers. The two sets of individual protection equipment that were checked also proved to be efficient. The most exposed regions of the tractor driver's body were the thighs, the front of the legs, the feet and hands. The most exposed regions of the individual sprayer working on foot were the hands and feet.

Maurício Leite de, Oliveira; Joaquim Gonçalves, Machado Neto.

214

Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11-week-old C57BL/6J lean mice. Daily treatment of 11-week-old C57BL/KsBom-db (db/db) genetic diabetic mice with a dose corresponding to 10x human-daily-dose for 6 weeks facilitated a significant weight loss as compared to the untreated controls. During treatment, the db/db mice were maintained on the carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the eyes from the treated animals showed a significant reduction in total fatty acid content accompanied by a 33% reduction in estimated Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (p = 0.039) as compared with controls. The fatty acid mobilization and a protection of the brittle C57BL/KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. PMID:16455217

Campbell, Joan I A; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, Per

2006-04-01

215

Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11-week-old C57BL/6J lean mice. Daily treatment of 11-week-old C57BL/KsBom-db (db/db) genetic diabetic mice with a dose corresponding to 10 x human-daily-dose for 6 weeks facilitated a significant weight loss as compared to the untreated controls. During treatment, the db/db mice were maintained on the carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover, the fatty acid profile of the eyes from the treated animals showed a significant reduction in total fatty acid content accompanied by a 33% reduction in estimated Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (p = 0.039) as compared with controls. The fatty acid mobilization and a protection of the brittle C57BL/KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mortensen, Alicja

2006-01-01

216

Caracterização de cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar nove cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas de laranjeiras 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' e 'Salustiana'; de tangerineiras 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' e satsuma 'Okitsu'; e de híbridos 'Nova' e 'Ortanique', com quatro anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Trifoliata, cultivadas em vasos de 100 L. Vinte e oito descritores morfológicos foram selecionados, possibilitando a rápida e eficiente caracterização das cultivares, inclusive das laranjas doces. Os padrões obtidos estão de acordo com as relações filogenéticas das espécies estudadas, podendo ser utilizados em programas de certificação, melhoramento e conservação de germoplasma.The aim of this work was to characterize nine citrus fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors. Four yearold plants of sweet oranges 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana'; mandarins 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' and satsuma 'Okitsu'; and hybrids 'Nova' and 'Ortanique', grafted in Trifoliata and cultivated in pots of 100 L, were analyzed. Twenty eight morphological descriptors were selected, making possible a rapid and efficient characterization of the cultivars, including the sweet oranges. The standards obtained are in conformity with the phylogenetic relations among the species studied. The standards can be used in certification, breeding, and germplasm conservation programs.

Elizete Beatriz Radmann

2003-09-01

217

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of flavonoids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: analysis of flavonoids, sugars, carboxylic and amino acids in model systems and in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fragmentation patterns and quantitation possibilities of three anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, malvidin), one flavonol (quercetin), two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) and two flavanones (naringenin, hesperetin) have been investigated as trimethylsilyl and as trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results proved that anthocyanidins and flavanones form trimethylsilyl (oximes), while flavonol and flavones provide simple trimethylsilyl derivatives. In all cases, characteristic fragments of high masses are formed proper for quantitation purposes. Hydrolysis conditions for naringin, hesperidin and rutin have been optimized, resulting in the quantitative release of naringenin, hesperetin and quercetin together with their corresponding saccharides. These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruit juices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure. In total 33 compounds have been determined in hydrolyzed samples, such as 2 flavonoids (naringenin and hesperetin), 6 phenolic acids (trimethoxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, quinic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids), 3 aliphatic carboxylic acids (levulinic, malic, citric acids), phosphoric acid, 4 amino acids (aspartic, glutamic acids, alanine, proline), 9 monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, sedoheptulose), inositol, sugarphosphate, 5 disaccharides and tocopherol. Measurements were carried out as the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, in the concentration range of 2 x 10(-3) to 49.9%. Identification level of samples varied between 26.4 and 77.5%, expressed in dry matter content of juices and albedos. PMID:17289064

Füzfai, Zs; Molnár-Perl, I

2007-05-11

218

Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations  

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Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco, L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr., em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco. Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco, varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr., State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. Fruits were picked from 30 days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

H.P. Haag

1993-09-01

219

Respiratory Weight Loss in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir Tubers, Fruits of Valencia Oranges (Citrus sinensis L. And Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Stored Using Plant Derived Materials as Protective Coatings in Zaria, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of applying locally derived plant products, namely oil from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. seeds and juice extracted from lime (Citrus aurantifolia L. fruits on respiratory weight loss of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir tubers and fruits of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. during storage under ambient conditions, in the Savanna region of Nigeria. Rate of weight loss during early periods of the observation was minimal in all the three stored products when groundnut oil coating was applied and maximal in uncoated products. Mean weight loss was reduced by both lime and groundnut oil coatings, although, for yam and Valencia oranges this was significantly (p=0.05 lower for groundnut oil coatings than lime juice coatings. In tomato fruits the differences in weight loss between fruits treated with the two coating materials at the termination of observation period was not significant. Weight loss was generally attributed to respiration and transpiration and groundnut oil was seen as a possible alternative to synthetic waxes in controlling this process in stored yams, oranges and tomatoes, in rural communities under tropical savanna conditions.

S.P. Bako

2005-01-01

220

Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritoidea) infestation in citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil / Infestação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) em citros no estado de São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No período de fevereiro de 1998 a maio de 2000, frutos de diferentes variedades e híbridos de citros foram coletados para determinar os níveis de infestação e o complexo de espécies de Tephritoidea/parasitóides, nas condições do estado de São Paulo. O total de 12.239 frutos (1.416,93 kg) foi coletad [...] o em 25 municípios. Do total das amostras foram recuperados 5.252 pupários e 3.039 adultos de Tephritoidea. Aproximadamente 78,1% dos adultos foram Tephritidae [77,1% de Anastrepha sp. e 1,0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)], e 21,9%, Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). Todas as fêmeas de Anastrepha foram identificadas como A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adultos de Braconidae, Diapriidae e Eucoilinae emergiram das amostras de citros. Os índices médios de infestação foram 0,4 pupário/fruto e 3,7 pupários/ kg de frutos. As laranjas doces foram as variedades cítricas mais susceptíveis ao ataque de espécies de Tephritoidea, em número de pupários/fruto. Em amostras isoladas, 'Tangerina Cravo' (Citrus reticulata) e 'Laranja Azeda' (Citrus aurantium) apresentaram os maiores índices de infestação por fruto (3,4 e 2,4 pupários, respectivamente). Algumas amostras de 'Kunquat' (Fortunella sp.) e 'Tangerina Cravo' alcançaram níveis altos de infestação (64,0 e 37,9 pupários/kg de frutos, respectivamente). As laranjas doces são as variedades mais suscetíveis à infestação de Tephritoidea no estado de São Paulo. O parasitóide D. areolatus (Opiinae) foi o braconídeo mais freqüente durante o levantamento. Abstract in english From February 1998 to May 2000, fruits of different citrus varieties and hybrids were collected in order to assess the fruit fly infestation levels and tephritoid/parasitoid complex in the state of São Paulo. A total of 12,239 fruits (1,416.93 kg) was collected in 25 municipalities. From all the sam [...] ples 5,252 puparia and 3,039 adults of Tephritoidea were recovered. About 78.1% of all adults collected were Tephritidae [77.1% de Anastrepha sp. and 1.0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)] and 21.9% were Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). All females of Anastrepha were identified as A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adults of Braconidae, Diapriidae and Eucoilinae emerged from the citrus samples. Mean infestation indices were 0.4 puparium/ fruit and 3.70 puparia/kg of fruits. Sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations when the number of puparia/fruit was considered. In isolated samples, 'Cravo mandarin' (Citrus reticulata) and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) showed the highest infestation indices (3.4 and 2.4 puparia/fruit, respectively). Some samples of 'Kunquat'' (Fortunella sp.) and 'Cravo' mandarin reached high levels of infestation (64.0 and 37.9 puparia/kg of fruits, respectively). The sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations in the state of São Paulo. The parasitoid Opiinae D. areolatus was the most abundant braconid species.

Adalton, Raga; Daniela A.O., Prestes; Miguel F., Souza Filho; Mário E., Sato; Romildo C., Siloto; Jorge A., Guimarães; Roberto A., Zucchi.

