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Sample records for native citrus fruits

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  3. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    2013-02-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella spp., Into the Continental United States AGENCY.... australis. \\2\\...

  4. Resistance to Gas Diffusion in Internal Tissues of Citrus Fruit

    Dirpan, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Japan is a major citrus fruit-producing country, and Ehime Prefecture is one of the main citrus fruit producing regions in Japan. As many as 20 major citrus varieties are cultivated in Ehime. To further develop postharvest technology for quality preservation such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, creating an optimum gas concentration around fruit and vegetables have to be precisely achieved. However, the external atmosphere of fresh products in MAP...

  5. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  6. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may...

  7. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  8. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  9. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  10. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  11. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Barrero, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with...

  12. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  14. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  15. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2002-01-01

    fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with......Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...... fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed...

  16. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  18. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  19. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Bansode.D.S.; Chavan.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon) and Orange (Citrus ourantium) against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit ...

  20. Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review

    Mohammed Yesuf

    2013-01-01

    Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of c...

  1. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; João C. M. Barreira; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  2. Study of VOC distribution in citrus fruits by chromatographic analysis.

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2003-07-01

    The contamination of various parts of citrus fruits by toluene (a representative of volatile organic compounds-VOCs) was analyzed. The model of contamination distribution, based on investigations of the sorption and accumulation of toluene in particular parts of citrus fruits was considered. Solvent extraction of components from fruit parts (waxy layer, cuticle, and pulp) was applied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. The sorption time profiles for such citrus fruits as kumquats and mandarins were determined by plotting the extracted mass, or the relationship C/C(0), versus the sorption time of toluene. After the sorption process the highest concentration of toluene was observed in the flavedo, where the oil glands of kumquats and mandarins are located. The data obtained prove that the high dissolution of aromatic hydrocarbons results from the presence of essential oils in the oil glands. The diffusion coefficients of toluene for the cuticle and pulp of kumquats were also calculated. The results of model investigations were compared with the actual concentration of toluene in kumquats, citrons, mandarins and oranges from outdoor stands and orchards. PMID:12768263

  3. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  5. Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits

    The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

  6. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  8. Measuring the amount of vitamin C in citrus fruits by atwo step oxidation-

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh; S.J. Hosseinimehr; M Mahmodi; M.R. Gayekhloo; M. Hoseiani

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose:Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These benefits are often attributed to their high antioxidant components such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Citrus species are extremely rich sources for this vitamin, therefore we decided to determine the amount of vitamin C in some citrus fruits.Materials and methods : 13 species of commonly used citrus fruits were collected...

  9. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Majd Ahmad; Falahian Fathollah; Mehrabian Sedigheh; Hashemi Mehrdad; Ardeshiry Lajimi Abdolreza; Entezari Maliheh

    2009-01-01

    Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured i...

  10. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Lluís Palou; Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A.; Pérez-Gago, María B.

    2015-01-01

    According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes ...

  11. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Clare Aslan; Marcel Rejmanek

    2012-01-01

    Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The impor...

  12. Transcriptome profiling of citrus fruit response to huanglongbing disease.

    Federico Martinelli

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or "citrus greening" is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production.

  13. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  14. Analysis of Major Carotenoid Composition and Its Content of Citrus Fruit

    TAO Jun; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; XU Jian-guo; LIU Chun-rong

    2003-01-01

    a-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein content of fruits in53 citrus cultivars were determined using HPLC. In both peel and pulp of citrus fruit, the major carotenoidswere lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. β-carotene content was relatively low and extremely low was theamount of or-carotene. Among the 53 cultivars tested, lycopene was detected only in pulp of Cara Cara navelorange. Carotenoid content in both peel and pulp of citrus fruit was the highest in Citrus reticulata Blanco andlowest in Citrus grandis Osbeck. Consequently, as far as the health protection value is considered, fruit ofCitrus reticulata Blanco ranks probably higher than other citrus fruits. In fruit of most Citrus retieulatavarities, β-cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid component in pulp and its amount approximated that of lu-tein in peel. Content of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin in peel was about 2.5 - 15 times that in pulp onthe basis of fresh weight. Thus peel was inferred to be the principal location for the carotenoid stock in citrus fruit.

  15. 76 FR 17617 - Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit From Australia

    2011-03-30

    ... cherries and citrus fruit. We considered those comments and, in a notice dated August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46901...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Treatments for Citrus Fruit..., 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 53424-53430, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0140) a...

  16. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  17. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered. PMID:24563112

  18. Antioxidant properties of fresh and processed Citrus aurantium fruit

    Prakash J. Divya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible components of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange fruit i.e. whole fruit, separated peel and pulp, and processed preserved products, namely salt pickle, chilli pickle, and sweet preserve were analyzed for antioxidant potential by various in vitro assays. The antioxidants components were extracted in different media and freeze dried. Methanol and aqueous media were comparatively more effective in extracting the antioxidant components. The total phenol content of the extracts ranged from 2.5 to 22.5 mg/g and 5.0 to 45.0 mg/g of pulp and peel fragments, respectively. The fruit components exhibited proton radical, oxyradical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities and were effective in preventing lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis showed positive association between total phenolics and different antioxidant assays. In processed products, there was an initial decrease in antioxidant capacity, which showed an increase on storage. In conclusion, bitter orange exhibited high antioxidant capacity which was retained even in processed and stored products.

  19. [Analysis of thiabendazole in citrus fruits and bananas].

    Romminger, K; Hoppe, H

    1976-01-01

    With regard to routine analyses in market control, the authors recommend two methods (according to the expected amounts of active principle) for the determination of thiabendazole residues on citrus fruits and bananas. The ultraviolet spectrophotometric method is preferable in determining thiabendazole contents of more than 1 p.p.m., if the cleaning operations described are respected. For the detection of thiabendazole and for the determination of amounts of less than 1 p.p.m. (the tolerance limit being 0.2 p.p.m. for pomes, berries, stone fruits, kernel fruits and also for potatoes) the thin-layer chromatographic method seems likewise to be suited (also in considering that it is semi-quantitative by nature); especially since the spectrophotometric method yields values by 0.2 p.p.m. too high (due to the measurement of residual absorption of vegetable constituents). The authors are of opinion that such an error must be considered to be too high for contents lower than 1 p.p.m. PMID:950991

  20. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  1. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    2013-01-22

    ... Friday, December 21, 2012 (74 FR 75509-75521). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus..., 2012, (74 FR 75509-75521). Need for Correction As published, the final regulation contained errors that... in the final rule because all citrus fruit insured as fresh will have a default juice...

  2. Comparative Studies of Various Phytonutrients in Citrus Fruits

    S. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current piece of research was undertaken to investigate the phytochemicals constituents such as carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, anthraquinone, glycosides, Saponin, glycosides, steroid, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phlobotannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, etc in the species of citrus genus (Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate Blanco, Citrus aurantium L. All these plants were collected locally. Qualitative analysis of these phytochemicals was performed. All three types of citrus are rich with phytochemicals. Quantitative screenings is in progress in our lab.

  3. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Dossat Carole; Ollitrault Patrick; Courtois Brigitte; Argout Xavier; Legaz Francisco; Götz Stefan; Iglesias Domingo J; Brumos Javier; Soler Guillermo; de Andres Fernando; Alós Enriqueta; Agustí Javier; Tadeo Francisco; Cercos Manuel; Colmenero Jose M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, r...

  4. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Cit...

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus g...

  6. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Cheng LU; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived...

  7. Label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolite analysis reveal a significant metabolic shift during citrus fruit development

    Katz, Ehud; Boo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Label-free LC-MS/MS-based shot-gun proteomics was used to quantify the differential protein synthesis and metabolite profiling in order to assess metabolic changes during the development of citrus fruits. Our results suggested the occurrence of a metabolic change during citrus fruit maturation, where the organic acid and amino acid accumulation seen during the early stages of development shifted into sugar synthesis during the later stage of citrus fruit development. The expression of inverta...

  8. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

    Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital...

  9. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus s...

