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Sample records for native citrus fruits

  1. Physiology of citrus fruiting / Fisiologia da frutificação em citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo J., Iglesias; Manuel, Cercós; José M., Colmenero-Flores; Miguel A., Naranjo; Gabino, Ríos; Esther, Carrera; Omar, Ruiz-Rivero; Ignacio, Lliso; Raphael, Morillon; Francisco R., Tadeo; Manuel, Talon.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus é a principal fruteira no mundo, tendo, portanto, profundos impactos econômicos, sociais e culturais em nossa sociedade. Nos últimos anos, o conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva de plantas tem aumentado consideravelmente, principalmente em função de trabalhos desenvolvidos com plantas-mo [...] delo. Todavia, a informação produzida nessas espécies nem sempre pode ser aplicada a citrus, fundamentalmente porque citrus é uma cultura arbórea perene com uma biologia reprodutiva muito peculiar e incomum. A regulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto em citrus é um fenômeno complexo e dependente de muitos fatores externos e internos que podem operar tanto seqüencialmente como simultaneamente. Os elementos e mecanismos pelos quais estímulos ambientes e endógenos afetam o crescimento do fruto vêm sendo interpretados, e esse conhecimento pode auxiliar a prover ferramentas que permitiriam otimizar a produção per se, além da obtenção de frutos com maior valor nutricional, o objetivo precípuo da Industria de Citrus. Neste artigo, revisam-se os avanços que vêm ocorrendo na fisiologia da frutificação de citrus durante os últimos anos; apresenta-se, também, o status atual de pesquisas mais relevantes nessa área. Abstract in english Citrus is the main fruit tree crop in the world and therefore has a tremendous economical, social and cultural impact in our society. In recent years, our knowledge on plant reproductive biology has increased considerably mostly because of the work developed in model plants. However, the information [...] generated in these species cannot always be applied to citrus, predominantly because citrus is a perennial tree crop that exhibits a very peculiar and unusual reproductive biology. Regulation of fruit growth and development in citrus is an intricate phenomenon depending upon many internal and external factors that may operate both sequentially and simultaneously. The elements and mechanisms whereby endogenous and environmental stimuli affect fruit growth are being interpreted and this knowledge may help to provide tools that allow optimizing production and fruit with enhanced nutritional value, the ultimate goal of the Citrus Industry. This article will review the progress that has taken place in the physiology of citrus fruiting during recent years and present the current status of major research topics in this area.

  2. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  3. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus fruits.Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed

  4. Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of different citrus fruits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Martín-Belloso, O.; Park, Y. S.; Haruenkit, R.; Lojek, Antonín; ?íž, Milan; Caspi, A.; Libman, I.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 74, ?. 3 (2001), s. 309-315. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : citrus fruits * dietary fiber * total polyphenols Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.156, year: 2001

  5. False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

  6. Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently cancer is considered as one of the main factors of mortality globally. Many chemicals in our environment can cause genetic mutations and are potentially responsible for millions of cancer-related deaths. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potenthially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice.In present study human astrocytoma cancer cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco,supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum,peniciline-streptomycin,L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days.In addition cancer cell line were treated by half-ripe and ripe Citrus Medica fruit juice and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT. The Citrus Medica fruit juice was subsequenthy evaluated in terms of antimutagenicity and anticancer properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames Test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100 .Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth.The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to carcinogen substance (Sodium Azide. During MTT, human astrocytoma cell line revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01. In Ames Test the fruit juice prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of half-ripe Citrus Medica was 71.7% and ripe Citrus Medica was 34.4% in antimutagenicity test and this value in anticancer test was 83.3% and 50% in half-ripe Citrus Medica and ripe Citrus Medica respectively.This is the first study that have revealed antimutagenicity and anticancer effect of Citrus Medica fruit juice and the effects were higher in half-ripe Citrus Medica in comparison to the riprned one.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  8. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Rejmanek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit species when such fruits were selected for their physical resemblance to the native fruit species. Based on our review and case studies, we propose that fruit characteristics of native plant communities could dictate how well a non-native, fleshy-fruited plant species competes for dispersers with natives. Native bird preferences may be largely influenced by regional native fruits, such that birds are attracted to the colors, morphology, and infructescence structures characteristic of preferred native fruits. Non-native fruits exhibiting similar traits are likely to encounter bird communities predisposed to consume them. If those non-natives offer greater fruit abundance, energy content, or accessibility, they may outcompete native plants for dispersers.

  9. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; João C. M. Barreira; Sousa, Maria João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C .F. R.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power...

  10. Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh C. Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 MPa while the extraction efficiency over 80% was obtained for lemon and shikuwasa but it was about 60% for daidai peel slurry. The extracted oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS to compare the compositions of oils among these peel slurries. The compositions of extracted oils differed qualitatively and quantitatively from each other of feed materials in such a way that the monoterpenes (C10H16 content varied 89.23 to 93.20% with the type of peel slurry, while limonene as a major compound. Oxygenated compounds in these oils represented 8.84, 5.5 and 4.49% in lemon, daidai and shikuwasa peel slurry, respectively. The obtained product with the composition was almost the similar with the other citrus oils extracted from fresh fruit peels.

  11. Review of the Status of Irradiation Effects on Citrus Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States fresh-market spoilage losses valued at the 1959-1963 retail prices were estimated for oranges and grapefruit to be $8.4 and $5.4 million, respectively. Stem-end rots and green and blue molds cause the greatest post-harvest decay losses to citrus. No single radiation dose can be given that will be the minimum required for protecting citrus fruits against spoilage. Radiation doses required for retarding old or established infections are higher than for the retardation of incipient infections. The flux, as well as the dose of gamma radiation influences the control of infections. Fresh citrus fruits undergo metabolic changes which ultimately lead to senescence. Some of these changes include varied activities in the levels of respiration, organic acids, sugars, pectic substances and color. In many respects the loss of cellular vitality in senescence resembles the effects of radiation injury. Irradiation causes changes in the pectic components of fruits. In general, an increase occurs in the water and ammonium oxalate-soluble fractions and a decrease occurs in the sodium hydroxide-soluble fraction. A large increase of water-soluble pectin is found in the juice extracted from irradiated fruits. Apparently this increases results from movement of the water-soluble pectin from other parts of the fruit. A marked increase in the viscosity of the juice results. Peel injury is sometimes found following irradiation and storage of the fruit. The per centage of fruitage of the fruit. The per centage of fruit showing peel injury, and the severity of the injury, increase the higher the storage temperature and the longer the storage duration. Oranges and grapefruit may be irradiated with doses of up to 200 krad without any appreciable deleterious effects on organoleptic qualities. (author)

  12. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V., E-mail: irradiacion@latu.org.u, E-mail: lacam@latu.org.u [Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo (Uruguay); Ares, M. Ines, E-mail: mares@mgap.gub.u [Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP), Montevideo (Uruguay). Directoria General de Sanidad Vegetal (DGSV)

    2009-07-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  13. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  14. Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-04-15

    Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML. PMID:25465994

  15. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocaroten...

  16. 71 FR 33172 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Untreated Citrus From Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-08

    ...AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...03-048-3] Importation of Fruits and Vegetables; Untreated Citrus...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to...

  17. Antitumor potential of Citrus limetta fruit peel in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Pallab K; Malaya Gupta; Mazumder, Upal K.; Sanjib Bhattacharya; Biswakanth Kar; Asis Bala; Sriparna Kundusen

    2012-01-01

    Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae), commonly known as sweet lime in English and Mousambi in India, has been traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. This study explored the relationship between Citrus limetta fruit peel and its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of peel of Citrus limetta fruits (MECL) was evaluated against EAC cell line in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculat...

  18. LC-MS ANALYSIS OF RIND AND PULP OF CITRUS LIMON (L. BURM. F. FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejo Jose, T Sunilkumar* and VT Antony

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus limon fruits are commonly used as soft drink. It possess medicinal values also as a part of nutraceutical studies. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometric Analysis (LCMS in Citrus limon fruits were done for the determination of the major components in it.  The medicinal and health promoting properties are due to the presence of active principles on it.

  19. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon.   Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation.   Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16±0.88μg/ml. This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50±2.05μg/ml, C.limon peel (IC50 64.90±1.24μg/ml, C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50±1.26μg/ml, C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83±2.42μg/ml, C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83±2.02μg/ml, C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16±0.60μg/ml extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6μg/ml.   Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects.  An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.

  20. 7 CFR 457.107 - Florida citrus fruit crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...indemnity. (c) Citrus fruit crops IV, V, VII, and VIII...freeze, as determined by a fresh-fruit cut of a representative sample of fruit in the unit in accordance with...or could not be marketed as fresh fruit, will be...