 
 
 
 
221

Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postharvest treatments of potassium sorbate only controlled recently established infections of Penicillium digitatum on Femminello siracusano lemons but did not confer any persistent protection. The loss of efficacy of potassium sorbate to control green mould decay was related to its irregular deposition on the fruit surface, as revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy of oranges, and to the brief persistence of potassium sorbate residues. When treatment was done at 53°C, the co-application of potassium sorbate with thiabendazole reduced thiabendazole residues in Moro and Sanguinello oranges, compared to thiabendazole treatment alone. However, treatment efficacy against two isolates of P. digitatum (thiabendazole-sensitive and thiabendazole-resistant) notably improved, indicating that potassium sorbate and hot water potentiated thiabendazole activity. Potassium sorbate residues remarkably decreased during fruit storage and were not affected by the co-application of thiabendazole. PMID:23790859

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Fadda, Angela; Barberis, Antonio; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

2013-11-15

222

Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B1a and 14C residue on citrus fruits from a field study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An 8?g/mL solution of [14C]avermectin B1a, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, 14C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind 14C residue from oranges treated at the 10x rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (14C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B1a was 1a and 14C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B1a due to fruit type and application rate were observed

223

Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented. PMID:14756415

Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

2003-01-01

224

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

2014-09-01

225

Efficacy of killer yeasts in the biological control of Penicillium digitatum on Tarocco orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Killer Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast strains were tested as biocontrol agents against Penicillium digitatum, one the most important causes of postharvest decay in orange fruits. W. anomalus, grown on acidified medium, demonstrated micocinogenic activity against P. digitatum, as indicated by large inhibition halos and hyphal damage resulting from ?-glucanase activity. Oranges that had been deliberately inoculated with pathogens were protected from decay by W. anomalus. Inoculation of oranges with W. anomalus strains BS 91 and BS 92 reduced disease severity to 1 and 4%, respectively, for up to 10 days in storage. PMID:22265304

Platania, Claudia; Restuccia, Cristina; Muccilli, Serena; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

2012-05-01

226

Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B sub 1a and sup 14 C residue on citrus fruits from a field study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An 8{mu}g/mL solution of ({sup 14}C)avermectin B{sub 1a}, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, {sup 14}C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind {sup 14}C residue from oranges treated at the 10{times} rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (<2 ppb at the field rate). The inner pulp samples for all treatments had {sup 14}C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B{sub 1a} was <1 week, with losses occurring within 30-40 min. For the 1-12-week postapplication period, the avermectin B{sub 1a} and {sup 14}C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B{sub 1a} due to fruit type and application rate were observed.

Maynard, M.S.; Iwata, Y.; Wislocki, P.G.; Ku, C.C.; Jacob, T.A. (Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Three Bridges, NJ (USA))

227

Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard  

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Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7% alone and added to natural orange juice (10%. Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

Adalton Raga

2006-01-01

228

Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha preta em frutos cítricos Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic scale to evaluate black spot severity in citrus fruits  

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Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática, abrangendo os dois tipos prevalentes de sintomas de mancha preta em frutos cítricos (Citrus spp., os de mancha dura e de falsa melanose, foi desenvolvida para padronizar a avaliação da severidade da doença. A escala foi elaborada considerando os limites máximos e mínimos de severidade da doença observados no campo. Os valores intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos para os sintomas do tipo mancha dura (0,5; 1,7; 5,0; 11,5; 22,5 e 49,0% e do tipo falsa melanose (1,1; 4,5; 15,0; 31,0; 53,0 e 68,0%. Para a validação da escala, seis avaliadores quantificaram a severidade da doença a partir das imagens digitalizadas de 50 frutos com diferentes níveis de doença. Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala. Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores, utilizando a escala diagramática proposta, estimaram a severidade nos mesmos frutos avaliados anteriormente. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores e proporcionaram maior reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da mancha preta nos frutos e será usada em estudos epidemiológicos e de avaliação de estratégias de controle desta doença.A diagrammatic scale, showing the most common symptoms of black spot in citrus (Citrus spp. fruits, hard spot and false melanose types, was developed to standardize severity assessment. The scale was elaborated considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field. The intermediate values followed logarithmic increments for hard spot (0.5, 1.7, 5.0, 11.5, 22.5, and 49.0% and false melanose (1.1, 4.5, 15.0, 31.0, 53.0, and 68.0% symptoms. To validate the scale, six raters quantified the disease severity of digitalized images of 50 fruits with black spot symptoms. Initially, the estimates of severity were done without the use of the scale. Then, the raters estimated the severity of the same fruits previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of greater precision and higher accuracy for all raters, besides being more highly reproducible among the different raters. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate black spot severity in citrus fruits and will be used in epidemiological studies and int he evaluation of control strategies for this disease.

Marcel B Spósito

2004-02-01

229

Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

230

77 FR 59709 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first...the fruit, and can kill trees. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening disease...disease is endemic, citrus trees decline and die within...insect vectors in the family Psyllidae:...

2012-10-01

231

Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon  

Science.gov (United States)

Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas trees transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the species planted in the area with altered land use.

Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

2012-12-01

232

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia., 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana., 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki. and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete Reis

2008-06-01

233

Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210Po, 226Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

234

76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Science.gov (United States)

...injurious disease of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe chlorosis between veins on the...W.D. Pria, Jr., P.M. Lacava, et al. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in Sweet Orange Fruit and Seeds and Its...

2011-02-15

235

75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis  

Science.gov (United States)

...injurious disease of citrus. Caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, CVC causes severe chlorosis between veins on...W.D. Pria, Jr., P.M. Lacava, et al. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in Sweet Orange Fruit and Seeds and Its...

2010-04-06

236

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 ...

Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

2008-01-01

237

Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de produção e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2; três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77 e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39 foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3 foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%. Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2, em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença.Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2, three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77 and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39 were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3 presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%. Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2, it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp. decreased the pathogen germination. The experiments with detached flowers showed that the fl

Katia Cristina Kupper

2009-12-01

238

Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de prod [...] ução e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2); três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77) e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39) foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis) e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii) foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3) foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%). Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2), em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença. Abstract in english Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF), caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this wor [...] k aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2), three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77) and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39) were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis) and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii) were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3) presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%). Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2), it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains

Katia Cristina, Kupper; José Antonio Miranda, Bellotte; Antonio de, Goes.

239

Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de prod [...] ução e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2); três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77) e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39) foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis) e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii) foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3) foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%). Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2), em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença. Abstract in english Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF), caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this wor [...] k aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2), three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77) and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39) were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis) and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii) were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3) presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%). Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2), it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains

Katia Cristina, Kupper; José Antonio Miranda, Bellotte; Antonio de, Goes.

1004-10-01

240

Identification and transcript analysis of two glutamate decarboxylase genes, CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, reveal the strong relationship between CsGAD1 and citrate utilization in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) has been suggested to be a key, regulatory point in the biosynthesis of ?-aminobutyrate (GABA) and in the utilization of citric acid through GABA shunt pathway. In this study we discovered two GAD genes, named as CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, in citrus genome database and then successfully cloned. Both CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 have a putative pyridoxal 5-phosphate binding domain in the middle region and a putative calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. Gene structure analysis showed that much difference exists in the size of exons and introns or in cis-regulatory elements in promoter region between the two GAD genes. Gene expression indicated that CsGAD1 transcript was predominantly expressed in flower and CsGAD2 transcript was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs; in the ripening fruit, CsGAD1 transcript level was at least 2-time higher than CsGAD2 transcript level. Moreover, CsGAD1 transcript level was increased significantly along with the increase of GAD activity and accompanied by a significant decrease of titratable acid (TA), suggesting that it is CsGAD1 rather than CsGAD2 plays a role in the citric acid utilization during fruit ripening. In addition, injection of abscisic acid and foliar spray of K2SO4 significantly increased the TA content of Satsuma mandarin, and significantly decreased GAD activity as well as CsGAD1 transcript, further suggesting the important role of CsGAD1 in the citrate utilization of citrus fruit. PMID:24976574

Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake. PMID:24011420

Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman

2013-10-11

242

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

Cercos Manuel

2010-10-01

243

Efeito da interação abelha-flor na produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effect of bee-flower interaction on fruit production in orange sweet crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Efecto de las interaccion abeja-flor en la producción de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia floral, a biodiversidade e comportamento de polinizadores em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade “Pera-rio”, em diferentes localidades e anos e seu efeito na produção dos frutos. A frequência dos insetos foi obtida por contag [...] em nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7h00 às 18h00, com três repetições. Para a porcentagem de frutifi cação, foram marcados 300 botões florais, sendo 150 deles mantidos descobertos e 150 cobertos, impedindo a visita dos insetos. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto a contagem, número de gomos e sementes, pesagens (g), altura (cm), largura (cm), espessura da polpa (mm), pH e volume do suco (ml). Os insetos mais frequentes observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, seguidas por outras espécies de himenópteros, lepidópteros, vespídeos e coleópteros. As abelhas africanizadas preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen e preferiram visitar as flores no período da manhã. Foi observado aumento de 9,6% na fecundação das flores e de 7,35% na produção de frutos livremente visitadas. A abelha africanizada foi espécie mais frequente e constante nas flores. Houve aumento na porcentagem de frutificação das flores, com a presença dos insetos. Os frutos que receberam a visita dos polinizadores foram maiores, mais doces, com maior número de sementes e quantidade de suco. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la biología floral, la biodiversidad y el comportamiento de los polinizadores en la floración de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedad Pera-rio, en seis diferentes lugares, en seis años y su efecto en la producción de fruta . La frecuencia de los [...] insectos se obtuvo contando los primeros 10 minutos de cada hora, de 7h00 a 18h00, con tres repeticiones. Para el porcentaje de yemas fructíferas fueron marcados e selecionados 300 botones florales, 150 descubiertos y 150 cubiertos, evitando las visitas de los insectos. Se evaluó la cantidad de frutos, número de brotes y las semillas, de ensayo (g), altura (cm), anchura (cm), espesor de la pulpa (mm), pH y volumen de jugo (ml). Los insectos más frecuentes observados fueron la abeja Apis mellifera, otros Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea y Coleoptera. Las abejas africanizadas colectaron principalmente néctar que polen, mientras que las Trigona spinipes, colectaron prioritariamente polen que néctar y los lepidópteros (mariposas) se alimentan de néctar. Hubo un aumento del 9,6% en la fecundación de las flores y 7,35% en la producción de frutas libremente visitadas. Las abejas africanizadas fueron más frecuentes en las flores. Hubo un aumento en el porcentaje de flores frutales, con la presencia de insectos. Los frutos que fueron visitadas por los polinizadores eran más grandes, más dulce, con más semillas y contenido de jugo. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the floral biology, biodiversity and behavior of pollinators in flowering orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variety “Pera-Rio”, in six different places, in six years, and its effect on fruit production. The frequency of insects was obtained by counting the [...] fi rst 10 minutes at a time, from 7h00 to 18h00, with three replications. For fruit set, 300 fl ower buds were marked, 150 discovered and 150 of them kept covered, preventing the visit of the insects. Fruits were evaluated for count, number of buds and seeds, weighed (g), height (cm), width (cm), flesh thickness (mm), volume (ml) and pH juice. The insects more frequent observed were honeybees Apis mellifera, others Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea and Coleoptera (beetles). Africanized bees preferred to collect nectar compared to pollen. Trigona spinipes bees preferred to collect pollen compared to nectar and Lepidoptera (butterfl ies) feeding on nectar. It was observed 9.6% increase in fertilization of the fl owers and 7.35% in fruit production visi

Darclet, Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; André, Luiz Halak.

2013-03-01

244

Efeito da interação abelha-flor na produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effect of bee-flower interaction on fruit production in orange sweet crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Efecto de las interaccion abeja-flor en la producción de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia floral, a biodiversidade e comportamento de polinizadores em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade “Pera-rio”, em diferentes localidades e anos e seu efeito na produção dos frutos. A frequência dos insetos foi obtida por contag [...] em nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7h00 às 18h00, com três repetições. Para a porcentagem de frutifi cação, foram marcados 300 botões florais, sendo 150 deles mantidos descobertos e 150 cobertos, impedindo a visita dos insetos. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto a contagem, número de gomos e sementes, pesagens (g), altura (cm), largura (cm), espessura da polpa (mm), pH e volume do suco (ml). Os insetos mais frequentes observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, seguidas por outras espécies de himenópteros, lepidópteros, vespídeos e coleópteros. As abelhas africanizadas preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen e preferiram visitar as flores no período da manhã. Foi observado aumento de 9,6% na fecundação das flores e de 7,35% na produção de frutos livremente visitadas. A abelha africanizada foi espécie mais frequente e constante nas flores. Houve aumento na porcentagem de frutificação das flores, com a presença dos insetos. Os frutos que receberam a visita dos polinizadores foram maiores, mais doces, com maior número de sementes e quantidade de suco. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la biología floral, la biodiversidad y el comportamiento de los polinizadores en la floración de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedad Pera-rio, en seis diferentes lugares, en seis años y su efecto en la producción de fruta . La frecuencia de los [...] insectos se obtuvo contando los primeros 10 minutos de cada hora, de 7h00 a 18h00, con tres repeticiones. Para el porcentaje de yemas fructíferas fueron marcados e selecionados 300 botones florales, 150 descubiertos y 150 cubiertos, evitando las visitas de los insectos. Se evaluó la cantidad de frutos, número de brotes y las semillas, de ensayo (g), altura (cm), anchura (cm), espesor de la pulpa (mm), pH y volumen de jugo (ml). Los insectos más frecuentes observados fueron la abeja Apis mellifera, otros Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea y Coleoptera. Las abejas africanizadas colectaron principalmente néctar que polen, mientras que las Trigona spinipes, colectaron prioritariamente polen que néctar y los lepidópteros (mariposas) se alimentan de néctar. Hubo un aumento del 9,6% en la fecundación de las flores y 7,35% en la producción de frutas libremente visitadas. Las abejas africanizadas fueron más frecuentes en las flores. Hubo un aumento en el porcentaje de flores frutales, con la presencia de insectos. Los frutos que fueron visitadas por los polinizadores eran más grandes, más dulce, con más semillas y contenido de jugo. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the floral biology, biodiversity and behavior of pollinators in flowering orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variety “Pera-Rio”, in six different places, in six years, and its effect on fruit production. The frequency of insects was obtained by counting the [...] fi rst 10 minutes at a time, from 7h00 to 18h00, with three replications. For fruit set, 300 fl ower buds were marked, 150 discovered and 150 of them kept covered, preventing the visit of the insects. Fruits were evaluated for count, number of buds and seeds, weighed (g), height (cm), width (cm), flesh thickness (mm), volume (ml) and pH juice. The insects more frequent observed were honeybees Apis mellifera, others Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea and Coleoptera (beetles). Africanized bees preferred to collect nectar compared to pollen. Trigona spinipes bees preferred to collect pollen compared to nectar and Lepidoptera (butterfl ies) feeding on nectar. It was observed 9.6% increase in fertilization of the fl owers and 7.35% in fruit production visi

Darclet, Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; André, Luiz Halak.

245

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos / Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citru [...] s sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC. Abstract in english Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to t [...] he bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete, Reis; Otto Carlos, Koller; Sergio Francisco, Schwarz; Sergiomar, Theisen; Ivar Antônio, Sartori; Fernanda Severo, Nichele; Rafael, Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte, Petry.

2008-06-01

246

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos / Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citru [...] s sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC. Abstract in english Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to t [...] he bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete, Reis; Otto Carlos, Koller; Sergio Francisco, Schwarz; Sergiomar, Theisen; Ivar Antônio, Sartori; Fernanda Severo, Nichele; Rafael, Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte, Petry.

247

Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia / Influence of water deficit on growth and development of fruits valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the piedmont of Meta department, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlad [...] a de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia). Los tratamientos (T) de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g), estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo), fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05) en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P Abstract in english In Colombia the area planted with citrus is marginal when compared to the potential area for cultivation, due to factors such as water deficit, nutrition and efficiency of fruit formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit by controlled application of water through so [...] il profile in orange crop var.Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the foothills Meta department, Colombia. The irrigation treatments (T) were: T1 = 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = control = 0% ETc. Irrigation was applied from the beginning of flowering in February to fruit formation in April 2011. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replicates per treatment. The variables evaluated were: soil moisture (qg), plant water status (Ytallo), phenology, budding, flowering, formation, growth and fruit quality. The trees in the T1 had a higher number and size of fruit, but found no differences (P > 0.05) in yield and quality compared to the control, the qg and Ytallo were different (P

Diana Lucía, Garzón Correa; Javier Enrique, Vélez-Sánchez; Javier Orlando, Orduz Rodríguez.