  10. Irradiation for international trade in agricultural products: The case of citrus fruit

    The paper analyses the influence of irradiation techniques on the Uruguayan market and their repercussions on international trade, with emphasis on the important and steadily growing citrus sector. This growth of citrus cultivation in Uruguay has been based on increasing international trade, and therefore producers and exporters have shown particular interest in the plant protection requirements which the European Economic Community (EEC) may adopt to govern the import of citrus fruit into its area. Over the past few years, the sector has become a net exporter, increasing its turnover from one harvest to the next. However, it is currently facing problems caused by the citrus plant disease known as canker, which is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris, pv citri). The EEC is considering plant protection measures which could close its market to Uruguayan citrus fruit. Likewise, the North American market does not accept fruit from regions affected by canker. It is intended to treat fruit ready for export (wax-treated and packed) by irradiation at 0.7 kGy, combined with heat treatment for 5 min at 50 deg. C at the first rinsing stage during packing. Citrus fruit irradiation thus appears as an alternative treatment which would solve the problem by allowing a quality product to be offered on the foreign market, thereby improving commercial prospects as well as avoiding non-tariff barriers. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  11. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit. PMID:25948248

  12. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  13. Detection and Counting of On-Tree Citrus Fruit for Crop Yield Estimation

    Zeeshan Malik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a technique to estimate citrus fruit yield from the tree images. Manually counting the fruit for yield estimation for marketing and other managerial tasks is time consuming and requires human resources, which do not always come cheap. Different approaches have been used for the said purpose, yet separation of fruit from its background poses challenges, and renders the exercise inaccurate. In this paper, we use k-means segmentation for recognition of fruit, which segments the image accurately thus enabling more accurate yield estimation. We created a dataset containing 83 tree images with 4001 citrus fruits from three different fields. We are able to detect the on-tree fruits with an accuracy of 91.3%. In addition, we find a strong correlation between the manual and the automated fruit count by getting coefficients of determination R2 up to 0.99.

  14. Quantitative Distribution of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus Plants and Fruits Infected by Citrus Huanglongbing

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is caused by any of three non culturable Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Candidatus Liberibacter spp. The pathogens are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial varieties of citrus. The diseases are lethal and have recently become widespr...

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Kinds of Fungicides in Citrus Fruits by Gas Chromatograghy/Mass Spectrometry.

    Nagashima, Hideo; Hirao, Akiho; Tokuda, Yuuki; Uruta, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate procedure was developed for the determination of seven fungicides, azoxystrobin (AZO), diphenyl (DP), fludioxonil (FLUDI), imazalil (IMZ), o-phenylphenol (OPP), pyrimethanil (PYRI) and thiabendazole (TBZ), in citrus fruits. The citrus fruit sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up with a graphite carbon/aminopropyl silanized silica gel solid-phase extraction cartridge using acetonitrile-toluene (3 : 1, v/v) as the eluent. Triphenylene was used as an internal standard (I.S.) at the concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The sample solution was subjected to GC-MS utilizing the matrix-matched standard solution method. The recoveries of AZO, FLUDI, IMZ, OPP, PYRI and TBZ spiked in domestic citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarin) at the level of 0.01-10.0 μg/g were 72.8-104% and the limits of quantification were 0.01 μg/g. The recoveries of DP spiked in domestic citrus fruits at the level of 0.01-70.0 μg/g were 70.8-80.4% and the limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/g. The proposed method was applied to the determination of fungicides in citrus fruits purchased in various markets. PMID:27558228

  17. High Incidence of Preharvest Colonization of Huanglongbing-Symptomatic Citrus sinensis Fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and Exacerbation of Postharvest Fruit Decay by That Fungus

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in “Ca. Liber...

  18. Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran

    Mohammad R Mirzaee; Mojtaba Mohammadi; Ali Azari Nasrabad

    2009-01-01

    Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one-week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citr...

  19. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    María A. Martos; Emilce R. Zubreski; Oscar A Garro; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type....

  20. Low cost freshwater fish pickle using cheap citrus fruit (C. reticulata)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Batthacharyya, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The juice extracted from a locally abundant cheap variety of citrus fruit namely, Citrus reticulata was utilized for pickling. The paper highlights the trials made to select the optimum concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chloride to be used along with the juice of C. reticulata so as to obtain the best, product. The product can be stored well at room temperature for six months.

  1. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Parixit Bhandurge; N Rajarajeshwari; K R Alagawadi; Saurabh Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the ...

  2. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  3. Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves

    Amir-Shapira, Dekel; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Altman, Arie

    1987-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyl...

  4. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

    González-Candelas Luis; Alamar Santiago; Sánchez-Torres Paloma; Zacarías Lorenzo; Marcos Jose F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expressi...

  5. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  6. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata)

    H. J. Esterhuizen; L. C. Holtzhausen; Swart, E.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃) on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­...

  7. Half-embryo test for identification of irradiated citrus fruit: collaborative study

    A collaborative study on the use of the half-embryo test for the detection of irradiated citrus fruit was undertaken. Collaborative samples of seeds removed from citrus fruit, which were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2 and 0.5 kGy, were examined by 12 participating laboratories. The percentage of correct identifications, whether irradiated or unirradiated, was 92% of 48 samples after 4 days incubation and 98% after 7 days incubation. Only one sample, irradiated with 0.2 kGy, was incorrectly identified. This collaborative study shows that irradiated citrus fruit can be identified using the half-embryo test and that the test can be applied in practice. (author)

  8. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced. PMID:26705419

  9. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from...... groves where, since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation no symptoms of citrus canker were observed, neither in their vicinities. The PHL Panel concluded that the transmission of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on asymptomatic citrus fruit was more likely when the fruit were collected from...... packed citrus fruit to all US States, subject to packinghouse treatment with APHIS-approved disinfectant. No packinghouse phytosanitary inspection is required’) selected by USDA will result in an increase in the Xcc load of citrus fruit consignments and in a subsequent increase in the probability of...

  10. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Gowan Comércio Internacional e Serviços Ltda to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of phosmet, Spain proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.4 mg/kg in oranges and grapefruits and 0.6 mg/kg in the other fruits of the citrus group, to 0.5 mg/kg in pome fruits and to lower the existing MRL to 0.04 mg/kg in rape seed. Spain drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.5 mg/kg for the proposed uses on citrus fruits and pome fruits. No modification of the existing MRL is proposed for rape seed. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of phosmet and phosmet oxon in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that according to the internationally agreed methodology for estimation of the consumer exposure, the intended uses of phosmet in citrus fruits, pome fruits and rape seed will not result in an exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  11. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  12. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are suffi...

  14. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Mckenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-01-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1st and later (2nd & 3rd) larval instars per...

  15. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated citrus fruits

    The ESR spectra of the stalks and skins of a selection of unirradiated and γ-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. The spectra from the stalks and skins of unirradiated fruits exhibit only a single line, the intensity of which varies markedly from fruit to fruit. The spectra from irradiated stalks exhibit extra features which can be used to detect irradiation, particularly at higher doses. The spectra obtained from the skins of the irradiated fruits also exhibit radiation-induced features which can easily be used to detect irradiation even at the lowest dose examined (2 kGy). The spectra from the irradiated skins show a high degree of reproducibility from fruit to fruit. These observations suggest that ESR spectroscopy could form the basis of a viable test to determine the radiation history of these fruits. (Author)

  16. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    Lin Dawei; Fass Joseph N; Phinney Brett S; Eigenheer Richard A; Fon Mario; Katz Ehud; Sadka Avi; Blumwald Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-fr...

  17. Stable radicals observed in the flesh of irradiated citrus fruits by electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the first time

    The ESR spectra of the flesh of a selection of unirradiated and γ-irradiated citrus fruits have been obtained. When dried, the flesh from unirradiated fruits gives rise to virtually no ESR spectrum. However, the flesh of irradiated fruits exhibit a strong spectrum with radiation induced features which show a high degree of reproducibility within the fruits examined. These features have been previously observed in spectra from the intact skin and skin components of irradiated citrus fruits. It is believed that this is the first time that radicals have been observed by ESR in the flesh of irradiated fruits. (author)

  18. Detection of thiabendazole applied on citrus fruits and bananas using surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Müller, Csilla; David, Leontin; Chiş, Vasile; Pînzaru, Simona Cintă

    2014-02-15

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a chemical fungicide and parasiticide largely used in food industry against mold and blight in vegetables and fruits during transportation and long term deposit. We investigated the possibility to detect and monitor the TBZ from the chemically treated bananas and citrus fruits available on Romanian market, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a compact, portable, mini-Raman spectrometer. To assess the potential of the technique for fast, cheap and sensitive detection, we report the first complete vibrational characterization of the TBZ in a large pH and concentration range in conjunction with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the relative intensity of the specific SERS bands as a function of concentration, we estimated a total amount of TZB as 78 mg/kg in citrus fruits, 13 times higher than the maximum allowed by current regulations, whereas in banana fruit the value was in the allowed limit. PMID:24128550

  19. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPERLIPAEMIC EFFECTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA LINN FRUITS ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima Linn commonly known as pummelo belongs to the Rutaceae family. Traditionally its juice is used in the treatment of Diabetes. In the present study, Pet-ether, chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol extracts and dried juice of the fruits of Citrus Maxima was comparatively evaluated for their blood glucose lowering and hyperlipaemic activity. The ethyl acetate, ethanolic extract, and dried Juice showed significant activity in acute study as compare to diabetic control, but none of the extract showed significant results in prolonged study. The experiment also conformed ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts significantly reduced the elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride level, SGOT, SGPT, ALD and Urea level. Our data suggest a significant antidiabetic and hyperlipaemic effects of Citrus maxima fruit extracts in alloxan diabetic rats.

