WorldWideScience
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PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

Amita Tomar, Mridula Mall And Pragya Rai

2013-01-01

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Physiology of citrus fruiting Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of f...

Iglesias, Domingo J.; Manuel Cercós; Colmenero-flores, Jose? M.; Naranjo, Miguel A.; Gabino Ríos; Esther Carrera; Omar Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio Lliso; Raphael Morillon; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Manuel Talon

2007-01-01

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Physiology of citrus fruiting / Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-mo [...] delo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área. Abstract in english Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information [...] generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.

Domingo J., Iglesias; Manuel, Cercós; José M., Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A., Naranjo; Gabino, Ríos; Esther, Carrera; Omar, Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio, Lliso; Raphael, Morillon; Francisco R., Tadeo; Manuel, Talon.

2007-12-01

4

Physiology of citrus fruiting Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-modelo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área.

Domingo J. Iglesias

2007-12-01

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7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. 905.149...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders...for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree...

2010-01-01

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Novel approaches for postharvest preservation of fresh citrus fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus are nonclimacteric fruits that are harvested when their commercial maturity index has already been reached. The maturity index expresses the relationship between two important internal quality parameters, solid soluble concentration and titratable acidity, that determine the fruit consumer ac...

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Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

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In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon  

OpenAIRE

Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel...

Pl, Muthiah

2012-01-01

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Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

OpenAIRE

Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

Ashok Kumar, K.; Narayani, M.; Subanthini, A.; Jayakumar, M.

2011-01-01

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Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

Majd Ahmad

2009-10-01

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New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

OpenAIRE

Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato includes a large number of plant and especially tree pathogens. In Colombia, isolates of this fungus cause a serious cankerstain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates have been shown to occur in two distinct phylogenetic lineages based on ITS sequence comparisons. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus, cacao and native trees in Colombia, based o...

Wyk, Marelize; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Marin, M.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar

2011-06-01

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76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United States. These new treatments...species of citrus fruit imported from Australia into the United States. We also...

2011-03-30

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Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit species when such fruits were selected for their physical resemblance to the native fruit species. Based on our review and case studies, we propose that fruit characteristics of native plant communities could dictate how well a non-native, fleshy-fruited plant species competes for dispersers with natives. Native bird preferences may be largely influenced by regional native fruits, such that birds are attracted to the colors, morphology, and infructescence structures characteristic of preferred native fruits. Non-native fruits exhibiting similar traits are likely to encounter bird communities predisposed to consume them. If those non-natives offer greater fruit abundance, energy content, or accessibility, they may outcompete native plants for dispersers.

Marcel Rejmanek

2012-02-01

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Mechanisms for the influence of citrus rootstocks on fruit size.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on fruit size, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto two rootstocks. The results demonstrated that trees grafted onto Canton lemon produced larger fruits through an enhancement of cell expansion in the ripening period. The difference in fruit size may be due to greater auxin levels in fruits from trees on Canton lemon, and different auxin levels may be produced by parent trees as the result of AUX1 upregulation. Rootstocks also modulate auxin signaling by affecting the transcription of several auxin response factor genes. There were higher abscisic acid concentrations in fruits of 'Shatangju'/Trifoliate orange, resulting in an inhibition of fruit growth and cell expansion through suppression of the synthesis of growth promoting hormones. Furthermore, expansins may be involved in the regulation of final fruit size by influencing cell expansion. Multiple pathways likely exist in citrus rootstocks that regulate fruit size. PMID:25693745

Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Juan; Huang, Min; Chen, Jiezhong

2015-03-18

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Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

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Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review  

OpenAIRE

Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of...

Mohammed Yesuf

2013-01-01

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Postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, Alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. Reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. Sanitation procedures in the packinghouses, alternate use of postharvest fungicides with different modes of action, along with fungicide application before harvest could be an effective approach to minimize postharvest decay in citrus fruit. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a preharvest treatment with pyrimethanil (PYR), a broad spectrum fungicide, recently registered in different citrus-producing countries for postharvest treatments of citrus fruit and widely used worldwide as a preharvest treatment to control various diseases in different crops. PYR (750 mg/L) was sprayed by a hand-back sprayer at run-off on 'Fremont' mandarins. The day after the treatment, half of the trees were sprayed with a 10(4) conidial suspension of P. digitatum at run-off. Fruit were harvested following 2 or 4 weeks from treatments. Sound or either wounded 2-mm-deep and 2-mm-wide or superficial wound-scratched fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 90% RH and inspected for decay after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of storage. In fruit harvested after 2 weeks from field treatment, PYR remarkably reduced decay development during two weeks of storage in sound fruit and in wound-scratched fruit and was fairly effective even after 4 weeks from treatment, but was ineffective in fruit wounded 2 mm deep and 2 mm wide. PYR was also effective in reducing preharvest decay incited by P. digitatum, P. italicum and Botrytis cinerea, but not by other pathogens. Results show that preharvest treatment with PYR could be a feasible approach to reduce postharvest chemical control of decay of citrus fruit. PMID:25145229

D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

2013-01-01

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Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruitage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

20

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange  

OpenAIRE

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

Guimara?es, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, Joa?o C. M.; Sousa, Maria Joa?o; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2010-01-01

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Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

22

[Penicillium ulaiense Hsieh, Su & Tzean, a post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruits in northeastern Argentina].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi were isolated from the surface of decaying citrus fruits and their pathogenicity was determined. A few rotten fruits presented coremia of Penicillium ulaiense Hsieh, Su & Tzean, a new postharvest pathogen in Latin America. Penicillium digitatum (89 strains). Penicillium italicum (28). P. ulaiense (12) and Geotrichum candidum (11) were isolated from 129 samples of citrus fruits. PMID:8552758

Carrillo, L

1995-01-01

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Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML. PMID:25465994

Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

2015-04-15

24

Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huanglongbing (HLB) or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My L; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E; Bowman, Kim D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

2012-01-01

25

Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants  

OpenAIRE

Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The impor...

Marcel Rejmanek; Clare Aslan

2012-01-01

26

Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

27

LC-MS ANALYSIS OF RIND AND PULP OF CITRUS LIMON (L. BURM. F. FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus limon fruits are commonly used as soft drink. It possess medicinal values also as a part of nutraceutical studies. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometric Analysis (LCMS in Citrus limon fruits were done for the determination of the major components in it.  The medicinal and health promoting properties are due to the presence of active principles on it.

Mejo Jose, T Sunilkumar* and VT Antony

2014-11-01

28

An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

Jakobi, Steven

2010-01-01

29

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

30

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro by some citrus fruit juices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to characterize the effects of some citrus fruit juices (shaddock [Citrus maxima], grapefruit [Citrus paradisii], lemon [Citrus limoni], orange [Citrus sinensis], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata]) on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The total phenolic content, radical scavenging abilities, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate in vitro were also assessed. Orange had significantly (Pcitrus juices could make them a good dietary means for the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22400910

Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2012-05-01

31

THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

Irina Ancu

2012-01-01

32

Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100-1 g and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100-1 g. Amla (Indian gooseberry fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100-1 g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100-1 g of edible portion of the fruits. Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100-1 g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100-1 g among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100-1 g. The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100-1 g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100-1 g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100-1 g of fruits.

Dipak Kumar Paul

2004-01-01

33

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In a...

Pl, Muthiah

2012-01-01

34

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Different Parts of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime Fruit) as Used Locally  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as “epa-ijebu” in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of “epa-ijebu” in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 4...

Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

2006-01-01

35

IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

Muthiah PL

2012-03-01

36

78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

2013-01-22

37

Analyzing pH: Comparing Citrus Fruits, Stain Removers and a Green Product  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity will introduce pH testing of cleaning products, citrus fruits, and then analyzes a mystery Green product. Students will compare and contrast findings to discover an earth friendly product.

38

Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts...

Dipak Kumar Paul; Ranajit Kumar Shaha

2004-01-01

39

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed  

OpenAIRE

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

40

Irradiation for international trade in agricultural products: The case of citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses the influence of irradiation techniques on the Uruguayan market and their repercussions on international trade, with emphasis on the important and steadily growing citrus sector. This growth of citrus cultivation in Uruguay has been based on increasing international trade, and therefore producers and exporters have shown particular interest in the plant protection requirements which the European Economic Community (EEC) may adopt to govern the import of citrus fruit into its area. Over the past few years, the sector has become a net exporter, increasing its turnover from one harvest to the next. However, it is currently facing problems caused by the citrus plant disease known as canker, which is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris, pv citri). The EEC is considering plant protection measures which could close its market to Uruguayan citrus fruit. Likewise, the North American market does not accept fruit from regions affected by canker. It is intended to treat fruit ready for export (wax-treated and packed) by irradiation at 0.7 kGy, combined with heat treatment for 5 min at 50 deg. C at the first rinsing stage during packing. Citrus fruit irradiation thus appears as an alternative treatment which would solve the problem by allowing a quality product to be offered on the foreign market, thereby improving commercial prospects as well as avoiding non-tariff barriers. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

41

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

42

Relationship between postharvest diseases resistance and mineral composition of citrus fruit  

OpenAIRE

Green and blue moulds, due to the pathogenic action of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum respectively are the main cause of orange losses during postharvest. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, both together are responsible for 80% of total postharvest citrus fruit decay. The type of orchard production system, field location with different types of climate and soil has a main influence on mineral composition of fruits. The mineral composition of fruits can have a significant ...

Nunes, C.; Duarte, A.; Manso, Teresa; Weiland, Carlos; Garci?a, Jose? M.; Cayuela, Jose? Antonio; Yousfi, Khaled; Marti?nez, M. C.; Salazar, Mari?a

2010-01-01

43

Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves  

OpenAIRE

High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyl...

Amir-shapira, Dekel; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Altman, Arie

1987-01-01

44

Transcriptomic profiling of citrus fruit peel tissues reveals fundamental effects of phenylpropanoids and ethylene on induced resistance  

OpenAIRE

Penicillium spp. are the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit in Mediterranean climatic regions. The induction of natural resistance constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to avoid the environmental contamination and health problems caused by chemical fungicides. To understand the bases of the induction of resistance in citrus fruit against Penicillium digitatum, we have used a 12k citrus cDNA microarray to study transcriptional changes in the outer and inner parts of the p...

Ballester Frutos, A. R.; Lafuente, M. T.; Forment, J.; Gadea, J.; Vos, C. H. R.; Bovy, A. G.; Gonzalez-candelas, L.

2011-01-01

45

A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments  

KAUST Repository

Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

Rodrigo, María J.

2013-09-04

46

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus group, to 0.5 mg/kg in pome fruits and to lower the existing MRL to 0.04 mg/kg in rape seed. Spain drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.5 mg/kg for the proposed uses on citrus fruits and pome fruits. No modification of the existing MRL is proposed for rape seed. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of phosmet and phosmet oxon in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that according to the internationally agreed methodology for estimation of the consumer exposure, the intended uses of phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed will not result in an exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-12-01

47

Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate. PMID:21404840

Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

2011-02-01

48

An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and ?-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author)

49

Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant  

OpenAIRE

Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate ...

Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, Mari?a J.; Alfe?rez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-rosa; Gonza?lez-candelas, Luis; Zacari?as, Lorenzo; Lafuente, Mari?a T.

2012-01-01

50

Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid. Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. The vitamin C contents in fresh juice were determined by a two step oxidation-reduction titration. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by tukey, multiple range test.Results : Mean ascorbic acid contents of commonly used citrus were 85.4±18.3 mg/100 of juice (ranging from 57.9 to 131.6. The highest amount of vitamin C were found in Shahsavari orange 131.6 ± 4.2 and Sanguinello 100.7 ± 2.2 and the lowest amounts were in Tangelo 57.9 ± 2.3 and Unshiu 70.2 ± 2.2 mg/100 of juice. There was no correlation between Ascorbic acid contents and amount of citric acid in juice.Conclusion : Significant differences were found in vitamin C contents of citrus fruits. In order to increase the intake of vitamin C in daily diet, consuming fruits with higher contents of vitamin C is recommended.

M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

2005-01-01

51

Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit. PMID:24128550

Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chi?, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cint?

2014-02-15

52

Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. PMID:24629952

Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

2014-08-01

53

Penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

During the development of green mold disease (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruit, there is little evidence of a host resistance response against the invading fungus. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. Current knowledge of plant-fungal interactions indica...

54

Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

2008-01-01

55

Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays.

Dossat Carole

2007-01-01

56

Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25201434

Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

2015-04-01

57

Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita / Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "m [...] arsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo. Abstract in english Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh- [...] seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

Ondino C., Bataglia; Ody, Rodriguez; Rúter, Hiroce; José Romano, Gallo; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; Ângela Maria C., Furlani.

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Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "marsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo.Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh-seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

Ondino C. Bataglia

1977-01-01

59

Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

2015-01-01

60

Biochemical response of skin-coated citrus fruits irradiated for preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orange fruits (citrus Sinensis) Kind Egyptian Balady variety, were irradiated for 100, 200 and 400 Krad ?-ray doses in combination with sodium orthophenylphenate, 0.0025% incorporated in wax coatings as preirradiation treatment. The data revealed the utility of combined treatment to control postharvest decay in citrus fruits. 100 Krad extend shelflife of skin-coated fruits by 15 weeks without significant losses in Vitamin C, reducing sugars, or free amino acids and without storage disorders. Unirradiated non skin-coated and unirradiated skin-coated had a shelf-life of 7, and 10 weeks, respectively, under the same experimental storage conditions (14-20 C and R.H. 65-75%)

61

High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

62

Label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolite analysis reveal a significant metabolic shift during citrus fruit development  

Science.gov (United States)

Label-free LC-MS/MS-based shot-gun proteomics was used to quantify the differential protein synthesis and metabolite profiling in order to assess metabolic changes during the development of citrus fruits. Our results suggested the occurrence of a metabolic change during citrus fruit maturation, where the organic acid and amino acid accumulation seen during the early stages of development shifted into sugar synthesis during the later stage of citrus fruit development. The expression of invertases remained unchanged, while an invertase inhibitor was up-regulated towards maturation. The increased expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase and the rapid sugar accumulation suggest that sucrose is also being synthesized in citrus juice sac cells during the later stage of fruit development. PMID:21841177

Katz, Ehud; Boo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

2011-01-01

63

Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging  

OpenAIRE

Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. T...

Paiwan Buachan; Linda Chularojmontri; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

2014-01-01

64

Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits*  

OpenAIRE

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and...

Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing

2006-01-01

65

Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system  

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Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

Issa Roy J.

2012-01-01

66

Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross-sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42-46 % of the cross-section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late-formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72-78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107-121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4-D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4-DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8-13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72-78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time-course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an increase in the specific mass transfer in the phloem but had no influence on fruit growth. These observations demonstrate that the transport capacity in the phloem of the pedicel does not limit fruit growth and, within the limits of our experiments, an increase in demand by the fruit appeared to be matched by an increase in SMT. The dependence of late xylem formation (after the period of fruitlet abscission) on fruitlet growth was demonstrated in Salustiana orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by means of controlling fruit growth through the manipulation of leaf area. Fruit growth at this time was more closely related to leaf area than to carbohydrate levels, suggesting that it may be limited by current photosynthesis. PMID:12451031

Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

2002-12-01

67

External Defect classification of Citrus Fruit Images using Linear Discriminant Analysis Clustering and ANN classifiers  

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Full Text Available Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is one technique for transforming raw data into a new feature space in which classification can be carried out more robustly. It is useful where the within-class frequencies are unequal. This method maximizes the ratio of between-class variance to the within-class variance in any particular data set and the maximal separability is guaranteed. LDA clustering models are used to classify object into different category. This study makes use of LDA for clustering the features obtained for the citrus fruit images taken in five different domains. Sub-windows of size 40x40 are cropped from the citrus fruit images having defects such as pitting, splitting and stem end rot. Features are extracted in four domains such as statistical features, fourier transform based features, discrete wavelet transform based features and stationary wavelet transform based features. The results of clustering and classification using LDA and ANN classifiers are reported

K.Vijayarekha

2012-12-01

68

Fruit volatile profiles of two citrus hybrids are dramatically different from those of their parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile compounds released from the fruit of two hybrid Citrus genotypes (FxCh90 and FxCh77) were compared to those from their parental varieties, Fortune mandarin and Chandler pummelo. A series of 113 compounds were identified, including 31 esters, 23 aldehydes, 20 alcohols, 17 monoterpenoids, and other compounds. The differences in the volatile profile among these four genotypes were essentially quantitative. The most striking result was that the volatile profile of the hybrids was not intermediate between their parents and completely differed from that of Chandler, but came closer to Fortune. This was because 56 of the 113 volatile compounds in the hybrids showed significantly higher or lower levels than in any of the parents. Such transgressive behavior in these hybrids was not observed for other fruit quality traits, such as acidity or soluble solid content. The combination of volatile profiling and chemometrics can be used to select new Citrus genotypes with a distinct volatile profile. PMID:25335473

Rambla, José Luis; González-Mas, M Carmen; Pons, Clara; Bernet, Guillermo P; Asins, Maria José; Granell, Antonio

2014-11-19

69

Estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos / Study of some fruit characteristics of eight citrus rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En 1976 se encuentra el principal transmisor del virus de los cítricos en Venezuela, Toxoptera citricida Kirk., en 1979 ocurre el primer foco de árboles muertos por el virus. Estos acontecimientos, hicieron que se introdujeran al país diferentes cultivares de cítricos para ser evaluados como portain [...] jertos. Sin embargo, poco es lo que se conoce sobre la característica del fruto de esos materiales citrícolas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), los citrumelos Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) y Yuma (YUM), los citranges Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) y Uvalde (UVA), mandarino Cleopatra (CLE) Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan y Citremon 1449 Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus limon L. Se tomaron cinco árboles por portinjerto de tamaño y vigor uniformes, a cada árbol se le cosecharon diez frutos al azar y se determinó peso promedio, diámetro distal y ecuatorial, y grosor de cáscara. Además, se calculó la relación entre ambos diámetros, número de semillas por frutos, por 100 g, por kg y peso promedio de la semilla. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos. Abstract in english In 1976 was found for the first time in Venezuela the citrus tristeza virus transmitter, the Toxoptera citricida Kirk., and in 1979 occurs the first outbreak by the death of trees. All of those successes brought about the introduction of different Citrus cultivars to be evaluated as rootstocks. Howe [...] ver, little is known about the fruit characteristics of the introduced rootstocks. The objective of this work was to study the fruit characteristics of eight Citrus rootstocks: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), the citrumelos Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) and Yuma (YUM), the citranges Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) and Uvalde (UVA), Cleopatra mandarin (CLE), Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan., and Citremon 1449 (CIT) Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus limon L. There were selected five trees for each rootstock of uniform size and vigor. From each tree ten fruits were harvested in a randomize form, and we measured the mean weight, distal and equatorial fruit diameter, thickness of rind and number of seeds. In addition, it was calculated the distal/equatorial relation, mean seed number by fruit in a 100 g and a kilogram base, and seed weight. In this paper it is shown the characteristics of the fruits of the evaluated rootstocks.

Edmundo E, Monteverde; Carlos, Marín R; José R, Ruiz.

2007-09-01

70

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

71

Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells. PMID:25298937

Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

2014-01-01

72

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

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Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine; moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola, grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush, orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin and lemon (cv. Lisbon. Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P < 0.01 with fruit firmness. Although this study aimed to determine the range of potential hosts for C. radicicola, to date the only natural host in the world is considered to be lemon.

Mohammad R Mirzaee

2009-10-01

73

Development of molecular markers linked to a gene controlling fruit acidity in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit juice pH, titratable acidity, or citric acid content was measured in 6 populations derived from an acidless pummelo (pummelo 2240) (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merrill). The acidless trait in pummelo 2240 is controlled by a single recessive gene called acitric. Using bulked segregant analysis, three RAPD markers were identified as linked to acitric. RAPD marker OpZ20410, which mapped 1.2 cM from acitric, was cloned and sequenced, and a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker (SCZ20) was developed. The SCZ20-410 marker allele that is linked to the acitric allele occurs only in pummelo 2240 and other pummelos, and therefore, this SCAR marker should be useful as a dominant or codominant marker for introgressing acitric into mandarins and other citrus species. Using the cloned OpZ20410 band as a hybridization probe revealed a codominant RFLP marker called RFZ20 that mapped 1.2 cM from acitric. Progeny homozygous (acac) for the acitric allele had citric acid content below 10 ?M, the minimum level detectable by high pressure liquid chromatography. The citric acid content of fruit juice from progeny predicted to be heterozygous (Acac) for acitric by the above markers was about 30% lower than that of juice from individuals predicted to be homozygous (AcAc) for the normal acid allele. Markers OpZ20410, SCZ20, and RFZ20 were highly polymorphic among 59 citrus accessions, and using one or more of these markers would allow citrus breeders to select seedling progeny heterozygous for acitric in nearly all crosses between pummelo 2240 or its offspring and other citrus genotypes. PMID:18464869

Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

1997-12-01

74

X-ray detection of metallic mercury in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oranges which were injected with metallic mercury were x-rayed. It was found out that in x-rays of the shut original boxes with 100 oranges the metallic mercury could even be determined in quantities far below those of the poisened fruits. (orig.)

75

Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and aroma concentrates are discussed in relation to sensory quality. Analytical methods for compounds affecting quality, and methods for detection of adulteration in different citrus products are briefly reviewed. The importance of sensorily evaluating quality of citrus products to select and develop quality control indices is emphasized. Areas where further research are required are indicated. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid further study and research. PMID:6380950

Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

1983-01-01

76

Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-04-01

77

Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one- [...] week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P

Mohammad R, Mirzaee; Mojtaba, Mohammadi; Ali Azari, Nasrabad.