248

Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia / Influence of water deficit on growth and development of fruits valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the piedmont of Meta department, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlad [...] a de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia). Los tratamientos (T) de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g), estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo), fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05) en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P Abstract in english In Colombia the area planted with citrus is marginal when compared to the potential area for cultivation, due to factors such as water deficit, nutrition and efficiency of fruit formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit by controlled application of water through so [...] il profile in orange crop var.Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the foothills Meta department, Colombia. The irrigation treatments (T) were: T1 = 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = control = 0% ETc. Irrigation was applied from the beginning of flowering in February to fruit formation in April 2011. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replicates per treatment. The variables evaluated were: soil moisture (qg), plant water status (Ytallo), phenology, budding, flowering, formation, growth and fruit quality. The trees in the T1 had a higher number and size of fruit, but found no differences (P > 0.05) in yield and quality compared to the control, the qg and Ytallo were different (P

Diana Lucía, Garzón Correa; Javier Enrique, Vélez-Sánchez; Javier Orlando, Orduz Rodríguez.

2013-04-01

249

Desenvolvimento de um modelo para previsão de ocorrência do bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae / Development of a model to predict the occurrence of citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um modelo para previsão de ocorrência do bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima). Para tanto, 553 áreas localizadas em 17 fazendas do estado de São Paulo foram monitoradas por meio de armadilhas com feromônio sexual de E. aurantiana du [...] rante um ano. O tipo de solo, temperatura mensal média do local, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos para o controle de E. aurantiana, foram utilizados como variáveis para cada área mencionada. A maior influência sobre a flutuação populacional do bicho-furão-dos-citros foi exercida pelo tipo de solo, seguido pela temperatura mensal média do local, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos. A ocorrência de E. aurantiana em função da temperatura foi diferente para cada combinação de tipo de solo, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos. O modelo desenvolvido pode prever o potencial de ocorrência de E. aurantiana em função da temperatura ou dos meses do ano, levando-se em consideração o tipo de solo, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e aplicação de agroquímicos. O programa (BF) elaborado na linguagem R conta com equações para simular as diversas situações de ocorrência de E. aurantiana. O modelo de previsão de ocorrência de bicho-furão pode ser aperfeiçoado com a coleta de dados mais regulares e de forma contínua. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to develop a model to predict the occurrence of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima), based on monitoring data collected through sexual pheromone traps. Soil type, site temperature, citrus variety, age of plants and use of chemicals to control E. aurantiana influenced the populati [...] on dynamics of the insect. The highest influence was exerted by the soil type, followed by site temperature, citrus variety, age of plants and the use of chemicals for E. aurantiana control. The occurrence of E. aurantiana according to temperature is different for each combination of soil type, citrus variety, age of plants and use of chemicals. The model developed can predict the occurrence potential of E. aurantiana according to temperature or months of the year, taking into account soil type, citrus variety, age of plants and chemicals spraying. The elaborated software (BF), designed in R language, includes equations that simulate the various situations of E. aurantiana occurrence. The predicting model of citrus fruit borer occurrence can be improved with more frequent and continuous data collecting.

Ronaldo, Reis Jr.; José R.P., Parra; José M.S., Bento.

2005-08-01

250

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

2011-07-01

251

Identificação e quantificação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones em municípios produtores de citros no Rio Grande do Sul / Identification and quantification of native arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi of citrus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os esporos de FMA presentes em viveiros e pomares de citros no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo e de raízes de dez viveiros e doze pomares de oito municípios produtores de citros, nas quais avaliaramse conteúdo nutricional, n [...] úmero de esporos por 100 g de solo seco e colonização das radicelas, e determinaramse as espécies autóctones. As espécies, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, foram: Glomus macrocarpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobiculata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify and quantify AMF spores present in citrus nurseries and orchards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Soil and root samples were collected at ten nurseries and twelve citrus orchards. Mineral composition of the soil samples was determined as well as the number of [...] spores in 100 g of dry soil, root colonization and native species taxonomic identification. AMF species, in decreasing order of occurrence were: Glomus macro- carpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobi- culata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.

Paulo Vitor Dutra de, Souza; José Antônio Kroeff, Schmitz; Ronaldo Santos de, Freitas; Edgar, Carniel; Rosilaine, Carrenho.

252

Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612  

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Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

2006-02-01

253

Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.  

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Full Text Available Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 days caused a significant inhibition of mitosis. The irradiated juice induced the production of anaphase bridges, binucleate cells, cells, cells with elongated nucleus and cells with obliquely oriented equatorial plate.

Milagros Serrana

1993-06-01

254

Preferência para oviposição e ciclo de vida de mosca-negra- dos-citros Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em espécies frutíferas / Oviposition preference and life cycle of citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby on fruit crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby conhecida popularmente como mosca-negra-dos-citros é considerada praga quarentenária A2 no Brasil e ocasiona prejuízo em diversas frutíferas, principalmente em citros (laranja, limão e tangerina). Poucas são as pesquisas relacionadas aos seus aspectos biológicos nas condi [...] ções ambientais brasileiras. Nesse sentido, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a preferência de oviposição e a duração do ciclo de vida de A. woglumi em diferentes hospedeiros. A pesquisa foi conduzida em casa de vegetação, durante o período de março de 2009 a março de 2010. Foram realizados testes de preferência sem chance de escolha em seis hospedeiros, simultaneamente, em períodos de 48 e 72 horas, além da biologia comparada em mangueira e laranjeira. Foram observados nos testes que A. woglumi apresenta preferência por ovipositar nas espécies cítricas (limoeiro, laranjeira e tangerineira), mantendo um padrão de não preferência em cajueiro e goiabeira. Os hospedeiros laranjeira e mangueira não interferiram no ciclo biológico da praga. Abstract in english Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, popularly known as the citrus blackfly is considered A2 quarantine pest in Brazil and causes damage in many fruit crops, especially citrus (orange, lemon and tangerine). Few researches related to biological aspects are carried out in Brazilian environmental conditions. T [...] he present research aimed to determine the oviposition preference and duration of the life cycle of A. woglumi on different hosts. The research was carried out in a greenhouse during the period of March 2009 to March 2010. Tests of preference were done with no chance of choice in six hosts, in periods of 48 and 72 hours, beyond the comparative biology in mango and orange trees. A. woglumi showed preference for laying eggs on citrus species (lemon, orange and mandarin), maintaining a pattern of non-preference in cashew and guava trees. The orange and mango hosts did not interfere in the life cycle of the pest.

Gislane da Silva, Lopes; Raimunda Nonata Santos de, Lemos; José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Luiz Junior Pereira, Marques; Daniele Lavra, Vieira.

2013-09-01

255

One-year routine application of a new and rapid method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to the analysis of selected pesticides in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid method has been developed for monitoring five multiclass pesticides commonly used in citrus fruits. The determination is performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), after extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and sodium sulfate. The method has been validated for orange matrix. Mean recoveries obtained were between 74-110% with a repeatability precision of or = 0.99) with limits of quantification (LOQs) of orange extracts under storage was performed. The method has been applied to the analysis of 365 samples from the agricultural area of the Valencian Community (Spain). Of 103 samples that contained pesticide residues, only abamectin in 2 samples and carbendazim in 5 samples slightly exceeded the European maximum residue limits (MRLs). PMID:19359795

Fernández, Remedios; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Romero González, Roberto; Hernández Torres, María Elena

2009-04-01

256

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.

Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

2014-01-01

257

Modelling the distribution of Citrus Black Spot caused by Guignardia citricarpa Kiely  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citrus is a valuable fruit crop in world trade. Citrus Black Spot (CBS), caused by Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, is a fungal disease of citrus. It occurs in many citrus producing countries including parts of Australia and South Africa, but it does not occur in the countries of the European Union (EU) or the United States of America (USA). To prevent the introduction of CBS, the EU and the USA have phytosanitary regulations that restrict the import of citrus fruit from areas where CBS is found....

Paul, Ida

2005-01-01

258

7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

...where citrus is produced for export to the United States, traps...APHIS and the NPPO of Peru, exports from that production site...areas that produce citrus for export to the United States. All...single live fruit fly in any stage of development or a single...

2010-01-01

259

Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions. PMID:22866578

Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

2012-07-01

260

Induction and selection of citrus mutant by gamma-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have subjected to gamma-irradiation to citrus buds and then grafted onto mature citrus tree. Mutant citrus branch lines have been induced. As a result of first selection, we found the several mutant lines showing interesting phenotypes such as higher sugar content. We have selected several branches showing good qualities such as higher sweetness and/or lower acidity. Some branch lines showed over 13 .deg. Brix sugar content and below 0.9% acidity. Other mutant branch lines showed the changes of shape, size, peel thickness, and fiber contents or distribution of fruits. The results suggest that gamma-irradiation is an effective tool for induction of citrus mutant lines.