  20. In vitro antioxidative and binding properties of phenolics in traditional, citrus and exotic fruits

    Park, Y S; Cvikrová, M.; Martincová, O. (Olga); Ham, K.S.; Kang, S G; Park, Y. K.; Namiesnik, J.; Rombola, A.D.; Jastrzebski, Z; Gorinstein, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many polyphenols bind proteins, therefore our research was focused on the potential of protein binding to polyphenols of investigated fruits and their health-related effects. The contents of polyphenols and related antioxidant activities of traditional, citrus and exotic fruits were compared. The presence of polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids) in the investigated samples and their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by HPLC, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and th...

  1. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Anju Dhiman; Arun Nanda; Sayeed Ahmad; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae) fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± s...

  2. Effects of Olfactory Stimulation from the Fragrance of the Japanese Citrus Fruit Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) on Mood States and Salivary Chromogranin A as an Endocrinologic Stress Marker

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the soothing effects of fragrance from yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), with salivary chromogranin A (CgA) used as an endocrinologic stress marker reflecting sympathetic nervous system activity.

  3. 7 CFR 457.119 - Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... Actual Production History (APH) regulations, 7 CFR part 400, subpart G, and applicable policy provisions... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119 Section 457.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  4. 77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    2012-07-16

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION:...

  5. Sample preparation for single cell transcriptomics: essential oil glands in Citrus fruit peel as an example.

    Voo, Siau Sie; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many plant natural products are synthesized in specialized cells and tissues. To learn more about metabolism in these cells, they have to be studied in isolation. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of epithelial cells that surround secretory cavities in Citrus fruit peel. Cells isolated using laser microdissection are suitable for RNA isolation and downstream transcriptome analyses. PMID:24777799

  6. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  7. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most

  8. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Terol, Javier; Conesa, Ana; Colmenero, Jose M; Cercos, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Agustí, Javier; Alós, Enriqueta; Andres, Fernando; Soler, Guillermo; Brumos, Javier; Iglesias, Domingo J; Götz, Stefan; Legaz, Francisco; Argout, Xavier; Courtois, Brigitte; Ollitrault, Patrick; Dossat, Carole; Wincker, Patrick; Morillon, Raphael; Talon, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known

  9. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.

    Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

  10. Development of polysaccharides-based edible coatings for citrus fruits: a layer-by-layer approach.

    Arnon, Hadar; Granit, Rina; Porat, Ron; Poverenov, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable coatings for citrus fruits that would replace the currently used polyethylene-based waxes, are of great interest. Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings were examined on the most sensitive citrus fruit model: mandarins. Among the examined polysaccharides, CMC provided mandarins with the best firmness, lowest weight loss and satisfying gloss, while not affecting natural flavour and the respiration process. To enhance coating performance, glycerol, oleic acid and stearic acid were added; however, mandarin quality generally deteriorated with these additives. Then, a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied. LbL coatings, based on a combination of two polysaccharides, CMC as an internal layer and chitosan as an external layer, gave the best performance. Different concentrations of chitosan were examined. The LbL coatings notably improved all quantified parameters of fruit quality, proving that polysaccharide-based edible coating may offer an alternative to synthetic waxes. PMID:25053081

  11. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  12. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Paiwan Buachan; Linda Chularojmontri; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. T...

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution and natural variation of metabolites in citrus fruits.

    Wang, Shouchuang; Tu, Hong; Wan, Jian; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-05-15

    To study the natural variation and spatio-temporal accumulation of citrus metabolites, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolome analysis was performed on four fruit tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs) and different Citrus species (lemon, pummelo and grapefruit, sweet orange and mandarin). Using a non-targeted metabolomics approach, more than 2000 metabolite signals were detected, from which more than 54 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids and limonoids, were identified/annotated. Differential accumulation patterns of both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites in various tissues and species were revealed by our study. Further investigation indicated that flavedo accumulates more flavonoids while juice sacs contain more amino acids. Besides this, cluster analysis based on the levels of metabolites detected in 47 individual Citrus accessions clearly grouped them into four distinct clusters: pummelos and grapefruits, lemons, sweet oranges and mandarins, while the cluster of pummelos and grapefruits lay distinctly apart from the other three species. PMID:26775938

  14. Abundance and Fluctuation in Spider Diversity in Citrus Fruits from Located in Vicinity of Faisalabad Pakistan

    Maqsood I; Mohsin S B; Li Yi-jing; Tang Li-jie; Saleem K M; Khalil U R; Shahla A; Aoun Bukhari; S S Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Spiders for the present study were collected from different fruit gardens (i.e. citrus) located at various localities (i.e., Tehsil Samundri, Jaranwala, Tandlianwala and Faisalabad) of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Spiders belonging to six families and 33 species were captured from the two fruit gardens during the one year of this study. The citrus fruits garden was found to be best populated habitat as compared to other fruit garden. These sites were sampled by using pitfall traps; each month for five consecutive days from September 2010 to March 2011. As a result, 1 054 specimens were captured representing six families viz: lycosidae, thomosidae, gnaphosidae, saltisidae, araneidae and clubionidae. Lycosidae was more abundant, while clubionidae was less diverse during the study. Maximum population fluctuation among the spider specimens showed during the months from September and October, while the least abundance of spider specimens was reordered during June, November and December. Maximum taxonomic diversity was recorded from September to November, with the peak in September. It was concluded during these three months, when the citrus and guava gardens were attacked by the most of the pest insects. During the months of July and November diversity was moderate and mutually comparable, while in June and December, it was the least. This study contributed to the identification of spider diversity in the agro-ecosystem which could be used in the biological pest control.

  15. Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review

    Javier E. Vélez; Javier G. Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H Alvarado-Sanabria

    2012-01-01

    Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, thereby increasing water-use efficiency However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling This pap...

  16. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stigma than unvisited flowers. Another objective is to show that this great pollen load increases fruit production. We selected crops of the Italian tomato cultivar in areas of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thirty seven plants of three crops each had one inflorescence bagged in the field. Bagged and non-bagged flowers had their stigmas collected and the amount of pollen on their surfaces was quantified. For the comparison of fruit production, we monitored bagged and not-bagged inflorescences and after 40 days, their fruits were counted, weighed, measured and had their seeds counted. The amount of pollen grains on the stigma of flowers available to pollinators was higher than that on the stigma of bagged flowers. On average, fruit production was larger in not-bagged inflorescences than in bagged inflorescences. In addition, not-bagged flowers produced heavier fruits than did bagged flowers. There was a significant difference in the number of seeds between treatments, with significantly more seeds in the non-bagged fruit. Our results show that native bees buzz-pollinate tomato flowers, increasing the pollen load on their stigma and consequently fruit production and quality.

  17. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Arika Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1 Control (water (C, 2 10% Citrus unshiu (CU juice (CU10, 3 40% CU juice (CU40, 4 10% Citrus iyo (CI juice (CI10, and 5 40% CI juice (CI40. After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  18. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  19. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  20. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  1. External Defect classification of Citrus Fruit Images using Linear Discriminant Analysis Clustering and ANN classifiers

    K.Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is one technique for transforming raw data into a new feature space in which classification can be carried out more robustly. It is useful where the within-class frequencies are unequal. This method maximizes the ratio of between-class variance to the within-class variance in any particular data set and the maximal separability is guaranteed. LDA clustering models are used to classify object into different category. This study makes use of LDA for clustering the features obtained for the citrus fruit images taken in five different domains. Sub-windows of size 40x40 are cropped from the citrus fruit images having defects such as pitting, splitting and stem end rot. Features are extracted in four domains such as statistical features, fourier transform based features, discrete wavelet transform based features and stationary wavelet transform based features. The results of clustering and classification using LDA and ANN classifiers are reported

  2. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    The vascularization of the pedicel in Marisol clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tanaka) has been characterized in relation to fruit growth. Phloem and xylem formation occurred during the first half of the period of fruit growth. Phloem cross-sectional area reached its maximum value by the end of fruitlet abscission, 78 d after anthesis (DAA), shortly after the rate of accumulation of dry matter in fruitlets reached its maximum value. Secondary xylem formation occurred until day 93, well after the end of fruitlet abscission. At fruit maturity, xylem accounted for 42-46 % of the cross-section of the pedicel. Vessels differentiated in this late-formed xylem. Formation of phloem and early xylem was directly related to fruitlet size (and growth rate). Differences in the rate of formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel of the developing fruitlets followed rather than preceded the differences in growth rate. Specific mass transfer (SMT) in the phloem was highest in the fastest growing fruitlets, and peaked during the late stages of fruitlet abscission (72-78 DAA) and during the main period of fruit growth (107-121 DAA). Application of a synthetic auxin to developing fruits, either at the end of flowering (2,4-D) or by day 64 after flowering (2,4-DP), increased the growth rate of the fruit and fruit size at maturity (8-13 % increase in fruit diameter at maturity). These auxin applications also enhanced the formation of conductive tissues in the pedicel, with a specific effect on phloem formation. Applying auxin at flowering resulted in a reduction in the phloem SMT by days 72-78, whereas auxin application on day 64 increased this parameter. Despite this difference in behaviour, which resulted from the different time-course of the growth response of the fruit to auxin applications, these applications increased fruit size to a similar extent. Severing 37 % of the phloem of the pedicel during the main period of fruit growth resulted in an increase in the specific

  3. Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different citrus species

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standar...