  1. Reduction of microorganisms on citrus fruit surfaces during packinghouse processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, S; Brown, G E

    1998-07-01

    Citrus fruit surface microbial populations were evaluated following various packingline processes of seven Florida commercial packinghouses. At each packinghouse, six fruits (oranges or tangerines) were collected at each of four sampling points. The sampling was conducted in duplicate; thus, 336 fruit were evaluated during this survey. Average aerobic plate counts and yeast and mold counts on fruit surfaces before washing were about 4.0 log CFU/cm2 and 3.3 log CFU/cm2, respectively, and were reduced to 2.1 log CFU/cm2 and 1.3 log CFU/cm2, respectively, by packinghouse processing. Waxing alone reduced the average fruit surface aerobic plate counts and coliform counts from 3.7 log CFU/cm2 and 35.2 most probable number (MPN)/cm2, respectively, to 2.6 log CFU/cm2 and 1.4 MPN/cm2. No Escherichia coli was recovered from fruit at the end of packinghouse processing, and no salmonellae were found on fruit during the entire processing. In an inoculation study to test the effect of packinghouse processes, test organism E. coli was applied to fruit to achieve a high level (4.8 log CFU/cm2) of contamination. The average E. coli count was reduced about 2.4 log cycles by washing and rinsing with potable water (40 psi, 25 degrees C) for about 30 s. The combination of washing and waxing significantly reduced the inoculated level of E. coli from 4.8 to 1.4 log CFU/cm2. PMID:9678178

  2. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  3. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  4. Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yesuf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management practices of the disease.

  5. Nutrients, Vitamins and Minerals Content in Common Citrus Fruits in the Northern Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100-1 g and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100-1 g. Amla (Indian gooseberry fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100-1 g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100-1 g of edible portion of the fruits. Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100-1 g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100-1 g among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100-1 g. The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100-1 g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100-1 g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100-1 g of fruits.

  6. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES, FRUITS AND PEEL EXTRACTS OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  7. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Different Parts of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime Fruit) as Used Locally

    OpenAIRE

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as “epa-ijebu” in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of “epa-ijebu” in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 4...

  8. Evaluation of the Nutritive Potential of the Peels of Some Citrus Fruit Varieties as Feedingstuffs in Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    O.I.A. Oluremi; I.A. Andrew; J. Ngi

    2007-01-01

    Four (4) varieties of citrus fruit namely Citrus limonum [lemon (Le), Citrus qurantifolia lime (Li)], Citrus sinensis washington (SOw) and Citrus sinensis Ibadan (SOi) were peeled separately, sun dried, milled using hammer mill machine and analyzed in the laboratory to determine yield, proximate composition and crude fibre fractions. The percent dry weight of the peels showed that the yield of sun dried peels which can be obtained per unit weight of fresh peels decreased in the order S...

  9. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

  10. 77 FR 41709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop...

  11. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-12-0006] RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY:...

  12. Biochemical and molecular characterization of induced resistance against Penicillium digitatum in citrus fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester Frutos, Ana Rosa; Izquierdo, Ana; Lafuente, María Teresa; González Candelas, Luis

    2010-01-01

    To get an insight into the mechanisms underlying resistance of citrus fruit against Penicillium digitatum, we have analyzed at the enzyme activity and gene expression levels the possible involvement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinase in the flavedo (outer colored part of the fruit peel) and albedo (the inner white part) in elicited fruit. As a tool to induce resistance, we inoculated oranges with P. digitatum and 1 d later fruit were exposed to a h...

  13. Irradiation for international trade in agricultural products: The case of citrus fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses the influence of irradiation techniques on the Uruguayan market and their repercussions on international trade, with emphasis on the important and steadily growing citrus sector. This growth of citrus cultivation in Uruguay has been based on increasing international trade, and therefore producers and exporters have shown particular interest in the plant protection requirements which the European Economic Community (EEC) may adopt to govern the import of citrus fruit into its area. Over the past few years, the sector has become a net exporter, increasing its turnover from one harvest to the next. However, it is currently facing problems caused by the citrus plant disease known as canker, which is caused by a bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris, pv citri). The EEC is considering plant protection measures which could close its market to Uruguayan citrus fruit. Likewise, the North American market does not accept fruit from regions affected by canker. It is intended to treat fruit ready for export (wax-treated and packed) by irradiation at 0.7 kGy, combined with heat treatment for 5 min at 50 deg. C at the first rinsing stage during packing. Citrus fruit irradiation thus appears as an alternative treatment which would solve the problem by allowing a quality product to be offered on the foreign market, thereby improving commercial prospects as well as avoiding non-tariff barriers. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  14. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  15. Network Analysis of Postharvest Senescence Process in Citrus Fruits Revealed by Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Profiling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  16. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  17. Production of Pectinolytic Enzymes by the Yeast Wickerhanomyces anomalus Isolated from Citrus Fruits Peels

    OpenAIRE

    María A. Martos; Zubreski, Emilce R.; Oscar A Garro; Hours, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus is pectinolytic yeast isolated from citrus fruits peels in the province of Misiones, Argentine. In the present work, enzymes produced by this yeast strain were characterized, and polygalacturonase physicochemical properties were determined in order to evaluate the application of the supernatant in the maceration of potato tissues. W. anomalus was able to produce PG in liquid medium containing glucose and citrus pectin, whose mode of action was mainly of endo type....

  18. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (?1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  19. Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

    2007-08-01

    Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults. PMID:17849873

  20. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are sufficient and according to the OECD methodology a MRL proposal of 6 mg/kg is derived for propiconazole in citrus fruits. The existing EU MRLs for propiconazole in food commodities of animal origin need to be modified for ruminant kidney, fat and meat reflecting the feed intake of citrus pomace. For ruminant liver and milk the existing MRLs do not have to be modified. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of propiconazole on citrus fruits and residues in ruminant meat, fat and kidney will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a public health concern.

  2. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  3. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  4. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for propiconazole in citrus fruits

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Spain, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim Agan España S.A. to modify the existing MRL for the active substance propiconazole in citrus fruits. In order to accommodate for the intended post-harvest use of propiconazole, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL in citrus fruit from the limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) to 5 mg/kg. According to EFSA the data are suff...

  6. Relative susceptibility of citrus genotypes to fruit rot caused by Ceratocystis radicicola in Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad R, Mirzaee; Mojtaba, Mohammadi; Ali Azari, Nasrabad.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Several citrus genotypes were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to the new lemon fruit rot pathogen, Ceratocystis radicicola. Wounded detached fruits were inoculated ten days before normal harvest by placing on the wound site a droplet of distilled water followed by a mycelial plug of one- [...] week-old culture. Inoculated fruits were ranked for their relative susceptibility to the pathogen by determining disease severity based on mean lesion size. Using Duncan's multiple range test, citrus varieties were classified into three groups, as follows: most susceptible: Mandarin (cv. Clementine); moderately susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Dancy, Ponkan, sweet lime and common sour orange) and least susceptible: Mandarin (cvs. Kinnow, Lee, Fortune and Osceola), grapefruit (cvs. Marsh and Red Blush), orange (cvs. Parson Brown, Marss Early, Salustiana, Washington Navel and Hamlin) and lemon (cv. Lisbon). Alternatively, fruit firmness was measured using a hand-held penetrometer at the time of inoculation. Disease severity was negatively correlated (R = -0.36, P

  7. Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This experiment targets undergraduate students in an analytical or organic instructional context. Using a simple extraction, this protocol allows students to quantify and qualify monoterpenes in essential oils from citrus fruit peels. The procedures involve cooling down the peels by immersing them into icy water. After a few minutes, the chilled…

  8. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage. PMID:24629952

  9. Analysis of 13000 unique Citrus clusters associated with fruit quality, production and salinity tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossat Carole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties (Citrus clementina and C. sinensis and rootstocks (C. reshni, and C. sinenis × Poncirus trifoliata differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag (EST collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. Assembly of 52626 useful sequences generated 15664 putative transcription units distributed in 7120 contigs, and 8544 singletons. BLAST annotation produced significant hits for more than 80% of the hypothetical transcription units and suggested that 647 of these might be Citrus specific unigenes. The unigene set, composed of ~13000 putative different transcripts, including more than 5000 novel Citrus genes, was assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains Conclusion Comparative genomics with Arabidopsis revealed the presence of putative conserved orthologs and single copy genes in Citrus and also the occurrence of both gene duplication events and increased number of genes for specific pathways. In addition, phylogenetic analysis performed on the ammonium transporter family and glycosyl transferase family 20 suggested the existence of Citrus paralogs. Analysis of the Citrus gene space showed that the most important metabolic pathways known to affect fruit quality were represented in the unigene set. Overall, the similarity analyses indicated that the sequences of the genes belonging to these varieties and rootstocks were essentially identical, suggesting that the differential behaviour of these species cannot be attributed to major sequence divergences. This Citrus EST assembly contributes both crucial information to discover genes of agronomical interest and tools for genetic and genomic analyses, such as the development of new markers and microarrays.

  10. Seasonal abundance and suppression of fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a citrus orchard in Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P?0.05) in HMO-treated plots (8.4), followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6) and untreated plots (22.5). However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage. PMID:22203789

  11. Composição mineral de frutos cítricos na colheita / Mineral nutrient removal by the harvest of citrus fruit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ondino C., Bataglia; Ody, Rodriguez; Rúter, Hiroce; José Romano, Gallo; Pedro Roberto, Furlani; Ângela Maria C., Furlani.