Kim, In Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
261

Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

2005-07-01

262

HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16) and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22) three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36), five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29) four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40), seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39), seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7-9, 17, 21, 31 and 37), three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30), and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38) were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively) while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively). The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay). The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products. PMID:25356563

Brito, Anghel; Ramirez, Javier E; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

2014-01-01

263

HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile  

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Full Text Available Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16 and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22 three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36, five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29 four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40, seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39, seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7–9, 17, 21, 31 and 37, three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30, and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38 were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay. The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products.

Anghel Brito

2014-10-01

264

Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP / Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packingh [...] ouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias) não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados. Abstract in english The purposes of this work were a) to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS) incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in [...] 2004/05 and 2005/06; b) to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days) was not significant in collected fruits.

Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Marcel B., Spósito; Lilian, Amorim.

2008-08-01

265

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fatty acids and correlation by principal component analysis of exotic and native fruits from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As capacidades antioxidante de sete frutas nativas e exóticas do Brasil foram avaliadas usando os métodos DPPH•, ABTS•+ e FRAP, além da determinação do conteúdo de fenólicos totais e composição de ácidos graxos. Murici e dovialis apresentaram os maiores conteúdos de compostos fenólicos (243,42 e 205 [...] ,98 mg EAG 100 g-1, respectivamente), e maiores capacidades antioxidante pelo método de FRAP (24,97 e 23,70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectivamente). Pelos métodos de DPPH• e ABTS•+, dovialis apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, 9,59 e 10,41 ET g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores dos ácidos alfa-linolênico e linoleico foram encontrados na siriguela (107,86 mg AG g-1 LT) e tomatinho do mato (215,50 mg AG g-1 LT), respectivamente. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos ácidos graxos gerou três significantes PCs, que representaram 99,75% do conjunto de dados da variância. Os dados de PCA das análises de antioxidantes geraram dois significantes PCs, representando 97,00% do total de variância. Abstract in english The antioxidant capacities of seven exotic and native fruits from Brazil were evaluated using DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP assays, in addition to their total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Murici and dovialis presented the highest total phenolic contents (243.42 and 205.98 mg GAE 100 g-1, re [...] spectively), and the highest antioxidant capacities by the FRAP assay (24.97 and 23.70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectively). In the DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays, dovialis presented the highest antioxidant capacity, 9.59 and 10.41 TE g-1, respectively. The highest alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid contents were found in siriguela (107.86 mg FA g-1 TL) and tomatinho do mato (215.50 mg FA g-1 TL), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids yielded three significant PCs, which accounted for 99.75% of the data set total variance. The PCA data of the antioxidant analyses yielded two significant PCs, which accounted for 97.00% of the total variance.

Alessandra B., Ribeiro; Elton G., Bonafé; Beatriz C., Silva; Paula F., Montanher; Oscar O., Santos Júnior; Joana S., Boeing; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

2013-05-01

266

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fatty acids and correlation by principal component analysis of exotic and native fruits from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As capacidades antioxidante de sete frutas nativas e exóticas do Brasil foram avaliadas usando os métodos DPPH•, ABTS•+ e FRAP, além da determinação do conteúdo de fenólicos totais e composição de ácidos graxos. Murici e dovialis apresentaram os maiores conteúdos de compostos fenólicos (243,42 e 205 [...] ,98 mg EAG 100 g-1, respectivamente), e maiores capacidades antioxidante pelo método de FRAP (24,97 e 23,70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectivamente). Pelos métodos de DPPH• e ABTS•+, dovialis apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, 9,59 e 10,41 ET g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores dos ácidos alfa-linolênico e linoleico foram encontrados na siriguela (107,86 mg AG g-1 LT) e tomatinho do mato (215,50 mg AG g-1 LT), respectivamente. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos ácidos graxos gerou três significantes PCs, que representaram 99,75% do conjunto de dados da variância. Os dados de PCA das análises de antioxidantes geraram dois significantes PCs, representando 97,00% do total de variância. Abstract in english The antioxidant capacities of seven exotic and native fruits from Brazil were evaluated using DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP assays, in addition to their total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Murici and dovialis presented the highest total phenolic contents (243.42 and 205.98 mg GAE 100 g-1, re [...] spectively), and the highest antioxidant capacities by the FRAP assay (24.97 and 23.70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectively). In the DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays, dovialis presented the highest antioxidant capacity, 9.59 and 10.41 TE g-1, respectively. The highest alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid contents were found in siriguela (107.86 mg FA g-1 TL) and tomatinho do mato (215.50 mg FA g-1 TL), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids yielded three significant PCs, which accounted for 99.75% of the data set total variance. The PCA data of the antioxidant analyses yielded two significant PCs, which accounted for 97.00% of the total variance.

Alessandra B., Ribeiro; Elton G., Bonafé; Beatriz C., Silva; Paula F., Montanher; Oscar O., Santos Júnior; Joana S., Boeing; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

267

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

268

Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region / Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, S [...] ão Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, [...] and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

Leandro Camargo, Neves; André José de, Campos; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

1165-11-01

269

Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi.

Leandro Camargo Neves

2012-12-01

270

Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region / Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, S [...] ão Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, [...] and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

Leandro Camargo, Neves; André José de, Campos; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

271

Diversidade de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha em citros, café e fragmento de floresta nativa do Estado de São Paulo / Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the State of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e floresta estacional semidecidual com fisionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a influencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agr [...] oecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identificação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A floresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a floresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na floresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à floresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da floresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de insetos vetores e possíveis vetores de doenças de plantas cultivadas nos habitats avaliados indicam a necessidade da implantação do manejo de pragas nessa área. Abstract in english The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agr [...] oecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

Teresinha A, Giustolin; João R S, Lopes; Ranyse B, Querino; Rodney R, Cavichioli; Kety, Zanol; Wilson S, Azevedo Filho; Miguel A, Mendes.

2009-12-01

272

Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil / Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mo [...] sca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly [...] installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed and environmental temperature were executed. Maximum and minimum temperature had more interference on these pests than the other environmental factors. Analysis of non-linear regression were applied with monthly accumulate number of these flies and showed top of captured flies in March to June. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) was the predominant fruit fly.

Luís Antônio, Chiaradia; José Maria, Milanez; Renato, Dittrich.

2004-04-01

273

Functional genomic approaches to understanding abscission activation in citrus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abscission events in citrus allow the detachment of entire organs, both vegetative (buds, leaves) and reproductive (flowers, ovaries, fruitlets, mature fruits). This is achieved by the modification of cellular adhesion in a discrete group of specialized cells differentiated in predictable positions, known as abscission zones (AZs). Thus, abscission facilitates several key processes for citrus biology that, in an agricultural context, represent a major limiting factor for crop yield. In this r...

Tadeo, Fr; Agusti?, J.; Merelo, P.; Cerco?s, M.; Terol, J.; Domingo, C.; Talo?n, M.

2012-01-01

274

Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

275

Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

2002-08-01

276

Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros / Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a do [...] is, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença. Abstract in english The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among the [...] m, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA, FRANCO; WAGNER, BETTIOL.

277

Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon' x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente, sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas.The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly collected 12 samples of each rootstock. In assessing of germination percetage, germination speed index and polyembryony was used factorial scheme 5 (the rootstocks: hybrid UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 E UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' and Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon ' x 2 (with and without removing the seedcoat, four replications were used. According to the results it is concluded that the fruit size did not influence in the seed yield. The removal of the seedcoat accelerated the time of seed germination in all the rootstocks and provided a higher germination percentage. The polyembryony doesn't affect the process of seed germination. The rootstocks UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 and citrumeleiro 'Swingle' have potential for use in the production of the rootstocks.

Rodrigo Amato Moreira

2010-06-01

278

Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros / Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento [...] convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos) de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon') x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente), sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas. Abstract in english The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. [...] This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly collected 12 samples of each rootstock. In assessing of germination percetage, germination speed index and polyembryony was used factorial scheme 5 (the rootstocks: hybrid UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 E UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' and Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon ') x 2 (with and without removing the seedcoat), four replications were used. According to the results it is concluded that the fruit size did not influence in the seed yield. The removal of the seedcoat accelerated the time of seed germination in all the rootstocks and provided a higher germination percentage. The polyembryony doesn't affect the process of seed germination. The rootstocks UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 and citrumeleiro 'Swingle' have potential for use in the production of the rootstocks.