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    González-Mas, M. Carmen; Rambla, José Luis; Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards....

  5. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  6. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    Mary de Fátima Guedes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1, total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1, and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1. As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  7. Segmentation Techniques Applied to Citrus Fruit Images for External Defect Identification

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the merits and demerits of four methods of defect segmentation of citrus fruit images viz. segmentation using iterative intensity enhancement, segmentation using reference imaging, segmentation using contrast stretching and segmentation using color RGB vectors. About 20 mandarin fruits having three different external defects viz. pitting, splitting and stem end rot were procured for this study. A Pulnix 6700-CL color CCD camera was used for image acquisition. The acquired images were preprocessed before being segmented. The preprocessed images were segmented using the four methods and the results are discussed.

  8. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed from crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  9. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  10. Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria

    Irkin Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic content was determined in a spectrophotometer at 685 nm using the adapted Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was measured using LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of the fruit juices and peel extracts on the selected lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B5448, Lb. casei NRRL B1922, Lb. acidophilus NRRL B4495 were investigated. The tested lactic acid bacteria were significantly affected by chlorogenic acid, hesperidin, naringin and caffeic acid compared to the control samples (P≤0.05. Antioxidant properties of fruit samples were also measured using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The phenolics positively affected the metabolism of bacteria, with the stimulatory effects of the assayed samples being influenced by the phenolic profile.

  11. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  12. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

    González-Candelas Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or

  14. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

    Abdellah El Hari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

  15. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-01-01

    Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C) and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml) and fre...

  16. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experi...

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species

    Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

  18. Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

    M Carmen González-Mas

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

  19. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. PMID:25344245

  20. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  1. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  2. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  3. A label-free differential quantitative mass spectrometry method for the characterization and identification of protein changes during citrus fruit development

    Lin Dawei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown commodity fruit crops. In this study a label-free LC-MS/MS based shot-gun proteomics approach was taken to explore three main stages of citrus fruit development. These approaches were used to identify and evaluate changes occurring in juice sac cells in various metabolic pathways affecting citrus fruit development and quality. Results Protein changes in citrus juice sac cells were identified and quantified using label-free shotgun methodologies. Two alternative methods, differential mass-spectrometry (dMS and spectral counting (SC were used to analyze protein changes occurring during earlier and late stages of fruit development. Both methods were compared in order to develop a proteomics workflow that could be used in a non-model plant lacking a sequenced genome. In order to resolve the bioinformatics limitations of EST databases from species that lack a full sequenced genome, we established iCitrus. iCitrus is a comprehensive sequence database created by merging three major sources of sequences (HarvEST:citrus, NCBI/citrus/unigenes, NCBI/citrus/proteins and improving the annotation of existing unigenes. iCitrus provided a useful bioinformatics tool for the high-throughput identification of citrus proteins. We have identified approximately 1500 citrus proteins expressed in fruit juice sac cells and quantified the changes of their expression during fruit development. Our results showed that both dMS and SC provided significant information on protein changes, with dMS providing a higher accuracy. Conclusion Our data supports the notion of the complementary use of dMS and SC for label-free comparative proteomics, broadening the identification spectrum and strengthening the identification of trends in protein expression changes during the particular processes being compared.

  4. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... of the following: (1) Citrus I—Early and mid-season oranges; (2) Citrus II—Late oranges juice; (3) Citrus III—Grapefruit for which freeze damage will be adjusted on a juice basis; (4) Citrus IV—Tangelos...; or (2) The following juice content, if acceptable records are not furnished: (i) Citrus I—52...

  5. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil.

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R; Alvares, Clayton A; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R (2) = 0.99, p map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease. PMID:26493198

  6. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels.

    Martos, María A; Zubreski, Emilce R; Garro, Oscar A; Hours, Roque A

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine. PMID:23691327

  7. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats.

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md Aminul; Tanvir, E M; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  8. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    María A. Martos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type. The supernatant did not exhibit esterase or lyase activity. No others enzymes, capable of hydrolyzing cell wall polymers, such as cellulases and xylanases, were detected. PG showed maximal activity at pH 4.5 and at temperature range between 40°C and 50°C. It was stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 6.0 and up to 50°C at optimum pH. The enzymatic extract macerated potato tissues efficiently. Volume of single cells increased with the agitation speed. The results observed make the enzymatic extract produced by W. anomalus appropriate for future application in food industry, mainly for the production of fruit nectars or mashed of vegetables such as potato or cassava, of regional interest in the province of Misiones, Argentine.

  9. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    Paul, Sudip; Islam, Md. Aminul; Tanvir, E. M.; Ahmed, Romana; Das, Sagarika; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Parvez, Mashud; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:27034701

  10. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  11. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit-yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)-on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: A single-blind randomized controlled crossover study

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connec...

  12. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  13. Cyclic LIPopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit.

    Waewruedee Waewthongrak

    Full Text Available Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU, chitinase (CHI, peroxidase (POX and lipoxygenase (LOX in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in "Valencia" fruit following infection.

  14. Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, corresponding enzyme activities were correlated with changes in gene expression observed in fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum following treatment with individual CLPs. Synergistic effects of fengycin and iturin A, fengycin and surfactin were shown in gene transcript of GLU and CHI, respectively, and surfactin induced POX and LOX gene expression of citrus flavedo without pathogen infection. These results suggest that fengycin and surfactin act as elicitors of defense-related gene expression in “Valencia” fruit following infection. PMID:25329301

  15. Cyclic Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS–S14 Elicit Defense-Related Gene Expression in Citrus Fruit

    Waewthongrak, Waewruedee; Leelasuphakul, Wichitra; McCollum, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes; glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level of GLU transcripts induced in fruit treated with fengycin was significantly greatest among treatments at 48 h. Surfactin enhanced the LOX and POX transcripts. In parallel, correspondi...

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of citrus fruit peel tissues reveals fundamental effects of phenylpropanoids and ethylene on induced resistance

    Ballester Frutos, A.R.; Lafuente, M.T.; Forment, J.; Gadea, J.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Bovy, A.G.; Gonzalez-Candelas, L.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit in Mediterranean climatic regions. The induction of natural resistance constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to avoid the environmental contamination and health problems caused by chemical fungicides. To understand the

  17. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  19. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses. PMID:26300904

  20. Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.

    Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

  2. Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details about an image processing method applied for classifying three external surface defects of citrus fruit using wavelet transforms based features and an artificial neural network. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT features viz. mean and standard deviation of the details and approximations were extracted from citrus fruit images and used for classifying the defects. The DWT and SWT features were extracted from 40x40 sub-windows of the fruit image. The WPT features were extracted from the full fruit image of size 640x480. The classification results pertaining to the three wavelet transforms are reported and discussed.

  3. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality.

  4. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  5. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Bahareh Ghorbani; Zahra Pakkish

    2014-01-01

    The effect of brassinosteroid (BR) on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that...

  6. Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential

    Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods. (author)

  7. Orthophenylphenol and phenylhydroquinone residues in citrus fruit and processed citrus products after postharvest fungicidal treatments with sodium orthophenylphenate in California and Florida.

    Johnson, G D; Harsy, S G; Geronimo, J; Wise, J M

    2001-05-01

    Sodium orthophenylphenate (SOPP) has been used extensively for >40 years to control postharvest diseases of citrus fruits. Studies of the metabolism of [(14)C]SOPP have identified orthophenylphenol (OPP) as the major metabolite with phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) as a minor metabolite. The whole-fruit tolerance in the United States for OPP is 10 ppm. This study was conducted to quantify terminal OPP and PHQ residues in whole Navel oranges, grapefruit, and lemons following SOPP applications at maximum application rates and following commercial application and fruit storage practices. OPP and PHQ residues also were determined in products processed from treated Navel oranges. OPP residues in lemons, Navel oranges, and grapefruit treated with SOPP using foamer wash and shipping wax applications remained below the 10 ppm tolerance, and PHQ residues were all orange matrices except oil remained relatively stable with time in commercial storage; residues in oil declined substantially while in storage. PMID:11368626

  8. Inhibitory effects of citrus fruits on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity in humans.

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Hidaka, Muneaki; Takamura, Norito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2003-09-01

    The capacities of citrus fruits to inhibit midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expressed in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight citrus fruits such as ama-natsu, banpeiyu, Dekopon, hassaku, hyuga-natsu, completely matured kinkan (Tamatama), takaoka-buntan and unshu-mikan were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and grapefruit juice (white, Tropicana-Kirin). The addition of a fruit juice prepared from banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan or Tamatama caused the inhibition of the microsomal CYP3A activity. The inhibition depended on the amount of a fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (2.5 and 5.0%, v/v). The fruit juice from banpeiyu showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a banpeiyu juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity to about 20% of control without a fruit juice. The elongation of the preincubation period of a fruit juice from banpeiyu (5.0%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction (5 to 15 min) led to the enhancement of the CYP3A inhibition (5% of control). Thus, we discovered ingredients of banpeiyu to be inhibitor(s) or mechanism-based inhibitor(s) of human CYP3A activity, but the inhibitory effects of them were somewhat lower than those of grapefruit. PMID:12951492

  9. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  10. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  11. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    Liron eShalom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees, known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting, inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed.