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados à época de colheita, na Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico, frutos cítricos de nove cultivares comerciais pertencentes a diferentes espécies: Citrus sinensis - "baianinha", "hamlin", "pêra", "natal" e "valência"; Citrus reticulata -"cravo"; Citrus paradisi - "m [...] arsh-seedless"; Citrus aurantifolia - "taiti"; híbrido Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticnlata -"murcote". Os frutos foram fracionados em casca, polpa mais suco, e sementes. No material seco e moído, procederam-se às determinações dos treze elementos essenciais às plantas e mais sódio, alumínio e cobalto. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas por tonelada de fruto fresco foram calculadas com base nas proporções e teores de umidade das partes dos frutos. Os nove cultivares estudados extraíram as seguintes quantidades médias de elementos em gramas por tonelada de fruto fresco: N-1.906; P-173; K-1.513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2,2; Cl-24,7; Cu-1,2; Fé-6,6; Mn-2,8; Mo-0,008; Zn-0,9; Co-0,003; Na-43,5; Al-7,6. Os dados obtidos são semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura de outros países para os citros em geral. Há, no entanto, quase sempre, uma inversão na relação nitrogênio-potássio. Os cultivares com maior capacidade de extração de macro e micronutrientes foram as laranjas natal e valência, e o de menor capacidade, o limoeiro taiti. As sementes em geral contiveram os maiores teores de nutrientes, porém a sua ocorrência nos frutos é em pequena proporção, atingindo o máximo de 3% na tangerina-cravo. Abstract in english Fruit samples of nine cultivars of citrus were collected at the Limeira Experiment Station, State of São Paulo. The fruits belong to several species: Citrus sinensis -"Baianinha", "Hamlin", "Pêra", "Natal", and "Valencia" sweet oranges; Citrus reticulata - "Cravo"-tangerine; Citrus paradisi -"Marsh- [...] seedless" grapefruit; Citrus aurantifolia - Tahiti lime; hybrid Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata -"Murcott" tangor. The fruits were sectioned in skin, pulp with juice, and seeds. It was determined the proportion among these parte and their water content. The concentration of all plant nutriente plus sodium, aluminum and cobalt was determined on the dried material. These data allowed the estimation of nutrient removal per metric ton of fresh fruit. The average of removed elements expressed in gramms per ton of fresh fruit of the nine cultivars follows this order: N-1,906; P-173; K-1,513; Ca-526; Mg-127; S-137; B-2.2; Cl-24.7; Cu-1.2; Fe-6.6; Mn-2.8; Mo-0.008; Zn-0.9; Co-0.003; Na-43.5; Al-7.6. The seeds showed to be organs where there is larger percentual quantity of the majority of macronutrients, except for K which is more abundant in the pulp plus juice. The cultivars Natal and Valencia showed the greatest nutrient removal, and Tahiti lime the lowest.

  12. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25201434

  13. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Ancu; Gheorghe Mladin; Alina Nuta; Monica Sturzeanu; Sergiu Ancu; Madalina Butac; Madalina Militaru

    2012-01-01

    The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were i...

  14. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...sanitation measures for plant debris as those indicated in the Federal...free of fallen fruit and plant debris, in order to reduce potential...will be some relatively small net increase in the U.S. supply...free of fallen fruit and plant debris. Fallen fruit may not be...

  15. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the...regulations in ``Subpart-Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56...Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine...words ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables of this part'' in...

  16. Flavonoids rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels reduces proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuates malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Maurya, Anil K; Jyotshna; Saxena, Archana; Shanker, Karuna; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of possible pharmacological effects along with characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in peels may have a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. Extracts prepared from the Citrus limetta fruit peels were studied for antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity using in-vitro bioassays. Among all, ClEt an ethanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peels has shown promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ClEt was further validated to ensure its safety evaluation at 2000mg/kg and anti-malarial efficacy at 100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight with special reference to inflammatory mediators involved in malaria pathogenesis. In-vivo study revealed that ClEt was safe at higher dose and showed promising anti-malarial activity by inhibiting the parasitaemia and inflammatory mediators (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-6) involved in malaria pathogenesis, able to improve the haemoglobin and glucose level and increase the survival time. Chemical fingerprint of ClEt revealed the presence of flavonoids. Results suggested the suitability of ClEt, a flavonoid rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels as a candidate for further investigation towards the management of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25860065

  17. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  18. Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

  19. External Defect classification of Citrus Fruit Images using Linear Discriminant Analysis Clustering and ANN classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is one technique for transforming raw data into a new feature space in which classification can be carried out more robustly. It is useful where the within-class frequencies are unequal. This method maximizes the ratio of between-class variance to the within-class variance in any particular data set and the maximal separability is guaranteed. LDA clustering models are used to classify object into different category. This study makes use of LDA for clustering the features obtained for the citrus fruit images taken in five different domains. Sub-windows of size 40x40 are cropped from the citrus fruit images having defects such as pitting, splitting and stem end rot. Features are extracted in four domains such as statistical features, fourier transform based features, discrete wavelet transform based features and stationary wavelet transform based features. The results of clustering and classification using LDA and ANN classifiers are reported

  20. Estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos / Study of some fruit characteristics of eight citrus rootstocks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmundo E, Monteverde; Carlos, Marín R; José R, Ruiz.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1976 se encuentra el principal transmisor del virus de los cítricos en Venezuela, Toxoptera citricida Kirk., en 1979 ocurre el primer foco de árboles muertos por el virus. Estos acontecimientos, hicieron que se introdujeran al país diferentes cultivares de cítricos para ser evaluados como portain [...] jertos. Sin embargo, poco es lo que se conoce sobre la característica del fruto de esos materiales citrícolas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), los citrumelos Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) y Yuma (YUM), los citranges Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) y Uvalde (UVA), mandarino Cleopatra (CLE) Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan y Citremon 1449 Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus limon L. Se tomaron cinco árboles por portinjerto de tamaño y vigor uniformes, a cada árbol se le cosecharon diez frutos al azar y se determinó peso promedio, diámetro distal y ecuatorial, y grosor de cáscara. Además, se calculó la relación entre ambos diámetros, número de semillas por frutos, por 100 g, por kg y peso promedio de la semilla. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de algunas características del fruto de ocho portainjertos para cítricos. Abstract in english In 1976 was found for the first time in Venezuela the citrus tristeza virus transmitter, the Toxoptera citricida Kirk., and in 1979 occurs the first outbreak by the death of trees. All of those successes brought about the introduction of different Citrus cultivars to be evaluated as rootstocks. Howe [...] ver, little is known about the fruit characteristics of the introduced rootstocks. The objective of this work was to study the fruit characteristics of eight Citrus rootstocks: Citrus volkameriana Pasq. (VOL), the citrumelos Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macf. Swingle (SWI) and Yuma (YUM), the citranges Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. Carrizo (CAR), Troyer (TRO) and Uvalde (UVA), Cleopatra mandarin (CLE), Citrus reshni ex Hort. Tan., and Citremon 1449 (CIT) Poncirus trifoliate Raf. x Citrus limon L. There were selected five trees for each rootstock of uniform size and vigor. From each tree ten fruits were harvested in a randomize form, and we measured the mean weight, distal and equatorial fruit diameter, thickness of rind and number of seeds. In addition, it was calculated the distal/equatorial relation, mean seed number by fruit in a 100 g and a kilogram base, and seed weight. In this paper it is shown the characteristics of the fruits of the evaluated rootstocks.

  1. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  2. Antitumor potential of Citrus limetta fruit peel in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab K. Haldar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae, commonly known as sweet lime in English and Mousambi in India, has been traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. This study explored the relationship between Citrus limetta fruit peel and its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC bearing mice. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of peel of Citrus limetta fruits (MECL was evaluated against EAC cell line in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor EAC cells in mice, MECL was administered at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight i.p. daily for nine consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for the estimation of tumor growth (tumor volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts, and hematologic parameters (red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin. The rest were kept alive for assessment of survival parameters, i.e. median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. Intraperitoneal administration of MECL at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for nine days to the carcinoma induced mice demonstrated a significant (PC. limetta fruit peel against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss mice.

  3. Persistence of the mixture of chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin (Survan) in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, A; Navarro, S; Cámara, M A

    1988-08-01

    The Survan (a mixture of the insecticides chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin) persistence in lemon citrus fruits, verna variety, is studied. In all the cases, residues of both compounds have been detected in the juices of the fruits treated. When the mixture of the insecticides is used at a concentration of 0.20%, the levels of chlorfenvinphos after 14 days is not higher than 0.14 ppm; however, when it is used at a 0.15% concentration, this value is overpassed in all the samples. The residues of the cypermethrin component are not higher than 0.35 ppm throughout the whole experiment. PMID:3192906

  4. Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chan Teck Leong; Roland Jui Heng Kueh

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural min...

  5. A transcriptomic approach highlights induction of secondary metabolism in citrus fruit in response to Penicillium digitatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Candelas Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postharvest losses of citrus fruit due to green mold decay, caused by the fungus Penicillium digitaum, have a considerable economic impact. However, little is known about the molecular processes underlying the response of citrus fruit to P. digitatum. Results Here we describe the construction of a subtracted cDNA library enriched in citrus genes preferentially expressed in response to pathogen infection followed by cDNA macroarray hybridization to investigate gene expression during the early stages of colonization of the fruit's peel by P. digitatum. Sequence annotation of clones from the subtracted cDNA library revealed that induction of secondary and amino acid metabolisms constitutes the major response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. Macroarray hybridization analysis was conducted with RNA from either control, wounded, ethylene treated or P. digitatum infected fruit. Results indicate an extensive overlap in the response triggered by the three treatments, but also demonstrated specific patterns of gene expression in response to each stimulus. Collectively our data indicate a significant presence of isoprenoid, alkaloid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in the transcriptomic response of citrus fruits to P. digitatum infection. About half of the genes that are up-regulated in response to pathogen infection are also induced by ethylene, but many examples of ethylene-independent gene regulation were also found. Two notable examples of this regulation pattern are the genes showing homology to a caffeine synthase and a berberine bridge enzyme, two proteins involved in alkaloid biosynthesis, which are among the most induced genes upon P. digitatum infection but are not responsive to ethylene. Conclusions This study provided the first global picture of the gene expression changes in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, emphasizing differences and commonalities with those triggered by wounding or exogenous ethylene treatment. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolism is redirected to the synthesis of isoprenes, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids.