2009-10-01

78

Transcriptomic profiling of citrus fruit peel tissues reveals fundamental effects of phenylpropanoids and ethylene on induced resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Penicillium spp. are the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit in Mediterranean climatic regions. The induction of natural resistance constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to avoid the environmental contamination and health problems caused by chemical fungicides. To understand the bases of the induction of resistance in citrus fruit against Penicillium digitatum, we have used a 12k citrus cDNA microarray to study transcriptional changes in the outer and inner parts of the peel (flavedo and albedo, respectively) of elicited fruits. The elicitor treatment led to an over-representation of biological processes associated with secondary metabolism, mainly phenylpropanoids and cellular amino acid biosynthesis and methionine metabolism, and the down-regulation of genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among phenylpropanoids, we detected the over-expression of a large subset of genes important for the synthesis of flavonoids, coumarins and lignin, especially in the internal tissue. Furthermore, these genes and those of ethylene biosynthesis showed the highest induction. The involvement of both phenylpropanoid and ethylene pathways was confirmed by examining changes in gene expression and ethylene production in elicited citrus fruit. Therefore, global results indicate that secondary metabolism, mainly phenylpropanoids, and ethylene play important roles in the induction of resistance in citrus fruit. PMID:21726388

Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Lafuente, M Teresa; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; De Vos, Ric C H; Bovy, Arnaud G; González-Candelas, Luis

2011-12-01

79

A beta-galactosidase gene is expressed during mature fruit abscission of 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

beta-galactosidases have been detected in a wide range of plants and are characterized by their ability to hydrolyse terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactosyl residues from beta-D-galactosides. These enzymes have been detected in a wide range of plant organs and tissues. In a search for differentially expressed genes during the abscission process in citrus, sequences encoding beta-galactosidase were identified. Three cDNA fragments of a beta-galactosidase gene were isolated from a cDNA subtraction library constructed from mature fruit abscission zones 48 h after the application of a mature fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole). Based on sequence information derived from these fragments, a full-length cDNA of 2847 nucleotides (GenBank accession number AY029198) encoding beta-galactosidase was isolated from mature fruit abscission zones by 5'- and 3'-RACE approaches. The beta-galactosidase cDNA encoded a protein of 737 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 82 kDa. The deduced protein was highly homologous to plant beta-galactosidases expressed in fruit ripening. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that at least two closely related beta-galactosidase genes were present in 'Valencia' orange. Temporal expression patterns in mature fruit abscission zones indicated beta-galactosidase mRNA was detected 48 h after treatment of CMN-pyrazole and ethephon in mature fruit abscission zones. beta-galactosidase transcripts were detected in leaf abscission zones only after ethephon application. The citrus beta-galactosidase was expressed in stamens and petals of fully opened flowers and young fruitlets. The results suggest that this beta-galactosidase may play a role during abscission as well as early growth and development processes in flowers and fruitlets. PMID:15208347

Wu, Zhencai; Burns, Jacqueline K

2004-07-01

80

Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where, since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation no symptoms of citrus canker were observed, neither in their vicinities. The PHL Panel concluded that the transmission of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on asymptomatic citrus fruit was more likely when the fruit were collected from infested than from non-infested areas and groves. Symptomatic fruit carries more Xcc cells than asymptomatic fruit and the packinghouse disinfectant treatments do not achieve the eradication of Xcc. The application of management option 2 (i.e. ‘allow distribution of all types and varieties of commercially packed citrus fruit to all US States, subject to packinghouse treatment with APHIS-approved disinfectant. No packinghouse phytosanitary inspection is required’) selected by USDA will result in an increase in the Xcc load of citrus fruit consignments and in a subsequent increase in the probability of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase the probability of introduction of Xcc into new areas.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2011-01-01

81

Occurrence of Osthole in Commonly Available Citrus Fruits Analyzed With GC-MS and LC-QTOF-MS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary: Osthole (CAS 484-12-8 is a compound with numerous possible therapeutic applications. Its occurrence was reported in Cnidium monnieri. In our practice we noted that osthole is present in citrus fruits. The purpose of the study was to examine and quantitatively assess the occurrence of osthole in commercially available citrus fruits. Grapefruit, pomelo, citron, and orange from various markets in Saudi Arabia were collected and subjected to QuEChERS/DPX extraction. As identification techniques, GC-MS (full scan and SIM and high resolution LC-QToF-MS (MSe mode with three transitions were applied. Osthole was identified in grapefruit, pomelo, and citron. Orange was practically free of osthole. The highest concentrations of osthole were found in the peel of all fruits, in the range of 7.0-78.5 mg/kg. In conclusion may be stated that the peel of examined citrus fruits may be considered as a valuable and easily available source of osthole. Industrial relevance: The peels of lemon fruits (grapefruit, citron, pomelo, which are treated as a food waste, contain osthole and may appear as valuable source of this compound after proper treatment. Keywords: osthole; GC-MS; LC-ToF-MS; citrus fruits

M J Bogusz

2012-12-01

82

Biological and physical approaches to improve induced resistance against green mold of stored citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health and environmental concerns have point out the need to improve or change several manufacturing steps in the food chain. In this context particular attention should be given to the technologies involved in fruits and vegetables production. Nearly all fresh fruit and vegetables are subjected to different periods of storage and/or shelf-life before of their consumption. This implies the need to protect the commodities from microbial spoilage. Some Citrus species (e.g. lemon and grapefruit) may be stored for several months before consumption and then post-harvest treatments are essential to contain green (Penicillium digitatum) and blue (P. italicum) moulds. Alternative approaches to chemicals usually have a lower efficacy in containing rots but fulfill the consumer's expectation. Among the alternative strategies, the improvement of host natural resistance is promising. In this regard, we report some results concerning the use of biotic (yeast) and abiotic agents as inducers of phytoalexin (i.e. scoparone and/or scopoletin) accumulation in Citrus rind and its importance in the control of fungal decay. In all experiments the inducers were applied on fruits before or 24 h after inoculation with P. digitatum and the rot severity was monitored 7 days later. The accumulation of phytoalexins was monitored according to a standard methodology by HPLC. In all experiments a positive correlation was found between increase of the phytoalexin scoparone in host tissue and reduction of decay. PMID:16637204

Arras, G; Dhallewin, G; Petretto, A; Marceddu, S; Loche, M; Agabbio, M

2005-01-01

83

Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

Abdellah El Hari

2011-11-01

84

Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.  

OpenAIRE

Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C) and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml) and fre...

Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay And Nawaz Khan

2013-01-01

85

Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control with FLU applications of 100 mg/L at 50 degrees C and 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C resulted in ca. 0.8 mg/kg FLU fruit residues, in agreement with results on wounded citrus fruit. When equal concentrations and temperatures were applied, FLU treatments were as effective as IMZ. In vitro trials showed a low sensitivity to FLU against P. digitatum and P. italicum isolates. MIC values for the complete inhibition of mycelium growth were >or=100 microg/mL, while ED(50) values ranged from 0.1 to 1 microg/mL for P. digitatum and from 1 to >100 microg/mL for P. italicum. The latter result suggests that care should be taken to avoid exclusive application of FLU in a sustainable program for management of fruit decay. However, integrating fungicide application and hot water dip may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, by increasing the effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16104790

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

2005-08-24

86

Application of microorganisms, alone or in combination, to control postbloom fruit drop in citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14, ACB-33, ACB-37, and ACB-40) and Bacillus subtilis (ACB-66, ACB-69, ACB-77, and ACB-83) were tested separately or in mixtures for suppression of postbloom fruit drop in citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This work aimed at: (i) determining the incubation [...] time and temperature for production of cells of biocontrol agents; (ii) determining the effect of the isolates, separately or in mixture on the germination conidia of C. acutatum; (iii) evaluating the efficiency of antagonistic isolates on detached citrus flowers and under field conditions. The results of the interactions in vitro showed that there was little differentiation in cell production among the species, and the optimum temperature was 27ºC. The best time for multiplication of bacterial cells was 36 hours, whereas for Trichoderma, the production of conidia continued to increase up to 120 hours of incubation. The mixtures of the ACB-77 plus ACB-66, ACB-33, or ACB-37 inhibited pathogen germination from 84% to 89%. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that ACB69 alone gave 99% control. The use of mixture ACB-69 plus ACB-37 proved to be viable in the control of disease under field conditions, but the efficiency of the control was lowest than the obtained by applications of ACB-69 alone.

Mariana N., Klein; Aline C., Silva; Marcos R., Lopes; Katia C., Kupper.

2013-12-01

87

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

1017-10-01

88

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco immature fruits storage Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lateral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1 and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e colocados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1, 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose.

Moacir Pasqual

2006-10-01

89

Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (?), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest ?-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL. PMID:24245895

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-11-01

90

PUTATIVE PROTEASE INHIBITOR GENE DISCOVERY AND TRANSCRIPT PROFILING DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT AND LEAF DAMAGE IN GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI MAEF.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven putative protease inhibitor (PPI) cDNAs, representing four protein families, were isolated from a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Maef. Cv. Marsh) immature fruit flavedo cDNA library. Clones represented: legume Kuntiz inhibitors (LkiL-1, LkiL-2, LkiL-3), potato trypsin inhibitor I (PtiIL-1), serp...

91

Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

2010-07-01

92

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

93

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons  

OpenAIRE

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

European Food Safety Authority

2012-01-01

94

Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details about an image processing method applied for classifying three external surface defects of citrus fruit using wavelet transforms based features and an artificial neural network. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT features viz. mean and standard deviation of the details and approximations were extracted from citrus fruit images and used for classifying the defects. The DWT and SWT features were extracted from 40x40 sub-windows of the fruit image. The WPT features were extracted from the full fruit image of size 640x480. The classification results pertaining to the three wavelet transforms are reported and discussed.

K. Vijayarekha

2012-12-01

95

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch, and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco, utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7. The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%, and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco, satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch e híbridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco, por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5% e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'.

Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

2005-08-01

96

Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars / Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco), satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch) e hí [...] bridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco), por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5%) e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin [...] (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7). The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%), and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.

Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Elizete Beatriz, Radmann.

2005-08-01

97

Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively. PMID:20162090

Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

2006-01-01

98

Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus. PMID:25686700

Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

2015-04-01

99

Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia ap [...] ós o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101 [...] st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

Marlon Dutra Degli, Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon.

2008-09-01

100

Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

2010-07-01

101

Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

2013-05-01

102

Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods. (author)

103

Postharvest disinfestation treatments for deciduous and citrus fruits of the Western Cape, South Africa: a database analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Effective postharvest disinfestation of export fruits from the Western Cape province of South Africa would help to reduce rejections due to the presence of insects. However, there is normally only a limited opportunity between controlling the insects and damaging the produce. A widely used agent in [...] disinfestation procedures, methyl bromide, was scheduled to be withdrawn in many countries in 2005 due to its ozone-depleting properties. The main alternatives are irradiation, extreme temperatures, forced air, vapour-heat methods and the use of controlled atmospheres. A literature survey was used to identify postharvest treatments with the highest likelihood of success in killing insect contaminants without damaging the fruit. Data from 284 scientific articles relating to these kinds of disinfestation were entered into a database (PQUAD). Queries were run to determine the most intensively studied fruits and pests. The tolerances of the commodities were compared with those of the pests at family level. Where pest tolerances were lower than those of the fruit, the treatment was regarded as a possible candidate for use. Methyl bromide, controlled atmospheres and irradiation were identified as the most widely used against pests. Irradiation appeared to control insects at doses that did not damage deciduous produce. Citrus appeared to be more susceptible to damage, however, than deciduous fruits. Low temperature also seemed to be less detrimental to deciduous fruit than to citrus. Deciduous fruit is already preserved in cold storage, making this an inexpensive option to combat insects. Cold treatment appeared to control members of the Pseudococcidae, Tephritidae and Tortricidae; more work is required on the other pest families. Controlled atmospheres also had a high chance of success for both citrus and deciduous fruits.

J.S., Pryke; K.L., Pringle.

2008-04-01

104

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

OpenAIRE

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr...

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Sai?dani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

105

Sodium carbonate treatment induces scoparone accumulation, structural changes, and alkalinization in the albedo of wounded citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following sodium carbonate treatment, accumulation of scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) but not scopoletin (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) was found in the albedo of wounded fruit from different Citrus sp. and cultivars. Treating wounded mandarin fruit cv. Fairchild with 5% Na(2)CO(3) (SC) lead to a scoparone accumulation in the albedo of 310, 361, and 382 microg g(-1) fresh weight after 7, 10, and 15 days, respectively. Scoparone accumulation was associated with a decrease in decay severity. When oranges cv. Biondo comune wounded and treated with 5% SC were inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum conidia 3 days posttreatment, the decay percentage as compared to untreated wounds was reduced by 97.2 and 93.9%, respectively. Observations by scanning electron microscopy of wounded Citrus fruits treated at 20 degrees C with 2, 3, 4, or 5% (w/v) solutions of sodium carbonate showed structural modifications to the albedo as well as damage to 24-48 h old mycelia of P. digitatum, the cause of citrus green mold. Modifications were more evident in orange, lemon, and grapefruit as compared to mandarin fruit. The efficacy of the treatment was strictly related to the SC interaction with the albedo tissue that, in addition to structural changes, significantly increased tissue pH, affecting P. digitatum pathogenicity. The SC remaining as a film on unwounded flavedo had no effect in preventing contact infection by the Penicillia. PMID:15853395

Venditti, Tullio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Agabbio, Mario; D'hallewin, Guy

2005-05-01

106

Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

2014-09-01

107

Isolation and identification of insecticidal components from Citrus aurantium fruit peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three active components were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation of bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) fruit peel petroleum ether extract. Silica gel fractionation of the extract yielded a fraction that inflicted up to 96% mortality to adults of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) three days post-treatment. Subsequent HPLC purification of the active fraction resulted in the isolation of three components, eluted in fractions F 222, F 224, and F 226, that induced adult mortality. Considering the data obtained from UV, FTIR, MS, and (1)H NMR spectra, they were identified as 7-methoxy-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2 H-1-benzopyran-2-one (osthol), 4-methoxy-7 H-furo[3,2- g]benzopyran-7-one (bergapten), and 4-(( E)-3'-methyl-5'-(3'',3''-dimethyloxiran-2''-yl)pent-2'-enyloxy)-7 H-furo[3,2- g][1]benzopyran-7-one (6',7'-epoxybergamottin). Our results are in concordance with those reported in the literature and were further verified by direct comparison to authentic components. 6',7'-Epoxybergamottin was toxic when tested individually, while bergapten and osthol were found to act synergistically to 6',7'-epoxybergamottin. PMID:18578532

Siskos, Elias P; Mazomenos, Basilis E; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

2008-07-23

108

Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices  

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Full Text Available Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II. Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

Gilberto G. Villela

1943-12-01

109

Nota sôbre a dosagem iodométrica da vitamina C nos frutos cítricos / Iodometric determination of vitamin C in citrus fruit juices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Ascorbic acid was determined in pure aquous solutions and in citrus fruit juices by iodometric, dichlorophenolindophenol and iodate methods. More constant values were obtained with iodate and Tillmans methods. Iodate is preferable owing to the stability of solution and the simplicity of the method. [...] In the analysis of citrus juices the iodate method proposed by Ballentine is very accurate and suitable for routine work (Table I and II). Recovery experiments recorded in Table III show that the results are reproducible. The averages obtained for some fruits are shown in Table IV. Lemon: 45,4 to 67,3; orange: 28,0 to 60,8; lima: 25,2 to 38,2 and mandarine: 32,0 to 59,3. Values expressed in mg per 100 cc. of juice.

Gilberto G., Villela; José Danilo, Pecci.

1943-12-01

110

Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based) and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details ...

Vijayarekha, K.

2012-01-01

111

Relationship Between Host Acidification and Virulence of Penicillium spp. on Apple and Citrus Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Penicillium expansum, P. digitatum, and P. italicum acidify the ambient environments of apple and citrus fruit during decay development. They use two mechanisms for this: the production of organic acids, mainly citric and gluconic, and NH(4)(+) utilization associated with H(+) efflux. Exposure of P. expansum and P. digitatum hyphae to pH 5.0 increased their citric acid production, compared with the production of organic acids at acidic ambient pH. In decayed fruit, both pathogens produced significant amounts of citric and gluconic acids in the decayed tissue and reduced the host pH by 0.5 to 1.0 units. Ammonium depletion from the growth medium or from the fruit tissue was directly related to ambient pH reduction. Analysis of transcripts encoding the endopolygalacturonase gene, pepg1, from P. expansum accumulated under acidic culture conditions from pH 3.5 to 5.0, suggesting that the acidification process is a pathogenicity enhancing factor of Penicillium spp. This hypothesis was supported by the finding that cultivars with lower pH and citric acid treatments to reduce tissue pH increased P. expansum development, presumably by increasing local pH. However, organic acid treatment could not enhance decay development in naturally acidic apples. Conversely, local alkalinization with NaHCO(3) reduced decay development. The present results further suggest that ambient pH is a regulatory cue for processes linked to pathogenicity of postharvest pathogens, and that specific genes are expressed as a result of the modified host pH created by the pathogens. PMID:18943818

Prusky, Dov; McEvoy, James L; Saftner, Robert; Conway, William S; Jones, Richard

2004-01-01

112

Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

113

Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

114

Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79 degrees Brix. PMID:16972321

Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan; Tian, Hai-qing

2006-10-01

115

Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

116

Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and aroma concentrates are discussed in relation to sensory quality. Analytical methods for compounds affecting quality, and methods for detection of adulteration in different citrus products are briefly reviewed. The importance of sensorily evaluating quality of citrus products to select and develop quality control indices is emphasized. Areas where further research are required are indicated. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid further study and research. PMID:6354594

Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

1983-01-01

117

Routine application using single quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to pesticides analysis in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method has been developed for the routine analysis of buprofezin, bupirimate, hexaflumuron, tebufenpyrad, fluvalinate and pyriproxyfen in citrus fruits. Extracts were obtained by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) using C18 as dispersant and dichloromethane-methanol (80:20, v/v) as eluent. Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by addition of standard to sample blank extracts (samples containing no detectable residues). Mean recoveries obtained at fortification levels between 0.01 and 5 mg kg(-1) were 57-97% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 5 to 19%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.01-0.2 mg kg(-1) and lower than maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the Spanish legislation. The MSPD was compared with conventional ethyl acetate extraction, showing equivalent recoveries and precision. Although the sample is more concentrated (5-fold) by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with ethyl acetate than by MSPD, LOQs obtained by both techniques, were almost equal, because MSPD reduces matrix effects, baseline noise, and interfering peaks from the matrix. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of selected pesticides in real samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and triple quadrupole (TQ) have been used as confirmatory tool for positive samples according to a recent No. SANCO/10476/2003 European Union Guideline. PMID:16130755

Soler, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

2005-09-23

118

Identification and functional analysis of Penicillium digitatum genes putatively involved in virulence towards citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould rot, is the most destructive post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P.?digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we followed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P.?digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall-related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P.?digitatum ?ndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild-type. However, the two ?pnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P.?digitatum. PMID:25099378

López-Pérez, Mario; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis

2015-04-01

119

Citrus tissue culture: stimulation of fruit explant cultures with orange juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine.HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an "acidless" orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. PMID:16660631

Einset, J W

1978-12-01

120

Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging  

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Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

Paiwan Buachan

2014-04-01

121

Selected activities of Citrus maxima Merr. fruits on human endothelial cells: enhancing cell migration and delaying cellular aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC). Short-term (48 h) co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL). CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF) while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction. PMID:24763109

Buachan, Paiwan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

2014-04-01

122

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus t...

Dicle Donmez; Ozhan Simsek; Tolga Izgu; Yildiz Aka Kacar; Yesim Yalcin Mendi

2013-01-01

123

Towards the Biological Control of Post Harvest Blue Mold of Citrus sinensis Fruits in Egypt I-isolation and Characterization of Antagonistic Strain of Streptomyces alni  

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Full Text Available Wet rot-diseased Citrus sinensis fruits were collected from Kafr El-Ziat Station for citrus exportation. The fungal pathogen was isolated and identified as Penicillium italicum. Sixty eight bacterial isolates (eubacteria and actinomycetes were screened for their antagonistic activities against the fungal pathogen, Penicillium italicum. Thirty one isolates (identified and unidentified showed antifungal activity against the pathogen and unidentified actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Citrus sinensis trees, exhibited the highest activity. Cultural, physiological and biochemical studies were performed to characterize and identify the most active actinomycete. Depending on the results of these studies, the most active antifungal actinomycete was identified as Streptomyces alni. The sterilized cultural filtrate of Streptomyces alni was applied to Citrus sinensis fruits and inhibited the fungal infection until 27 days of storage, but slight symptoms of infection appeared after one month of storage under humid conditions.

Essam A. Azab

2006-01-01

124

CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1 are differentially induced during leaf and fruit abscission and diurnally regulated in Citrus sinensis  

OpenAIRE

Understanding leaf and fruit abscission is essential in order to develop strategies for controlling the process in fruit crops. Mechanisms involved in signalling leaf and fruit abscission upon induction by abscission agents were investigated in Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’. Previous studies have suggested a role for phospholipid signalling; hence, two phospholipase D cDNA sequences, CsPLD?1 and CsPLD?1, were isolated and their role was examined. CsPLD?1 expression was reduced in leav...

Malladi, Anish; Burns, Jacqueline K.

2008-01-01

125

Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. "Washington navel", "Sanguinello", "Tarocco", "Moro", "Valencia late", and "Ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. "Avana"), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. "Marsh seedless" and "Red Blush"), citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata cvv. "Carrizo" and "Troyer"), and lemon (C. limon cv. "Femminello", collected in three periods), were characterized by a combination of GC and GC/MS analyses. The antifungal efficacy of the oils was then examined at progressively reduced rates. Findings showed a positive correlation between monoterpenes other than limonene and sesquiterpene content of the oils and the pathogen fungi inhibition. The best results were shown by the citrange oils, whose chemical composition is reported for the first time, and lemon. Furthermore P. digitatum was found to be more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the oils. PMID:9761340

Caccioni, D R; Guizzardi, M; Biondi, D M; Renda, A; Ruberto, G

1998-08-18

126

Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp.) de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos / Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp.) of potential use as rootstock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, [...] incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki. Abstract in english The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp.), and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan [...] , C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Ary Apparecido, Salibe.