  12. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression.

    Shalom, Liron; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zur, Naftali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees), known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting), inducing next-year flowering, resulted in its up-regulation. In the current work, we set on to study the function of the gene. We showed that the Citrus SPL was able promote flowering independently of photoperiod in Arabidopsis, while miR156 repressed its flowering-promoting activity. In order to find out if fruit load affected the expression of additional genes of the SPL family, we identified and classified all SPL members in the Citrus genome, and studied their seasonal expression patterns in buds and leaves, and in response to de-fruiting. Results showed that two additional SPL-like genes and miR172, known to be induced by SPLs in Arabidopsis, were altered by fruit load. The relationships between these factors in relation to the fruit-load effect on Citrus flowering are discussed. PMID:26074947

  13. Determination of origin and sugars of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm, correspondence analysis and partial least square combined with fiber optic NIR spectroscopy

    Tewari, Jagdish C.; Dixit, Vivechana; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Malik, Kamal A.

    2008-12-01

    The capacity to confirm the variety or origin and the estimation of sucrose, glucose, fructose of the citrus fruits are major interests of citrus juice industry. A rapid classification and quantification technique was developed and validated for simultaneous and nondestructive quantifying the sugar constituent's concentrations and the origin of citrus fruits using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using genetic algorithm, Chemometrics and Correspondences Analysis (CA). To acquire good classification accuracy and to present a wide range of concentration of sucrose, glucose and fructose, we have collected 22 different varieties of citrus fruits from the market during the entire season of citruses. FT-NIR spectra were recorded in the NIR region from 1100 to 2500 nm using the fiber optic probe and three types of data analysis were performed. Chemometrics analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) was performed in order to determine the concentration of individual sugars. Artificial Neural Network analysis was performed for classification, origin or variety identification of citrus fruits using genetic algorithm. Correspondence analysis was performed in order to visualize the relationship between the citrus fruits. To compute a PLS model based upon the reference values and to validate the developed method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed. Spectral range and the number of PLS factors were optimized for the lowest standard error of calibration (SEC), prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient ( R2). The calibration model developed was able to assess the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in unknown citrus fruit up to an R2 value of 0.996-0.998. Numbers of factors from F1 to F10 were optimized for correspondence analysis for relationship visualization of citrus fruits based on the output values of genetic algorithm. ANN and CA analysis showed excellent classification

  14. Molecular characterization of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family from Citrus and the effect of fruit load on their expression

    Shalom, Liron; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Zur, Naftali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a Citrus gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor that contained a sequence complementary to miR156. Genes of the SPL family are known to play a role in flowering regulation and phase transition. In Citrus, the mRNA levels of the gene were significantly altered by fruit load in buds; under heavy fruit load (ON-Crop trees), known to suppress next year flowering, the mRNA levels were down-regulated, while fruit removal (de-fruiting),...

  15. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development. PMID:26964690

  16. Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves.

    Amir-Shapira, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Altman, A

    1987-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14). Detailed kinetics based on a hexane/acetone solvent partition system showed that the in vivo increase in dephytylated derivatives coincided with the decrease in total chlorophyll. Polar, dephytylated derivatives accumulated also in senescing Melia leaves. Senescing parsley leaves revealed a very different picture. The gradual disappearance of chlorophyll a was accompanied by an increase in pheophytin a and by the transient appearance of several phytylated derivatives. Only pheophytin a and an adjacent peak were left when all the chlorophyll a had disappeared. The pathways for breakdown of chlorophyll in the Citrus and parsley senescence systems are discussed. PMID:16593821

  17. The effect of nutritional spray programs applied to mitigate symptoms of Huanglongbing on fruit drop caused by HLB and citrus canker on ‘Hamlin’ orange trees

    Roberts, P. D.; Rouse, R. E.; Teems, S. S.; Sytsma, R. E.; Shobert, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was detected in Florida in 2005 and has reached 100% incidence in certain citrus plantings in southwest Florida. The putative causal agent of HLB in Florida is the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLa).  Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is endemic in Florida.  In 2011 and 2012, fruit drop on young ‘Hamlin’ trees with symptoms of HLB and/or citrus canker was particularly severe, with more than 90% fruit drop recorded. Nutritio...

  18. Effects of naringin, a flavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain

    Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that nari...

  19. Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus

    The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epi...

  1. Application Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer in rapid estimation of soluble solids content of intact citrus fruits

    LU Hui-shan; XU Hui-rong; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan; TIAN Hai-qing

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive method of measuring soluble solids content (SSC) of citrus fruits was developed using Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) measurements collected through optics fiber. The models describing the relationship between SSC and the NIR spectra of citrus fruits were developed and evaluated. Different spectra correction algorithms (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative signal correction (MSC)) were used in this study. The relationship between laboratory SSC and FT-NIR spectra of citrus fruits was analyzed via principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Models based on the different spectral ranges were compared in this research. The first derivative and second derivative were applied to all spectra to reduce the effects of sample size, light scattering, instrument noise, etc. Different baseline correction methods were applied to improve the spectral data quality. Among them the second derivative method after baseline correction produced best noise removing capability and yielded optimal calibration models. A total of 170 NIR spectra were acquired; 135 NIR spectra were used to develop the calibration model; the remaining spectra were used to validate the model. The developed PLS model describing the relationship between SSC and NIR reflectance spectra could predict SSC of 35 samples with correlation coefficient of 0.995 and RMSEP of 0.79°Brix.

  2. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

  3. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Soumaya Bourgou; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Iness Ourghemmi; Moufida Saïdani Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-1...

  4. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  5. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    2014-01-01

    Background For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which could be of agricultural interest. Results To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the ...

  6. Identification and functional analysis of Penicillium digitatum genes putatively involved in virulence towards citrus fruit.

    López-Pérez, Mario; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The fungus Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould rot, is the most destructive post-harvest pathogen of citrus fruit in Mediterranean regions. In order to identify P. digitatum genes up-regulated during the infection of oranges that may constitute putative virulence factors, we followed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray hybridization approach. The origin of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was determined by comparison against the available genome sequences of both organisms. Genes coding for fungal proteases and plant cell wall-degrading enzymes represent the largest categories in the subtracted cDNA library. Northern blot analysis of a selection of P. digitatum genes, including those coding for proteases, cell wall-related enzymes, redox homoeostasis and detoxification processes, confirmed their up-regulation at varying time points during the infection process. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to generate knockout mutants for two genes encoding a pectin lyase (Pnl1) and a naphthalene dioxygenase (Ndo1). Two independent P. digitatum Δndo1 mutants were as virulent as the wild-type. However, the two Δpnl1 mutants analysed were less virulent than the parental strain or an ectopic transformant. Together, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the putative determinants of the virulence mechanisms of P. digitatum. PMID:25099378

  7. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Paiwan Buachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  8. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  9. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen J.; Kemperman, Antoine J.B.; Boerrigter, Marcel E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Poulsen, Poul Emil; Koops, Geert-Henk

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a pr

  10. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  11. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites. PMID:27080881

  12. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Cercós Manuel; Zacarías Lorenzo; Alós Enriqueta; Rodrigo María-Jesús; Naranjo Miguel A; Ríos Gabino; Talón Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes poten...

  13. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  14. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of...

  15. Determination of abamectin in citrus fruits using SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC-UV detection.

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Saleh, Abolfazl; Abdollahzadeh, Yaser; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Fattahi, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    A new pretreatment method, SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was proposed for the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples for the first time. In this method, fruit samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by SPE. Then, the SPE was used as a disperser solvent in the next dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step for further purification and enrichment of abamectin. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency of the proposed method were investigated and optimized. Good linearity of abamectin was obtained from 0.005 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1a and from 0.05 to 10.0 mg/kg for B1b with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.998 for B1a and 0.991 for B1b, respectively. The LODs were 0.001 and 0.008 mg/kg (S/N = 3) for B1a and B1b, respectively. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87 to 96% with the RSD less than 11% (n = 3). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of abamectin in citrus fruit samples. PMID:23913592

  16. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  17. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini; Marcos Antônio Elias; Flaviana Gomes Lima; Bruno Bastos Gonçalves; Leonardo Lima Bergamini; Carlos Melo Silva Neto; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2013-01-01

    The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stig...