Rodrigo Amato, Moreira; José Darlan, Ramos; Maria do Céu Monteiro da, Cruz.

279

Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros / Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento [...] convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos) de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon') x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente), sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas. Abstract in english The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. [...] This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly collected 12 samples of each rootstock. In assessing of germination percetage, germination speed index and polyembryony was used factorial scheme 5 (the rootstocks: hybrid UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 E UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' and Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon ') x 2 (with and without removing the seedcoat), four replications were used. According to the results it is concluded that the fruit size did not influence in the seed yield. The removal of the seedcoat accelerated the time of seed germination in all the rootstocks and provided a higher germination percentage. The polyembryony doesn't affect the process of seed germination. The rootstocks UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 and citrumeleiro 'Swingle' have potential for use in the production of the rootstocks.

Rodrigo Amato, Moreira; José Darlan, Ramos; Maria do Céu Monteiro da, Cruz.

2010-06-01

280

Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr.), em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após flor...

Haag, H. P.; Gutierrez, L. E.; Dechen, A. R.; Moura?o Filho, F. A. A.; Moreira, C. S.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

7 CFR 457.106 - Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

... —Specific groups of citrus fruit trees as listed in the Special...for the trees to have normal growth and vigor and recognized...out for the purpose of growing fruit to be harvested for the commercial production of fresh fruit or for juice; (4)...

2010-01-01

282

Juice components of a new pigmented citrus hybrid Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit juice of a new pigmented citrus hybrid named Omo-31 and those of its parents clementine cv. Oroval (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) and Moro orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were analyzed during fruit maturation to determine juice yield, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio (classical parameters of quality), and potential health beneficial components, such as vitamin C, flavanones, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids. Results showed that juice yield, TA, TSS, and TSS/TA ratio values of Omo-31 were similar to those of the Moro orange. Vitamin C content of the new hybrid was slightly higher than that of clementine and lower than that of the Moro orange, but at maturity stage no differences were observed among the three genotypes. The phenolic compounds content of the new hybrid and those of the parents and their evolution during maturation were studied. At maturity stage the amount of anthocyanins, flavanones, and hydroxycinnamic acids in Omo-31 was found to be notably higher than those of the parents. The high level of antioxidant substances makes this new fruit important for its nutritional benefits. PMID:12617593

Rapisarda, Paolo; Pannuzzo, Paolo; Romano, Gabriella; Russo, Giuseppe

2003-03-12

283

Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cerejeira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias, com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias, com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie.Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days, with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days, with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between genotypes of the same species.

Moeses Andrigo Danner

2010-03-01

284

Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária / Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cereje [...] ira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias), com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias), com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie. Abstract in english Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia [...] uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days), with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days), with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between genotypes of the same species.

Moeses Andrigo, Danner; Idemir, Citadin; Simone Aparecida Zolet, Sasso; Marcos Robson, Sachet; Rodrigo, Ambrósio.

285

Citrus Waste Biomass Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

2007-01-30

286

Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

Schoubroeck, H. J.

1999-01-01

287

Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development. PMID:24566692

Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

2014-07-01

288

Caracterização físico-química de frutos cítricos apirênicos produzidos em Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit produced in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ausência de sementes em frutos cítricos é uma característica altamente desejável e há demanda crescente por esses frutos, por consumidores mais exigentes. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se, avaliar algumas características físicoquímicas dos frutos de oito variedades apirênicas, recém-introduzidas na Zo [...] na da Mata Mineira. Avaliaram-se cinco frutos de cada uma das três plantas que compõem cada acesso no matrizeiro. Os frutos foram colhidos e levados ao laboratório, onde foram determinados a coloração da casca e polpa, altura e diâmetro do fruto, espessura da casca, presença de granulação, contagem do número de gomos, rendimento de suco, ATT, SST e ratio (SST/ATT). As variedades 'Okitsu' e 'Ortanique' apresentaram melhor coloração de casca e polpa. A granulação foi observada em 'Okitsu', 'Clemenules', 'Nova' e 'Marisol'. 'Salustiana', 'Navelina' e 'Ortanique' apresentaram os melhores rendimentos de suco e ausência total de granulação. Os maiores teores de SST e ATT foram observados em 'Salustiana' e 'Clemenules'. O ratio, no intervalo considerado adequado, foi observado nas variedades 'Navelina' e 'Navelate', caracterizando a melhor adaptação. 'Ortanique' teve bom desempenho em todas as características avaliadas, exceto no ratio, por sua baixa acidez. As variedades 'Navelina', 'Navelate' e 'Ortanique', no conjunto geral das características, foram as que apresentaram frutos de melhor qualidade. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of eight apirenic fresh fruit varieties recently introduced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. The varieties 'Okitsu' and 'Ortanique' showed better color of peel and pulp. Granulation was observed in 'Okitsu', 'Clemenules', [...] 'Nova' and 'Marisol'. 'Salustiana', 'Navelina' and 'Ortanique' showed the best yields of juice and total absence of granulation. The highest levels of total soluble solids and total tritable acidity were observed in 'Salustiana' and 'Clemenules'. Ratio, in the interval considered appropriate, was observed in the varieties 'Navelina' e 'Navelate' featuring the best adaptation. Ortanique' had good performance for all parameters assessed, except for ratio because of their low acidity. Varieties 'Navelina', 'Navelate' and 'Ortanique', in the overall set of features, showed the best quality fruits.

Dierlei dos, Santos; Pedro Henrique Monteiro, Matarazzo; Danieele Fabíola Pereira da, Silva; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Daiane Cristina Marques dos, Santos; Cícero Cartaxo de, Lucena.

289

Genomics meets induced mutations in citrus: identification of deleted genes through comparative genomic hybridization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world while Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the Citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

290

Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest si...

Lander, Tonya A.; Harris, Stephen A.; Boshier, David H.

2009-01-01

291

Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado / Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de éste [...] res metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %), seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %). A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%). A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado. Abstract in english Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.) are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profil [...] es of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %); araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %), followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %). The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %). Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

Renata Miranda, Lopes; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Ismael da Silva, Gomes; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

292

Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado / Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de éste [...] res metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %), seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %). A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%). A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado. Abstract in english Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.) are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profil [...] es of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %); araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %), followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %). The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %). Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

Renata Miranda, Lopes; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Ismael da Silva, Gomes; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

2012-06-01

293

Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart., o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart. e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de ésteres metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %, seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %. A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%. A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado.Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart., coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart. and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb. are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %; araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %, followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %. The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %. Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

Renata Miranda Lopes

2012-06-01

294

Relationship of Farmer`s Education with Adoption of Selected Citrus Growing Practices in Sargodha Tehsil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus is one of the major fruits of Pakistan. Its importance has generally been recognized throughout the world. Punjab province contributes a major share in the total citrus production in the country. Sargodha Tehsil being the most important citrus growing area, was selected for this study. The present paper reports the relationship of education with the adoption of some selected citrus growing practices. The analysis of the data showed that education of the respondents had highly significant association with the adoption of recommended plant to plant distance, picking method and plant protection measures.

Muhammad Asif Bajwa

2002-01-01

295

First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

2014-07-01

296

First report of citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

297

First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

298

Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

2014-11-01

299

Quality of fresh fruits irradiated at disinfestation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality retention of fresh fruits treated with gamma-radiation for disinfestation is one of the criteria for the feasibility of the radiation process. The effectiveness of radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papayas infested by three species of tropical fruit flies and California-grown citrus and stone fruits infested by Mediterranean fruit files (Ceratitis capitata) and the sensory qualities of these irradiated fruits were recently studied in Hawaii. Experimental results showed that papaya can be irradiated to 1.0 kGy without any adverse effects on its sensory and nutrient qualities. A radiation dose of 0.3 kGy should present no problems to the sensory qualities of California stone and citrus fruits. California citrus can tolerate higher doses (0.50-0.75 KGy) than stone fruits, especially if refrigerated storage follows irradiation. Better control of harvesting, shipping, and handling should also help retain the qualities of these irradiated fruits

300

Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado / Total phenolics and condensed tannins in native fruits from Brazilian savanna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividad [...] e de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 %) e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros. Abstract in english The native fruits from Brazilian savanna are arousing increasing interest due to their nutritional and functional properties combined with the potential to add value and conserve the biodiversity of this biome. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant capacity to neutralize free radicals generated i [...] n the body that are associated with many chronic degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three extraction solutions (acetone 70%, ethanol 95% and methanol 99.8 %) and determining the levels of phenolic compounds in 10 species of native fruits from Brazilian savanna, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds and vanillin method for condensed tannins. Acetone 70 % proved to be the best solvent extractor for total phenolics and condensed tannins in fruits of Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp. and for total phenolics in Brosimium gaudichaudii and for condensed tannins in Jaracatia spinosa. The ethanol 95 % was more efficient in the extraction of total phenolics of Jaracatia spinosa and condensed tannins of Brosimium gaudichaudii. The methanol 99.8 % was more efficient in the extraction of condensed tannins of Eugenia dysenterica. The contents of phenolic compounds ranged between 90 and 327 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. punicifolia respectively. The levels of condensed tannins ranged between 4 and 291 mg of catechin equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. calcyna respectively. Evaluated species of fruit from Brazilian savanna can be considered good sources of total phenolic compounds, although the specific nature of different types should be evaluated in future studies.