  6. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not su...

  7. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the request from the USA regarding export of Florida citrus fruit to the EU : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where, since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation no symptoms of citrus canker were observed, neither in their vicinities. The PHL Panel concluded that the transmission of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on asymptomatic citrus fruit was more likely when the fruit were collected from infested than from non-infested areas and groves. Symptomatic fruit carries more Xcc cells than asymptomatic fruit and the packinghouse disinfectant treatments do not achieve the eradication of Xcc. The application of management option 2 (i.e. ‘allow distribution of all types and varieties of commercially packed citrus fruit to all US States, subject to packinghouse treatment with APHIS-approved disinfectant. No packinghouse phytosanitary inspection is required’) selected by USDA will result in an increase in the Xcc load of citrus fruit consignments and in a subsequent increase in the probability of spread of citrus canker through the fruit pathway. Some data provided in the APHIS-USDA documents support that citrus fruit remain a conceptually possible pathway for transmitting and establishing citrus canker disease. The PLH Panel agrees that transmission of Xcc from infected fruit to a susceptible host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase the probability of introduction of Xcc into new areas.

  9. Phytotoxic and antioxidant activity of seven native fruits of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira, Peres; José Rodrigo Regis, Lopes; Cristiane Bezerra da, Silva; Ana Carina Silva, Cândido; Euclésio, Simionatto; Márcia Regina Pereira, Cabral; Rita Machado, Oliveira; Janaina Thomasi, Facco; Cláudia Andréa Lima, Cardoso; Pedro Henrique, Simas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated antioxidant capacity, phenolic content and phytotoxic effects in seven species of fruit native to Brazil: Acrocomia aculeata, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Tamarindus indica, Byrsonima intermedia, Psidium firmum, Myrciaria cauliflora and Ficus obtusifolia. Phytotoxic effects were assessed f [...] rom crude ethanol extracts and semipurified fractions. In four of the seven fruits, total phenolic content, as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was higher in the peel than in the pulp. We found that total phenolic content correlated significantly with antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in some fruits. We also evaluated the allelopathic effects of the crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions. In most of the essays, the ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest level of activity.

  10. The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

  11. Occurrence of Osthole in Commonly Available Citrus Fruits Analyzed With GC-MS and LC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Bogusz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Osthole (CAS 484-12-8 is a compound with numerous possible therapeutic applications. Its occurrence was reported in Cnidium monnieri. In our practice we noted that osthole is present in citrus fruits. The purpose of the study was to examine and quantitatively assess the occurrence of osthole in commercially available citrus fruits. Grapefruit, pomelo, citron, and orange from various markets in Saudi Arabia were collected and subjected to QuEChERS/DPX extraction. As identification techniques, GC-MS (full scan and SIM and high resolution LC-QToF-MS (MSe mode with three transitions were applied. Osthole was identified in grapefruit, pomelo, and citron. Orange was practically free of osthole. The highest concentrations of osthole were found in the peel of all fruits, in the range of 7.0-78.5 mg/kg. In conclusion may be stated that the peel of examined citrus fruits may be considered as a valuable and easily available source of osthole. Industrial relevance: The peels of lemon fruits (grapefruit, citron, pomelo, which are treated as a food waste, contain osthole and may appear as valuable source of this compound after proper treatment. Keywords: osthole; GC-MS; LC-ToF-MS; citrus fruits

  12. Water needs in citrus fruit in a dry region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah El Hari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An irrigation plan for citrus fruit in the climatic context of the area studied seems possible on the basis of evaporation from a class A pan. In principle, a coefficient value of 0.6 could be retained. Indeed, the use of this coefficient together with a high frequency of irrigation has made it possible not only to satisfy the water requirements of the citrus fruit, but also to obtain a good yield, namely 40 tons per hectare. In addition, it has been possible to achieve a great economy in water in comparison to the considerably larger quantities otherwise needed by many farmers. Hence, a great saving in water compared to quantities commonly bought by other farmers. This was reflected not only in the yield but also in the quality of the fruit, which turned out to be even better, as indicated by its size, since the quantity of water was closer to that needed. A poor yield was obtained when the water deficit was severe.

  13. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammed; Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Ansari Shahid Husain

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), ?-terpene (2.6 %) and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained t...

  14. Application of microorganisms, alone or in combination, to control postbloom fruit drop in citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana N., Klein; Aline C., Silva; Marcos R., Lopes; Katia C., Kupper.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14, ACB-33, ACB-37, and ACB-40) and Bacillus subtilis (ACB-66, ACB-69, ACB-77, and ACB-83) were tested separately or in mixtures for suppression of postbloom fruit drop in citrus, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This work aimed at: (i) determining the incubation [...] time and temperature for production of cells of biocontrol agents; (ii) determining the effect of the isolates, separately or in mixture on the germination conidia of C. acutatum; (iii) evaluating the efficiency of antagonistic isolates on detached citrus flowers and under field conditions. The results of the interactions in vitro showed that there was little differentiation in cell production among the species, and the optimum temperature was 27ºC. The best time for multiplication of bacterial cells was 36 hours, whereas for Trichoderma, the production of conidia continued to increase up to 120 hours of incubation. The mixtures of the ACB-77 plus ACB-66, ACB-33, or ACB-37 inhibited pathogen germination from 84% to 89%. Studies with detached citrus flowers showed that ACB69 alone gave 99% control. The use of mixture ACB-69 plus ACB-37 proved to be viable in the control of disease under field conditions, but the efficiency of the control was lowest than the obtained by applications of ACB-69 alone.

  15. Bioavailability of insect growth regulators in citrus and stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, P; Mulero, J; Oliva, J; Camara, M A; Zafrilla, P; Barba, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to offer data about the bioavailability of flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb in common commodities like mandarin, apricot and peach. The in vitro bioavailability of the compounds was studied not only in fresh fruit but also in standards and canned food in order to establish possible differences according to the matrix. The gastric digestion was simulated with porcine pepsin at pH 2, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal digestion was simulated with porcine pancreatin at pH 7, for 2 h in a shaking water bath at 37 degrees C. The intestinal absorption was simulated with cellulose dialysis tubing filled with a solution of sodium carbonate. No in vitro bioavailability was observed in mandarin, peach and apricot samples spiked at the concentrations generally found in the market for the raw and processed commodities. In standards, the dialysis started at the level of 0.25 mg/kg. This is an approximation to the pesticide digestion and absorption in humans. PMID:18399436

  16. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. PMID:25872450

  17. PUTATIVE PROTEASE INHIBITOR GENE DISCOVERY AND TRANSCRIPT PROFILING DURING FRUIT DEVELOPMENT AND LEAF DAMAGE IN GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI MAEF.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven putative protease inhibitor (PPI) cDNAs, representing four protein families, were isolated from a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Maef. Cv. Marsh) immature fruit flavedo cDNA library. Clones represented: legume Kuntiz inhibitors (LkiL-1, LkiL-2, LkiL-3), potato trypsin inhibitor I (PtiIL-1), serp...

  18. Nitrogen metabolism components as a tool to discriminate between organic and conventional citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Calabretta, Maria Luisa; Romano, Gabriella; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for authenticity control of organically grown orange fruits. Due to the different kinds of nitrogen fertilization of the soil in organically and conventionally managed farms, the study tried to verify the possibility to differentiate Navelina and Tarocco orange fruits obtained by these production systems through the detection of markers linked to nitrogen metabolism. In addition to the classic quality parameters, total nitrogen (N) and synephrine contents in juice and (15)N/(14)N isotope ratio (expressed as delta(15)N per thousand) in proteins of pulp and amino acids of juice were determined. The results obtained indicated that total N and synephrine contents were significantly higher in conventional fruits, whereas the delta(15)N per thousand values were higher in the organic ones. The new markers identified in this research by linear discriminant analysis of the data may constitute a useful tool to differentiate organic citrus fruits or juices from conventional ones. PMID:15796609

  19. Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus. PMID:25686700

  20. Comparison of Citrus Fruit Surface Defect Classification using Discrete Wavelet Transform, Stationary Wavelet Transform and Wavelet Packet Transform Based Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayarekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to classify the citrus fruit images based on the external defect using the features extracted in the spectral domain (transform based and to compare the performance of each of the feature set. Automatic classification of agricultural produce by machine vision technology plays a very important role as it improves the quality of grading. Multi resolution analysis using wavelets yields better results for pattern recognition and object classification. This study details about an image processing method applied for classifying three external surface defects of citrus fruit using wavelet transforms based features and an artificial neural network. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT, Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT features viz. mean and standard deviation of the details and approximations were extracted from citrus fruit images and used for classifying the defects. The DWT and SWT features were extracted from 40x40 sub-windows of the fruit image. The WPT features were extracted from the full fruit image of size 640x480. The classification results pertaining to the three wavelet transforms are reported and discussed.