  18. Characterisation of free and bound volatile compounds from six different varieties of citrus fruits.

    Ren, Jing-Nan; Tai, Ya-Nan; Dong, Man; Shao, Jin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Free volatile compounds in six varieties of citrus juices were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound fractions were isolated and extracted with methanol and Amberlite XAD-2 resin and then hydrolyzed by almond β-glucosidase. A total of 43 free and 17 bound volatile compounds were identified in citrus. Free volatile contents in sweet orange were the most abundant, followed by those in grapefruits and mandarins. Among free volatiles, terpenes were the most abundant in citrus juice. Sensory analysis results showed that the flavor of the same citrus cultivars was similar, but the flavor of different cultivars varied. Among bound volatiles, benzenic compounds were the most abundant in these citrus juices. Bound volatiles also significantly differed among cultivars. In addition, only p-vinylguaiacol were detected in all of the samples. PMID:25952837

  19. Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·−, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  2. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  3. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  4. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits

    Kun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  5. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. PMID:26950105

  6. Histochemical evidence for the relationship between peel damage and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in gamma-irradiated citrus fruit

    The first symptoms of radiation damage to citrus fruit were noted 24 to 48 hr after irradiation with 240 krad of gamma rays. At about the same time, radiation-damaged cells were observed in peel cross sections in the flavedo, the outer colored peel layers. The damaged cells were deformed and their protoplasts stained much darker with haematoxylin-safranin than protoplasts of intact cells. The cytoplasm in damaged cells either thickened at one side of the cell, sometimes filling up most of the cell space, or contracted into a small mass. Using several histochemical reagents, a considerable accumulation of phenolic compounds was found to occur in the damaged cells shortly after irradiation. No accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed in intact cells of irradiated fruit. It is suggested that the phenolic compounds which accumulate in flavedo cells following irradiation cause cell death and consequent peel necrosis (pitting). (author)

  7. Citrus Genomics

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter, Fred G.Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The hist...

  8. In vitro antiallergic effects of aqueous fermented preparations from Citrus and Cydonia fruits.

    Huber, Roman; Stintzing, Florian Conrad; Briemle, Daniel; Beckmann, Christiane; Meyer, Ulrich; Gründemann, Carsten

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory and antiallergic properties of preparations from lemon, Citrus medica L. (citrus), and quince, Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Cydonia), which are used in pharmaceutical products to treat patients suffering from allergic disorders. Preparations were analyzed with respect to their impact on the degranulation capacity from basophilic cells as well as mediator release from activated human mast cells in vitro, including IL-8 and TNF- α secretion. The results show that the degranulation of basophilic cells was diminished only in the presence of Citrus, and this effect was compared to the synthetic drug azelastine. Furthermore, Citrus and Cydonia both inhibited the production of IL-8 and TNF- α from human mast cells, and at low concentrations additive effects were observed. As a positive inhibition control, dexamethasone was used. LC-MS analyses showed that the major phenolic components in extracts from Citrus and Cydonia are eriocitrin and neochlorogenic acid, respectively. Nevertheless, these compounds do not show biological effects at concentration levels detected in their corresponding extracts. In conclusion, the present data provide a rational base for the use of the single pharmaceutical preparations from Citrus and Cydonia in a differentiated treatment of allergic disorders in part by the regulation of soluble allergic mediators from basophilic cells and mast cells. PMID:22193979

  9. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  10. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  12. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi

  13. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  14. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  15. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  16. 77 FR 75509 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    2012-12-21

    .... See the Notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published at 48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983... 77 FR 41709-41716. The public was afforded 30 days to submit comments after the regulation was... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus...

  17. Extending the use of ultraviolet light for fruit quality sorting in citrus packinghouses

    Illumination with ultraviolet light (UV) is commonly used in citrus packinghouses as a means to aid in the identification and removal of decayed oranges from the packline. This technique is effective because areas of decay strongly fluoresce under UV illumination. It was observed that oranges often ...

  18. Effects of naringin, a lfavanone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in the adult brain

    Un Ju Jung; Sang Ryong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated the ability of naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruits and citrus fruits, to prevent neurodegeneration in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson’s disease. Intraperitoneal injection of naringin protected the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreasing the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dopaminergic neurons and microglia, respectively. These results suggest that naringin can impart to the adult dopaminergic neurons the ability to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor against Parkinson’s disease with anti-inlfammatory effects. Based on these results, we would like to describe an important perspective on its possibility as a therapeutic agent for Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  20. Food quality and safety in export fresh fruit horticultural products: Implying in the labor process of agribusiness related to sweat citrus fruit in Entre Rios province Calidad y seguridad alimentaria en productos frutihortícolas frescos de exportación: Implicaciones en los procesos laborales de la agroindustria de cítricos dulces de Entre Ríos

    Nidia Tadeo

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s the world market increases the demand of fresh fruit horticultural products in order to satisfy customers who require standardised products and "just in time" delivery. Meanwhile a great number of food quality and safety regulations are developed which are also concerned in workers wellfare, prohibition of children work and inverorment protection. This article shows the results of a study about citrus fruit and agribusiness related to citrus fruit in Entre Rios province, th...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the titrable acidity and vitamin c content of citrus fruits

    Iftekhar Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess effect of gamma radiation on the acidity and vitamin C content of the Citrus macroptera (Satkora and Citrus assamensis (Ginger lime. Irradiation with doses 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 kGy were applied to assess the effect on the titrable acidity and vitamin C contents every one week interval for total five weeks. Both titrable acidity and vitamin C content of C. macroptera, and C. assamensis are sensitive to both gamma radiation and storage time; have decreased with increase of radiation does as well as storage time and this changes of vitamin C and titrable acidity content with gamma radiation and increasing storage period have found statistically significant.

  2. Towards the improvement of fruit-quality parameters in citrus under deficit irrigation strategies

    Aguado, A.; Frías, J.; García-Tejero, I.; F. Romero; Muriel, J. L.; Capote, N.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortage is becoming a severe problem in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, reducing the availability of agricultural land and water resources. In Spain, citrus is one of the most economically important crops, with 74,000 ha devoted to its cultivation. Since water resources are increasingly more insufficient, the efficient use of water is becoming more essential. Deficit irrigation in many agricultural crops has frequently proved to be an efficient tool for improving water-use efficie...

  3. Persistence of 14C-gibberellin A3 on the surface of Citrus fruit peel and on inert glass surfaces

    The persistence of gibberellin A3 on plant surfaces was examined using fruit of ‘Marsh’ seedless grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and an inert glass model system. 14C-gibberellin A3 was applied to surfaces in aqueous treatment solutions or in waxing solutions. Dried-out treatment residues were removed by washing and analyzed for total and GA3-like radioactivity. Gibberellin A3 persisted without significant loss for at least 7 d in aqueous treatment solutions (pH 4.0 or 6.2) but was less persistent in the pH 10.4 waxing solution (t1/2 = 7 d). Loss of total peel surface radioactivity was fast during the first 3 days, slowing down afterwards. After 14 days 73% of the initial radioactivity could still be recovered from fruit peel surface and 70% of the recovered radioactivity was still in the form of gibberellin A3. Gibberellin A3 was somewhat more persistent in residues from pH 4 than pH 7 treatment solutions. Light had a slight enhancing effect on gibberellin A3 decomposition on fruit peel under growth chamber conditions. After 12 d at 100% relative humidity, 88% of the radioactivity on glass surfaces was still in the form of gibberellin A3, as against 45% at a relative humidity of 50%. Simulated field conditions, combining daily fluctuations in light, temperature and relative humidity, markedly enhanced gibberellin A3 decomposition on glass surfaces (t1/2 = 2 d). Gibberellin A3 was very persistent (90% after 9 d) in the waxing residues on fruit peel surface. (author)

  4. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Sensory and textural characterization of citrus and pineapple fruits candied with healthy components

    Vilela, Alice; Sobreira, Carla; S. Abraão, Ana; M. Lemos, André; M Nunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Production of low-calorie candied fruits was investigated by substituting sucrose with fructose, maltitol, sorbitol and actilight. Quality of candied fruits was evaluated with respect to yields obtained for the fruit candied process, chemical composition, microbial growth, rheological characteristics, color, and sensory attributes. The sensory attributes investigated were influenced by the osmotic agent used. Each of the different OD agents significantly influenced the taste and/or texture...