2002-12-01

127

Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

2014-12-01

128

Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of ?-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2014-06-01

129

An on-line HPLC-FRSD system for rapid evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of Citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-free radical scavenging detection (HPLC-FRSD) system was developed for rapidly evaluating the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of Citrus fruits. With the system, all samples can be analyzed within 5 min. The on-line HPLC-FRSD system has low limits of detection (0.001-0.010 mg mL(-1)) and quantification (0.005-0.020 mg mL(-1)), excellent recovery rate (90.44-115.72%), stability (RSD plants and plant-based products. PMID:25442599

Zhang, Hua; Xi, Wanpeng; Yang, Yifei; Zhou, Xingyu; Liu, Xin; Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Jinmei; Zhou, Zhiqin

2015-04-01

130

HPLC comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction of coumarins from the peel of Citrus maxima fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency of carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the biologically active compounds imperatorin, meranzin and meranzin hydrate from the fruit peel of Citrus maxima Merr. has been compared with that of solvent extraction with acetone. Under the best SFE conditions tested for the three coumarins, which involved extraction at 50 degrees C and 27.6 MPa, the extractive efficiencies were 84, 76 and 18% for imperatorin, meranzin and meranzin hydrate, respectively. The presence of modifiers significantly affected the extraction efficiency: the highest extraction efficiency of the three coumarins was obtained with ethanol as modifier. PMID:16315491

Teng, Wen-Yuh; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chung, Ren-Shih

2005-01-01

131

Efficacy of lufenuron bait station technique to control mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata in Citrus Orchards in Northern Tunisia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of the lufenuron bait stations as a component of an integrated pest management program (IPM) was tested in three citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata during the three years 2005, 2006 and 2007. the technique was based on the use of the insect growth regulator lufenuron transferred via a gel bait Fr adult flies to prevent the hatching of eggs laid in fruits and induce a subsequent population reduction. The evaluation of the effect of the treatments was based on the assessment of adult Medfly population reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures in McPhail traps baited with the synthetic lure trimedlure and insecticide together with the evaluation of fruit damage. Results indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions of 12.72 pour cent during 2005, 34.99 pour cent and respectively 78.85 pour cent, 62.84 pour cent in fields 1, 2 and 3 during 2007 compared to standard chemical treatments. Fruit damage assessment showed generally significant differences between the two treatments reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures

132

Involvement of CitCHX and CitDIC in Developmental-Related and Postharvest-Hot-Air Driven Citrate Degradation in Citrus Fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrate is the predominant organic acid associated with taste in citrus fruit. Although citrate metabolism has been widely studied in recent years, the potential contributions of transport proteins to citrate content remain unclear. In the present study, high-acid citrus fruit Gaocheng (‘GC’, Citrus sp.) and low-acid citrus fruit Satsuma mandarin (‘SM’, Citrus unshiu Marc.) were selected for study, and the degradation of citrate was deduced to be the main cause of the difference in acidity in fully mature fruits. RNA-seq analysis was carried out on ‘GC’ and ‘SM’ fruit samples over the same time course, and the results indicated that citrate degradation occurred mainly through the glutamine pathway, catalyzed by CitAco3-CitGS2-CitGDU1, and also two transport-related genes, CitCHX and CitDIC, were shown to be associated with citrate degradation. These results were confirmed by real-time PCR. In postharvest ‘GC’ fruit, the expressions of these two transport-related genes were induced by 2-fold under hot air treatment, accompanied by a reduction of 7%-9% in total acid degradation. Transient expression of CitCHX and CitDIC in tobacco leaves was performed, and the citrate content was reduced by 62%, 75% and 78% following CitCHX, CitDIC and CitCHX plus CitDIC treatments, respectively, as compared with expression of an empty vector. Overall, these data indicated that two transport proteins, CitCHX and CitDIC, are not only involved in citrate degradation during fruit development, but also involved in postharvest hot air triggered citrate reduction. PMID:25738939

Lin, Qiong; Li, Shaojia; Dong, Wencheng; Feng, Chao; Yin, Xueren; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-01-01

133

Histochemical evidence for the relationship between peel damage and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in gamma-irradiated citrus fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first symptoms of radiation damage to citrus fruit were noted 24 to 48 hr after irradiation with 240 krad of gamma rays. At about the same time, radiation-damaged cells were observed in peel cross sections in the flavedo, the outer colored peel layers. The damaged cells were deformed and their protoplasts stained much darker with haematoxylin-safranin than protoplasts of intact cells. The cytoplasm in damaged cells either thickened at one side of the cell, sometimes filling up most of the cell space, or contracted into a small mass. Using several histochemical reagents, a considerable accumulation of phenolic compounds was found to occur in the damaged cells shortly after irradiation. No accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed in intact cells of irradiated fruit. It is suggested that the phenolic compounds which accumulate in flavedo cells following irradiation cause cell death and consequent peel necrosis (pitting). (author)

134

Citrus Genomics  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

Gmitter, Fred G.; Manuel Talon

2008-01-01

135

Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), ?-pinene (0.63–31.49%), ?-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and ?-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

2012-01-01

136

Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

Ricardo Victoria Filho

1991-01-01

137

NON-TARGET IMPACT OF SPINOSAD GF-120 BAIT-SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF THE MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN TEXAS CITRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Bait sprays containing the toxicant Spinosad (GF-120), were applied in citrus groves where the Mexican fruit fly was detected in surveillance traps. Reduction in sterile fly captures in the treated groves was 47-63% compared to control groves. There were no detectable effects on specific indicato...

138

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

139

Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

140

Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

2011-11-01

141

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lowering of the MRL was proposed, and for tomatoes and aubergines, where it was concluded that no modification of the MRL would be required. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA on 6 January 2012. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.9 mg/kg for citrus fruit, 0.5 mg/kg for pome fruit, 0.5 mg/kg peaches/nectarines and plums, 0.7 mg/kg for grapes, 3 mg/kg for strawberries, 0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes and aubergines, 0.4 mg/kg for sweet pepper, 3 mg/kg for chilli pepper, 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits with inedible peel and 20 mg/kg for hops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bifenazate on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Since for some of these crops higher MRLs were proposed in a previously issued reasoned opinion of EFSA, they need to be considered to avoid trade disruption. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bifenazate on citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, table- and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons, watermelons and hops will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-10-01

142

Factors affecting the synergy of thiabendazole, sodium bicarbonate, and heat to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of thiabendazole (TBZ) to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum of citrus fruit can be enhanced by co-application with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and/or heat treatment. The impact of these treatments was investigated in citrus fruit, as a function of TBZ and SBC concentration and temperature, and were related to the amount of TBZ residues in fruit (total residues), in fruit surface, in the cuticular wax, and in the inner fruit. The residue levels of TBZ were determined in 'Valencia' oranges following a 1 min dip in an aqueous mixture of SBC at 0.5, 1, or 2 wt %/vol and TBZ at 600 or 400 mg/L (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 or 40 degrees C and after 0 and 20 days at 17 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. The influence of SBC and heat on the TBZ residue concentration on the fruit surface, in cuticular wax, and on the inner cuticle tissue was determined in 'Salustiana' oranges after a 1 or 3 min dip in TBZ alone at 600 mg/L and 20 or 50 degrees C or for 1 min in TBZ at 600 mg/L and SBC at 2% and 20 degrees C. The efficacy of heat treatments with water, SBC, and TBZ, applied separately or in combination, was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Nova' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges for the control of postharvest green mold caused by a TBZ-sensitive (TBZ-s) or TBZ-resistant (TBZ-r) isolate of P. digitatum. The residue levels of TBZ in fruit, evaluated as total residues, were not affected by the co-application of SBC in most samples. While TBZ residues in the fruit surface were not significantly affected by the dip temperature or by co-application of SBC, the rates of diffusion and penetration of TBZ into cuticular wax markedly increased in the presence of SBC or when TBZ was applied in combination with heat. TBZ residues in the inner tissue of fruits treated at 20 degrees C were not dependent upon the dip time or by the presence of SBC and were similar to those found in fruit treated with TBZ at 50 degrees C for 1 min, whereas significantly higher values were recorded in samples treated with TBZ at 50 degrees C for 3 min. When TBZ at 600 mg/L and 20 degrees C was applied in the presence of SBC at concentrations of 1-2 or 0.5-2%, it effectively reduced decay caused by the TBZ-resistant isolate of green mold in 'Nova' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges. This treatment was also significantly more effective than TBZ alone to control green mold caused by a TBZ-s isolate in 'Valencia' oranges. The combination with SBC and mild heat (40 degrees C) and TBZ at 400 mg/L generally improved the control of a TBZ-r isolate of green mold with respect to the combined treatment at 20 degrees C. TBZ efficacy was also improved when applied at reduced rates (200 mg/L) and 50 degrees C, significantly suppressing green mold caused by a TBZ-s isolate of P. digitatum and effectively controlling a TBZ-r isolate. The rate of weight loss of 'Valencia' oranges was significantly increased by SBC treatment and was positively dependent upon the concentration of SBC used in the treatment, while the temperature of the treatment solution had little influence on later weight loss. PMID:18973341

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo

2008-11-26

143

The use of sodium carbonate to improve curing treatments against green and blue moulds on citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of curing oranges and lemons at 33 degrees C for 65h followed by storage under ambient and cold-storage conditions was investigated. This treatment effectively reduced the incidence of Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc and P italicum Wehmer decay on inoculated and naturally infected oranges and lemons stored at 20 degrees C for 7 days. However, it failed to control green and blue mould infections on fruits placed in long-term cold storage, except green mould on oranges, which was effectively controlled. Dipping fruits in a sodium carbonate solution (20 g litre(-1)) for 2.5 min following a curing treatment at 33 degrees C for 65 h satisfactorily reduced green and blue mould incidence during subsequent long-term storage at 4 degrees C on oranges and at 10 degrees C on lemons. The efficacy was greater on injured fruits inoculated after the combination of treatments was applied, achieving a 60-80% reduction in decay in comparison with the curing treatment alone in all cases. A significant reduction of blue mould was also observed on fruits inoculated both before the treatments and on those re-inoculated after the treatments, demonstrating both protectant and eradicant activity. Thus, combining curing at 33 degrees C for 65 h with sodium carbonate treatment effectively controlled these post-harvest diseases on artificially inoculated citrus fruits and protected against re-infection. With naturally inoculated lemons, curing followed by sodium carbonate significantly reduced both green and blue mould incidence, but was not superior to curing alone. With naturally infected oranges, curing significantly reduced blue mould, but decay was not reduced further when followed by sodium carbonate treatment. PMID:15307674

Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Torres, Rosario; Abadias, Maribel; Smilanick, Joseph L; Viñas, Immaculada

2004-08-01

144

Extending the use of ultraviolet light for fruit quality sorting in citrus packinghouses  

Science.gov (United States)

Illumination with ultraviolet light (UV) is commonly used in citrus packinghouses as a means to aid in the identification and removal of decayed oranges from the packline. This technique is effective because areas of decay strongly fluoresce under UV illumination. It was observed that oranges often ...

145

Effect of harvesting with a trunk shaker and an abscission chemical on fruit detachment and defoliation of citrus grown under Mediterranean conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spain ranks as the world’s leading exporter of citrus for fresh consumption. Manual harvest accounts for 50% of the total production costs. Mechanical harvest would increase labor productivity and benefits of growers. Efficiency of these machines depends on the varieties and operating conditions. Use of abscission chemicals has been promoted to increase the detachment rate of fruit without affecting its quality. This work is aimed at studying whether the mechanical harvest and/or the application of an abscission agent affect the quality and quantity of harvested fruit and tree defoliation under the conditions of citrus cultivation in Spain. Trials were made in a completely randomized experimental design. From 2008 to 2011, different orchards of mandarin and orange trees were sprayed with different doses of ethephon as abscission agent and harvested with a trunk shaker. Harvest related variables (detachment percentage, defoliation and fruit without calyx were measured. The percentage of fruit detached by the trunk shaker ranged between 70 and 85% and it did not depend on the orchard. The shaker produced minimal damage to the bark when gripped incorrectly. Increased doses of ethephon increased fruit detachment except in ‘Clemenules’ orchard, but also increased the fruit without calyx in 1-9%. Moreover, ethephon promoted significant defoliation. Neither gummosis nor death of branches was observed. This work demonstrates that mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers may be a feasible solution for citrus cultivated in Spain for fresh market. Use of ethephon could only be recommended for citrus destined to industry and only for certain varieties.

Rosana Moreno

2015-03-01

146

Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms  

OpenAIRE

Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits ...

Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

147

Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

148

Gene expression in Citrus sinensis fruit tissues harvested from huanglongbing-infected trees: comparison with girdled fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in sweet orange fruit and leaves ('Hamlin' and 'Valencia') and transcriptomic changes associated with huanglongbing (HLB) infection in fruit tissues are reported. Viable CaLas was present in most fruit tissues tested in HLB trees, with the highest titre detected in vascular tissue near the calyx abscission zone. Transcriptomic changes associated with HLB infection were analysed in flavedo (FF), vascular tissue (VT), and juice vesicles (JV) from symptomatic (SY), asymptomatic (AS), and healthy (H) fruit. In SY 'Hamlin', HLB altered the expression of more genes in FF and VT than in JV, whereas in SY 'Valencia', the number of genes whose expression was changed by HLB was similar in these tissues. The expression of more genes was altered in SY 'Valencia' JV than in SY 'Hamlin' JV. More genes were also affected in AS 'Valencia' FF and VT than in AS 'Valencia' JV. Most genes whose expression was changed by HLB were classified as transporters or involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological characteristics of HLB-infected and girdled fruit were compared to differentiate between HLB-specific and carbohydrate metabolism-related symptoms. SY and girdled fruit were smaller than H and ungirdled fruit, respectively, with poor juice quality. However, girdling did not cause misshapen fruit or differential peel coloration. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that many selected genes changed their expression significantly in SY flavedo but not in girdled flavedo. Mechanisms regulating development of HLB symptoms may lie in the host disease response rather than being a direct consequence of carbohydrate starvation. PMID:22407645

Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

2012-05-01

149

El Estrés Hídrico en Cítricos (Citrus spp.): Una revisión / Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review / O estresse hídrico em cítricos (Citrus spp): Uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os cítricos constituem o principal produto frutícola no mundo pelas suas vantagens e benefícios. Uma umidade adequada e homogênea no solo garante sua qualidade e produção, ainda nos países subtropicais onde existe distribuição uniforme da precipitação. A maioria das áreas citrícolas, contam com infr [...] aestrutura de risco localizado, o que incrementa a eficiência no uso da agua. Porém, a pressão sobre os recursos hídricos faz necessário estudar o comportamento em condiçöes adversas para manejar eficientemente o planejamento da irrigação. Nesta revisão apresenta-se o efeito do déficit hídrico nos cítricos. Além disto, algumas respostas fisiológicas e anatômicas pelos cítricos ao déficit e o efeito do estresse hídrico sobre a produção e o crescimento vegetativo. Finalmente, apresentam-se alguns resultados da aplicação de irrigação deficitária, como forma de poupar água sem afetar a produção. Abstract in spanish Los cítricos constituyen el principal producto frutícola a nivel mundial por sus ventajas y beneficios. Una humedad adecuada y homogénea en el suelo garantiza su calidad y producción, incluso en los países subtropicales donde existen distribuciones uniformes de la precipitación. La mayoría de las ár [...] eas de cítricos cuentan con infraestructura de riego localizado, lo que incrementa la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Sin embargo, la presión sobre los recursos hídricos hace necesario seguir estudiando el comportamiento ante condiciones adversas para manejar eficientemente la programación del riego. En este artículo se presenta el efecto del déficit hídrico en los cítricos. Además de algunas respuestas fisiológicas y anatómicas que manifiestan los cítricos a este déficit y que efecto tiene un estrés hídrico sobre la producción y el crecimiento vegetativo. Por último se recopilan algunos resultados de la aplicación de riego deficitario como una forma de ahorrar agua sin afectar la producción. Abstract in english Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits. Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns. Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, th [...] ereby increasing water-use efficiency. However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling. This paper deals with the effect of water stress on citric plants, as well as some of their physiological and anatomical responses to such deficit and what effect hydric stress has on vegetable production and growth. Some results are compiled regarding deficit irrigation (DI) as a way to save water without affecting production.

Javier E, Vélez; Javier G, Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H, Alvarado-Sanabria.

2012-12-01

150

Dinámicas del viento en quintas de cítricos y daño en los frutos / Wind Dynamics in Citrus Orchards and Fruit Damage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En Uruguay las quintas de cítricos están protegidas con mallas naturales, conformadas por árboles altos. Si bien se consigue disminuir la velocidad media del viento, no se logra una disminución de la cantidad de fruta descartada debido al daño por viento. El roce de las hojas sería lo que genera el [...] mayor daño sobre la superficie en las primeras etapas de crecimiento del fruto. Se realizó un trabajo de campo en un cuadro de una plantación de cítricos, en el que se instalaron mallas de manera de lograr una protección parcial del mismo. En las zonas protegidas por estas mallas se apreció un aumento de la cantidad de fruta de calidad exportable. A diferencia de las barreras naturales, cuando el viento escurre alrededor de estas mallas plásticas se produce turbulencia con escalas del tamaño de las hojas de los árboles y aún menores. Se estudió un árbol cítrico en el túnel de viento, con flujos de velocidad media entre 1 m/s y 6 m/s, y de diferente nivel de energía contenida en las estructuras vorticosas correspondientes a longitudes del tamaño de las hojas y menores. Para una velocidad media determinada, cuando el contenido de energía de las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia era elevado, las hojas se movieron con una amplitud significativamente mayor a cuando el flujo presentó baja energía en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia. Esto lleva a concluir que la hoja permanecería alejada del fruto un tiempo significativamente mayor cuanto más elevada sea la energía contenida en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia, disminuyendo así la acción mecánica de las hojas y el consiguiente daño. Abstract in english In Uruguay, citrus orchards are protected by live fences, constituted by tall trees. While it manages to reduce the average wind speed, it does not reduce the amount of fruit discarded due to wind damage. The rubbing of the leaves’ edges against the fruits would be the most significant source of dam [...] age in young fruits. A field test in a box of citrus plantations was performed, in which artificial fences were installed for wind protection. In the fence protected zones, an increase of the exportable quality fruit was detected. As a difference to live fences, artificial fences are designed to control the turbulence of tree leaves’ size or smaller. Citrus tree’s response under wind action was studied in a wind tunnel for flows with mean velocities between 1 m/s and 6 m/s, and with different energy content at small-scale turbulence. At a fixed mean velocity, if the energy at small-scale turbulence was high, the leaves moved with an amplitude significantly greater than when this energy is low. This leads us to infer that the leaf would remain significantly more time away from the fruit when the energy at the small-scales is greater than when the energy is low, reducing the leaves’ mechanical action and thereby the resulting damage.

José, Cataldo; Valeria, Durañona; Rodolfo, Pienika; Alfredo, Gravina.

2011-12-01

151

Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

2014-06-01

152

Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by tephritid fruit flies  

Science.gov (United States)

Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

153

Cell wall modifications and ethylene-induced tolerance to non-chilling peel pitting in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-chilling peel pitting (NCPP), a storage disorder resulting in the formation of depressed areas in the peel of many citrus cultivars, is reduced by ethylene treatments. We hypothesized that this effect may be associated with biochemical changes of cell wall components. Therefore, we extracted cell wall material from albedo and flavedo tissues of 'Navelate' oranges stored in air, conditioned with ethylene (2?LL(-1)) for 4 days and subsequently transferred to air, or continuously stored in an ethylene-enriched atmosphere (2?LL(-1)). Uronic acids and neutral sugars were extracted into five fractions enriched in specific wall polymers namely water-, CDTA-, Na2CO3-, and 1 and 4M KOH-soluble fractions. Pectin insolubilization was found in control fruit at long storage times. Ethylene treatments, alleviating NCPP, increased polyuronide solubility in the albedo and had a slight effect on the flavedo. Ethylene-treated fruit showed greater content of water-soluble neutral sugars and a larger proportion of hemicelluloses readily extractable with 1M KOH, with a concomitant reduction in the 4M KOH-soluble fraction. This suggests that the protective role of ethylene on NCPP is associated with an increased solubilization of the wall of albedo cells. PMID:23849112

Vicente, Ariel R; Manganaris, George A; Minas, Ioannis S; Goulas, Vlasios; Lafuente, María T

2013-09-01

154

Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Although the greatest variety of Brazilian flora is in the Amazon region, the Southern region of Brazil also has an estimated number of at least 5,000 species of vascular native plants. These species have been neglected as potential food sources, remaining unknown and under-utilized and limiting the [...] potential variety in the diet of Brazilians and other peoples. Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The essential element concentrations in the fruit samples were higher or similar to the values reported for traditional fruits. The araticum-do-mato fruit samples had high concentrations of the elements Ca, K, and Cu, and trace elements such as Pb and Sr. Mandacaru-de-três-quinas had predominance of Ba, Bi, and Ga, and the essential elements Mg and Mn. Uvaia and guabiroba had the highest levels of Al and Cr, but uvaia had high levels of Fe and Zn. The pindo palm had high amounts of Cd and Ni, and the yellow guava had high concentrations of Na, while red guava had high levels of Co.

Marina Couto, Pereira; Wiliam, Boschetti; Roger, Rampazzo; Paulo Gustavo, Celso; Plinho Francisco, Hertz; Alessandro de Oliveira, Rios; Márcia, Vizzotto; Simone Hickmann, Flores.

2014-06-01

155

Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times. The automatic drip irrigation scheduling can be better substitute for manual drip irrigation operation and enhancing the water use efficiency.  

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2013-01-01

156

Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25–30 °C, 60–70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and...

Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

2011-01-01

157

Comparison of Essential Oils of Clove, Thyme and Imazalil Fungicide on Blue Mold ( Penicillium italicum Wehemer of Citrus Fruits in Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathogens are the most important factors inducing postharvest losses on citrus fruit. Experiments were conducted as a CRD with 4 replications on sweet lime (Citrus limetta and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were pure essential oils of clove and thyme and in 25% ethanol solution at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% and imazalil (2 ml/l. Results indicated that in the first year, pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of blue mold of Valencia orange fruit from 90 % (control to 0 and 12.5 %, respectively. Pure essential oils of clove and thyme reduced the decay percentage of sweet lime in the first year of experiment from 95 % (control to 0 and 6 %, respectively. In the second year, with the same treatments decay percentage of blue mold was reduced from 90 % (control to 0. Solutions of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 % of clove and thyme oil extracts in 25 % ethanol solution reduced decay percentage of sweet lime fruits form 85 % (control to 65, 41 and 26 % for thyme oil and to 60, 30 and 22.5 % for clove oil. Comparison of pure clove and thyme oil extract with imazalil showed that pure clove and thyme oil extracts were not significantly different with fungicide treatment. Treatments of clove and thyme oils in 25 % ethanol treatment were not as effective as fungicide.

M. Rahemi

2008-10-01

158

Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p???0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

2012-12-01

159

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Jorge Ferreira de Souza

2008-04-01

160

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ / Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os [...] espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial. Abstract in english This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to Nove [...] mber, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

Jorge Ferreira de, Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Elen de Lima, Aguiar - Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes, Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo, Nascimento; William Costa, Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues, Cassino.

2008-04-01

161

Efficacy assessment of Candida oleophila (strain O) and Pichia anomala (strain K) against major postharvest diseases of citrus fruits in Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two yeasts, Candida oleophila (strain O) and Pichia anomala (strain K), were previously selected for their antagonistic activity against postharvest diseases on apples and pears. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of both antagonistic yeast's against wound postharvest pathogens of citrus fruits. The efficacy of both strains (applied at 10(5), 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml) was assessed against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum inoculated after one hour (at a concentration of 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) spores/ml) on citrus varieties 'clementine' and 'valencia-late'. Fruits were incubated for one week at 24 degrees C before measurement of lesion diameter. The protective levels were positively correlated with high concentration of antagonist and low concentration of pathogen. Highest protective levels (from 73 to 100%) were detected with the application of strain O or strain K at 10(8) CFU/ml whatever the pathogen (applied at 10(5) spores/ml) and the citrus variety. The antagonistic activity of both strains was also dependent on the incubation period before pathogen Inoculation. The protective level increased with time between application of the antagonist and inoculation of fungal spores. Whatever the yeast strain (10(8) CFU/ml). the protective level exceed 70% when wounded oranges were inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum (both at 10(6) spores/ml) 12 hours after yeast treatment. These protective levels reached 100% when the incubation period separating the antagonist application and the pathogenic inoculation was 24 hours. On the other hand, high protective levels (citrus variety 'clementine' caused by Geotrichum candidum inoculated at concentration of 10(6) spores/ml when strain O or strain K were applied at 10(8) CFU/ml 24 hours before pathogen. All these results support the potential practical application of both strains against major postharvest pathogens on citrus. PMID:15756846

Lahlali, R; Serrhini, M N; Jijakli, M H

2004-01-01

162

Sources of antioxidant activity in Australian native fruits. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins.  