  1. Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars / Similaridade genética de cultivares de citros de mesa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Elizete Beatriz, Radmann.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a similaridade genética das seguintes cultivares sem sementes de citros de mesa: laranjas Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina e Salustiana (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), tangerinas Clemenules e Marisol (C. reticulata Blanco), satsuma Okitsu (C. unshiu Marcovitch) e hí [...] bridos Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] e Ortanique (tangor provavelmente entre C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck e C. reticulata Blanco), por intermédio de marcadores isoenzimáticos. O polimorfismo foi detectado por eletroforese de proteínas extraídas de tecido foliar em 10 sistemas isoenzimáticos. Foram obtidos 30 alelos, sendo 16 polimórficos. O coeficiente de Jaccard foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS 1,7. As cultivares apresentaram elevada similaridade genética (>72,5%) e cinco grupos principais foram detectados: laranjas-doces, tangerinas 'Clemenules' e 'Marisol', 'Nova', 'Ortanique', e satsuma 'Okitsu'. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin [...] (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity between the cultivars and the unweigthed pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to obtain the phenogram (NTSYS 1.7). The cultivars showed high genetic similarity (>72.5%), and were classified in five main groups: sweet oranges, 'Clemenules' and 'Marisol' mandarins, 'Nova', 'Ortanique', and 'Okitsu' satsuma mandarin.

  2. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s) for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s) for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS) proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lower...

  3. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality.

  4. Comparative Nutritional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Juices of some Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar, Saurabh Vijay and Nawaz Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices of four species of Citrus genus i.e. C. maxima, C. limon, C. sinensis, C. reticulata were analyzed for their nutritional content (i.e. soluble sugar, total RNA & pentose sugar, free amino acids, soluble protein, total phenolic compounds and vitamin-C and antioxidant potential. The content of all studied parameters varied from one species to another but no specific trend was observed. The juice of C. reticulata was found to be rich in total soluble sugar (15.43 mg/100 ml and free amino acids (15.18 mg/100 ml as compared to other species of Citrus while C. sinensis contained the highest amount (23.07 mg/100 ml of total phenolic content. Further, C. limon contained the highest amount of total soluble proteins (180.67 mg/100 ml, total RNA & pentose sugar content (131.07 mg/100 ml, and Vitamin C (ascorbic acid content (67.97 mg/100 ml. C. sinensis & C. reticulata showed good reducing power activity at the dose of 300 µg/ml while C. limon showed good DPPH radical scavenging at all concentration ranges in comparison to the standard.

  5. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  6. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlon Dutra Degli, Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia ap [...] ós o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101 [...] st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  7. Extraction and camparison of amount of pectin, degree of estrification and galacturonic acidcontent in some citrus fruit peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Pectin is widely used in food, cosmetic and drug industries. Because of high production and consumption of citrus fruits in Mazandaran, fruit peel is available in large quantities. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the amount of pectin, degree of estrification, a key factor in rheological properties of pectin, and galacturonic acid content as a criterion for pectin purity.Materials and Methods: Thirteen species of commonly used citrus fruits, orange cultivates (Citrus sinensis; Washington navel, Sanguinello, Valencia, Acidless, Moro, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Clementine, Unshiu, Grapefruit (C. paradisi, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon and Tangelo were collected at the ripening stage. All the trees were cultivated in the experimental fields, Fajr citrus experimental institute. Amount of pectin was determined by acidic extraction from dry albedos of fruits. Degree of estrification and galacturonic acid content were determined by USP standard titrimetric procedure.Results: The highest amount of pectin was found in Italian orange (27%, Shahsavari orange (25% and Sanguinello (20 % on the basis of dry weight. The highest degree of estrification (11.5% , 10.9% and 9.6% was found in Lemon, Washington navel and Bitter (sour orange respectively. The highest galacturonic acid contents were found in Washington navel, Lemon and Italian orange (89.3, 85.4 and 77.7 respectively.Conclusion: Six fruits were suitable for utilization in drug industries including: Washington navel, Acidless, Shahsavari, Italian orange, Bitter (sour orange (C. aurantium, Lemon (C. limon. Washington navel and Lemon had the most suitable pectin for pharmaceutical purposes

  8. Isolation and identification of insecticidal components from Citrus aurantium fruit peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskos, Elias P; Mazomenos, Basilis E; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2008-07-23

    Three active components were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation of bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) fruit peel petroleum ether extract. Silica gel fractionation of the extract yielded a fraction that inflicted up to 96% mortality to adults of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) three days post-treatment. Subsequent HPLC purification of the active fraction resulted in the isolation of three components, eluted in fractions F 222, F 224, and F 226, that induced adult mortality. Considering the data obtained from UV, FTIR, MS, and (1)H NMR spectra, they were identified as 7-methoxy-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2 H-1-benzopyran-2-one (osthol), 4-methoxy-7 H-furo[3,2- g]benzopyran-7-one (bergapten), and 4-(( E)-3'-methyl-5'-(3'',3''-dimethyloxiran-2''-yl)pent-2'-enyloxy)-7 H-furo[3,2- g][1]benzopyran-7-one (6',7'-epoxybergamottin). Our results are in concordance with those reported in the literature and were further verified by direct comparison to authentic components. 6',7'-Epoxybergamottin was toxic when tested individually, while bergapten and osthol were found to act synergistically to 6',7'-epoxybergamottin. PMID:18578532

  9. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  10. Invasive Japanese beetles facilitate aggregation and injury by a native scarab pest of ripening fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Hammons, Derrick L.; Kurtural, S. Kaan; Newman, Melissa C.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species' facilitation, or benefiting, of native species is rarely considered in biological invasion literature but could have serious economic consequences should a non-native herbivore facilitate injury by a native pest of high-value crops. Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, a polyphagous scarab, facilitates feeding by the obligate fruit-feeding native green June beetle (GJB), Cotinis nitida, by biting into intact grape berries that GJB, which has blunt spatulate mandibles, is...

  11. Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

  12. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata Ondersoek na vruggroei van Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA? on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA?, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA? , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA? treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA?, had no significant effect on juice quality.Die vruggroei van Minneola tangelo is volledig ondersoek en ’n soortgelyke groeipatroon (S-kromme aan die van onder sitrusvrugte is verkry. Die groeitempo verskil egter van ander sitruskultivars. Met die toediening van lae konsentrasies gibberelliensuur (GA? is daar ’n afname in groei, met die gevolg dat kleiner vrugte verkry word. Die 15 dpm GA?-behandeling het meer vrugte geproduseer as die kontrolebehandeling. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die GA?-vrugte is effens verlaag. GA? - behandelings het geen betekenisvolle invloed op die sapkwaliteit van vrugte gehad nie.

  13. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

  14. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....

  15. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  16. Global analysis of gene expression during development and ripening of citrus fruit flesh. A proposed mechanism for citric Acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Manuel; Soler, Guillermo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Talón, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together with the analyses of selected metabolites highlighted key physiological processes occurring during citrus fruit development and ripening such as water accumulation, carbohydrate build-up, acid reduction, pigment substitutions (carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll decreases) and ascorbic acid diminution. Often, the combined analyses strongly suggested prevalence of specific metabolic alternatives. This observation has been exemplified with the proposal for a mechanism for citrate utilization, a process of much importance in citrus industry. Microarray data validated by real-time RT-PCR suggested that citrate was sequentially metabolyzed to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Thereafter, glutamate was both utilized for glutamine production and catabolyzed through the gamma-aminobutirate (GABA) shunt (GABA --> succinate semialdehyde --> succinate). This last observation appears to be of special relevance since it links the proton consuming reaction glutamate + H(+)--> GABA + CO(2) with high acid levels. GG-MS determinations showed that glutamate was constant while GABA levels decreased at ripening in agreement with a feasible activation of the GABA shunt during acid catabolism. This suggestion provides a convincing explanation for the strong reduction of both citrate and cytoplasmatic acidity that takes place in citrus fruit flesh during development and ripening. PMID:16897468

  17. Citrus fruit extracts reduce advanced glycation end products (AGEs)- and H?O?-induced oxidative stress in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Deena; Tarnus, Evelyne; Rondeau, Philippe; Da Silva, Christine Robert; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel

    2010-10-27

    Diabetes is a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated pathology, with a worldwide prevalence estimated to double by 2030. A major effort has been launched to find therapeutic means to improve health conditions of diabetic patients. Recent data show that supplemental natural antioxidants represent a potential strategy as adjunct therapy. Despite the major role of adipocytes in the etiology of diabetes, little is known about the effect of natural antioxidants on adipocyte response to oxidative stress. Using a diabetes-like oxidative stress model, the potential protective effect of antioxidative flavedo, albedo, and pulp extracts of (1) tangor Elendale (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and (2) tangelo Minneola (C. reticulata × Citrus paradisis) was investigated on human adipocytes. Besides the retardation of free-radical-induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes, non-cytotoxic concentrations of tangelo and tangor flavedo extracts significantly reduced the levels of protein carbonyls in response to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated by albumin glycation in SW872 cells. Flavedo extracts lowered carbonyl accumulation in H2O2-treated adipocytes, while tangelo and tangor flavedo, albedo, and pulp extracts suppressed ROS production in SW872 cells with or without the addition of H2O2. Our results clearly show that Mauritian Citrus fruit extracts represent an important source of antioxidants, with a novel antioxidative role at the adipose tissue level. PMID:20882960