  6. Studies on the sugar and organic acid in fruits of Citrus unshiu Marc. By sup(14)C tracer method

    The effects of spraying Cl- and SOsub(4)sup(2-) solutions on sugar, organic acid and amino acid levels in citrus(C. unshiu Marc.) fruit juice were examined using the sup(14)C tracer method. Each sup(14)C-labelled compound under investigation was measured during the three weeks after 14CO2 assimilation. The total carbon compound, which was measured as the specfic activity(cpm/ml) of sup(14)C, was transported more into the fruit juice within one week after sup(14)COsub(2) assimilation with the SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatment than with the Clsup(-) treatment. The sup(14)C-specific activity changes of the sugar fraction were very similar in both Clsup(-) and SOsub(4)sup(2-) treatments although the organic acid fraction was reduced more by SOsub(4)sup(2-). The specific activity ratio of the sugar fraction to organic acid was increased rapidly when treated with Clsup(-). This indicates that SOsub(4)sup(2-) plays a role in raising the ratio of sugar to organic acid. It was found that the sup(14)C-specific activity in the amino acid fraction was higher when Clsup(-) was applied. (Author)

  7. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic

  8. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  10. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    Shamloo, M. M.; Sharifani, M.; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  11. Development of citrus reticulata cv.suavissima fruit wine%瓯柑南瓜果酒的研制

    李彦坡; 徐静; 王青波; 施成伟; 唐希泽

    2012-01-01

    以瓯柑、南瓜为原料,开发果酒产品.研究酶解时间、温度及酶用量对果汁果胶酶解程度的影响,酵母添加量、初始糖度、发酵时间和发酵温度对果酒发酵的影响,确定果酒酿造的最佳工艺参数.结果表明:果胶酶添加量0.015%,酶解时间2.5h,酶解温度45℃,酵母菌接种量0.265‰,发酵液初始糖度21.0%,发酵温度32.1℃,发酵时间4d,酿制的瓯柑果酒香气浓郁,具有特有的苦味,营养丰富.%Taking Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima and pumpkin as raw materials, a mixed fruit wine was developed. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature and enzyme dosage on mixed juice and the effect of sugar content, fermentation time and temperature were researched, the optimal fermented parameters were obtained. The result is pectmast usage 0.025%, hydrolysis time 2. 5 h, hydrolysis temperature 45 ℃ , inoculum of dry yeast 0. 265%, initial sugar content 21%, fermented temperature 25 ℃ and fermentation time 4 d, the mixed fruit wine shows good flavor and bitter, The fruit wine was rich nutrition.

  12. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Cercos Manuel; Talon Manuel; Soler Guillermo; Terol Javier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrat...

  13. Analysis of Some Technological and Physical Characters of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Fruit in Iran

    Abdollah Khadivi-Khub

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical properties of date fruit is necessary for the design of postharvesting equipment such as cleaning, sorting, grading, kernel removing, and packing. Also, the physical and mechanical properties are incorporated in the development of the grading machine as a case study. In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of three mandarin cultivars, as promising fruits, were analyzed to help the design of handling machines. According to results, the greatest dimensio...

  14. Comparative study of the effect of auxiliary energies on the extraction of Citrus fruit components.

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study of methods for ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) of compounds from citrus has been performed. The suited conditions for each method were evaluated to maximize the concentration of 10 representative compounds (sugars, carboxylic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids) by a desirability function approach based on the chromatographic peaks obtained by LC-DAD. Extracts obtained under the suited conditions were analyzed by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The ANOVA on the molecular entities showed 232 significant entities (pextraction methods, explaining 78.51% of the total variability. Similarities in the abundance of the monitored compounds was tested by ANOVA showing that the extraction of carboxylic acids (malic and citric acids) was equal by all methods; while for each of the other eight compounds, at least one extraction method is different from the others. Under the evaluated conditions the SHLE method is the less favorable to extract metabolites from citrus, being the best the USAE method. PMID:26452857

  15. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

  16. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  17. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

  18. Mapeamento de QTLs associados à produção de frutos e sementes em híbridos de Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata QTL mapping linked to fruit set and seeds in Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O grupo dos citros apresenta acentuada juvenilidade manifestada pela incapacidade de florescimento, vigor e formação de espinhos. No caso da laranja 'valência', os híbridos de trifoliata, utilizados como porta-enxertos, induzem maior precocidade e produtividade. O número de sementes do fruto (NSF constitui importante característica da variedade candidata a porta-enxerto de citros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar QTLs associados às características número de frutos por planta (NF e número de sementes por fruto em uma progênie F1 derivada de um cruzamento entre Citrus sunki e Poncirus trifoliata 'Rubidoux'. Os grupos de ligação (GL dos parentais foram obtidos usando a estratégia 'pseudotestcross' e marcadores do tipo RAPD. A contagem do número de frutos por planta e o número médio de sementes por fruto foi realizada usando 80 indivíduos da progênie. A detecção dos QTLs foi realizada pelo método de mapeamento por intervalo composto utilizando o programa QTLCartographer. Foram detectados um QTL associado à frutificação e um QTL ligado ao número de sementes situados no GL 4 e GL 5 no mapa de P. trifoliata, respectivamente.Citrus group shows juvenility strong due incapacity to flowering, vigor and thorn formation. Trifoliata hybrids used as rootstocks to induce early production and better field for 'Valencia' orange scion. Seeds number per fruit is very important characteristic to citrus rootstocks candidate. The present study has as objective to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL associated to fruiting and seeds production in F1 progeny obtained of Citrus sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata cross. Linkage groups (LG of parents were built by pseudotestcross strategy using RAPD markers. Fruits/plant and seeds/fruit numbers were counting using 80 individuals of progeny. QTL detection was made with composite interval mapping using the QTL Cartographer. QTL linked to fruiting and seed production in LG 4 and LG 5 of the P

  19. Assimilation of 14CO2 and 14C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues

    Assimilation and metabolism of 14CO2 was compared to that of [U-14C] sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of 14CO2 by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more 14CO2 than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the 14C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from 14CO2 in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous [U-14C] sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO2 assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose

  20. Integrated Systems Biology Analysis of Transcriptomes Reveals Candidate Genes for Acidity Control in Developing Fruits of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Huang, Dingquan; Zhao, Yihong; Cao, Minghao; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids, such as citrate and malate, are important contributors for the sensory traits of fleshy fruits. Although their biosynthesis has been illustrated, regulatory mechanisms of acid accumulation remain to be dissected. To provide transcriptional architecture and identify candidate genes for citrate accumulation in fruits, we have selected for transcriptome analysis four varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with varying fruit acidity, Succari (acidless), Bingtang (low acid), and Newhall and Xinhui (normal acid). Fruits of these varieties at 45 days post anthesis (DPA), which corresponds to Stage I (cell division), had similar acidity, but they displayed differential acid accumulation at 142 DPA (Stage II, cell expansion). Transcriptomes of fruits at 45 and 142 DPA were profiled using RNA sequencing and analyzed with three different algorithms (Pearson correlation, gene coexpression network and surrogate variable analysis). Our network analysis shows that the acid-correlated genes belong to three distinct network modules. Several of these candidate fruit acidity genes encode regulatory proteins involved in transport (such as AHA10), degradation (such as APD2) and transcription (such as AIL6) and act as hubs in the citrate accumulation gene networks. Taken together, our integrated systems biology analysis has provided new insights into the fruit citrate accumulation gene network and led to the identification of candidate genes likely associated with the fruit acidity control. PMID:27092171

  1. Thymus capitatus essential oil reducing citrus fruit decay

    Arras, Giovanni; Piga, Antonio

    1995-01-01

    Thymus capitatus essential oil was employed as vapour in postharverst to reduce Botrys cinerea grey mould in mandarin fruits. The latter were sprayerd with 105 spores/ml suspension, placed in 15-litre desiccators at 25°C and fumigated under vacuum conditions at varying concentrations of thyme oil. The desiccators were kept for 24 h and then the fruit rinse water was plated in Petri dishes to test spore viability. The results showed that the untreated control rinse water exhibited a high rate ...

  2. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  3. The ability of the antagonist yeast Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1 to suppress green mould infection in citrus fruit

    Rachid Lahlali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies it was shown that Pichia guilliermondii strain Z1, isolated from healthy Moroccan citrus Valencia-Late oranges, was effective against Penicillium italicum. Here the effectiveness of strain Z1 was assessed against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green mould, under different temperature (5-25°C and relative humidity (RH (45-100% regimes for its reliable and largescale application in packinghouse. All main effects and interactions were significant (P80%. Its applications as a formulated product significantly reduced the incidence of infected fruit (55% and the percentage of infected wounds (47% compared to the only pathogen control treatment. However, disease control with formulated product was significantly less than that obtained with thiabendazole (30% or strain Z1 culturable cells (35%. These results highlight that strain Z1 is an effective biological control agent for control of green mould under varying environmental conditions, and control may be optimized by combining its use with other environmentally-safe post-harvest treatments or improved formulation.