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Selected native Australian fruits, muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Tasmanian pepper berry (Tasmanian lanceolata R. Br., Winteraceae), Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl., Podocarpaceae), Burdekin plum (Pleiogynium timorense DC. Leenh, Anacardiaceae), Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Davidson's plum (Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell. var. pruriens, Davidsoniaceae), and Molucca raspberry (Rubus moluccanus var. austropacificus van Royen, Rosaceae), were evaluated as sources of antioxidants by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and compared with blueberry (Vaccinum spp. cv. Biloxi). The total reducing capacity of five fruits was 3.5-5.4-fold higher than that of blueberry, and the radical scavenging activities of muntries and Burdekin plum were 1.5- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively. The total phenolic level by Folin-Ciocalteu assay highly correlated with the antioxidant activity. Therefore, systematic research was undertaken to identify and characterize phenolic complexes. In the present study we report on the levels and composition of anthocyanins. The HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS-MS (ESI = electrospray ionization) analyses revealed simple anthocyanin profiles of one to four individual pigments, with cyanidin as the dominating type. This is the first evaluation of selected native Australian fruits aiming at their utilization for the development of novel functional food products. PMID:17177507

Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven; Konczak, Izabela

2006-12-27

163

Citrus fruit bitter flavors: isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2RhaT encoding a 1,2 rhamnosyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the bitter flavonoids of citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species of the genus Citrus accumulate large quantities of flavanones that affect fruit flavor and have been documented to benefit human health. Bitter species, such as grapefruit and pummelo, accumulate bitter flavanone-7-O-neohesperidosides responsible, in part, for their characteristic taste. Non-bitter species, such as mandarin and orange, accumulate only tasteless flavanone-7-O-rutinosides. The key flavor-determining step of citrus flavanone-glycoside biosynthesis is catalyzed by rhamnosyltransferases; 1,2 rhamnosyltransferases (1,2RhaT) catalyze biosynthesis of the bitter neohesperidosides, while 1,6 rhamnosyltransferases (1,6RhaT) catalyze biosynthesis of the tasteless rutinosides. We report on the isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2RhaT from pummelo which encodes a citrus 1,2RhaT. Functional analysis of Cm1,2RhaT recombinant enzyme was conducted by biotransformation of the substrates using transgenic plant cell culture. Flavanones and flavones, but not flavonols, were biotransformed into 7-O-neohesperidosides by the transgenic BY2 tobacco cells expressing recombinant Cm1,2RhaT. Immunoblot analysis established that 1,2RhaT protein was expressed only in the bitter citrus species and that 1,6RhaT enzyme, whose activity was previously documented in non-bitter species, was not cross-reactive. Expression of Cm1,2RhaT at the RNA level was prominent in young fruit and leaves, but low in the corresponding mature tissue, thus correlating well with the developmental pattern of accumulation of flavanone-neohesperidosides previously established. Phylogenetic analysis of the flavonoid glycosyltransferase gene family places Cm1,2RhaT on a separate gene cluster together with the only other functionally characterized flavonoid-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase gene, suggesting a common evolutionary origin for rhamnosyltransferases specializing in glycosylation of the sugar moieties of flavonoid glucosides. PMID:15361143

Frydman, Ahuva; Weisshaus, Oori; Bar-Peled, Maor; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W; Marin, Francisco R; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fluhr, Robert; Gressel, Jonathan; Eyal, Yoram

2004-10-01

164

Assimilation of 14CO2 and 14C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

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Assimilation and metabolism of 14CO2 was compared to that of [U-14C] sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of 14CO2 by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more 14CO2 than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the 14C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from 14CO2 in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous [U-14C] sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO2 assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose

165

Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção / Damage caused by fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) on citrus under organic production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação d [...] e sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) are the main pests of horticulture worldwide. Because they are considered key pests in citrus production, it is necessary to monitor them to avoid the direct damage. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the population variation of Anastrepha fraterculus [...] and the relationship of its population with damage in organic orchards of orange "Céu" cultivar and tangor (C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata) cv "Murcott". Data were collected over the maturation period, from January 2003 to September 2004, in the Caí Valley region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The number of fruit flies was recorded weekly by McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25%. Damageto the fruits were determined by the ratio between healthy fruits and fruit damaged by the flies. Meteorological records of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were obtained from meteorological station 30 km away from the experimental areas. It was found that larger populations of A. fraterculus, the predominant species in the region, were found under ideal conditions of rainfall. The estimatedpopulation of fruit flies capable of causing damage to fruits varied according to the cultivar, in which orange cv 'Céu' was the most susceptible. The highest population peaks were found at the color changing phase of fruits. However, at the phase of fruit maturity, flies caused the greatest damage due to the fruits intolerance to the attack. It was concluded that the infestation of citrus fruits by A. fraterculus is related to the species, the cultivar and climatic factors, especially rainfall. Constant monitoring of fruit fly population is important in determining the infestation at harvest.

Fernando Felisberto da, Silva; Luíza Rodrigues, Redaelli; Rafael Narciso, Meirelles; Fábio Kessler, Dal Soglio.

2014-10-01

166

Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

2009-04-01

167

Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mac.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased ?-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels. PMID:25577088

Navarro, Josefa M; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G

2015-05-15

168

Laser labeling and its effect on the storage quality of citrus fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

Etching the required information on the skins of fruits and vegetables is an alternative way to label produce. A low energy CO2 laser beam etches the outermost layer of the epidermis revealing the contrasting underneath layer while forming alphanumerical characters. These etched areas represent brea...

169

Sensitive assay of hexythiazox residue in citrus fruits using gold nanoparticles-catalysed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) procedure for the detection of hexythiazox (HXTZ) is presented, based on the quenching effect of the HXTZ in the luminol-H2O2 system using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied in designing the experiments for studying the interactive effects of the three most important variables pH, luminol, and H2O2 concentrations on the CL intensity of luminol catalysed by GNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the CL intensity was linear with HXTZ concentration in the range of 0.017-0.42 ?g mL(-1), and the limit of detection (LoD) was 0.011 ?g mL(-1). The procedure has been successfully applied to the detection of HXTZ residues in citrus fruits and water samples at trace levels. Mean recoveries obtained were between 84.0% and 95.3%, with a repeatability precision of <6%. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism of the inhibited CL intensity was discussed. PMID:25466053

Khajvand, Tahereh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

2015-04-15

170

Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

171

Mass and volume modelling of tangerine (Citrus reticulate fruit with some physical attributes  

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Full Text Available There are instances in which it is desirable to determine relationships among fruit physical attributes. For example, fruits are often graded on the basis of size and projected area, but it may be more economical to develop a machine which would grade by mass or volume. Therefore, the relationships between mass/volume (either mass or volume and other physical attributes of fruit are needed. In this study three Iranian varieties of tangerine were selected and the various models for predicting mass/volume of tangerine from its dimensions, projected area, and volume/mass were established. The models were divided into three classifications: 1 – single and multiple variable regressions of tangerine dimensions, 2 – single and multiple variable regressions of projected areas, 3 – estimating tangerine mass/volume based on its volume/mass. The results revealed that mass and volume modelling on the basis of intermediate diameter, on any projected area, and the measured volume are the best models. Based on the results, mass and volume modelling, respectively on the basis of the actual volume and one projected area, were identified as the best models. The highest determination coefficient in all the models was obtained for volume modelling based on projected area as R2 = 0.97. Finally, volume modelling from economical stand-point was recommended as the most reliable modelling.

H. Mobli

2007-12-01

172

Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20 degrees C. PMID:16865899

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-07-01

173

Development of a biological control method against postharvest diseases of citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida oleophila strain O was previously selected for its high and reliable antagonistic activity against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum, two important wound pathogens on post-harvest apples. The application of these antagonistic strains on wound pathogens of Citrus was more recently undertaken. The efficacy of yeast (applied at several concentrations from 10(5) to 10(8) CFU/ml) was assessed against P. digitatum and P. italicum inoculated after one hours (at a concentration of 10(5), 106 and 10(7) spores/ml) on 'Clementine' and 'Valencia late' varieties. The protective levels were positively correlated with high concentration of antagonist and low concentration of pathogen. The antagonistic activity of this strain was also dependent on the incubation time before pathogen inoculation. The protective level increased with time between application of the antagonist and inoculation of fungal spores. Finally, the efficacy of biomass of C. oleophila strain O (produced at an industrial scale), and two different formulations of that biomass was assessed in comparison with fungicidal treatment (Thiabendazole) under semi-practical conditions against P. digitatum. This efficacy of strain O (whatever its formulation) was statistically comparable to that for TBZ at commercial dose, indicating that both formulations could be used as an alternative for conventional fungicide in postharvest treatments. PMID:16637158

Lahlali, R; Serrhini, M N; Jijakli, M H

2005-01-01

174

G-protein-coupled alpha2A-adrenoreceptor agonists differentially alter citrus leaf and fruit abscission by affecting expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS1 and ACS2) and ACC oxidase (ACO), ACC concentration, and ethylene production in leaves and fruit of 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) were examined in relation to differential abscission after treatment with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) alone or in combination with guanfacine or clonidine, two G-protein-coupled alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor selective agonists. Guanfacine and clonidine markedly reduced ethephon-enhanced leaf abscission, but had little effect on ethephon-enhanced fruit loosening. Ethephon-enhanced fruit and leaf ethylene production, and ACC concentration in fruit abscission zones, fruit peel, leaf abscission zones, and leaf blades were decreased by guanfacine. Guanfacine reduced ethephon-enhanced expression of ACS1 and ACO genes in leaf abscission zones and blades, but to a lesser extent in fruit abscission zones. The expression pattern of the ACS2 gene, however, was not associated with abscission. The results demonstrate that differential expression of ACS1 and ACO genes is associated with reduction of ethephon-enhanced leaf abscission by guanfacine, and suggest a link between G-protein-related signalling and abscission. PMID:15928018

Yuan, Rongcai; Wu, Zhencai; Kostenyuk, Igor A; Burns, Jacqueline K

2005-07-01

175

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck injertada sobre limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005 y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006. El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio.One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch. The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005 and 229 days (February to September 2006. The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

María Pérez de Camacaro

2009-08-01

176

Crecimiento y abscisión del fruto de naranja ‘valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) en un huerto del estado Portuguesa, Venezuela / Fruit growth and abscisión in orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in an orchard of Portuguesa State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas que afectan la producción de cítricos es la abundante caída de flores y frutos en crecimiento, aspecto que ha sido poco estudiado en Venezuela. En consecuencia, se realizó un estudio en una plantación de naranjo ‘Valencia’ (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) injertada sobre [...] limón Volkameriano (Citrus volkameriana Pasq) ubicada en la localidad de Acarigua del estado Portuguesa. Se evaluó el crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de frutos durante los años 2005 y 2006 en diez árboles en los cuales se etiquetaron cuatro ramas, cada una con cinco brotes uniflorales, para un total de 200 brotes. Se realizaron observaciones desde la antesis por períodos de 151 días (febrero a julio 2005) y 229 días (febrero a septiembre 2006). El fruto mostró un patrón de crecimiento sigmoidal simple expresado por cambios en su diámetro, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 20 días y un incremento sostenido y creciente a partir de ese momento hasta alcanzar diámetros de 55 y 57 mm en los años 2005 y 2006, respectivamente. Durante los dos años de evaluación se observaron dos picos de abscisión relativa, siendo más elevada y concentrada durante el inicio del mes de marzo y mediados de abril en el 2005 y al inicio del mes de abril y finales de junio para el 2006. El cuajado de los frutos fue de 0,73 % para el 2005 y 0,86 % para el año 2006. La abscisión de flores y frutos recién formados así como su persistencia en el árbol varió entre los dos años de estudio. Abstract in english One of the most important problems in citrus is the abundant abscission of flowers and young fruit during the growth, thus affecting the production. However, this aspect has only been slightly studied in Venezuela. For this reason, the study was conducted in an orchard of orange ‘Valencia’ (Citrus s [...] inensis L. Osbeck) grafted on ‘Volkameriano’ (Citrus volkameriana, Pasquale) located in the locality of Acarigua, Portuguesa State. The growth, development and abscission (dropping) of fruits were studied during the years 2005 and 2006. Two hundred unifloral leafy shoots were labeled in 10 trees (four branches per tree and five shoots per branch). The evaluation started at anthesis and continued for 151 days (February to July 2005) and 229 days (February to September 2006). The growth of persisting fruit closely approximated a sigmoidal curve expressed by change in diameter, with a slowly growth period during the first 20 days followed by a sustained increase until reaching a size of 55 and 57 mm in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The results showed two picks of relative abscission, being larger and concentrated at the beginning of March and middle of April in 2005, and largest at beginning of April and the end of June in 2006. Likewise, the fruit set was 0, 73 % in 2005 and 0, 86 % in 2006. The abscission of flowers and fruitlets, as well as the persistence of these in the tree, varied between the studied years.

María, Pérez de Camacaro; Aracelis, Jiménez.

2009-08-01

177

Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures. PMID:23256745

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

2013-01-16

178

Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

179

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

2012-12-01

180

Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest areas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sit...

Lander, Ta; Harris, Sa; Boshier, Dh

2009-01-01

181

Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13–21 exons and 12–20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange “Honganliu” exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

2015-01-01

182

Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 ?M [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24?h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-? was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

2014-10-10

183

Proline betaine and its biotransformation products in fasting urine samples are potential biomarkers of habitual citrus fruit consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of robust measures of dietary exposure hinders a quantitative understanding of causal relationships between diet and health. Non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting was used to explore the relationships between citrus exposure in free-living human subjects, estimated by a FFQ, and the chemical content of urine. Volunteers (study 1, n 12; study 2, n 11) were classified into high-, medium- and low-frequency citrus consumption groups. Overnight and spot fasting urine samples were obtained after exposure to a standardised citrus-free evening meal. The urine samples were analysed by flow injection electrospray-ionisation MS followed by supervised multivariate data classification analysis to discover discriminatory features associated with the level of citrus exposure. Good separation of high and low citrus consumption classes was achieved. Deeper exploration of high-ranked explanatory mass signals revealed several correlated signals derived from proline betaine. Targeted analysis of the relative levels of proline betaine in both fasting and overnight urine samples demonstrated good correlation with FFQ exposure data. Acute exposure of volunteers to orange juice resulted in the appearance of proline betaine and several biotransformed products in postprandial urine samples. Biomarker validation showed sensitivities of 80·8-92·2 % and specificities of 74·2-94·1 % (false discovery rate-adjusted P values < 0·05) for elevated proline betaine in participants who reported high citrus consumption. Proline betaine biotransformation products displayed weaker quantitative relationships with habitual citrus exposure. Targeted screening for the presence of biotransformation products of hesperidin and narirutin, known to be abundant in oranges, revealed that they were relatively poor indicators of citrus exposure. PMID:21736852

Lloyd, Amanda J; Beckmann, Manfred; Favé, Gaëlle; Mathers, John C; Draper, John

2011-09-01

184

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CITRUS HYSTRIX AND CITRUS MAXIMA  

OpenAIRE

Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit was conducted using agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Salmonella typh...

Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani And Perumal Siddhuraju

2013-01-01

185

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks / Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O es [...] paçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro co [...] unty, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins; Rodrigo Rodas, Lemo; Tatiana, Cantuarias-Avilés.

2009-06-01

186

Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf. e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'.

Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

2009-06-01

187

Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citr [...] us sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [...] L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

Daniel Lucas Magalhães, Machado; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving; Dierlei dos, Santos; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

2012-12-01

188

Mechanical Harvesting of Citrus Fruits for Fresh Market with a Trunk Shaker and a Hand-Held Petrol Shaker  

OpenAIRE

Harvesting is one of the more expensive tasks in a Spanish citrus crop because it is done manually. Spanish researchers are investigating the possibilities of mechanical harvesting of citrus cultivated under Spanish conditions. This paper compares two different strategies for mechanical harvesting: the use of a trunk shaker and the use of a hand-held petrol shaker. Tests were performed in lemon, orange and mandarin groves. Tree spacing was 6-7 m between rows and 2.5-4.5 m in the row. Trees we...

Torregrosa Mira, Antonio; Ortiz Sa?nchez, Mari?a Coral; Martin, B.; Moreno, R.; Molto, E.; Chueca, P.

2012-01-01

189

Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and that integration of fungicide applications and hot water dips may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, as a consequence of increased effectiveness of the treatment. PMID:16787020

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-06-28

190

Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.) / Horticultural techniques for improving orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L.) size and quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante 'Flying Dragon', se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa [...] al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), en plantas de 9 años de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i) el anillado de ramas productivas influyo significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incremento el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii) la aplicación de sacarosa mejoro la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana. Abstract in english Seeking to improve the fruit quality of Sweet Orange grafted on the dwarf rootstock 'Flying Dragon', the present research study tested a series of techniques, namely branch ringing, partial defoliation, fruit thinning, foliar fertilization, sucrose application to the foliage and pruning of non-produ [...] ctive branches. The work was carried out on 9 year old trees in a comercial orchard in the north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia). In comparing the treatment results to the control, it was observed that: i) productive branch ringing significantlyinfluenced total fruit production per plant and increased fruit retention on the tree by 38%; ii) sucrose application improved fruit internal quality through increasing total soluble solid content by 10% and reducing acidity by 36%. Neither fruit thinning nor foliar fertilization showed any significant differences with the control. It can be concluded that the combination of branch ringing and external application of sucrose can be useful for improving orange fruit quality in the Colombian coffee zone.

Marco, Cabezas-Gutiérrez; Carlos Andrés, Rodríguez E.

2010-01-01

191

New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to colonize new regions. PMID:23135361

Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

2013-02-01

192

Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality. PMID:25806821

Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

2015-01-01

193

Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) / Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presen [...] te estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden loc [...] ated in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under storage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

Ángel, Guadarrama; Yexsi, Peña.

2013-04-01

194

Evaluation of food additives and low-toxicity compounds as alternative chemicals for the control of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of post-harvest green and blue moulds of citrus was evaluated. A preliminary selection of chemicals, mostly common food additives, was made through in vivo primary screenings with oranges artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P italicum. Selected compounds and mixtures were tested as heated solutions in small-scale trials. Immersion of artificially inoculated oranges or lemons for 120 s in solutions at 40.6 degrees C and natural pH of potassium sorbate (0.2 M), sodium benzoate (0.2 M) or mixtures (0.1 + 0.1 M) of potassium sorbate with sodium benzoate, sodium propionate or sodium acetate were the most effective organic acid salts tested and reduced green mould by 70-80% after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. The mixtures did not significantly enhance the effectiveness of potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate alone. These solutions were as effective as sodium carbonate or calcium polysulphide treatments and, in general, they were more effective on lemons than on oranges. Satisfactory control of green and blue moulds was obtained by dipping oranges for 150 s in solutions of sodium molybdate (24.2 mM) or ammonium molybdate (1.0 mM) at 48 or 53 degrees C, but not at 20 degrees C. At 53 degrees C, however, the effectiveness of hot water was not enhanced by either molybdate. Molybdenum salts at higher concentrations were phytotoxic and stained the fruit. At non-phytotoxic concentrations, the effectiveness of these solutions was more influenced by temperature than by concentration. In general, the inhibitory effects of all compounds tested were not fungicidal but fungistatic and not very persistent. In conclusion, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and ammonium molybdate, among the wide range of chemicals tested, were superior for the control of post-harvest Penicillium decay of citrus fruit. PMID:11997972

Palou, Lluís; Usall, Josep; Smilanick, Joseph L; Aguilar, Maria-José; Viñas, Inmaculada

2002-05-01

195

Rapid screening of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus disease Haunglongbing (HLB or citrus greening), is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees suspected of infection by citrus greening pathogens is...

196

Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACL?1, CitACL?2, and CitACL?1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACL?1 and CitACL?2 encode putative ACL ? subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACL?1 encodes a putative ACL ? subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACL?1 and CitACL?2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACL?1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACL?1 and CitACL?1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACL?2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACL?1, CitACL?1, and/or CitACL?2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACL?2, CitACL?1, and/or CitACL?1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACL?1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment. PMID:25120169

Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

2015-02-01

197

Plant growth, Leaf Nutrient status, fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco as influenced by potassium (K fertigation with four potash fertilizer sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different potassium (K fertilizers applied through fertigation system during three different seasons on yield and quality behaviors of 14-16 years Nagpur mandarin an experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The Nagpur mandarin plants requires potassium which, when applied in different amounts during the flower bud initiation to before fruit maturity can affect the yield and quality of fruit as well. The treatments in experiment consisted of; T1 - fertigation with potassium chloride [KCL], T2- fertigation with potassium nitrate [KNO3], T3- fertigation with potassium sulphate [K2SO4] and T4- fertigation with mono potassium phosphate [KH2PO4] @ 150 g K2O/plant. The recommended fertigation dose was 500:150:150 (N:P:K and given through these treatments along with various fertilizers combination of urea of phosphate, urea, and P2O5 acid. Nitrogen elemnet was given from October to January month and N, P and K all were given from February to June month. Each fertigation treatment was given at 15 days interval and fruit yield and quality were measured at harvest. Results showed the highest response of the fruit yield (31.13 t/ha with treatment mono potassium phosphate followed by in fertigation with potassium nitrate (29.4 t/ha. The total soluble solids was highest (10.49 0Brix in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate followed by fertigation with potassium sulphate (10.48 0Brix. Highest juice content (38.76 % and low acidity (0.77 % was found in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (sweetness indicator was observed in Mono potassium Phosphate (13.6 followed by Potassium sulphate (13.1.

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2013-04-01

198

Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as suitable quality indexes indicating proper conditions for storage. PMID:25829574

Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

2015-04-01

199

Zabon phytophotodermatitis: first case reports due to Citrus maxima.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zabon (Citrus maxima) is a large citrus fruit belonging to the Rutaceae family and containing a variety of psoralens including 5-methoxypsoralen. We describe the first case reports of a phytophotodermatitis caused by zabon. PMID:12004296

Izumi, Allan K; Dawson, Kevin L

2002-05-01

200

Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF, availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results: Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >?25 was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d. Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion: Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents.

Jennifer S. Johnson

2012-03-01

201

In vitro inhibition of postharvest pathogens of fruit and control of gray mold of strawberry and green mold of citrus by aureobasidin A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aureobasidin A (AbA), an antifungal cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic produced by Aureobasidium pullulans R106, has previously been shown to be effective against a wide range of fungi and protozoa. Here we report the inhibitory effects of AbA on spore germination, germ tuber elongation and hyphal growth of five pathogenic fungi including Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola, which are major pathogens causing postharvest diseases of a variety of fruits. AbA inhibited five pathogenic fungi by reducing conidial germination rates, delaying conidial germination initiation, restricting elongation of germ tuber and mycelium, as well as inducing abnormal alternations of morphology of germ tubes and hyphae of these fungi. The sensitivity of these fungi to AbA was pathogen species-dependent. P. digitatum was the most sensitive and M. fructicola the least. Importantly, AbA at 50 microg/ml was effective in controlling the citrus green mold and in reducing the strawberry gray mold incidence and severity, caused by P. digitatum and B. cinerea, respectively, after artificial inoculation. AbA and/or its analogs, therefore, hold promise as relatively safe and promising fungicide candidates to control postharvest decays of fruits, because AbA targets the inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, an enzyme essential for fungi but absent from mammals. PMID:17765990

Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Jiye; Gou, Ping; Mao, Cungui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Li, Hongye

2007-11-01

202

Phyllosticta citriasiana sp. nov., the cause of Citrus tan spot of Citrus maxima in Asia  

OpenAIRE

Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot, is subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the U.S.A. This species is frequently confused with G. mangiferae, which is a non-pathogenic, and is commonly isolated as an endophyte from citrus fruits and a wide range of other hosts. Recently, necrotic spots similar to those caused by G. citricarpa were observed on fruit of Citrus maxima intercepted in consignments exported from Asia. In these spots, pycnidia and...