  18. Shellac formulations to reduce epiphytic survival of coliform bacteria on citrus fruit postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, R G; Hagenmaier, R D

    2001-11-01

    Survival of the coliform bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli was monitored in a neutral carboxymethylcellulose formulation and in shellac formulations with various pH and concentrations of ethanol and the preservative paraben; populations were subsequently measured from the surface of citrus fruit coated with these formulations. Numbers of the two bacteria increased over 24 h from 10(6) CFU/ml to approximately 10(8) CFU/ml in the carboxymethylcellulose solution, but over this time numbers remained little changed in the neutral solution of shellac. The Enterobacter was more tolerant of alcohol over a 3-h period: although its numbers in a shellac solution with 10% ethanol dropped from more than 10(6) CFU/ml to just over 10(3) CFU/ml. E. coli and a third species. Klebsiella pneunoniae, declined toward the limit of detection (5 CFU/ ml) during this time. The addition of morpholine to increase the formulation pH to 9.0 caused numbers of bacteria to plummet to an undetectable level within 30 to 60 min. On Ruby Red grapefruit and Valencia oranges in storage at 13 degrees C numbers of E. aerogenes and E. coli declined over 2 weeks from 10(5) CFU/cm2 to less than 2.5 x 10(1), but most of the loss in numbers occurred within 1 day. Numbers remained significantly less on shellacked fruit compared with those applied in the carboxymethylcellulose coating, and a shellac coating prepared from a pH 9 solution was more toxic to these species than one in which 12% ethanol had been added to the neutral formulation. The addition of the preservative paraben in the basic shellac was further inhibitory. PMID:11726155

  19. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

  20. Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiwan Buachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC. Short-term (48 h co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL. CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  1. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  2. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cercós Manuel; Zacarías Lorenzo; Alós Enriqueta; Rodrigo María-Jesús; Naranjo Miguel A; Ríos Gabino; Talón Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes poten...

  3. Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioni, D R; Guizzardi, M; Biondi, D M; Renda, A; Ruberto, G

    1998-08-18

    This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. "Washington navel", "Sanguinello", "Tarocco", "Moro", "Valencia late", and "Ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. "Avana"), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. "Marsh seedless" and "Red Blush"), citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata cvv. "Carrizo" and "Troyer"), and lemon (C. limon cv. "Femminello", collected in three periods), were characterized by a combination of GC and GC/MS analyses. The antifungal efficacy of the oils was then examined at progressively reduced rates. Findings showed a positive correlation between monoterpenes other than limonene and sesquiterpene content of the oils and the pathogen fungi inhibition. The best results were shown by the citrange oils, whose chemical composition is reported for the first time, and lemon. Furthermore P. digitatum was found to be more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the oils. PMID:9761340

  4. Purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from Citrus sinensis var. Valencia fruit tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R G; Manthey, J A; Baker, R A; Grohmann, K

    2001-09-01

    A preliminary survey demonstrated activity for alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-D-mannosidase, alpha-L-arabinosidase, beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-xylosidase, and beta-D-galactosidase in orange fruit flavedo and albedo tissue. alpha-L-Rhamnosidase was not detected. Subsequently, a beta-glucosidase was purified from mature fruit rag tissue (composed of intersegmental septa, squeezed juice sacs, and fruit core tissue) of Citrus sinensis var. Valencia. The beta-glucosidase exhibited low levels of activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside (13.5%) and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (7.0%), compared to its activity against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, 100%). The enzyme was purified by a combination of ion exchange (anion and cation) and gel filtration (Superdex and Toyopearl HW-55S) chromatography. It has an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa by denaturing electrophoresis or 55 kDa by gel filtration chromatography (BioGel P-100). Hydrolysis of pNPG demonstrated a pH optimum between 4.5 and 5.5. At pH 5.0 the temperature optimum was 40 degrees C. At pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C the K(m) for pNPG was 0.1146 mM and it had a V(max) of 5.2792 nkatal x mg(-1) protein (katal = 0.06 International Units = the amount of enzyme that produces, under standard conditions, one micromol of product per min). Of the substrates tested, the enzyme was most active against the disaccharide cellobiose (1-->4), but was not active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside. High levels of activity also were observed with the disaccharides laminaribiose (1-->3), gentiobiose (1-->6), and sophorose (1-->2). Activity greater than that observed with pNPG was obtained with the flavonoids hesperetin-7-glucoside and prunin (naringenin-7-glucoside), salicin, mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside (a cyanogenic substrate), and sinigrin (a glucosinolate). The enzyme was not active against amygdalin, coniferin, or limonin glucoside. PMID:11559154

  5. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

  6. Caracterização físico-morfológica de frutos de microtangerinas (Citrus spp.) de potencial utilização como porta-enxertos / Physical and morphological characterization of fruits of small-fruited mandarins (Citrus spp.) of potential use as rootstock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Ary Apparecido, Salibe.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar espécies e variedades de Citrus do grupo das microtangerinas de valor potencial como porta-enxertos, de modo a propiciar maior conhecimento desse grupo de plantas e oferecer subsídios para futuras pesquisas. Um total de 14 variedades/clones foram descritas, [...] incluindo as seguintes espécies: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan, C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. e C. reticulata Blanco. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Departamento de Horticultura da FCA-Unesp, Botucatu-SP e os frutos foram obtidos dos BAGs de Citros da FCA-Unesp-SP, e do CCSM-IAC, Cordeirópolis-SP. Descritores físicos e morfológicos de frutos indicaram diferenças entre espécies/variedades. As microtangerinas apresentaram características semelhantes quanto ao pequeno tamanho dos frutos, forma oblata e coloração laranja dos frutos. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki e C. tachibana produziram os frutos de menor tamanho e espessura de casca. Elevado número de sementes por fruto foi encontado nas tangerinas 'Cleópatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' e 'Heennaran', enquanto 'Sunki' apresentou elevado número de sementes abortadas. Parece discutível a posição botânica de 'Suen Kat', ao que se propõe considerar a mesma como uma variedade de C. sunki. Abstract in english The present research aimed to characterize physical and morphological features of fourteen species/varieties of small-fruited mandarins of Tanaka´s groups (Citrus spp.), and hence select the most promising types. It was described the followings species: C. reshni Hort. ex Tan., C. sunki Hort. ex Tan [...] , C. pectinifera Tan., C. crenatifolia Lush., C. amblycarpa Och., C. tachibana Tan., C. lycopersicaeformis Hort. ex Tan., C. keraji Hort. ex Tan. and C. reticulata Blanco. The work was carried out at the Department of Horticulture/FCA-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Centers of Citrus Germoplasm Bank from FCA-Unesp and CCSM-IAC provided fruit materials. Physical and morphological fruits descriptors pointed out differences between varieties. This mandarins group presented as common characteristics their small size of fruits, oblate form and orange color. C. amblycarpa, C. sunki and C. tachibana produced the fruits of the smallest size. 'Cleopatra', 'Sun Chu Sha Kat', 'Suen Kat' and 'Heennaran' presented high number of seeds per fruit, while 'Sunki' presented high number of sterile seeds. It is discussed the botanical position of 'Suen Kat', which should be considered as a variety of C. sunki.

  7. Characterisation of free and bound volatile compounds from six different varieties of citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing-Nan; Tai, Ya-Nan; Dong, Man; Shao, Jin-Hui; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Free volatile compounds in six varieties of citrus juices were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound fractions were isolated and extracted with methanol and Amberlite XAD-2 resin and then hydrolyzed by almond ?-glucosidase. A total of 43 free and 17 bound volatile compounds were identified in citrus. Free volatile contents in sweet orange were the most abundant, followed by those in grapefruits and mandarins. Among free volatiles, terpenes were the most abundant in citrus juice. Sensory analysis results showed that the flavor of the same citrus cultivars was similar, but the flavor of different cultivars varied. Among bound volatiles, benzenic compounds were the most abundant in these citrus juices. Bound volatiles also significantly differed among cultivars. In addition, only p-vinylguaiacol were detected in all of the samples. PMID:25952837

  8. Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Deena; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Evelyne; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2010-11-28

    The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC?? values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC?? value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods. PMID:20100535

  9. Efficacy of lufenuron bait station technique to control mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata in Citrus Orchards in Northern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of the lufenuron bait stations as a component of an integrated pest management program (IPM) was tested in three citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata during the three years 2005, 2006 and 2007. the technique was based on the use of the insect growth regulator lufenuron transferred via a gel bait Fr adult flies to prevent the hatching of eggs laid in fruits and induce a subsequent population reduction. The evaluation of the effect of the treatments was based on the assessment of adult Medfly population reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures in McPhail traps baited with the synthetic lure trimedlure and insecticide together with the evaluation of fruit damage. Results indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions of 12.72 pour cent during 2005, 34.99 pour cent and respectively 78.85 pour cent, 62.84 pour cent in fields 1, 2 and 3 during 2007 compared to standard chemical treatments. Fruit damage assessment showed generally significant differences between the two treatments reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures

  10. Putative protease inhibitor gene discovery and transcript profiling during fruit development and leaf damage in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatters, Robert G; Bausher, Michael G; Hunter, Wayne B; Chaparro, José X; Dang, Phat M; Niedz, Randall P; Mayer, Richard T; McCollum, T Greg; Sinisterra, Xiomara

    2004-02-01

    Seven putative protease inhibitor (PPI) cDNAs, representing four protein families, were isolated from a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. Cv. Marsh) immature fruit flavedo cDNA library. Cloned open reading frames encoded proteins with similarity to, and protein signatures for: legume Kuntiz inhibitors (lkiL-1, lkiL-2, lkiL-3), potato trypsin inhibitor I (ptiIL-1), serpins (serpL-1), cystatins (cystL-1), and gamma thionins (gthL-1). Response of transcript abundance to fruit development and leaf wounding was determined for all but lkiL-1 using real-time RT-PCR. Immature leaves had the highest transcript levels for all PPIs. The gthL-1 transcript in immature leaves was the most abundant transcript but was absent from healthy mature leaves. In fruit flavedo, transcripts for all PPIs were most abundant in youngest fruit (50-fold in mature leaves and decreased >1400-fold in immature leaves. This developmental control of transcript response to wounding in a woody perennial is opposite of what has been observed for defensive proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in other plants (typically herbaceous and/or annual plants), where younger leaves typically invoke a higher defensive proteinase inhibitor transcript accumulation than older tissues. Except for gthL-1, the PPI transcripts were minimally responsive or unresponsive to wounding. Changes in PPI transcript levels suggest diverse roles for the products of these genes in citrus, with only gthL-1 responding in a defense-like manner. PMID:14729265

  11. Ultrastructural and histochemical analysis reveals ethylene-induced responses underlying reduced peel collapse in detached citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajuste, Jacques F; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Lafuente, María T

    2011-10-01

    Fruits from many citrus cultivars develop depressed areas in the flavedo (outer part of the peel) and albedo (inner part) following detachment. Although ultrastructural analysis may provide important information about multiple plant responses to stresses and external stimuli at the cell and tissue levels, and despite the proved efficacy of ethylene in reducing peel damage in citrus fruit, cytological responses of this horticultural crop to protective ethylene concentrations have not yet been reported. We show that applying high ethylene levels (2 ?L L(-1) for 14 days) causes sublethal stress as it favored the alteration of cuticle, vacuole, middle lamella and primary wall, especially in the albedo cells, but reduced peel collapse in detached mature "Navelate" oranges (C. sinensis, L. Osbeck) held under nonstressful environmental conditions (22°C and 90-95% RH). Ethylene did not induce relevant changes in lignification but favored the deposition of pectic exudates and the release of sugars from degradation of cell polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, and pectins. In contrast, inhibiting ethylene perception by applying 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced these ethylene-related responses and favored degradation of cell membranes and peel damage. The overall results reflect that mature oranges tolerate high ethylene levels that might favor the activation of defense responses involving oxidative-stress related mechanisms and recycling of nutrients and carbon supply to enable cells to sustain respiration and cope with carbon deprivation stress caused by detachment. PMID:21509903

  12. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis L. osbeck : II. Efeitos no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos Continuos use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. osbeck: II - ffects ondevelopment, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossol Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica com o objetivo de veri fic ar o efeito do uso cont inuo dos principais herbicidas no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade dos frutos em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, en xertada sobr e limão cravo (Citrus lionia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do i. a. em kg/h a foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone 4,5; dichlobenil a5,0 ; diuron a3,2 ; bromacila 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraquat a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77 alem de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente, e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em meio/ 75 e a 1a aplicação dos herbicidas foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma area de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última aplic ação foi realizada em 1992. O efeito no desenvolvimento foi feito pela medida do diâmetro do caule a 10 m acima do ponto de enxertia, pelo diâmetro da copa na altura mediana e pela altura das plantas. Todas essas medidas eram realizadas 2 vezes por ano. Para avaliação da produção, eram colhidos os frutos de quatro plantas por parcela. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada através das medidas do diâmetro longitudinal e transversal, albedo, peso e número de sementes, peso médio dos frutos, % de suco, % de sólidos solúveis e % de acidez. Pelos dados obtidos , verifica - se que não houve influência dos herbicidas no desenvolvimento das plantas de citros, e na produção. As influencias na qualidade dos frutos foram mínimas, e dependeram do ano de amostragem.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1,75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyng the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the development, yield and fruit quality, of a 'Pera' citrus orchard, grafted on 'Limão - Cravo (Citrus Limonia . Random blocks experimental de sign with 12 treatments and 4 replicates was used. The treatments and herbicide application rates(kg /ha were: terbacil at 3.2; simazi ne at 4.0; ametryne + secbumetone at 4.5; dichlobenil at 5.0; diuron at 3.2; bromacil at 3.2; bromacil + diuron at 3.2; paraquat at 0.6; glyphosate at 1.61 and MSMA at 1.37 and two contro1 plots manually tilled, one yearly and other whenever weeds covered 25% of the plot. The orchard was planted in may 1975, and the first herbicide application was done in october 1977. The area of each plot was 54 m2 (3,0 x 18,0 m with 4 plants per plot The last herbicide application was done in 1982. The effect on plant development was measured through the stem diameter at 10 cm above the bud union, canopy diameter and height two times per year. Yield was mea measured harvesting the fruit s of 4 plant s per plot. The fruit quali ty was evalu ated by measuring the longitud inal and transvers al diameter, albedo, weight and number of seeds, average fruit weight, jui ce %, soluble solids %, acidi ty and production in kg per tree . The results showed no effec t the herbicides on both development and yield of the plant s. The effe ct on fruit quality was minimal.

  13. A novel bud mutation that confers abnormal patterns of lycopene accumulation in sweet orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Xu, Juan; Liu, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Deng, Xiuxin; Guo, Linlin; Gu, Jianqin

    2007-01-01

    A novel, pleiotropic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) mutant, 'Hong Anliu', is described. This mutation causes carotenoid accumulation, high sugar, and low acid in the fruits. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that high sugar and low acid in the fruit were caused by the accumulation of sucrose and the deficiency of citric acid. The dominant carotenoid accumulated in albedo, segment membranes, and juice sacs is lycopene, which can reach levels that are a 1000-fold higher than those in comparable wild-type fruits. This mutation does not affect the carotenoid composition of leaves. Carotenoid concentration and biosynthetic gene expression of albedo, segment membranes, and juice sacs were dramatically altered by the mutation. Lycopene accumulation in the juice sacs was regulated by co-ordinate expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes. However, in albedo and segment membranes, the expression of downstream carotenogenic genes seems to be feedback induced by lycopene accumulation. This implies that there must be at least two modes regulating lycopene accumulation in 'Hong Anliu' fruit. Taken together, these results suggest that massive amounts of lycopene might be synthesized in the juice sacs and then transported to the segment membrane and the albedo, which leads to lycopene accumulation there. PMID:18182424

  14. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2*: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2*: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2*: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2*: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  15. Mapeamento de QTLs associados à produção de frutos e sementes em híbridos de Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata / QTL mapping linked to fruit set and seeds in Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amauri, Siviero; Mariângela, Cristofani; Leonardo P., Boava; Marcos A., Machado.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O grupo dos citros apresenta acentuada juvenilidade manifestada pela incapacidade de florescimento, vigor e formação de espinhos. No caso da laranja 'valência', os híbridos de trifoliata, utilizados como porta-enxertos, induzem maior precocidade e produtividade. O número de sementes do fruto (NSF) c [...] onstitui importante característica da variedade candidata a porta-enxerto de citros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar QTLs associados às características número de frutos por planta (NF) e número de sementes por fruto em uma progênie F1 derivada de um cruzamento entre Citrus sunki e Poncirus trifoliata 'Rubidoux'. Os grupos de ligação (GL) dos parentais foram obtidos usando a estratégia 'pseudotestcross' e marcadores do tipo RAPD. A contagem do número de frutos por planta e o número médio de sementes por fruto foi realizada usando 80 indivíduos da progênie. A detecção dos QTLs foi realizada pelo método de mapeamento por intervalo composto utilizando o programa QTLCartographer. Foram detectados um QTL associado à frutificação e um QTL ligado ao número de sementes situados no GL 4 e GL 5 no mapa de P. trifoliata, respectivamente. Abstract in english Citrus group shows juvenility strong due incapacity to flowering, vigor and thorn formation. Trifoliata hybrids used as rootstocks to induce early production and better field for 'Valencia' orange scion. Seeds number per fruit is very important characteristic to citrus rootstocks candidate. The pres [...] ent study has as objective to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to fruiting and seeds production in F1 progeny obtained of Citrus sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata cross. Linkage groups (LG) of parents were built by pseudotestcross strategy using RAPD markers. Fruits/plant and seeds/fruit numbers were counting using 80 individuals of progeny. QTL detection was made with composite interval mapping using the QTL Cartographer. QTL linked to fruiting and seed production in LG 4 and LG 5 of the P. trifoliata map, respectively, were detected.