Wesley Silveira, Rocha; Renata Miranda, Lopes; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

1215-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado Total phenolics and condensed tannins in native fruits from Brazilian savanna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.The native fruits from Brazilian savanna are arousing increasing interest due to their nutritional and functional properties combined with the potential to add value and conserve the biodiversity of this biome. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant capacity to neutralize free radicals generated in the body that are associated with many chronic degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three extraction solutions (acetone 70%, ethanol 95% and methanol 99.8 % and determining the levels of phenolic compounds in 10 species of native fruits from Brazilian savanna, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds and vanillin method for condensed tannins. Acetone 70 % proved to be the best solvent extractor for total phenolics and condensed tannins in fruits of Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp. and for total phenolics in Brosimium gaudichaudii and for condensed tannins in Jaracatia spinosa. The ethanol 95 % was more efficient in the extraction of total phenolics of Jaracatia spinosa and condensed tannins of Brosimium gaudichaudii. The methanol 99.8 % was more efficient in the extraction of condensed tannins of Eugenia dysenterica. The contents of phenolic compounds ranged between 90 and 327 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. punicifolia respectively. The levels of condensed tannins ranged between 4 and 291 mg of catechin equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. calcyna respectively. Evaluated species of fruit from Brazilian savanna can be considered good sources of total phenolic compounds, although the specific nature of different types should be evaluated in future studies.

Wesley Silveira Rocha

2011-12-01

302

Evaluación económica de la producción de cítricos cultivados en el Piedemonte del Departamento del Meta durante 12 años / Economic evaluation of citrus fruit grown in the foothills of the Meta department for 12 years  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la información sobre los costos de producción e ingresos en suelos de terraza alta del piedemonte del Meta para los cultivos de tangelo Minneola, naranja Valencia, mandarina Arrayana durante 12 años y lima Tahití por 8 años (por muerte de las plantas por tristeza de los cítricos. Los cul [...] tivos se establecieron en 1997 en el C.I. La Libertad y manejados con las recomendaciones desarrolladas por Corpoica en los Llanos Orientales. La información se presenta por hectárea de cultivo en promedio de 10 ha de naranja, 5 de mandarina, 5 de tangelo y 2 de lima Tahití. Los valores son los precios medios del kg de fruta vendida en el árbol y de los insumos del año 2009, (una vez obtenida la información). A la naranja, la mandarina y la lima se asignó el mismo capital para ser establecidos y cultivados, mientras que en el tangelo se invirtió un poco menos debida al uso de un menor número de plantas por ha, pero con la misma cantidad de insumos por planta que los otros cultivos. La mejor producción y rentabilidad la presentó la naranja Valencia con una tasa interna de retorno (TIR) de 34.31 %, seguido por la lima Tahití (8 años de cultivo), tangelo Minneola y mandarina Arrayana con una TIR de 30.93, 17.08, y 13.88 % respectivamente. Con un valor presente neto (VPN) de 12 % la naranja Valencia obtuvo una utilidad neta de $15.800.000 por ha y una relación Beneficio- Costo (B-C) de 3.23. El VPN para la lima Tahití, el tangelo Minneola y la mandarina Arrayana fue de $4.960.000, 3.200.000 y 1.050.000; mientras que la relación B-C fue de: 2.04, 1.36 % y 1.11 %, respectivamente. La lima Tahití presento una producción acumulada menor. Es necesario continuar la investigación en los patrones, ecofisiología, sanidad de las plantas y de nutrición mineral con el fin de conocer el rendimiento potencial de cada uno de los cultivos de cítricos estudiados en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta. Abstract in english An economic analysis of twelve years of production costs and income is presented for well drained high terrace soils of the piedmont of Meta department on orchards 12 years of Minneola tangelo, Valencia orange, Arrayana tangerine for 8 years of Tahiti lime (due to premature death of plants by citrus [...] tristeza virus). The plants were established in 1997 in the La Libertad research center of Corpoica and followed the recommendations developed by Corpoica for citrus crops. The information is presented per hectare of orchard averaging 10 ha of orange, 5 ha of tangerine and tangelo and 2 ha of lime. The values are the average prices per kg of fruit sold in the tree and input the year 2009 (after obtaining the information). For orange, tangerine and lime was assigned the same capital to be established and cultivated, while the tangelo expenses were less due to a lower plant population per ha, but with the same amount of inputs to plant as other crops. The best production and profitability was for Valencia orange with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 34.31 %, followed by the Tahiti lime (8 years of cultivation), Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine with an IRR of 30.93, 17.08, and 13.88 % respectively. With a net present value (NPV) of 12 % Valencia oranges made a net profit of $ 15,800,000 per ha and a benefit-cost ratio (BC) of 3.23. The NPV for Tahiti lime, the Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine was $ 4,960,000 , 3.2 million and 1.05 million, while the BC ratio was: 2.04, 1.36% and 1.11% respectively. The Tahiti lime had a lower cumulative production. It is necessary to continue researching on patterns, ecophysiology, plant health and mineral nutrition in order to understand the potential performance of each citrus crop conditions studied in the foothills of Meta.

Diana, Mateus C; Xiomara, Pulido C; Albert, Gutiérrez; Javier O, Orduz-Rodríguez.

303

76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the...citrus relatives (Family Rutaceae). Citrus...to drop from the trees before reaching maturity...is no cure for a tree with citrus greening...endemic, citrus trees decline and die within...insect vectors in the family Psyllidae:...

2011-04-27

304

Radiation preservation of Citrus Unshiu, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of energy and current of electron-beams and synergistic effect of heat and radiation on a growth of fungi and a browning of peel were investigated to extend shelf-life of Citrus Unshiu (''Satsuma'' orange). The fruits were irradiated with a surface dose of 200krad by various energies of electrons (0.2-1.5MeV), and then stored at 30C for 3 months. Percent of browned fruit in the fruits irradiated by 0.2MeV electrons was almost the same as that in the unirradiated ones. However, if the fruits were irradiated by energies of more than 0.5MeV, the browning of peel increased with increasing energy of electrons. The browning seems to depend on a dose absorbed only in peel, but not to depend on a total dose absorbed in fruit. When the fruits were stored at 30C for 3 months followed by storage at room temperature (16-250C) for one week, the effective growth inhibition of fungi was observed on the fruits irradiated by 0.5MeV electrons. On the fruits irradiated with 0.1-1.0mA of beam current by 0.5MeV electrons, increasing current tended to inhibit the growth of fungi. But the browning of peel was unaffected by beam current. Heat and radiation combination increased the browning of peel and the growth of fungi during storage. (auth.)

305

composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (citrus sinensis), mandarina (citrus reticulata) y toronja (citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela / Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y algunos compuestos bioactivos en las harinas de cáscaras de varias frutas cítricas de mayor consumo, que se cultivan en Venezuela. Se determinó la composición química, algunos elementos trazas, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, fibr [...] a dietética, polifenoles totales y la eficiencia antirradical de los polifenoles utilizando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH· ) en las cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus reticulata) y toronja, variedad blanca, (Citrus paradisi). Las muestras presentaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel’s flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols [...] and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH· ) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p

Alicia M, Rincón; A, Vásquez; Marina, Padilla; Fanny, C.