Wulandari, N. F.; To-anun, C.; Hyde, K. D.; Duong, L. M.; Gruyter, J.; Meffert, J. P.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Crous, P. W.

2009-01-01

203

Evaluation of Codon Biology in Citrus and Poncirus trifoliata Based on Genomic Features and Frame Corrected Expressed Sequence Tags  

OpenAIRE

Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close assoc...

Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-xin; Guo, Wen-wu

2013-01-01

204

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

2014-09-01

205

The use of native and protonated grapefruit biomass (Citrus paradisi L.) for cadmium(II) biosorption: equilibrium and kinetic modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of native and protonated grapefruit biomass, a by-product of the food industry, as an effective and low-cost biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The biomass composition was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showing that hydroxyl and carboxylic groups were the main functional groups implicated in Cd(II) biosorption. The effect of different parameters affecting the biosorption process were studied. The optimum removal of cadmium ions was at pH 4.5. Elution of alkaline-earth ions proved to be related with cadmium uptake, aiming for an ion-exchange mechanism. Protonated biomass showed higher adsorption affinity, binding strength and irreversibility for cadmium than native grapefruit, although the optimum metal uptake and high reaction rate was for the native form of grapefruit. Biosorption experimental data fitted Freundlich > Langmuir > Temkin equilibrium adsorption models. Data for both types of biomass were better fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with an excellent correlation between calculated and experimental values. Because of these experimental results, and taking into account that both types of biomass displayed an exothermic and spontaneous physical adsorption process, native grapefruit can be proposed in further experiments as a cheap, effective, low-cost and environmentally friendly natural sorbent for the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewater effluents, avoiding chemical pretreatment before its use. PMID:22720399

Bayo, Javier; Esteban, Ginés; Castillo, Julián

2012-01-01

206

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F. Calegario

2012-04-01

207

In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection [...] and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

Renata F., Calegario; Mônica T.V., Labate; Luís A., Peroni; Dagmar Ruth, Stach-Machado; Maxuel O., Andrade; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A., Labate; Marcos A., Machado; Elliot W., Kitajima.

2012-04-01

208

Efecto de la aplicación de ácido indol-acético e inhibidores de auxina sobre el desarrollo inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana / Effect of applications of IAA and auxin inhibitors on initial fruit development of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la aplicación de auxina (AIA) y de sustancias inhibidoras de la actividad (PCIB) y el transporte de auxina (TIBA, NPA y HFCA) en el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Se emplearon frutos de 19 [...] y 30 mm de diámetro (a los 55 y 65 días luego de antesis) y se aplicaron las sustancias directamente al pedicelo. El NPA provocó una disminución en el crecimiento de los frutos sin alterar el desarrollo del pedicelo y no se observó efecto significativo al aplicar la antiauxina PCIB o el inhibidor del transporte TIBA. El inhibidor HFCA afectó la diferenciación del xilema, los frutos tratados fueron significativamente más pequeños, y el efecto fue mayor cuando se aplicó a frutos de menor diámetro. La aplicación de la auxina AIA inhibió el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y afectó significativamente el crecimiento del fruto. Los resultados ratifican la vinculación entre las auxinas, el desarrollo del tejido vascular del pedicelo y el crecimiento del fruto. Abstract in english The effect of application of IAA, antiauxin (PCIB), and auxin transport inhibitors (HFCA, TIBA and NPA) on vascular development of pedicel and fruit growth was studied in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana. Substances were applied on pedicels of fruits having 19 and 30 mm in diameter (55 and [...] 65 days after anthesis). NPA depressed fruit growth although no effect was detected on pedicel development. No effect was observed on pedicel or fruit growth after TIBA and PCIB applications. The inhibitor HFCA altered the vessel differentiation pattern and fruits were significantly smaller, being higher the effect on the smaller fruits. IAA applications caused inhibition of pedicel vascular tissue development, and induced formation of smaller fruits. These results confirmed the relationship among auxins, pedicel vascular tissue development, and fruit growth.

Libia E, Laskowski; Consuelo, Monerri; Amparo, García-Luis; José Luis, Guardiola.

2008-12-01

209

PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OfTHREE NATIVE FRUITS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH (CERRADO  

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Full Text Available Chemical and Physical analysis, Antioxidant activity (AA and Total Phenolic Content (TPC were evaluated on three Typical Savannah fruits: Buriti (Mauricia flexuosa, Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica and Murici (Byrsonima crassifólia H.B. K (L Kunth. The nutritional composition found was in accordance to those available in the literature and the fruits can be considered as vitamin C food source. Buriti had the highest values ofantioxidant activity (IC50 value=17.31±5.34mg/mL. Cagaita and Murici had similar antioxidant activities with IC50 values of5.5±0.30mg/mL and 6.56±0.22mg/ mL, respectively (p<0.05. Results show the potential of Brazilian Savannah fruits to be used as foods either in diets or by the food industry. Further studies are needed to investigate better the antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds in Brazilian Savannah fruits.

Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu ABADIO FINCO

2012-04-01

210

Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros / Work safety in pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias proporcionadas pelas condições de trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos em cultura de citros com o pulverizador de pistolas; avaliar a eficiência de medidas de proteção individual e coletiva para esses trabalhadores; deter [...] minar as regiões mais expostas do corpo dos trabalhadores; e classificar as condições de trabalho, sem e com as medidas de proteção testadas, quanto à segurança ocupacional das recomendações de agrotóxicos registrados para o controle das principais pragas e doenças dessa cultura. Verifica-se que, para o tratorista, pulverizando com o pulverizador de pistolas, a medida de proteção mais eficiente foi o conjunto AZR e, para o aplicador, os dois conjuntos avaliados foram eficientes. Para o tratorista, as regiões mais expostas do corpo foram as coxas + pernas - frente, os pés e as mãos; e, para o aplicador foram, os pés e as mãos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study envisaged the quantification of skin and respiratory exposures occasioned by work conditions during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers; the evaluation of the efficiency of individual and group protection measures for the workers; the determination o [...] f workers' most exposed body regions; and the classification of work conditions, with and without the tested work-safety protection measures as recommended for the registered pesticides used to control the main pests and diseases that attack these types of trees and fruits. The AZR protection equipment proved to be the most efficient for the tractor driver, when spraying using pistol sprayers. The two sets of individual protection equipment that were checked also proved to be efficient. The most exposed regions of the tractor driver's body were the thighs, the front of the legs, the feet and hands. The most exposed regions of the individual sprayer working on foot were the hands and feet.

Maurício Leite de, Oliveira; Joaquim Gonçalves, Machado Neto.

211

Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol ?, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol ?, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-?-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols ? and ? and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications. PMID:23088772

Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2012-11-14

212

Caracterização de cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos Characterization of citrus apirenic fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar nove cultivares apirênicas de citros de mesa por meio de descritores morfológicos. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas de laranjeiras 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' e 'Salustiana'; de tangerineiras 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' e satsuma 'Okitsu'; e de híbridos 'Nova' e 'Ortanique', com quatro anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Trifoliata, cultivadas em vasos de 100 L. Vinte e oito descritores morfológicos foram selecionados, possibilitando a rápida e eficiente caracterização das cultivares, inclusive das laranjas doces. Os padrões obtidos estão de acordo com as relações filogenéticas das espécies estudadas, podendo ser utilizados em programas de certificação, melhoramento e conservação de germoplasma.The aim of this work was to characterize nine citrus fresh fruit cultivars by morphological descriptors. Four yearold plants of sweet oranges 'Lane Late', 'Navelate', 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana'; mandarins 'Clemenules', 'Marisol' and satsuma 'Okitsu'; and hybrids 'Nova' and 'Ortanique', grafted in Trifoliata and cultivated in pots of 100 L, were analyzed. Twenty eight morphological descriptors were selected, making possible a rapid and efficient characterization of the cultivars, including the sweet oranges. The standards obtained are in conformity with the phylogenetic relations among the species studied. The standards can be used in certification, breeding, and germplasm conservation programs.

Elizete Beatriz Radmann

2003-09-01

213

Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon  

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Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas trees transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the species planted in the area with altered land use.

Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

2012-12-01

214

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CITRUS HYSTRIX AND CITRUS MAXIMA  

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Full Text Available Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White fruit was conducted using agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3215, Escherichia coli (MTCC 40, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384. The maximum activity was observed against all organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 12.5mg/mL and 200mg/mL depending on microorganism and various extract. Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White fruit were observed to have antibacterial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes.

Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*

2013-01-01

215

Solitary invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote fruit set of an invasive Solanum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our understanding of the effects of introduced invasive pollinators on plants has been exclusively drawn from studies on introduced social bees. One might expect, however, that the impacts of introduced solitary bees, with much lower population densities and fewer foragers, would be small. Yet little is known about the potential effects of naturalized solitary bees on the environment. We took advantage of the recent naturalization of an orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, in southern Florida to study the effects of this solitary bee on reproduction of Solanum torvum, an invasive shrub. Flowers of S. torvum require specialized buzz pollination. Through timed floral visitor watches and two pollination treatments (control and pollen supplementation) at three forest edge and three open area sites, we found that the fruit set of S. torvum was pollen limited at the open sites where the native bees dominate, but was not pollen limited at the forest sites where the invasive orchid bees dominate. The orchid bee's pollination efficiency was nearly double that of the native halictid bees, and was also slightly higher than that of the native carpenter bee. Experiments using small and large mesh cages (to deny or allow E. viridissima access, respectively) at one forest site indicated that when the orchid bee was excluded, the flowers set one-quarter as many fruit as when the bee was allowed access. The orchid bee was the most important pollinator of the weed at the forest sites, which could pose additional challenges to the management of this weed in the fragmented, endangered tropical hardwood forests in the region. This specialized invasive mutualism may promote populations of both the orchid bee and this noxious weed. Invasive solitary bees, particularly species that are specialized pollinators, appear to have more importance than has previously been recognized. PMID:19066971

Liu, Hong; Pemberton, Robert W

2009-03-01

216

Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postharvest treatments of potassium sorbate only controlled recently established infections of Penicillium digitatum on Femminello siracusano lemons but did not confer any persistent protection. The loss of efficacy of potassium sorbate to control green mould decay was related to its irregular deposition on the fruit surface, as revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy of oranges, and to the brief persistence of potassium sorbate residues. When treatment was done at 53°C, the co-application of potassium sorbate with thiabendazole reduced thiabendazole residues in Moro and Sanguinello oranges, compared to thiabendazole treatment alone. However, treatment efficacy against two isolates of P. digitatum (thiabendazole-sensitive and thiabendazole-resistant) notably improved, indicating that potassium sorbate and hot water potentiated thiabendazole activity. Potassium sorbate residues remarkably decreased during fruit storage and were not affected by the co-application of thiabendazole. PMID:23790859

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Fadda, Angela; Barberis, Antonio; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

2013-11-15

217

Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B1a and 14C residue on citrus fruits from a field study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An 8?g/mL solution of [14C]avermectin B1a, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, 14C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind 14C residue from oranges treated at the 10x rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (14C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B1a was 1a and 14C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B1a due to fruit type and application rate were observed

218

Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

Romulo da Silva Carvalho

2010-10-01

219

Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

220

Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B sub 1a and sup 14 C residue on citrus fruits from a field study  

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An 8{mu}g/mL solution of ({sup 14}C)avermectin B{sub 1a}, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, {sup 14}C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind {sup 14}C residue from oranges treated at the 10{times} rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (<2 ppb at the field rate). The inner pulp samples for all treatments had {sup 14}C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B{sub 1a} was <1 week, with losses occurring within 30-40 min. For the 1-12-week postapplication period, the avermectin B{sub 1a} and {sup 14}C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B{sub 1a} due to fruit type and application rate were observed.

Maynard, M.S.; Iwata, Y.; Wislocki, P.G.; Ku, C.C.; Jacob, T.A. (Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Three Bridges, NJ (USA))

221

Caracterização química de frutos nativos do cerrado Chemical characterization of native species of fruits from savanna ecosystem  

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Full Text Available Diversos frutos do cerrado com potencial econômico são consumidos in natura ou processados pela população local. Entretanto, existem poucos trabalhos científicos a respeito de suas características químicas e do valor nutritivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição centesimal, o valor energético total e o conteúdo de cálcio, ferro e zinco em alguns frutos nativos do cerrado: macaúba, caju-do-cerrado, araticum, murici, gabiroba, cagaita; mangaba, puçá, araçá, chichá e pitomba. As análises de umidade, proteína, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e resíduo mineral fixo foram realizadas utilizando-se metodologias consagradas na literatura especializada. Cálcio, ferro e zinco foram quantificados analiticamente e o valor energético total dos frutos in natura foi estimado conforme os valores de conversão de Atwater. A concentração de proteínas, lipídios e carboidratos dos frutos foi relativamente baixa, com exceção do chichá e da macaúba. O teor de fibra alimentar variou de 1,04 a 11,14g 100g-1, sendo os maiores valores encontrados em araçá, chichá, macaúba e murici. Quanto aos minerais, araticum, chichá, macaúba e mangaba apresentaram valores consideráveis de cálcio, ferro e zinco. Os frutos do cerrado investigados podem ser fontes alternativas de nutrientes. Dessa forma, sugere-se sua utilização em cardápios regionais e cardápios da merenda escolar.Various fruits of the savanna ecosystem with economic potential are consumed raw or processed by the natives. However, there are a few scientific studies on their chemical composition and nutritional values. The aim of this research was to evaluate proximate composition, caloric values, calcium, iron and zinc content from fruits found in the savanna ecosystem: macaúba; caju-do-cerrado; araticum; murici; gabiroba; cagaita; mangaba; puçá; araçá; chichá and pitomba. Moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fiber and ash were carried out by using methods traditionally used in the specific literature. Calcium, iron and zinc were analytically quantified and the total caloric value of raw fruits was estimated in accordance with Atwater´s conversion values. Protein, fat and carbohydrate concentration of fruits were relatively low, except for chichá and macaúba. The dietary fiber values ranged from 1.04 to 11.14g 100g-1, being the highest values for araçá, chichá, macaúba and murici. Calcium, iron and zinc were found in considerable concentration in araticum, chichá, macaúba and mangaba. The fruits of the savanna ecosystem investigated may be alternative sources of nutrients, thus attention will be turned to the possibility of their utilization in regional menu and snack for school children.

Mara Reis Silva

2008-09-01

222

Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics  

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From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

223

Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros / Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, [...] em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental d [...] esign used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7%) alone and added to natural orange juice (10%). Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Adalton, Raga; Rogério Amaro, Machado; Welci, Dinardo; Pedro Carlos, Strikis.

224

Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard  

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Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7% alone and added to natural orange juice (10%. Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

Adalton Raga

2006-01-01

225

Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

226

Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

227

Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

2009-12-01

228

Phenolic compounds and carotenoids from four fruits native from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruits from the Atlantic Forest have received increasing interest because they contain high levels of bioactive compounds with notable functional properties. The composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from fruits found in the Atlantic Forest (jussara, uvaia, araça, and grumixama) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometry detectors. Uvaia showed the highest levels of carotenoids (1306.6 ?g/100 g fresh matter (f.m.)). Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in araça (12.2 mg GAE/100 g f.m.) and uvaia (27.5 mg GAE/100 g f.m.). In grumixama, eight quercetin derivatives were found; the main carotenoids included all-trans-?-cryptoxanthin (286.7 ?g/100 g f.m.) and all-trans-lutein (55.5 ?g/100 g f.m.). Uvaia and grumixama contain high amounts of carotenoids, while jussara showed greater levels of phenolic compounds (415 mg GAE/100 g f.m.), particularly anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-rutinoside: 179.60 mg/100 g f.m.; cyanidin 3-glucoside: 47.93 mg/100 g f.m.). PMID:24780053

da Silva, Nathalia Azevedo; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

2014-06-01

229

Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method  

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Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

LUZIANA HOXHA

2014-06-01

230

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

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Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia., 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana., 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki. and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete Reis

2008-06-01

231

Identification and transcript analysis of two glutamate decarboxylase genes, CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, reveal the strong relationship between CsGAD1 and citrate utilization in citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) has been suggested to be a key, regulatory point in the biosynthesis of ?-aminobutyrate (GABA) and in the utilization of citric acid through GABA shunt pathway. In this study we discovered two GAD genes, named as CsGAD1 and CsGAD2, in citrus genome database and then successfully cloned. Both CsGAD1 and CsGAD2 have a putative pyridoxal 5-phosphate binding domain in the middle region and a putative calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. Gene structure analysis showed that much difference exists in the size of exons and introns or in cis-regulatory elements in promoter region between the two GAD genes. Gene expression indicated that CsGAD1 transcript was predominantly expressed in flower and CsGAD2 transcript was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs; in the ripening fruit, CsGAD1 transcript level was at least 2-time higher than CsGAD2 transcript level. Moreover, CsGAD1 transcript level was increased significantly along with the increase of GAD activity and accompanied by a significant decrease of titratable acid (TA), suggesting that it is CsGAD1 rather than CsGAD2 plays a role in the citric acid utilization during fruit ripening. In addition, injection of abscisic acid and foliar spray of K2SO4 significantly increased the TA content of Satsuma mandarin, and significantly decreased GAD activity as well as CsGAD1 transcript, further suggesting the important role of CsGAD1 in the citrate utilization of citrus fruit. PMID:24976574

Liu, Xiao; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

2014-09-01

232

Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos / Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de prod [...] ução e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2); três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77) e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39) foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis) e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii) foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3) foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%). Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2), em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença. Abstract in english Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF), caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this wor [...] k aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2), three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77) and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39) were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis) and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii) were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3) presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%). Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2), it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains

Katia Cristina, Kupper; José Antonio Miranda, Bellotte; Antonio de, Goes.

1004-10-01

233

Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 ...

Jorge Ferreira de Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva Souza; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo Nascimento; William Costa Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues Cassino

2008-01-01

234

Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas / Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; [...] e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.). Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species [...] were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

Romulo da Silva, Carvalho; Walter dos Santos, Soares Filho; Rogerio, Ritzinger.

1222-12-01

235

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos / Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citru [...] s sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC. Abstract in english Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to t [...] he bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

Bernadete, Reis; Otto Carlos, Koller; Sergio Francisco, Schwarz; Sergiomar, Theisen; Ivar Antônio, Sartori; Fernanda Severo, Nichele; Rafael, Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte, Petry.

2008-06-01

236

Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

2011-07-01

237

Efeito da interação abelha-flor na produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effect of bee-flower interaction on fruit production in orange sweet crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Efecto de las interaccion abeja-flor en la producción de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia floral, a biodiversidade e comportamento de polinizadores em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade “Pera-rio”, em diferentes localidades e anos e seu efeito na produção dos frutos. A frequência dos insetos foi obtida por contag [...] em nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7h00 às 18h00, com três repetições. Para a porcentagem de frutifi cação, foram marcados 300 botões florais, sendo 150 deles mantidos descobertos e 150 cobertos, impedindo a visita dos insetos. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto a contagem, número de gomos e sementes, pesagens (g), altura (cm), largura (cm), espessura da polpa (mm), pH e volume do suco (ml). Os insetos mais frequentes observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, seguidas por outras espécies de himenópteros, lepidópteros, vespídeos e coleópteros. As abelhas africanizadas preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen e preferiram visitar as flores no período da manhã. Foi observado aumento de 9,6% na fecundação das flores e de 7,35% na produção de frutos livremente visitadas. A abelha africanizada foi espécie mais frequente e constante nas flores. Houve aumento na porcentagem de frutificação das flores, com a presença dos insetos. Os frutos que receberam a visita dos polinizadores foram maiores, mais doces, com maior número de sementes e quantidade de suco. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la biología floral, la biodiversidad y el comportamiento de los polinizadores en la floración de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedad Pera-rio, en seis diferentes lugares, en seis años y su efecto en la producción de fruta . La frecuencia de los [...] insectos se obtuvo contando los primeros 10 minutos de cada hora, de 7h00 a 18h00, con tres repeticiones. Para el porcentaje de yemas fructíferas fueron marcados e selecionados 300 botones florales, 150 descubiertos y 150 cubiertos, evitando las visitas de los insectos. Se evaluó la cantidad de frutos, número de brotes y las semillas, de ensayo (g), altura (cm), anchura (cm), espesor de la pulpa (mm), pH y volumen de jugo (ml). Los insectos más frecuentes observados fueron la abeja Apis mellifera, otros Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea y Coleoptera. Las abejas africanizadas colectaron principalmente néctar que polen, mientras que las Trigona spinipes, colectaron prioritariamente polen que néctar y los lepidópteros (mariposas) se alimentan de néctar. Hubo un aumento del 9,6% en la fecundación de las flores y 7,35% en la producción de frutas libremente visitadas. Las abejas africanizadas fueron más frecuentes en las flores. Hubo un aumento en el porcentaje de flores frutales, con la presencia de insectos. Los frutos que fueron visitadas por los polinizadores eran más grandes, más dulce, con más semillas y contenido de jugo. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the floral biology, biodiversity and behavior of pollinators in flowering orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variety “Pera-Rio”, in six different places, in six years, and its effect on fruit production. The frequency of insects was obtained by counting the [...] fi rst 10 minutes at a time, from 7h00 to 18h00, with three replications. For fruit set, 300 fl ower buds were marked, 150 discovered and 150 of them kept covered, preventing the visit of the insects. Fruits were evaluated for count, number of buds and seeds, weighed (g), height (cm), width (cm), flesh thickness (mm), volume (ml) and pH juice. The insects more frequent observed were honeybees Apis mellifera, others Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea and Coleoptera (beetles). Africanized bees preferred to collect nectar compared to pollen. Trigona spinipes bees preferred to collect pollen compared to nectar and Lepidoptera (butterfl ies) feeding on nectar. It was observed 9.6% increase in fertilization of the fl owers and 7.35% in fruit production visited freely. The Africanized honeybee was more frequent species

Darclet, Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; André, Luiz Halak.

2013-03-01

238

Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia / Influence of water deficit on growth and development of fruits valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the piedmont of Meta department, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlad [...] a de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia). Los tratamientos (T) de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g), estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo), fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05) en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P Abstract in english In Colombia the area planted with citrus is marginal when compared to the potential area for cultivation, due to factors such as water deficit, nutrition and efficiency of fruit formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit by controlled application of water through so [...] il profile in orange crop var.Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the foothills Meta department, Colombia. The irrigation treatments (T) were: T1 = 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = control = 0% ETc. Irrigation was applied from the beginning of flowering in February to fruit formation in April 2011. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replicates per treatment. The variables evaluated were: soil moisture (qg), plant water status (Ytallo), phenology, budding, flowering, formation, growth and fruit quality. The trees in the T1 had a higher number and size of fruit, but found no differences (P > 0.05) in yield and quality compared to the control, the qg and Ytallo were different (P

Diana Lucía, Garzón Correa; Javier Enrique, Vélez-Sánchez; Javier Orlando, Orduz Rodríguez.