  4. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  5. Studies on the postharvest physiology and storage of citrus fruit, (8)

    Metabolism of acid and sugar of mandarin fruit after harvest was investigated. Each 0.1 μ Ci of citrate-1.5-14C(pH 3.49), glucose-1-14C (pH 7.0, G-1-14C) and glucose-6-14C(pH 7.0, G-6-14C) are injected into segments of the mandarin fruit through the peel, and metabolism was measured by the tracing method. The injected citrate-1,5-14C was decarboxylated immediately. One third out of the injected amount is discharged as 14C out of the fruit through 10 days after injection. On the contrary, the rate metabolism of G-1-14C and G-6-14C were comparatively slow. The amount of discharged 14CO2 was 6.5% and 6.3% of the total amount through 50 days respectively. Their rate of decarboxylation was faster than that of G-1-14C. It was suggested that the injected glucose was decomposed through the Hexose monophosphate pathway and then decomposed through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway gradually. The 14C injected into sarcocarp was metabolized to sugar, amino acid, protein and pectin at a high speed, and the existence of acid was 50% or less after 10 days. On the contrary, the metabolism of glucose-14C was slow, and about 80% was left in the neutral section after 50 days. In the soluble section of the fruit, the transfer from glucose to acid and amino acid was 20% after 50 days. The conclusion is that the rate of turnover of citric acid in mandarin fruit can be considerably high, even after harvest. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  7. Consequences of iron deficiency on fruit quality in citrus and stawberry

    Pestana, M.; de Varennes, Amarilis; Miguel, Maria Graça; Correia, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) is an important nutritional disorder in several plants, including fruit trees and strawberry. Iron chlorosis does not result from a small level of iron in soils but rather from impaired acquisition and use of this metal by plants. Calcium carbonate, present in great amounts in calcareous soils, and the resulting large levels of bicarbonate ions, are the main causes of iron deficiency. Countries in southern Europe, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy and...

  8. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I.; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial an...

  9. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract

    In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....

  10. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Citrus macroptera Fruit and Its in vivo Effects on the Liver, Kidney and Pancreas in Wistar Rats

    Sudip Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antioxidant potential of Citrus macroptera fruit was compared between its pulp (CMPU and peel (CMPE. The biochemical effects of an ethanol extract of CMPU were investigated on major organs, including the liver, kidney and pancreas. Male wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly divided into four groups, including Group I (control, Group II (250 mg kg–1, Group III (500 mg kg–1 and Group IV (1000 mg kg–1 and they were administered the extract for 28 days. The CMPE contained higher amounts of total polyphenols (620.91±7.75 mg, flavonoids (508.33±5.49 mg, tannins (585.99±4.46 mg and protein (4.00±0.14 g compared to the pulp (291.06±10.14, 145.02±0.36, 526.08±3.32 mg/100 g and 2.89±0.32 g/100 g, respectively. Similarly, CMPE also exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP values than CMPU. However, the ascorbic acid content was higher in CMPU (120.83±0.0019 mg/100 g than CMPE. In vivo studies confirmed that CMPU possessed a significant lipid lowering activity that occurred in a dose dependent manner and that it caused beneficial changes in several other biochemical parameters. Additionally, a significant diminution of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues was observed. It was concluded that C. macroptera possesses high antioxidant potential and is relatively safe. Its protective effects against various chronic diseases that are associated with oxidative stress should be further investigated.

  12. Study of packing lines for stone fruits and citrus using two instrumented spheres in some cooperatives in the region of Murcia (Spain).

    Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Garcia, F.; Riquelme Ballestero, F.; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    1996-01-01

    Two instrumented spheres IS 100 were used to evaluate the quality of post-harvest operations. Results obtained from measurements made with both IS (8.8 cm 0 and 6.2 cm 0) show significant differences. Both IS measure the same values of the same variables for soft materials, but not for hard surfaces. Four packing lines belonging to different cooperatives of the region of Murcia (two for stone fruits and two for citrus) were tested. IS values obtained in transfers belonging to the tested lines...

  13. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    , the fatty acid profile of the eyes from the treated animals showed a significant reduction in total fatty acid content accompanied by a 33% reduction in estimated Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (p = 0.039) as compared with controls. The fatty acid mobilization and a protection of the brittle C57BL......The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...

  14. Assessment of toxic effects of the methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. Fruit via biochemical and hematological evaluation in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Nizam Uddin

    Full Text Available Citrus macroptera Montr. (C. macroptera is locally known as Satkara. The fruit of this plant is used as appetite stimulant and in the treatment of fever. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of the fruit extract using some biochemical and hematological parameters in rat model. The effects of methanol extract of Citrus macroptera Montr. fruit administered at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were investigated on hematological and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley female rats. Moreover, histopathological study was performed to observe the presence of pathological lesions in primary body organs. The extract presented no significant effect on body weight, percent water content, relative organ weight and hematological parameters in rat. Significant decrease from control group was observed in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein; thus leading to significant decrease of cardiac risk ratio, castelli's risk index-2, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma at all doses. 500 mg/kg dose significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05, 1000 mg/kg dose significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05 and 250 mg/kg dose significantly decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin (P<0.05 from the control group. There were no significant alterations observed with other serum biochemical parameters. Histopathological study confirmed the absence of inflammatory and necrotic features in the primary body organs. Study results indicate that methanolic fruit extract is unlikely to have significant toxicity. Moreover, these findings justified the cardio-protective, moderate hepato-protective and glucose controlling activities of the fruit extract.

  15. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  16. LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination and Quantitation of Penicillin G and Its Metabolites in Citrus Fruits Affected by Huanglongbing.

    Aldeek, Fadi; Rosana, Michael R; Hamilton, Zaid K; Crosswhite, Mark R; Burrows, Casey W; Singh, Sonal; Gerard, Ghislain; Hammack, Walter; Cook, Jo-Marie

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we developed and validated a method for the extraction, identification, and quantitation of penicillin G and its metabolites (penilloic acid and penillic acid) in a variety of citrus fruits by employing sequential liquid/liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques in conjunction with UHPLC-MS/MS. Two product ion transitions per analyte were required for identification, which contributes to a high degree of selectivity. Corrected recoveries of penicillin G using an isotopically labeled internal standard were 90-100% at fortification levels of 0.1, 0.25, 1, and 10 ng/g. Absolute recoveries for penillic acid and penilloic acid were 50-75% depending on the matrix used. The limit of detection (LOD) of penicillin G and its metabolites was found to be 0.1 ng/g when 2 g of citrus was extracted. This method is useful in determining residue levels of penicillin G and its metabolites in citrus trees infected with huanglongbing bacteria after antibiotic treatment. PMID:26072945

  17. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification gen...

  18. Effect of red light irradiation on skin coloration and carotenoid composition of stored ''Miyauchi'' iyo (Citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit

    Effect of red light irradiation on skin color development and carotenoid composition of stylar end of Miyauchi iyo (citrus iyo hort. ex Tanaka) tangor fruit was examined during storage. Both increase in a and a/b value and decrease in b value were enhanced by the irradiation. The a/b values of the fruit exposed were higher than those of control during the whole storage period. HPLC analyses also revealed the increase in total carotenoids content, of which the carotenoids that were tentatively named B and F most greatly accumulated. Similar tendencies were observed at equator and stem end portions. These results indicate that red light irradiation is involved in not only acceleration of overall color development but also enhancement of red color pigmentation by influencing a certain specific pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis

  19. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    Cai-Yun eShi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8 in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6% to 80.9%. They contain 13-21 exons and 12-20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5. A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs. Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange ‘Honganliu’ exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole.

  20. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. PMID:26593612

  1. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  2. [Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the state of São Paulo].

    Giustolin, Teresinha A; Lopes, João R S; Querino, Ranyse B; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Zanol, Kety; Azevedo Filho, Wilson S; Mendes, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management. PMID:20098931

  3. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa; Daniel D.R. Arcanjo; Rayra G. Ribeiro; Klinger Antonio F. Rodrigues; Flávia Franceli B. Passos; Celyane A. Piauilino; José Couras Silva-Filho; Bruno Q. Araújo; José S. Lima-Neto; Joaquim S. Costa-Júnior; Fernando Aécio A. Carvalho; Antônia Maria das Graças L. Citó

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae) is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic ex...

  4. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired pl...

  5. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  6. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  7. Aspects of the regulator and physical-chemical properties of phenylalanine ammoniacliase of the fruit tissue of citrus sinensis

    The occurence of PAL as an enzyme containing calmodulin as an integral part of its structure is discussed against the background of the important regulatory function of the enzyme in secondary plant metabolism. This study also forms the basis of the investigation into the effect of gamma radiation on citrus tissue which leads to the induction of phenylalanineammoniacliase

  8. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  10. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...... carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover....../KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....