306

CSFRI symposium: research into citrus and subtropical crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication only contains the abstracts of papers delivered on the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute symposium which was held at Nelspruit on 21-23 October 1986. The abstracts primarily discuss the problems in and around the South African fruit industry such as pest control, etiology, plant diseases, problems with greening, flowering, and plant growth. One abstract specifically discusses the effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential of false cadling moth

307

EFEITO DO ESTÁGIO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS FLORES E DA APLICAÇÃO DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DA PODRIDÃO FLORAL DOS CITROS / FLOWER BUD STAGE AND FUNGICIDE APPLICATION EFFECT CONTROL ON POSTBLOOM FRUIT DROP OF CITRUS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os melhores estágios do desenvolvimento das flores de laranja-doce para o controle da Podridão Floral dos Citros (PFC), avaliando-se diversas épocas de aplicação e doses de fungicidas. Os estudos foram realizados em pomares de laranjas-'Natal' e 'Pêra [...] ' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck), onde foram marcados aleatoriamente ramos florais pertencentes à florada temporã (janeiro de 1994), caracterizando as fases de desenvolvimento de cada botão floral. Em um primeiro ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações manuais, onde foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 1 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 0,5 g, no dia de marcação dos ramos (aplicação normal); c) benomyl 0,5 g, 3 a 4 dias depois da marcação (aplicação tardia); e d) benomyl 0,5 g em 2 aplicações, uma na marcação dos botões e outra uma semana depois. As aplicações foram feitas com pulverizadores manuais, molhando-se apenas os ramos com flores marcados. Em um segundo ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações tratorizadas. Na laranja-'Natal', estudaram-se os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 2.000 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 1 kg em 4/jan; c) benomyl 1 kg em 4 e 11/jan; e d) benomyl 1 kg em 8/jan. Na laranja-'Pêra', os seguintes tratamentos foram aplicados (doses por 2.000 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 1 kg, 4/jan; c) benomyl 1 kg, 4 e 10/jan; d) benomyl 1 kg + captan 3,5 kg, 4/jan; e) benomyl 0,75 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; f) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; g) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan + benomyl 1 kg, 10/jan; h) benomyl 1,5 kg, 4/jan; e i) benomyl 1,5 kg, 4 e 10/jan. Avaliaram-se, em intervalos de dois dias, a freqüência e a época de ocorrência das lesões nas pétalas dos botões florais, a porcentagem de pegamento e o índice de cálices retidos de cada parcela. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que o benomyl é eficiente no controle da PFC em doses de 0,5-0,75 g.L-1, e sua resposta podem ser obtida em floradas temporãs tratadas nos estágios de predominância de botões redondos brancos até o período anterior à antese. Abstract in english This research was an attempt to determine the most appropriate flower bud stages of sweet orange in which fungicide application is more effective to control postbloom fruit drop disease. The trials were carried out in a 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet orange orchards (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). Flower b [...] ranches of summer bloom (January, 1994) were randomly marked and the different stages of development of buds were characterized. In a first trial, the disease control was evaluated through manual spraying. The following treatments were applied (doses per 1 L): a) control; b) benomyl 0.5 g, when buds were marked (regular application); c) benomyl 0.5 g, 3-4 days after the treatment b (late application), and d) benomyl 0.5 g in 2 applications (regular application and 7 days later). In a second trial, the disease control was evaluated through regular spraying, using a tractor and speed sprayer. On 'Natal' orchard, the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L): a) control; b) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th; c) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th and 11th; and d) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 8th. On 'Pera' the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L): a) control; b) benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th; c) benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th; d) benomyl 1 kg + captan 3.5 kg, Jan, 4th); e) benomyl 0.75 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; f) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; g) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th + benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 10th; h) benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th; and i) benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th. Disease lesions on petals, fruit set and incidence of persistent calyx parameters were evaluated every other day. Through the results, it was possible to conclude that benomyl is efficient to control the disease in doses ranging from 0.5-0.75 g.L-1, and its response may be obtained in summer blooms when round to

SÉRGIO RUFFO, ROBERTO; ANDREY VETORELLI, BORGES.

2001-08-01

308

Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas / Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis), apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes [...] da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE) as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP), as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE). As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida), seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0'), com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento. Abstract in english Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit [...] Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea), P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG). The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida) followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0') with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

Márcio de Carvalho, Pires; Osvaldo Kiyoshi, Yamanishi; José Ricardo, Peixoto; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Marcelo Alves de Figueiredo, Sousa.

309

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC, 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

Mansour Afshar Mohammadian

2011-01-01

310

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this [...] study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC) in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC), 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

Mansour Afshar, Mohammadian; Zeinab, Mobrami; Reza Hasan, Sajedi.

311

Reação de porta-enxertos híbridos ao Citrus tristeza virus Reaction of hybrid rootstocks to Citrus tristeza virus  

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Full Text Available A tristeza causada pelo vírus da tristeza dos citros (Citrus tristeza virus, CTV é uma das principais viroses dos citros (Citrus spp. no Brasil. Alguns autores têm utilizado a intensidade de caneluras produzidas nos ramos para selecionar plantas com resistência ao vírus. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a reação de porta-enxertos híbridos, provenientes do programa de melhoramento genético de citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura ao CTV e elaboradas duas escalas, uma fotográfica e outra diagramática, para quantificação de resistência ao CTV. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, a maioria apresentou poucas caneluras, sendo portanto considerados resistentes à tristeza. Verificou-se a manutenção da resistência ao vírus nos híbridos produzidos a partir de progenitores que possuíam algum nível de resistência.Tristeza caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the main virus diseases of citrus (Citrus spp. in Brazil. Some authors have used the intensity of stem pitting symptoms to select resistant plants to tristeza. This work evalueated the reaction of hybrid rootstocks from the citrus breeding program of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. Two scales, for hybrid rootstock evaluation of resistance to CTV were elaborated, one photographic and the other diagrammatic. The majority of the analyzed rootstocks showed a low number of stem pitting and was considered resistant to the virus. Resistance was maintained in hybrids when the parent plants presented resistance to CTV.

PAULO E. MEISSNER FILHO

2002-06-01

312

Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum / Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A podridão floral dos citros (PFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pe [...] la aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros. Abstract in english Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue i [...] s stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.

Steven J., MacKenzie; Natalia A., Peres; Lavern W., Timmer.

2010-12-01

313

Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum / Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A podridão floral dos citros (PFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pe [...] la aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros. Abstract in english Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue i [...] s stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.

Steven J., MacKenzie; Natalia A., Peres; Lavern W., Timmer.

314

Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postbloom fruit drop (PFD is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue is stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.A podridão floral dos citros (PFC, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pela aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros.

Steven J. MacKenzie

2010-12-01

315

Mutation breeding of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Difficulties with conventional breeding methods of improving grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars lead to the application of mutation breeding with X-rays and thermal neutrons. Thermal neutron treatment of seeds and budwood induced mutations affecting fruit characteristics, including seedy to seedless, red to redder flesh and redder peel colour. Two important commercial grapefruit cultivars were developed, 'Star Ruby' and 'Rio Red'. These two cultivars are now sold under the trademark RIO STAR and marketed as the premium grapefruit produced in Texas. (author). 10 refs

316

Citrus paradisi: an effective bio-adsorbent for arsenic (v) remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study As(V) was removed by citrus paradise (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradise peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradise was 37.76 mg.g/sup -1/ at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH) groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradis peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples. (author)

317

Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation  

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Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

Mazhar I. Khaskheli

2014-06-01

318

Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

1980-01-01

319

Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those [...] from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark) or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits). Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC).

Tercilio, Calsa Jr.; Antonio, Figueira.

320

Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses  

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Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

Tercilio Calsa Jr.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Establishment of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the USA, HLB causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. HLB has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. Studies of HLB have been impeded by the fact that C. Liberibacter has not yet been cultured on artificial nutrient media. After being acquired by a psyllid, C. Liberibacter asiaticus is reported to replicate within the psyllid and is retained by the psyllid throughout its life span. We therefore hypothesized that C. Liberibacter asiaticus could be cultured in vitro using psyllid cell cultures as the medium and investigated the establishment of a pure culture for AsCP cells. Several commercially available insect cell culture media along with some media we developed were screened for viability to culture cells from AsCP embryos. Cells from psyllid tissues adhered to the plate and migration was observed within 24 h. Cells were maintained at 20 degrees C. We successfully established primary psyllid cell cultures, referred to as DcHH-1, for D. citri Hert-Hunter-1, with a new media, Hert-Hunter-70. PMID:19440802

Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G

2009-01-01

322

Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus  

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Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2012-11-01

323

Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o52) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)