2013-04-01

239

Desenvolvimento de um modelo para previsão de ocorrência do bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae / Development of a model to predict the occurrence of citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um modelo para previsão de ocorrência do bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima). Para tanto, 553 áreas localizadas em 17 fazendas do estado de São Paulo foram monitoradas por meio de armadilhas com feromônio sexual de E. aurantiana du [...] rante um ano. O tipo de solo, temperatura mensal média do local, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos para o controle de E. aurantiana, foram utilizados como variáveis para cada área mencionada. A maior influência sobre a flutuação populacional do bicho-furão-dos-citros foi exercida pelo tipo de solo, seguido pela temperatura mensal média do local, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos. A ocorrência de E. aurantiana em função da temperatura foi diferente para cada combinação de tipo de solo, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e uso de agroquímicos. O modelo desenvolvido pode prever o potencial de ocorrência de E. aurantiana em função da temperatura ou dos meses do ano, levando-se em consideração o tipo de solo, variedade de citros, idade das plantas e aplicação de agroquímicos. O programa (BF) elaborado na linguagem R conta com equações para simular as diversas situações de ocorrência de E. aurantiana. O modelo de previsão de ocorrência de bicho-furão pode ser aperfeiçoado com a coleta de dados mais regulares e de forma contínua. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to develop a model to predict the occurrence of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima), based on monitoring data collected through sexual pheromone traps. Soil type, site temperature, citrus variety, age of plants and use of chemicals to control E. aurantiana influenced the populati [...] on dynamics of the insect. The highest influence was exerted by the soil type, followed by site temperature, citrus variety, age of plants and the use of chemicals for E. aurantiana control. The occurrence of E. aurantiana according to temperature is different for each combination of soil type, citrus variety, age of plants and use of chemicals. The model developed can predict the occurrence potential of E. aurantiana according to temperature or months of the year, taking into account soil type, citrus variety, age of plants and chemicals spraying. The elaborated software (BF), designed in R language, includes equations that simulate the various situations of E. aurantiana occurrence. The predicting model of citrus fruit borer occurrence can be improved with more frequent and continuous data collecting.

Ronaldo, Reis Jr.; José R.P., Parra; José M.S., Bento.

2005-08-01

240

The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

Cercos Manuel

2010-10-01

241

Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-wei; Hao, Bao-hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-xin; Chen, Ling-ling

2014-01-01

242

Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

2006-02-01

243

Asymmetric reduction of ketones by biocatalysis using clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit grown in Annaba or by ruthenium catalysis for access to both enantiomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocatalytic reduction of prochiral ketones using freshly ripened clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in aqueous medium is reported. High enantioselectivities were observed, especially for the bioreduction of indanone , tetralone , and thiochromanone with respectively 95%, 99%, and 86% enantiomeric excess (ee). Enantioselective bio- and metal-catalyzed reactions were compared. Chiral ruthenium catalysts afforded good asymmetric inductions (>75% ee) in most cases, enantiomeric excesses depending on the nature of substrate and ligand. N-aminoindanol prolinamide was revealed as the best ligand for most ketones. Interestingly, for several substrates both enantiomers could be obtained using either Citrus reticulata or ruthenium complex. PMID:25482318

Bennamane, Manhel; Zeror, Saoussen; Aribi-Zouioueche, Louisa

2015-03-01

244

Identificação e quantificação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones em municípios produtores de citros no Rio Grande do Sul Identification and quantification of native arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi of citrus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os esporos de FMA presentes em viveiros e pomares de citros no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo e de raízes de dez viveiros e doze pomares de oito municípios produtores de citros, nas quais avaliaramse conteúdo nutricional, número de esporos por 100 g de solo seco e colonização das radicelas, e determinaramse as espécies autóctones. As espécies, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, foram: Glomus macrocarpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobiculata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.The objective of this work was to identify and quantify AMF spores present in citrus nurseries and orchards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Soil and root samples were collected at ten nurseries and twelve citrus orchards. Mineral composition of the soil samples was determined as well as the number of spores in 100 g of dry soil, root colonization and native species taxonomic identification. AMF species, in decreasing order of occurrence were: Glomus macro- carpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobi- culata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.

Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

2002-04-01

245

Preferência para oviposição e ciclo de vida de mosca-negra- dos-citros Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em espécies frutíferas / Oviposition preference and life cycle of citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby on fruit crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby conhecida popularmente como mosca-negra-dos-citros é considerada praga quarentenária A2 no Brasil e ocasiona prejuízo em diversas frutíferas, principalmente em citros (laranja, limão e tangerina). Poucas são as pesquisas relacionadas aos seus aspectos biológicos nas condi [...] ções ambientais brasileiras. Nesse sentido, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a preferência de oviposição e a duração do ciclo de vida de A. woglumi em diferentes hospedeiros. A pesquisa foi conduzida em casa de vegetação, durante o período de março de 2009 a março de 2010. Foram realizados testes de preferência sem chance de escolha em seis hospedeiros, simultaneamente, em períodos de 48 e 72 horas, além da biologia comparada em mangueira e laranjeira. Foram observados nos testes que A. woglumi apresenta preferência por ovipositar nas espécies cítricas (limoeiro, laranjeira e tangerineira), mantendo um padrão de não preferência em cajueiro e goiabeira. Os hospedeiros laranjeira e mangueira não interferiram no ciclo biológico da praga. Abstract in english Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, popularly known as the citrus blackfly is considered A2 quarantine pest in Brazil and causes damage in many fruit crops, especially citrus (orange, lemon and tangerine). Few researches related to biological aspects are carried out in Brazilian environmental conditions. T [...] he present research aimed to determine the oviposition preference and duration of the life cycle of A. woglumi on different hosts. The research was carried out in a greenhouse during the period of March 2009 to March 2010. Tests of preference were done with no chance of choice in six hosts, in periods of 48 and 72 hours, beyond the comparative biology in mango and orange trees. A. woglumi showed preference for laying eggs on citrus species (lemon, orange and mandarin), maintaining a pattern of non-preference in cashew and guava trees. The orange and mango hosts did not interfere in the life cycle of the pest.

Gislane da Silva, Lopes; Raimunda Nonata Santos de, Lemos; José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Luiz Junior Pereira, Marques; Daniele Lavra, Vieira.

2013-09-01

246

Induced mutations in citrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

247

Preserving Fresh Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

2000-01-01

248

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fatty acids and correlation by principal component analysis of exotic and native fruits from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As capacidades antioxidante de sete frutas nativas e exóticas do Brasil foram avaliadas usando os métodos DPPH•, ABTS•+ e FRAP, além da determinação do conteúdo de fenólicos totais e composição de ácidos graxos. Murici e dovialis apresentaram os maiores conteúdos de compostos fenólicos (243,42 e 205 [...] ,98 mg EAG 100 g-1, respectivamente), e maiores capacidades antioxidante pelo método de FRAP (24,97 e 23,70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectivamente). Pelos métodos de DPPH• e ABTS•+, dovialis apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, 9,59 e 10,41 ET g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores dos ácidos alfa-linolênico e linoleico foram encontrados na siriguela (107,86 mg AG g-1 LT) e tomatinho do mato (215,50 mg AG g-1 LT), respectivamente. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos ácidos graxos gerou três significantes PCs, que representaram 99,75% do conjunto de dados da variância. Os dados de PCA das análises de antioxidantes geraram dois significantes PCs, representando 97,00% do total de variância. Abstract in english The antioxidant capacities of seven exotic and native fruits from Brazil were evaluated using DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP assays, in addition to their total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Murici and dovialis presented the highest total phenolic contents (243.42 and 205.98 mg GAE 100 g-1, re [...] spectively), and the highest antioxidant capacities by the FRAP assay (24.97 and 23.70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectively). In the DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays, dovialis presented the highest antioxidant capacity, 9.59 and 10.41 TE g-1, respectively. The highest alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid contents were found in siriguela (107.86 mg FA g-1 TL) and tomatinho do mato (215.50 mg FA g-1 TL), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids yielded three significant PCs, which accounted for 99.75% of the data set total variance. The PCA data of the antioxidant analyses yielded two significant PCs, which accounted for 97.00% of the total variance.

Alessandra B., Ribeiro; Elton G., Bonafé; Beatriz C., Silva; Paula F., Montanher; Oscar O., Santos Júnior; Joana S., Boeing; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

2013-05-01

249

Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil / Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas c [...] onvencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia. Abstract in english This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symm [...] etrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome morphology or the presence of secondary constrictions. In Myrtaceae family, it had been observed a diploid chromosome supplement with 2n=98 in Psidium arboretum Vell. and 2n=44 in P. araça Raddi; 2n=50 in Bromelia karatas L.; in the Malvaceae, 2n=16 for Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; in Sapindaceae, 2n=32 in Talisia esculenta Radlk. and, in Caricaceae, 2n=18 in Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. All chromosome data presented in this work have been karyologically unpublished, except for T. esculenta which had previous reports confirmed. The species are potentially useful in breeding systems, and a heterozygosis inversion seems to be involved in the karyotype evolution of Guazuma ulmifolia.

Erllens, Éder-Silva; Leonardo Pessoa, Felix; Riselane de Lucena Alcântara, Bruno.

2007-04-01

250

Characterization of bound phenthoate residues in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolism and fate of phenyl ring-labeled 14C-phenthoate (0,0-dimethyl S-[alpha-(carboethoxy)benzyl] phosphorodithioate) was examined in the Valencia orange fruit with emphasis on the characterization of bound phenthoate residues in the fruit peel. The products recovered from the citrus fruit wash were unchanged phenthoate, phenthoate oxon, demethyl phenthoate, phenthoate acid, ethyl mandelate, and mandelic acid. The same products, with the exception of phenthoate oxon, were found in the acetone extract of the fruit peel. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound residue in the peel with beta-glucosidase, followed by acidic and basic hydrolysis gave ethyl mandelate as the major product, followed by mandelic acid, demethyl phenthoate and phenthoate acid. Phenthoate was metabolized and conjugated in citrus fruits into detoxication products. PMID:7259311

Mallipudi, N M; Fukuto, T R

1981-07-01

251

Fruit organ cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The culture of fruit tissues as whole organs or isolated tissue sections has been conducted with various species (1). Whole, isolated ovaries have been successfully cultured to give rise to mature fruits (e.g., strawberry). Typically, however, when an isolated portion of the fruit tissue is introduced into a sterile environment, it immediately loses structural integrity and degenerates into a rapidly dividing callus mass (2). Loss of structural integrity is correspondingly associated with an alteration of physiology that is subsequently reflected in the production of an altered metabolism. Therefore, a meaningful study of fruit development using callus derived from fruit tissues is often not possible. Recently, we studied the parameters involved in the maintenance of citrus fruit tissue integrity (2). In this paper, the culture of isolated fruit tissues, as well as half and whole fruit culture, is demonstrated using the lemon fruit (Fig. 1-3). PMID:21390600

Tisserat, B; Galletta, P D; Jones, D

1990-01-01

252

Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus  

OpenAIRE

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick ...

SvetlanaYFolimonova

2013-01-01

253

Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2012-01-01

254

DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF PARASITOIDS (HYMENOPTERA: APHIDIIDAE AND APHELINIDAE) OF THE BROWN CITRUS APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE): SPECIES-SPECIFIC PCR AMPLIFICATION OF 18S RDNA  

Science.gov (United States)

The brown citrus aphid (BrCA), Toxoptera citricida (Kirklady), is a serious pest of citrus because it damages young growing shoots of citrus and vectors the debilitating disease, citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Integrated control strategies rely on the use of native and imported parasitoids to maintai...

255

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for discrimination of huanglongbing-infected citrus leaves from uninfected leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus and is a threat to the U.S. industry. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees su...

256

Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).; Tratamento quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

Albergaria, Nuno Miguel Mendes Soares de

2005-07-01

257

Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others  

OpenAIRE

Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis c...

Liwen Wang; Jinhan Wang; Lianying Fang; Zuliang Zheng; Dexian Zhi; Suying Wang; Shiming Li; Chi-Tang Ho; Hui Zhao

2014-01-01

258

Detection and molecular identification protocols for Phyllosticta citricarpa from citrus matter  

OpenAIRE

Strict quarantine measures for the export of South African citrus fruit to European and US markets require the development of sensitive and accurate detection methods for the pathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa – a fungus causing citrus black spot disease. Because of the presence of other, non-pathogenic Phyllosticta species, rapid and accurate verification of the Phyllosticta species present on exported citrus fruit is important t...

Mariette Truter; Kotze?, Jan M.; René Jacobs; Linda Meyer; Lise Korsten

2012-01-01

259

Detection and molecular identification protocols for Phyllosticta citricarpa from citrus matter  

OpenAIRE

Strict quarantine measures for the export of South African citrus fruit to European and US markets require the development of sensitive and accurate detection methods for the pathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa – a fungus causing citrus black spot disease. Because of the presence of other, non-pathogenic Phyllosticta species, rapid and accurate verification of the Phyllosticta species present on exported citrus fruit is important to producers, exporters and regulatory authoritie...

Meyer, Linda; Jacobs, Rene; Kotze, Jan M.; Truter, Mariette; Korsten, Lise

2012-01-01

260

Induction and selection of citrus mutant by gamma-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have subjected to gamma-irradiation to citrus buds and then grafted onto mature citrus tree. Mutant citrus branch lines have been induced. As a result of first selection, we found the several mutant lines showing interesting phenotypes such as higher sugar content. We have selected several branches showing good qualities such as higher sweetness and/or lower acidity. Some branch lines showed over 13 .deg. Brix sugar content and below 0.9% acidity. Other mutant branch lines showed the changes of shape, size, peel thickness, and fiber contents or distribution of fruits. The results suggest that gamma-irradiation is an effective tool for induction of citrus mutant lines.

Kim, In Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15

261

Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP / Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packingh [...] ouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias) não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados. Abstract in english The purposes of this work were a) to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS) incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in [...] 2004/05 and 2005/06; b) to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days) was not significant in collected fruits.

Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Marcel B., Spósito; Lilian, Amorim.

2008-08-01

262

Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packinghouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados.The purposes of this work were a to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in 2004/05 and 2005/06; b to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days was not significant in collected fruits.

Ivan H. Fischer

2008-08-01

263

Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to seq [...] uence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile). Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

Angela, Mehta; Marilia Santos, Silva; Simone, Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine, Carrer; Marco Aurélio, Takita; Natália F., Martins.

264

Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

Angela Mehta

2007-01-01

265

Characterization of a new citrus viroid species tentatively termed Citrus viroid OS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new viroid was obtained from a viroid sample, named 'OS', collected from a citrus plant. The viroid consists of 330-331 nucleotides, contains the central conserved region (CCR) characteristic of the genus Apscaviroid, and has the highest sequence similarity (only 68%) with Citrus III viroid (CVd-III) among known viroids. This viroid, by itself, caused only mild petiole necrosis and characteristically very mild leaf bending in Arizona 861-S1 Etrog citrons (Citrus medica L.), the degree of which differed from that induced by other citrus viroids. This viroid could be a new citrus viroid species belonging to the genus Apscaviroid; for convenience, it was tentatively named Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) after the original sample. CVd-OS has chimeric features related to other viroids. In particular, CVd-OS has high sequence similarity with CVd-III and Apple dimple fruit viroid in the putative central and terminal left domains, including a duplicative sequence from the lower CCR of the genus Pospiviroid in the left terminus. Further, CVd-OS shares high sequence similarity with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in the lower strand of the putative variable and terminal right domains, including the sequence identical to that of the right termini of CEVd and of Citrus IV viroid. PMID:11448034

Ito, T; Ieki, H; Ozaki, K; Ito, T

2001-01-01

266

2006 University Citrus Pest Management Guide: Tristeza  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major cause of the decline and eventual death of trees on sour orange rootstocks. Initially, affected trees have small leaves and twig dieback. Diseased trees often produce a crop of very small fruit. Eventually, large limbs die back and the tree gradually declines...

267

Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. PMID:21246728

Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

2011-01-01

268

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

269

Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil / Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mo [...] sca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly [...] installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed and environmental temperature were executed. Maximum and minimum temperature had more interference on these pests than the other environmental factors. Analysis of non-linear regression were applied with monthly accumulate number of these flies and showed top of captured flies in March to June. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) was the predominant fruit fly.

Luís Antônio, Chiaradia; José Maria, Milanez; Renato, Dittrich.

2004-04-01

270

Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado / Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de éste [...] res metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %), seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %). A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%). A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado. Abstract in english Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.) are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profil [...] es of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %); araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %), followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %). The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %). Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

Renata Miranda, Lopes; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Ismael da Silva, Gomes; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

2012-06-01

271

Diversidade de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha em citros, café e fragmento de floresta nativa do Estado de São Paulo / Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the State of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e floresta estacional semidecidual com fisionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a influencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agr [...] oecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identificação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A floresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a floresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na floresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à floresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da floresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de insetos vetores e possíveis vetores de doenças de plantas cultivadas nos habitats avaliados indicam a necessidade da implantação do manejo de pragas nessa área. Abstract in english The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agr [...] oecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

Teresinha A, Giustolin; João R S, Lopes; Ranyse B, Querino; Rodney R, Cavichioli; Kety, Zanol; Wilson S, Azevedo Filho; Miguel A, Mendes.

2009-12-01

272

Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum.Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were collected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri, and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum.

Ivan H. Fischer

2007-08-01

273

Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" / Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado intern [...] o, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri) e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum). Abstract in english Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were col [...] lected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri), and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum).

Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Lílian, Amorim.

2007-08-01

274

Quantitative distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus plants with citrus huanglongbing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in fruit tissues were found in the locular membranes and septa (10(8) genomes/g), with 100-fold lower levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in the meso and pericarp of such fruit. Our results demonstrate both the ubiquitous presence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in symptomatic citrus trees as well as great variation between individual trees and among samples of different tissues from the same trees. Our methods will be useful in both the management and scientific study of citrus HLB, also known as citrus greening disease. PMID:19159305

Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S

2009-02-01

275

Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros / Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a do [...] is, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença. Abstract in english The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among the [...] m, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA, FRANCO; WAGNER, BETTIOL.

2002-08-01

276

Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

2002-08-01

277

Functional genomic approaches to understanding abscission activation in citrus  

OpenAIRE

Abscission events in citrus allow the detachment of entire organs, both vegetative (buds, leaves) and reproductive (flowers, ovaries, fruitlets, mature fruits). This is achieved by the modification of cellular adhesion in a discrete group of specialized cells differentiated in predictable positions, known as abscission zones (AZs). Thus, abscission facilitates several key processes for citrus biology that, in an agricultural context, represent a major limiting factor for crop yield. In this r...

Tadeo, Fr; Agusti?, J.; Merelo, P.; Cerco?s, M.; Terol, J.; Domingo, C.; Talo?n, M.

2012-01-01

278

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich s...

Dhanavade, Maruti J.; Jalkute, Chidamber B.; Ghosh, Jai S.; Sonawane, Kailash D.

2011-01-01

279

Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros / Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento [...] convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos) de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon') x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente), sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas. Abstract in english The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. [...] This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly collected 12 samples of each rootstock. In assessing of germination percetage, germination speed index and polyembryony was used factorial scheme 5 (the rootstocks: hybrid UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 E UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' and Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon ') x 2 (with and without removing the seedcoat), four replications were used. According to the results it is concluded that the fruit size did not influence in the seed yield. The removal of the seedcoat accelerated the time of seed germination in all the rootstocks and provided a higher germination percentage. The polyembryony doesn't affect the process of seed germination. The rootstocks UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 and citrumeleiro 'Swingle' have potential for use in the production of the rootstocks.

Rodrigo Amato, Moreira; José Darlan, Ramos; Maria do Céu Monteiro da, Cruz.

2010-06-01

280

Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem.The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA, Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly regard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents, 69 species distributed in 58 genus and 33 botanical families were selected to the study, totalizing 76 analyses of different edible portions. Besides the N converted in protein, the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S, and B were analyzed. Several species revealed promising contents of protein and minerals with higher values than commercial species with similar uses. Despite of their suitability and abundance in the MRPA region and the significant contents of protein and minerals, the great majority of these species remain unknown or underutilized. Studies and effective incentives to the economical uses of the neglected species could contribute to the conservation, valorization of the indigenous species, and to a more diverse and healthful human diet.

Valdely Ferreira Kinupp

2008-12-01

281

Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas / Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA), Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua [...] composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem. Abstract in english The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA), Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil), presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly reg [...] ard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents, 69 species distributed in 58 genus and 33 botanical families were selected to the study, totalizing 76 analyses of different edible portions. Besides the N converted in protein, the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S, and B were analyzed. Several species revealed promising contents of protein and minerals with higher values than commercial species with similar uses. Despite of their suitability and abundance in the MRPA region and the significant contents of protein and minerals, the great majority of these species remain unknown or underutilized. Studies and effective incentives to the economical uses of the neglected species could contribute to the conservation, valorization of the indigenous species, and to a more diverse and healthful human diet.

Valdely Ferreira, Kinupp; Ingrid Bergman Inchausti de, Barros.

2008-12-01

282

Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso) Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso)  

OpenAIRE

The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso), is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identific...

Colecio-jua?rez, Maria C.; Rubio-nu?nez, Rubria E.; Botello-a?lvarez, Jose? E.; Martinez-gonza?lez, Gloria M.; Navarrete-bolanos, Jose? L.; Hugo Jiménez-Islas

2012-01-01

283

Quality of fresh fruits irradiated at disinfestation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality retention of fresh fruits treated with gamma-radiation for disinfestation is one of the criteria for the feasibility of the radiation process. The effectiveness of radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papayas infested by three species of tropical fruit flies and California-grown citrus and stone fruits infested by Mediterranean fruit files (Ceratitis capitata) and the sensory qualities of these irradiated fruits were recently studied in Hawaii. Experimental results showed that papaya can be irradiated to 1.0 kGy without any adverse effects on its sensory and nutrient qualities. A radiation dose of 0.3 kGy should present no problems to the sensory qualities of California stone and citrus fruits. California citrus can tolerate higher doses (0.50-0.75 KGy) than stone fruits, especially if refrigerated storage follows irradiation. Better control of harvesting, shipping, and handling should also help retain the qualities of these irradiated fruits

284

Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis, apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP, as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE. As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida, seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0', com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento.Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG. The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

Márcio de Carvalho Pires

2009-09-01

285

Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas / Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis), apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes [...] da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE) as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP), as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE). As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida), seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0'), com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento. Abstract in english Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit [...] Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea), P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG). The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida) followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0') with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

Márcio de Carvalho, Pires; Osvaldo Kiyoshi, Yamanishi; José Ricardo, Peixoto; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Marcelo Alves de Figueiredo, Sousa.

2009-09-01

286

The Fruit Industry in Italy: an overview  

OpenAIRE

The different climatic zones of the long Peninsula allow Italy to have one of Europe’s most varied fruit industries. These zones enable a large number of temperate, Mediterranean and sub-tropical horticultural crops to be grown on a relatively small land area. The Italian fruit industry has a long successful tradition. Temperate fruits (apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, kiwifruit, hazelnut, almond, chestnut, walnut, olive, grape, citrus, strawberry) and subtropical fruits (anona...

Bounous, Giancarlo; Chiabrando, Valentina; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

2003-01-01

287

GHAZELS WITH FRUIT REFRAIN / MEYVE REDIFLI GAZELLER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80 divans were studied and poems with fruitnames as a refrain were specified. In the Divan poetry,fruit names as a refrain were used rarely. In these poems,the similes about fruits are concerned with their colours,shapes and tastes. In these ghazels, some similes weremade with fruit names which were used as a refrain, forexample bitter orange - lover, aggrieved, deus exmachina; citrus fruit - lover; peach - lovers lips. Alsothese refrains’s importance was emphasized.

Dr. M. Nejat SEFERCIO?LU

2008-10-01

288

Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três difere [...] ntes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1) e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas), em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS); acidez titulável (AT); quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT), e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade. Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in t [...] hree different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1) and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers) in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0.05%. For each cultivar, twenty fruits per tree were sampled in four different times to determine the soluble solids concentration (SS), titratable acidity (TA), quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box, juice yield, "ratio" (SS/TA) and average fruit weight. The effects of MBTA varied according to the concentration and phenological phase of application. The MBTA at 8 mg L-1 concentration, sprayed on 25% of the open flowers, increased the soluble solids concentration, acidity, the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and the yield. The same treatment also decreased the average fruit weight and did not affect the juice yield and the "ratio". The average increase was from 0.49 to 0.65% on soluble solids concentration, from 0.11 to 0.13 kg on the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and 20.4 kg/tree on yield.

Chryz Melinski, Serciloto; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro; Silvio, Tavares.

2008-09-01

289

Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained fore than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless Pineapple orange, and the University of Florida a seedless Murcot tangor. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding programme and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programmes in the US will be provided. (author)

290

Citrus improvement using mutation techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by the citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; consequently, most of the commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Rio Red, the most planted grapefruit in Texas has also dark-red flesh and originated by thermal neutrons irradiation of the pinkish Ruby Red grapefruit buds in the third vegetative progeny. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programs, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in USA, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon muto earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding program and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programs in USA will be provided. (author)

291

Performance of fogged disinfectants to inactivate conida of Penicillium digitatum within citrus degreening rooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Fogging with formaldehyde of citrus packinghouses when the fruit are absent is a practice to control conidia of Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc., cause of citrus green mold. Replacements for formaldehyde in these facilities are needed because of worker and environmental health issues. To evaluate...

292

Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

Faria, Jose Tadeu de

1997-07-01

293

Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

2008-10-01

294

Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan  

OpenAIRE

The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

Schoubroeck, H. J.

1999-01-01

295

Genomics meets induced mutations in citrus: identification of deleted genes through comparative genomic hybridization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world while Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the Citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subuf a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

296

Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world and Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunia ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

297

CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE TANGERINAS DE BANCO ATIVO DE GERMOPLASMA DE CITROS DO CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC / MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MANDARIN FRUITS FROM CITRUS GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK OF `CENTRO DE CITRICULTURA SYLVIO MOREIRA/IAC'  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O número de variedades de tangerinas utilizadas economicamente é muito restrito, apesar da importância comercial deste grupo de citros. O Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC possui em torno de 383 acessos de tangerineiras e híbridos, os quais têm sido es [...] tudados sob o ponto de vista botânico, genético e agronômico. Este trabalho visa descrever por meio de 38 caracteres morfológicos, os frutos das tangerineiras Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará e Mexerica-do-Rio. Foram coletados 30 frutos maduros de cada acesso, sendo 10 frutos por planta, num total de 3 plantas por acesso. As tangerineiras, enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra e espaçadas de 7,5 m entre linhas por 5,5 m entre plantas, foram estudadas com 8 anos de plantio (safra 1994). Foi observada variabilidade fenotípica acentuada entre os acessos estudados, para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados e verificou-se que muitos caracteres agronômicos desejáveis encontram-se dispersos entre os acessos analisados, podendo vir a ser aproveitados em programas de melhoramento. A análise de agrupamento dos acessos através dos caracteres avaliados quantitativamente pode fornecer indicativos sobre as distâncias filogenéticas entre os diferentes genótipos. Abstract in english The number of mandarin varieties economically explored is very restricted, in spite of their commercial importance. The Active Citrus Germplasm Bank, of the `Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira/IAC' holds around 383 accessions of mandarins and hybrids, which are analyzed in botanical, genetic and [...] agronomic aspects. As a part of this program, this work aims the fruit morphological description through 38 characters of the following mandarins: Satsuma Unshiu Wase, Clementina, Mel, Portuguesa, Natsu Mikan, Dancy, Cascalho, Campeona, Mexerica-do-Pará and Mexerica-do-Rio. The mandarin trees are about 8 years old spaced 7.5 m between lines and 5.5 m between plants, and were grafted on Cleopatra. A large phenotypic variation in most of the analyzed characters was observed. The best characters, from the economic point of view, are dispersed through the analyzed accessions and can be further explored in genetic breeding programs. The cluster analysis carried out with characters measured quantitatively can be useful for the knowledge of the philogenetic distances among each accession.

Edson Tobias, Domingues; Vinícius Castro, Souza; Cássia Mônica, Sakuragui; Jorgino, Pompeu Júnior; Rose Mary, Pio; Joaquim, Teófilo Sobrinho; Juliana P., Souza.

298

Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V) Remediation  

OpenAIRE

In the present study As (V) was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsor...

Khaskheli, Mazhar I.; Memon, Saima Q.; Sajida Parveen; Khuhawar, Muhammad Y.

2014-01-01

299

Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis  

OpenAIRE

The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and ...

Sbeghen-loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

2011-01-01

300

Manejo da poda de raízes no transplantio de mudas de fruteiras nativas / Cultural practice of root pruning during the transplante of native fruit plantlets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com o intuito de se avaliar o efeito da poda de raízes no transplantio de mudas de jabuticabeira, cerejeira-da-mata e uvaieira, realizou-se o presente trabalho por meio do manejo da poda do sistema radicular em diferentes proporções. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do [...] Paraná (UTFPR) - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos-PR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial duplo 3 x 4 (fruteira nativa x percentual de poda de raiz), contendo quatro repetições, utilizandose de 10 mudas por unidade experimental. Após 180 dias de implantação do experimento, avaliaram-se o percentual de sobrevivência, o comprimento da parte aérea (cm) e o número de folhas, sendo para estas duas últimas variáveis considerada somente a diferença de valores obtidos do transplantio até esta análise. A realização da poda radicular em mudas de jabuticabeira, cerejeira-da-mata e uvaieira interfere de forma negativa para a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento destas, não sendo aconselhada sua aplicação. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of root pruning for transplanting Jabuticabeira, Wood cherry and Uvaia seedlings, it was realized the present study. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil. The experimental desi [...] gn was completely randomized, in the factorial 3 x 4 (native fruit specie x root pruning percentage), with four replicates, using 10 plants by plot. The survival percentage, plant height (cm) and number of leaves were evaluated after 180 days, being for the last two characteristics considered only the difference of data between the transplanted day and the evaluation day. The root pruning in Jabuticabeira, Wood cherry and Uvaia tree influenced negatively the plant survival and growth, not being recommended its application.

Cristiano, Hossel; Jéssica Scarlet Marth Alves de, Oliveira; Américo, Wagner Júnior; Sérgio Miguel, Mazaro; Idemir, Citadin.

2014-09-01

301

Effects of Gamma-Irradiation Mutagenesis for Induction of Seedlessness, on the Quality of Mandarin Fruit  

OpenAIRE

Gamma irradiation mutagenesis is a technique commonly used to induce seedlessness in citrus fruits. We compared fruit quality traits of eight different seeded mandarin varieties within the Israeli citrus breeding collection with those of their corresponding gamma-irradiated low-seeded mutants. The mandarin varieties compared were: “Rishon” with “Kedem”; “Michal” with irradiated “Michal”; “Merav” with “Meravit”; “Vered” with “Vardit”; “O...

Livnat Goldenberg; Yossi Yaniv; Ron Porat; Nir Carmi

2014-01-01

302

Evaluation of codon biology in citrus and Poncirus trifoliata based on genomic features and frame corrected expressed sequence tags.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus, as one of the globally important fruit trees, has been an object of interest for understanding genetics and evolutionary process in fruit crops. Meta-analyses of 19 Citrus species, including 4 globally and economically important Citrus sinensis, Citrus clementina, Citrus reticulata, and 1 Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata, were performed. We observed that codons ending with A- or T- at the wobble position were preferred in contrast to C- or G- ending codons, indicating a close association with AT richness of Citrus species and P. trifoliata. The present study postulates a large repertoire of a set of optimal codons for the Citrus genus and P. trifoliata and demonstrates that GCT and GGT are evolutionary conserved optimal codons. Our observation suggested that mutational bias is the dominating force in shaping the codon usage bias (CUB) in Citrus and P. trifoliata. Correspondence analysis (COA) revealed that the principal axis [axis 1; COA/relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU)] contributes only a minor portion (?10.96%) of the recorded variance. In all analysed species, except P. trifoliata, Gravy and aromaticity played minor roles in resolving CUB. Compositional constraints were found to be strongly associated with the amino acid signatures in Citrus species and P. trifoliata. Our present analysis postulates compositional constraints in Citrus species and P. trifoliata and plausible role of the stress with GC3 and coevolution pattern of amino acid. PMID:23315666

Ahmad, Touqeer; Sablok, Gaurav; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

2013-04-01

303

Controlled in vivo infestation of mandarin fruit with Ceratitis capitata for development of quarantine treatments  

OpenAIRE

Movement of citrus fruit from Ceratitis capitata-infested areas requires mandatory quarantine treatments. Development of such treatments requires the use of infested fruit. The in vivo approach is the most realistic way to obtain these fruit. However, it requires previous studies to determine the optimal fruit:fly ratio to minimize the number of decayed fruit and to maximize the number of flies per fruit obtained. In this study, the optimal fruit:fly ratio for the in vivo infestat...

Jacas Miret, Josep Anton; Palou, Llui?s; Beitia Crespo, Francisco Jose?; Ri?o, M. A. Del

2008-01-01

304

Radiation preservation of Citrus Unshiu, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of energy and current of electron-beams and synergistic effect of heat and radiation on a growth of fungi and a browning of peel were investigated to extend shelf-life of Citrus Unshiu (''Satsuma'' orange). The fruits were irradiated with a surface dose of 200krad by various energies of electrons (0.2-1.5MeV), and then stored at 30C for 3 months. Percent of browned fruit in the fruits irradiated by 0.2MeV electrons was almost the same as that in the unirradiated ones. However, if the fruits were irradiated by energies of more than 0.5MeV, the browning of peel increased with increasing energy of electrons. The browning seems to depend on a dose absorbed only in peel, but not to depend on a total dose absorbed in fruit. When the fruits were stored at 30C for 3 months followed by storage at room temperature (16-250C) for one week, the effective growth inhibition of fungi was observed on the fruits irradiated by 0.5MeV electrons. On the fruits irradiated with 0.1-1.0mA of beam current by 0.5MeV electrons, increasing current tended to inhibit the growth of fungi. But the browning of peel was unaffected by beam current. Heat and radiation combination increased the browning of peel and the growth of fungi during storage. (auth.)

305

First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

2014-07-01

306

CSFRI symposium: research into citrus and subtropical crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication only contains the abstracts of papers delivered on the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute symposium which was held at Nelspruit on 21-23 October 1986. The abstracts primarily discuss the problems in and around the South African fruit industry such as pest control, etiology, plant diseases, problems with greening, flowering, and plant growth. One abstract specifically discusses the effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential of false cadling moth

307

Situación actual y perspectivas de industrialización de los cítricos en la hoya del rio minero. (Occidente del departamento de Boyacá Actual situation and Industrial Perspectives of citrus fruit at the Basin of the "Rio Minero" (Western region of the Departament of Boyaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La hoya del "Río Minero" se localiza en la región oriental de departamento Boyacá; comprende nueve municipios reconocidos
por su explotación minera. La producción agrícola en esta región
se basa en cultivos frutícolas particularmente cítricos tales como naranjas y tangelos que son la base económica de pequeños y medianos agricultores. Este sistema de producción es no tecnificado al igual que la de otros productos no frutícolas. Su mercadeo muestra un porcentaje alto de pérdidas de la producción como resultado de un manejo postcosecha inadecuado. Sin embargo, la producción de fruta muestra unos potenciales importantes para llevar a cabo proyectos
agroindustriales de producción de jugo lo cual mejoraría el desarrollo de la región.The "Río Minero" basin is located in the west province of Boyaca. It comprises nine municipalities very well known because of its mining exploitation. The agricultural production in this region is focused on fruits harvesting particulary citrus such as oranges and tangenines which are the economic base of small and medium farmers. This production system is similar to the non technifield traditional production of non fruit crops. Its marketing shows a high percentage of production losses as a result of inadequate post-harvesting management. However, fruit production shows an important potencial for implementing agroindustrial projects for juice production which will improve the development of the region.

Rodríguez C. Luis Felipe

1998-12-01

308

Novel demonstration of RNAi in citrus reveals importance of citrus callose synthase in defence against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). GenBank houses a large collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) enriched with transcripts generated during the defence response against this pathogen; however, there are currently no strategies in citrus to assess the function of candidate genes. This has greatly limited research as defence signalling genes are often involved in multiple pathways. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) as a functional genomics tool to assess the function of candidate genes involved in the defence response of Citrus limon against the citrus canker pathogen. Double-stranded RNA expression vectors, encoding hairpin RNAs for citrus host genes, were delivered to lemon leaves by transient infiltration with transformed Agrobacterium. As proof of principle, we have established silencing of citrus phytoene desaturase (PDS) and callose synthase (CalS1) genes. Phenotypic and molecular analyses showed that silencing vectors were functional not only in lemon plants but also in other species of the Rutaceae family. Using silencing of CalS1, we have demonstrated that plant cell wall-associated defence is the principal initial barrier against Xanthomonas infection in citrus plants. Additionally, we present here results that suggest that H?O? accumulation, which is suppressed by xanthan from Xcc during pathogenesis, contributes to inhibition of xanthan-deficient Xcc mutant growth either in wild-type or CalS1-silenced plants. With this work, we have demonstrated that high-throughput reverse genetic analysis is feasible in citrus. PMID:20809929

Enrique, Ramón; Siciliano, Florencia; Favaro, María Alejandra; Gerhardt, Nadia; Roeschlin, Roxana; Rigano, Luciano; Sendin, Lorena; Castagnaro, Atilio; Vojnov, Adrian; Marano, María Rosa

2011-04-01

309

Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata. PMID:18943316

Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

2005-05-01

310

Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postbloom fruit drop (PFD is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue is stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.A podridão floral dos citros (PFC, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pela aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros.

Steven J. MacKenzie

2010-12-01

311

Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum / Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A podridão floral dos citros (PFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pe [...] la aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros. Abstract in english Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue i [...] s stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.

Steven J., MacKenzie; Natalia A., Peres; Lavern W., Timmer.

2010-12-01

312

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC, 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

Mansour Afshar Mohammadian

2011-01-01

313

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this [...] study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC) in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC), 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

Mansour Afshar, Mohammadian; Zeinab, Mobrami; Reza Hasan, Sajedi.

314

Niche breadth and interspecific competition between Doryctobracon crawfordi and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), native and introduced of Anastrepha spp. fruit files (Diptera:Tephritidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions among multiple natural enemies can enhance or interfere with their impacts on host/ prey populations. Two species of Braconidae are currently considered for augmentative biological control of pestiferous tephritid fruit flies in Mexico, the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)...

315

Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart.) nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense / Characterization of plants and fruit of araticum plant (Annona crassiflora Mart.) native to the Cerrado of Mato Grosso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao di [...] âmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL) e transversal (DT), a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT), relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira. Abstract in english The araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) is a native fruit from the Brazilian Cerrado requiring studies to generate data to support research related to its domestication. This research aimed to study a population of araticunzeiro relating to the stem diameter and plant height, produc [...] tion, and physical and physical-chemical characterization of its fruits. Diameter of stem, height, and fruit yield of plants were measured. In the fruits, longitudinal (LD) and transverse (TD) diameters, the LD/TD ratio, the masses of fruit, peel, seed, and pulp were analyzed; and the pulp yield was calculated. In the pulp, determination of soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, pH, and moisture were performed. The trees had stem diameter of 10.4±3.1 cm and height of 3.7±0.7 m with an average yield of 6.0±3.6 fruits per plant. On average, fruits presented 14.2±1.4 LD, 15.2±2.2 TD, and 0.9±0.1 LD/TD ratio; they presented 1,565.5±508.5 g average mass; and masses of peel, seeds, and pulp presented 662.2±198.2 g, 179.8±66.2 g, and 723.5±276.7 g averages, respectively, with average pulp yield equal to 45.9±4.7% of the fruit. In pulp, SS average of 17.60±1.86 ºBrix, TA of 0.37±0.11% malic acid, SS/TA ratio of 52.23±17.64,4, 45±0.23 pH, and average humidity equal to 74.3±2.86%.. The araticunzeiro has physical and chemical characteristics that make it an alternative to the native Brazilian fruit production.

Alex Caetano, Pimenta; Patricia Sedrez da Rosa e, Silva; Katia Christina, Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares, Koehler.

2014-12-01

316

Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks  

OpenAIRE

Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçam...

Bernadete Reis; Otto Carlos Koller; Sergio Francisco Schwarz; Sergiomar Theisen; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Fernanda Severo Nichele; Rafael Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte Petry

2008-01-01

317

Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o52) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

318

Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

1980-01-01

319

Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

Mazhar I. Khaskheli

2014-06-01

320

Citrus paradisi: an effective bio-adsorbent for arsenic (v) remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study As(V) was removed by citrus paradise (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradise peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradise was 37.76 mg.g/sup -1/ at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH) groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradis peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples. (author)

321

Construction of a multiprobe for the simultaneous detection of viroids infecting citrus trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with different viroid species are common among cultivated fruit trees and grapevines, and many old-clone citrus varieties contain up to five citrus viroids (CVds) within a single tree. This paper describes the construction of a CVd-Multiprobe consisting of full-length clones of Hop stunt viroid, Citrus exocortis viroid, Citrus bent leaf viroid and CVd-III. The CVd-Multiprobe was tested against RNA transcripts of the four viroids and RNA extracts from plants singly infected with CEVd or HSVd or multiply infected with different CVds. The viroids were effectively diagnosed with the DIG labeled CVd-Multiprobe when tested by Northern hybridization or dot blot analyses. The CVd-Multiprobe does not provide information on the specific viroid resulting in a positive signal. However, this should not be considered as a problem, since most citrus certification programs will discard budwood source trees infected with any of the known CVds. PMID:16990999

Cohen, Oded; Batuman, Ozgur; Stanbekova, Gulshan; Sano, Teruo; Mawassi, Munir; Bar-Joseph, Moshe

2006-12-01

322

Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker  

Science.gov (United States)

Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

323

An efficient plant regeneration protocol from callus cultures of Citrus jambhiri Lush  

OpenAIRE

Citrus jambhiri Lush. (family Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘rough lemon’, is one of the favourite rootstocks for lemons, oranges, mandarins, grape fruits and kinnows in Punjab. The present investigation deals with development of an efficient miropropagation protocol for Citrus jambhiri Lush. using cotyledons as explant. Maximum callus induction (91.66 %) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2 mg/L) in combination with ME (500 mg/L). Green healthy calli were cut into small ...

Savita; Singh, Balwinder; Virk, Gurdeep Singh; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

2011-01-01

324

Male-female interaction and temperature variation affect pollen performance in Citrus  

OpenAIRE

Despite the extensive research work characterizing pollen performance in several plant species, less effort has been made to characterize it in some economically important species as Citrus, in which the failure of the sexual reproductive process, and subsequent parthenocarpic fruit development and seedlessness are prized characters. In this work we characterized pollen–pistil interaction in the three ancestral true-type Citrus species in order to determine the influence of the male and fem...

Distefano, Gaetano; Hedhly, Afif; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Herrero Romero, Mari?a; Gentile, Alessandra

2012-01-01

325

Identification and characterization of 27 conserved microRNAs in citrus  

OpenAIRE

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs. Considering the conservation of many miRNA genes in different plant genomes, the identification of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both practicable and instrumental in addressing miRNA-guided gene regulation. Citrus is an important staple fruit tree, and publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) database for citrus are increasing. However, until now, little has been known about miRNA in citrus. In this study, 27 known m...

Song, Changnian; Fang, Jinggui; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Hong; Thomas Chao, C.

2009-01-01

326

Melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells induced by hesperetin, a Citrus hydrolysate-derived flavonoid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanogenesis is a complex process that modulates skin pigmentation to defend photodamage. Citrus is the most widely produced fruit crop in the world. People ingest various citrus fruits in their common diets. In the present study, the acid-hydrolyzed and un-hydrolyzed extracts of orange-type citrus fruits were subjected to analyze flavonoid compositions and assess their effects on melanin synthesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells. The acid-hydrolyzed extracts of Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata, and C. aurantium enhanced melanin production. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the most abundant flavonoids that were found in citrus hydrolyzed extracts were hesperetin and naringenin. Hesperetin exhibited the most potent activity on melanin synthesis and induced tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Moreover, hesperetin stimulated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?), and subsequently induced the accumulation of ?-catenin. This study suggests that the citrus constituent hesperetin might have protective melanogenic potential as a cosmeceutical agent against skin photodamage. PMID:22266363

Huang, Yu-Chun; Liu, Kao-Chih; Chiou, Yi-Ling

2012-03-01

327

On line characterization of 58 phenolic compounds in Citrus fruit juices from Spanish cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection coupled to electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenol profile of Citrus juices of sweet orange, tangerine, lemon and grapefruit from Spanish cultivars was obtained by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection coupled to Electrospray ionization and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. Fifty eight phenolic compounds of five different classes were identified in these Citrus juices. Flavanone: O-dihexoside of naringenin; flavones: apigenin-7-O-rutinoside-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside, 6,8-di-C-acylhexosides of chrysoeriol and diosmetin, 6C- and 8C-glucoside-O-pentoside of apigenin, apigenin-6-C-hexoside-O-hexoside and apigenin-8-C-hexoside-O-acylrhamnoside; flavonols: 7-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, tamarixetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnosylhexoside, 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnosylhexoside of quercetin and isorhamnetin and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosylhexoside-7-O-rhamnoside; hydroxycinnamic acids: O-hexoside of ferulic and sinapic acid; and, coumarins: O-hexoside and O-rhamnosylhexoside of scopoletin, had not previously been reported in Citrus juices to our knowledge. Structures have been assigned on the basis of the complementary information obtained from retention time, UV-visible spectra, scan mode MS spectra, and fragmentation patterns in MS(2) spectra obtained using different collision energies. A structure diagnosis scheme is provided for the identification of different phenolic compounds. PMID:22967544

Abad-García, Beatriz; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

2012-09-15

328

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

OpenAIRE

We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

2006-01-01

329

Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preliminary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as matrix, and from these ones the following treatments were originated: 2 controls - 100% of pineapple and 100% of passion fruit; 1 blend using the matrix - 50% of pineapple + 50% of passion fruit; 7 blends of each matrix with which chosen fruit in the proportion of 1:1. The sodium benzoate and sulfur dioxide were added in the concentrations of 500 and 200 ppm, respectively, in all nectars and evaluated blends. The results regarding the nutritional composition of blends reflected a significative raise of nutritional values when compared to the matrix, as well when compared to the individual nectars of each fruit. The same behavior was observed even after 10 days of no refrigerated storage. Regarding the microbiological stability, just the blends in which buriti was used as component were damaged. The blends chemical analysis showed different standard in relation to the matrix, however, when submitted to the sensorial analysis, showed to be satisfactory by the panel. The compositions that more enjoyed the panel were the blends of both matrix associated to camu-camu and murici.

Leandro Camargo Neves

2011-03-01

330

Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia / Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. F [...] oi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preli [...] minary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as matrix, and from these ones the following treatments were originated: 2 controls - 100% of pineapple and 100% of passion fruit; 1 blend using the matrix - 50% of pineapple + 50% of passion fruit; 7 blends of each matrix with which chosen fruit in the proportion of 1:1. The sodium benzoate and sulfur dioxide were added in the concentrations of 500 and 200 ppm, respectively, in all nectars and evaluated blends. The results regarding the nutritional composition of blends reflected a significative raise of nutritional values when compared to the matrix, as well when compared to the individual nectars of each fruit. The same behavior was observed even after 10 days of no refrigerated storage. Regarding the microbiological stability, just the blends in which buriti was used as component were damaged. The blends chemical analysis showed different standard in relation to the matrix, however, when submitted to the sensorial analysis, showed to be satisfactory by the panel. The compositions that more enjoyed the panel were the blends of both matrix associated to camu-camu and murici.

Leandro Camargo, Neves; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas; Vanuza Xavier da, Silva; Marcos André de Souza, Prill; Sergio Ruffo, Roberto.

2011-03-01

331

Seedless citrus derived from selected promising mutant lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional breeding on Citrus is laborious, time consuming and expensive because Citrus is highly heterozygous, polygenic plants with long juvenile period. Therefore, mutation breeding was carried out; bud woods of two Indonesian local commercial mandarin (Citrus reticulata L. Blanco) c v. SoE and Garut and pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) cv Nambangan were exposed to gamma rays at the doses of 20, 40 and 60 grays, and then irradiated bud woods were then budded onto rootstocks cv. Japanse citron. Three-years-old untreated and irradiated plants grown in pots were checked for fruit characters such as seeds number per fruit, and colour of flesh and skin. Selected promising mutant lines were found in terms of seedlessness in cvs SoE mandarin and Nambangan pummelo, and nearly seedless cultivars were found in cvs Soe, Garut and Nambangan when bud woods were irradiated at the doses 20 and 40 grays. The performance of promising mutant lines obtained are now being observed and propagated in fields to confirm their stability. (author)

332

Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

Vassiliou, V A

2010-02-01

333

Establishment of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the USA, HLB causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. HLB has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. Studies of HLB have been impeded by the fact that C. Liberibacter has not yet been cultured on artificial nutrient media. After being acquired by a psyllid, C. Liberibacter asiaticus is reported to replicate within the psyllid and is retained by the psyllid throughout its life span. We therefore hypothesized that C. Liberibacter asiaticus could be cultured in vitro using psyllid cell cultures as the medium and investigated the establishment of a pure culture for AsCP cells. Several commercially available insect cell culture media along with some media we developed were screened for viability to culture cells from AsCP embryos. Cells from psyllid tissues adhered to the plate and migration was observed within 24 h. Cells were maintained at 20 degrees C. We successfully established primary psyllid cell cultures, referred to as DcHH-1, for D. citri Hert-Hunter-1, with a new media, Hert-Hunter-70. PMID:19440802

Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G

2009-01-01

334

MEDITERRANEAN FRUITS: ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN PROMISE  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is home of the national collections of most Mediterranean-adapted fruits and nuts (including fig, olive and pomegranate), while the NCGR at Riverside, CA maintains the dates and citrus. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, charac...

335

The effect of home processing on postharvest fungicide residues in citrus fruit: residues of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole in 'home-made' marmalade, prepared from late Valencia oranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of domestic marmalade-making procedures on residues of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole in 'sweet' oranges were investigated by comparing residue levels in raw fruit and in marmalades, prepared by heating the oranges with water and sugar for about 4 h in a preserving pan on a gas ring or for about 1 h in a microwave oven. Determination of residues in raw oranges and in marmalades was carried out by extraction with dichloromethane, followed by clean-up and reversed phase HPLC with UV detection for imazalil and fluorescence detection for 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole. Residue analysis showed that the extent of carry-through of imazalil, 2-phenylphenol and thiabendazole residues into the marmalades depended on the method of marmalade-making and the nature of the fungicide. Persistence of fungicides was higher in the marmalade prepared in the microwave oven than in that prepared in the preserving pan. An increase (about 50%) in levels of imazalil in the fruit portions of marmalades compared with raw fruit residue levels indicated that imazalil was more readily extracted from oranges after processing. Comparison of 2-phenylphenol levels in raw fruit and fruit portions of marmalades showed that the longer exposure to heat, needed for marmalade-making in a preserving pan, reduced residue levels more severely (48%) than cooking in the microwave oven (13%). Thiabendazole levels in the fruit portion of marmalade prepared in the microwave oven stayed the same as in the raw fruit, but cooking in the preserving pan decreased residue levels by about 22%. PMID:8181633

Friar, P M; Reynolds, S L

1994-01-01

336

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine Elleuch

2006-01-01

337

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

338

Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould  

OpenAIRE

Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated...

Sanzani, Simona M.; Leonardo Schena; Antonio Ippolito

2014-01-01

339

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

340

Citrus stubborn disease (CSD)  

Science.gov (United States)

CSD is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited, cell-wall-less bacterium. S. citri is transmitted in a propagative, circulative manner by several leafhoppers including Circulifer tenellus and Scaphytopius nitridus in citrus-growing regions of California and Arizona and by C. haematoceps (syn....

341

Evaluación de calidad de frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) / Evaluation of quality in fruits of seven native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad en frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, y JCPRV-76, cultivados en hidroponía sin recirculación y bajo invernadero. Como testigo se usó u [...] n híbrido comercial de jitomate tipo "cherry" (H-790). Se evaluó firmeza, días para alcanzar 7% de pérdida de peso (DPP), pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, contenido de licopeno, de ?-caroteno y de ácido ascórbico. Se encontraron diferencias (P?0.05) en todas las variables, excepto en pH, el cual varió de 4.1 a 4.4. En firmeza, H-790 superó 19.5% al genotipo nativo que presentó mayor resistencia (JCPRV-05). En DPP, H-790 superó en 20.6% a JCPRV-10 que presentó el mayor lapso de los genotipos nativos. En sólidos solubles totales, JCPRV-05 superó a H-790 en 10%. En acidez titulable, JCPRV-43 superó 23% a H-790. Respecto al contenido de licopeno, JCPRV-09 fue superior 6.1% a H-790. En contenido de ?-caroteno, JCPRV-76 superó 4.0% a H-790, y en contenido de ácido ascórbico, JCPRV-76 superó 35.4% a H-790. Con excepción de firmeza, DPP y pH de frutos, la mayoría de los genotipos nativos evaluados superaron al híbrido comercial (H-790) en todos los parámetros. Se consideró que estos materiales podrían ser usados como fuente de germoplasma en programas de mejoramiento genético del jitomate para incrementar la calidad interna de los frutos de esta especie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of seven genotypes native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, and JCPRV-76 were grown in hydroponics without recirculation and under greenhouse. A commercial cherry toma [...] to hybrid was used as a control (H-790). Firmness, days at 7% of weight loss (DWL)), pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, lycopene, ?-carotene and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. There were significant differences in all variables, except pH, which ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. In firmness, H-790 exceeded by 19.5% to the native genotype which showed the highest penetration resistance (JCPRV-05). In DWL, H-790 exceeded by 20.6% to JCPRV-10 which presented the greatest period of native genotypes. In total soluble solids, JCPRV-05 exceeded by 10% to H-790. In acidity, JCPRV-43 exceeded by 23% to H-790. In regard to the lycopene content, JCPRV-09 was 6.1% higher than H-790. In ?-carotene content, JCPRV-76 exceeded by 4.0% to H-790; JCPRV-76 exceeded by 35.4% to H-790 in ascorbic acid content. Except for firmness, pH and DPP fruit, most native evaluated genotypes exceeded to commercial hybrid (H-790) for all parameters. It was considered that these materials could be used as a source of germplasm in breeding programs of tomato in order to increase the internal quality of fruits of this specie.

P., Juárez-López; R., Castro-Brindis; T., Colinas-León; P., Ramírez-Vallejo; M., Sandoval-Villa; D. W., Reed; L., Cisneros-Zevallos; S., King.

342

Determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y compuestos bioactivos de frutas nativas peruanas / Determination of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in native peruvian fruits  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el tomate de árbol se destacó el contenido relativamente alto de fibra cruda 4,5 g/100 g de fruta. El tomate de árbol ( y el aguaymanto ( ) tuvieron mayor contenido de proteínas (1,9 g/100 g para ambos frutos) que las otras frutas estudiadas. En cuanto a compuestos fenólicos, la papaya de monte e [...] s la fruta que presentó mayor contenido de estos compuestos (167 mg de equivalente ácido gálico/g de fruto). El contenido de betalaínas en tuna roja ( ) fue de 68,95 mg/1000 mL. El aguaymanto tuvo el mayor contenido de ácido ascórbico (43,3 mg/100g), seguido por la papaya de monte (31,41 mg/100g) y el tomate de árbol seguida por la tuna roja 16,09 mg/100g y 22,75 mg/100g, respectivamente. El contenido de carotenoides fue mayor en el tomate de árbol (4 mg -caroteno/100 g) seguido por el aguaymanto con 2,64 mg - caroteno/100 g. La tuna roja presentó una capacidad de inhibición del radical DPPH mucho mayor que las otras tunas estudiadas (77,65 %). Comparando las diferentes frutas en cuanto a capacidad antioxidante medido por el método del DPPH, fue el de la papaya de monte (1936 228 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el tomate de árbol (853 52 g equivalente trolox/g de tejido); y la mayor capacidad antioxidante medida por el método del ABTS fue el de la papaya de monte (2141 71 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el aguaymanto (1066 28 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto). Finalmente, se concluyó que el estado de madurez influye en forma directamente proporcional al contenido de compuestos bioactivos en el aguaymanto, los que a su vez generan una mayor capacidad antioxidante en el fruto mientras más maduro esté. Abstract in english In the case of the tree tomato ( ) the relatively high crude fibre content stood out (4,5 g/100 g of fruit). The tree tomato and golden berry had higher protein content (1,9 g/100 g for both fruits) than the other fruits. Regarding to the mineral analysis, the prickle pears are very good sources of [...] phosphorus as well as calcium. On the other hand, the tree tomato is an excellent potassium source followed by golden berry and papaya( ). In addition golden berry is a relatively good source of iron and zinc. The mountain papaya is a very important source of phosphorus surpassing to the other fruits. All the samples presented significant difference as far as the content of total phenolic compounds, but mountain papaya is the fruit that presented the highest content of these compounds (167 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of fruit). The content of betalains in red prickle pear was of 68,95 mg/1000 mL. Golden berry had the highest vitamin C content (43,3 mg/100g) followed by mountain papaya (31,41 mg/100g). The lowest content of this vitamin was in the tree tomato followed by red prickle pear, 16,09 mg/100g and 22,75 mg/100g, respectively. The content of carotenoids was the highest in the tree tomato, (4 mg -carotene/100 g) followed by golden berry with 2,64 mg -carotene/100 g. Red prickle pear presented much greater capacity of inhibition of radical DPPH than the other varieties (77,65%). Comparing the different fruits regarding to the measurement of the antioxidant capacity, the mountain papaya (2141 71 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit) had the highest value followed by golden berry (1066 28 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit), tree tomato and red prickle pear. Finally, it was found that the grade of maturity had a direct effect to the antioxidant capacity.

Ritva, Repo de Carrasco; Christian René, Encina Zelada.

2008-04-01

343

Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption  

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Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

Tami Turner

2013-03-01

344

Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption  

OpenAIRE

Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin s...

Tami Turner; Burri, Betty J.

2013-01-01

345

Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'  

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Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp. na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo.Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae pupae were obtained, of which 3.963 Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart adults and 1.115 parasitoids of Braconidae family emerged. Three species of opiinae were identified before releasing. The higher relative frequency was of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, followed by Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck and Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. 24 and 48 hours after release the exotic parasitoid D. longicaudata on the field, the parasitism rate increased from 15.86% to 20.42% and 45.19%, respectively. It was found that the release of exotic species D. longicaudata has no negative effects on the occurrence of native parasitoids and helps to complement the natural biological control of A. obliqua in fruits of 'umbu-cajá' conditions of this study.

Zuzinaide Vidal Bomfim

2010-02-01

346

The role as inoculum sources of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri surviving on the infected Satsuma mandarin fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Importing citrus fruits infected by Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) can act as an inoculum source for the disease epidemic in citrus canker-free countries. In this study, the pathogenicity of the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker surviving on infected Satsuma mandarin fruits was evaluated. The washing solution of infected Satsuma mandarin fruits did not cause lesion formation on the citrus leaves. However, a typical citrus canker lesion was formed on the leaves after inoculation with higher concentrations of the inoculum from the washing solution (washing solution II). It indicated that the pathogenicity of the citrus canker surviving on the symptomatic Satsuma mandarin fruits was not changed. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that the numbers of bacterial cells on the leaves of Satsuma mandarin which inoculated with the washing solution directly (washing solution I) was less compared to those of leaves inoculated with the washing solution II. This result spports that the pathogenicity of Xcc surviving on Satsuma mandarin fruits may not be changed but that the sucessful infection of citrus caker may depend on the concentration of the inoculum. PMID:24723102

Kang, So Young; Kim, Ki Deok; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hyun, He Nam; Jeun, Yong Chull

2014-05-01

347

Citrus black spot is absent in the Western Cape, Northern Cape and Free State Provinces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The South African citrus industry is strongly focused on exports and South Africa is a signatory member of both the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the International Plant Protection Convention. Citrus black spot, caused by Guignardia [...] citricarpa, does not occur in all the South African citrus production areas and, therefore, South Africa has a responsibility to provide those trading partners that have identified G. citricarpa as a regulated pest with reliable information about the distribution of citrus black spot within South Africa. Detection surveys were conducted in citrus production areas in the Western Cape, Northern Cape and Free State Provinces and appropriate diagnostic protocols were used to ensure reliable detection of G. citricarpa. Trees in commercial orchards and home gardens on farms and in towns of 17, 9 and 5 magisterial districts in the Western Cape, Northern Cape and Free State Provinces, respectively, were sampled between 1995 and 2010. Fruit samples were taken during June and July, and leaf samples from November to January. None of the 3060 fruit and leaf samples collected during these surveys tested positive for G. citricarpa. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a non-pathogenic, ubiquitous, endophytic species was, however, detected during these surveys. In compliance with relevant International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures and based on the outcome of these official surveys, these three provinces in South Africa can be recognised as citrus black spot pest free areas.

Elma, Carstens; Hendrik F. le, Roux; Michael A., Holtzhausen; Liezl van, Rooyen; Joey, Coetzee; Ria, Wentzel; Wilhelm, Laubscher; Zorina, Dawood; Elrita, Venter; Gerhardus C., Schutte; Paul H., Fourie; Vaughan, Hattingh.

348

Identification of citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR)-like proteins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) proteins, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, have been recently shown to play a role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, nothing is known about their expression in citrus. To investigate the occurrence of PDR homol [...] ogues in citrus species, we have surveyed EST sequences from different tissues and conditions of the Citrus Expressed Sequence Tags (CitEST) database, through sequence similarity search analyses and inspections for characteristic PDR domains. Multiple sequence alignments, prediction of transmembrane topology and phylogenetic analysis of PDR-like proteins were additionally performed. This study allowed the identification of nine putative proteins showing characteristic PDR features in citrus species under various conditions, which may indicate a potential correlation between PDRs and stress and metabolism of citrus plants. Moreover, a tissue-specific putative PDR-like protein was found in sweet orange fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the identification of citrus ESTs encoding PDR-like proteins as well as the first to identify a putative full ABC transporter with specific expression in fruits.

Alexandre Morais do, Amaral; Daniel, Saito; Eduardo Fernandes, Formighieri; Edenilson, Rabello; Adriane N. de, Souza; Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Siu Mui, Tsai.

349

Potencial do flavedo (epicarpo de Citrus aurantifolia cv. Tahiti no controle do bolor verde e da antracnose em citros Potential of flavedo (epicarp from Citrus aurantifolia cv.Tahiti on the control of green mold and anthracnose in citrus  

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Full Text Available O Brasil é considerado o maior produtor de citros e o maior exportador de suco de laranja. Doenças de pós-colheita representam uma grande perda para a citricultura, sendo que para a exportação de frutos são rígidas as exigências com relação a isenção de resíduos químicos nos mesmos. Patógenos de importância em pós-colheita de citros incluem o Penicillium digitatum, agente causal do bolor-verde e o Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose. Dada a importância econômica que representam estas doenças dos frutos cítricos, tanto em termos de comprometimento da qualidade e dificuldade de controle, a busca de alternativas adicionais que possam viabilizar a capacidade produtiva e garantir a obtenção de frutos com excelentes padrões de qualidade torna-se imprescindível. Portanto, estudou-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos do flavedo de Citrus aurantifolia var. Tahiti, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis, albedo de Citrus sinensis var. Valência e do ácido jasmônico no controle póscolheita do bolor verde e da antracnose e na indução de resistência em frutos de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis. Foi possível observar que o extrato aquoso do flavedo (C. aurantifolia apresentou efeito inibitório sobre os patógenos, quando tratados em pós-colheita, em função da redução dos sintomas e esporulação. Porém, os extratos de albedo (C. sinensis, L. edodes, A. subrufescens e o ácido jasmônico não apresentaram efeitos sobre P. digitatum e C. gloeosporioides.Brazil is considered to be the biggest citrus producer and orange juice exporter. Post-harvest diseases represent a great loss in the citriculture, and for many fruits to be exported they should be free of chemical residues. In relation to some pathogens of importance in post-harvest, it can be mentioned Penicillium digitatum (green-mold and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (anthracnose. Because of the economical importance of these diseases for citric fruits, in terms of compromising quality and control difficulties, the search for alternative control measures that can make possible to improve the producing capacity of the producers and the obtaining of fruits with excellent quality are indispensable. Therefore, it was studied the viability of the control of post-harvest diseases in Valência orange fruits (Citrus sinensis by using the biotic agents flavedo (Citrus auratifolia cv. Tahiti, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis, albedo (Citrus sinensis cv. Valência and the abiotic agent jasmonic acid. It was possible to observe that the aqueous extracts from the flavedo (C. aurantifolia inhibited the pathogens in Valência orange fruits when treated in post-harvest, based upon symptom and sporulation reduction. On the other hand, the albedo (C. sinensis, L. edodes, A. subrufescens and jasmonic acid had no effects on P. digitatum and C. gloeosporioides in the fruits.

Leonardo Toffano

2012-03-01

350

Molecular characterization of the mitochondrial citrate synthase gene of an acidless pummelo (Citrus maxima).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pummelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merrill) cDNAs encoding mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) were cloned by reverse transcription of juice-sac poly(A)+ mRNA, followed by Taq Polymerase-mediated amplification. The nucleotide sequence of the citrus gene (cit1) is 77% conserved relative to plant mRNAs for mCS. The encoded polypeptide includes a mitochondrial targeting signal at its amino terminus; all 20 putative active-site residues of the citrus enzyme are conserved. Southern hybridization showed that citrus cit1 is a single-copy gene. A polymorphism associated with cit1 did not cosegregate with fruit acidity indicating that acitric, the gene causing the acidless phenotype of pummelo 2240, is not an allele of cit1 locus. Quantitative detection of cit1 mRNA showed that transcript levels are not developmentally regulated in juice sacs; no differences were observed between high- and low-acid genotypes. PMID:8704147

Canel, C; Bailey-Serres, J N; Roose, M L

1996-04-01

351

Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis  

Science.gov (United States)

The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control. PMID:22243487

Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

2011-01-01

352

Oral Dose of Citrus Peel Extracts Promotes Wound Repair in Diabetic Rats  

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Full Text Available Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon, Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise and Orange (Citrus sinensis promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatment with citrus peel extracts on wound repair of the skin of diabetic rats. The extracts were estimated for vitamin C and total carotenoid contents prior to animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg kg-1 b.wt.. One week after diabetes induction, full thickness excision wounds were made in hyperglycemic rats and were divided groups, each containing 6 rats. The different test group animals were treated with different citrus peel extract orally at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 body weight daily for 12 days. The blood glucose, body weight and rate of wound closure of each rat were measured every 3rd day during the experimental period. At the end of experiment, granular tissues of wounds were removed and estimated for hydroxylproline and total protein content. The results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and time to wound closure. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher as determined by total protein and hydroxyl proline content. From our experimental data, we propose that oral administration of citrus peel extracts has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes.

A. Alam

2013-01-01

353

Oral dose of citrus peel extracts promotes wound repair in diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon), Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise) and Orange (Citrus sinensis) promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatment with citrus peel extracts on wound repair of the skin of diabetic rats. The extracts were estimated for vitamin C and total carotenoid contents prior to animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg kg(-1) b.wt.). One week after diabetes induction, full thickness excision wounds were made in hyperglycemic rats and were divided groups, each containing 6 rats. The different test group animals were treated with different citrus peel extract orally at the dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight daily for 12 days. The blood glucose, body weight and rate of wound closure of each rat were measured every 3rd day during the experimental period. At the end of experiment, granular tissues of wounds were removed and estimated for hydroxylproline and total protein content. The results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and time to wound closure. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher as determined by total protein and hydroxyl proline content. From our experimental data, we propose that oral administration of citrus peel extracts has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes. PMID:24506007

Ahmad, M; Ansari, M N; Alam, A; Khan, T H

2013-10-15

354

Comprehending crystalline ?-carotene accumulation by comparing engineered cell models and the natural carotenoid-rich system of citrus  

OpenAIRE

Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis has become a recent focus for the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency. However, the genetically modified phenotypes often challenge the expectation, suggesting the incomplete comprehension of carotenogenesis. Here, embryogenic calli were engineered from four citrus genotypes as engineered cell models (ECMs) by over-expressing a bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB). Ripe flavedos (the coloured outer layer of citrus fruits), which exhibit diver...

Cao, Hongbo; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Jidi; Ye, Junli; Yun, Ze; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

2012-01-01

355

Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether ex