  16. Mapeamento de QTLs associados à produção de frutos e sementes em híbridos de Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata QTL mapping linked to fruit set and seeds in Citrus Sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Siviero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O grupo dos citros apresenta acentuada juvenilidade manifestada pela incapacidade de florescimento, vigor e formação de espinhos. No caso da laranja 'valência', os híbridos de trifoliata, utilizados como porta-enxertos, induzem maior precocidade e produtividade. O número de sementes do fruto (NSF constitui importante característica da variedade candidata a porta-enxerto de citros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar QTLs associados às características número de frutos por planta (NF e número de sementes por fruto em uma progênie F1 derivada de um cruzamento entre Citrus sunki e Poncirus trifoliata 'Rubidoux'. Os grupos de ligação (GL dos parentais foram obtidos usando a estratégia 'pseudotestcross' e marcadores do tipo RAPD. A contagem do número de frutos por planta e o número médio de sementes por fruto foi realizada usando 80 indivíduos da progênie. A detecção dos QTLs foi realizada pelo método de mapeamento por intervalo composto utilizando o programa QTLCartographer. Foram detectados um QTL associado à frutificação e um QTL ligado ao número de sementes situados no GL 4 e GL 5 no mapa de P. trifoliata, respectivamente.Citrus group shows juvenility strong due incapacity to flowering, vigor and thorn formation. Trifoliata hybrids used as rootstocks to induce early production and better field for 'Valencia' orange scion. Seeds number per fruit is very important characteristic to citrus rootstocks candidate. The present study has as objective to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL associated to fruiting and seeds production in F1 progeny obtained of Citrus sunki vs. Poncirus trifoliata cross. Linkage groups (LG of parents were built by pseudotestcross strategy using RAPD markers. Fruits/plant and seeds/fruit numbers were counting using 80 individuals of progeny. QTL detection was made with composite interval mapping using the QTL Cartographer. QTL linked to fruiting and seed production in LG 4 and LG 5 of the P. trifoliata map, respectively, were detected.

  17. Fruit quality and nutraceutical composition in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from Northern Italy (Piedmont)

    OpenAIRE

    Bounous, Giancarlo; Canterino, Sara; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2011-01-01

    In the Verbano lake area (46° 1' 26.04" N; 8° 41' 13.92" E), thanks to a favourable microclimate, the citrus culture has a great historic tradition, dating since the XVII century. The culture was introduced into the area from Tuscany and Ligury and many old citrus trees, propagated by grafting and budding during the last hundred years, are grown. The safeguard of the local germplasm and the conservation of the biodiversity, in order to reduce the genetic erosion, is fundamental and the citr...

  18. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL(s for bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands received an application from Chemtura to modify the existing MRL(s for the active substance bifenazate in citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, grapes, hops, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons and watermelons. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bifenazate, the evaluating Member State (EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs for all of the crops except for pepper where a lowering of the MRL was proposed, and for tomatoes and aubergines, where it was concluded that no modification of the MRL would be required. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA on 6 January 2012. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.9 mg/kg for citrus fruit, 0.5 mg/kg for pome fruit, 0.5 mg/kg peaches/nectarines and plums, 0.7 mg/kg for grapes, 3 mg/kg for strawberries, 0.5 mg/kg for tomatoes and aubergines, 0.4 mg/kg for sweet pepper, 3 mg/kg for chilli pepper, 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits with inedible peel and 20 mg/kg for hops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bifenazate on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Since for some of these crops higher MRLs were proposed in a previously issued reasoned opinion of EFSA, they need to be considered to avoid trade disruption. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bifenazate on citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, table- and wine grapes, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, melons, watermelons and hops will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  20. Effect of harvesting with a trunk shaker and an abscission chemical on fruit detachment and defoliation of citrus grown under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spain ranks as the world’s leading exporter of citrus for fresh consumption. Manual harvest accounts for 50% of the total production costs. Mechanical harvest would increase labor productivity and benefits of growers. Efficiency of these machines depends on the varieties and operating conditions. Use of abscission chemicals has been promoted to increase the detachment rate of fruit without affecting its quality. This work is aimed at studying whether the mechanical harvest and/or the application of an abscission agent affect the quality and quantity of harvested fruit and tree defoliation under the conditions of citrus cultivation in Spain. Trials were made in a completely randomized experimental design. From 2008 to 2011, different orchards of mandarin and orange trees were sprayed with different doses of ethephon as abscission agent and harvested with a trunk shaker. Harvest related variables (detachment percentage, defoliation and fruit without calyx were measured. The percentage of fruit detached by the trunk shaker ranged between 70 and 85% and it did not depend on the orchard. The shaker produced minimal damage to the bark when gripped incorrectly. Increased doses of ethephon increased fruit detachment except in ‘Clemenules’ orchard, but also increased the fruit without calyx in 1-9%. Moreover, ethephon promoted significant defoliation. Neither gummosis nor death of branches was observed. This work demonstrates that mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers may be a feasible solution for citrus cultivated in Spain for fresh market. Use of ethephon could only be recommended for citrus destined to industry and only for certain varieties.

  1. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

  2. El Estrés Hídrico en Cítricos (Citrus spp.): Una revisión / Water stress on citric fruit (Citrus spp.): a review / O estresse hídrico em cítricos (Citrus spp): Uma revisão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier E, Vélez; Javier G, Álvarez-Herrera; Oscar H, Alvarado-Sanabria.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cítricos constituem o principal produto frutícola no mundo pelas suas vantagens e benefícios. Uma umidade adequada e homogênea no solo garante sua qualidade e produção, ainda nos países subtropicais onde existe distribuição uniforme da precipitação. A maioria das áreas citrícolas, contam com infr [...] aestrutura de risco localizado, o que incrementa a eficiência no uso da agua. Porém, a pressão sobre os recursos hídricos faz necessário estudar o comportamento em condiçöes adversas para manejar eficientemente o planejamento da irrigação. Nesta revisão apresenta-se o efeito do déficit hídrico nos cítricos. Além disto, algumas respostas fisiológicas e anatômicas pelos cítricos ao déficit e o efeito do estresse hídrico sobre a produção e o crescimento vegetativo. Finalmente, apresentam-se alguns resultados da aplicação de irrigação deficitária, como forma de poupar água sem afetar a produção. Abstract in spanish Los cítricos constituyen el principal producto frutícola a nivel mundial por sus ventajas y beneficios. Una humedad adecuada y homogénea en el suelo garantiza su calidad y producción, incluso en los países subtropicales donde existen distribuciones uniformes de la precipitación. La mayoría de las ár [...] eas de cítricos cuentan con infraestructura de riego localizado, lo que incrementa la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Sin embargo, la presión sobre los recursos hídricos hace necesario seguir estudiando el comportamiento ante condiciones adversas para manejar eficientemente la programación del riego. En este artículo se presenta el efecto del déficit hídrico en los cítricos. Además de algunas respuestas fisiológicas y anatómicas que manifiestan los cítricos a este déficit y que efecto tiene un estrés hídrico sobre la producción y el crecimiento vegetativo. Por último se recopilan algunos resultados de la aplicación de riego deficitario como una forma de ahorrar agua sin afectar la producción. Abstract in english Citric fruit represent the main fruit product worldwide due to their advantages and benefits. Adequate and homogenous moisture in the soil ensures consistent fruit quality and production, even in subtropical countries having patterns. Most citric-growing areas have drip irrigation infrastructure, th [...] ereby increasing water-use efficiency. However, pressure on water resources means that water use in adverse conditions must continue to be studied to ensure efficient irrigation scheduling. This paper deals with the effect of water stress on citric plants, as well as some of their physiological and anatomical responses to such deficit and what effect hydric stress has on vegetable production and growth. Some results are compiled regarding deficit irrigation (DI) as a way to save water without affecting production.

  3. Dinámicas del viento en quintas de cítricos y daño en los frutos / Wind Dynamics in Citrus Orchards and Fruit Damage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Cataldo; Valeria, Durañona; Rodolfo, Pienika; Alfredo, Gravina.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay las quintas de cítricos están protegidas con mallas naturales, conformadas por árboles altos. Si bien se consigue disminuir la velocidad media del viento, no se logra una disminución de la cantidad de fruta descartada debido al daño por viento. El roce de las hojas sería lo que genera el [...] mayor daño sobre la superficie en las primeras etapas de crecimiento del fruto. Se realizó un trabajo de campo en un cuadro de una plantación de cítricos, en el que se instalaron mallas de manera de lograr una protección parcial del mismo. En las zonas protegidas por estas mallas se apreció un aumento de la cantidad de fruta de calidad exportable. A diferencia de las barreras naturales, cuando el viento escurre alrededor de estas mallas plásticas se produce turbulencia con escalas del tamaño de las hojas de los árboles y aún menores. Se estudió un árbol cítrico en el túnel de viento, con flujos de velocidad media entre 1 m/s y 6 m/s, y de diferente nivel de energía contenida en las estructuras vorticosas correspondientes a longitudes del tamaño de las hojas y menores. Para una velocidad media determinada, cuando el contenido de energía de las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia era elevado, las hojas se movieron con una amplitud significativamente mayor a cuando el flujo presentó baja energía en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia. Esto lleva a concluir que la hoja permanecería alejada del fruto un tiempo significativamente mayor cuanto más elevada sea la energía contenida en las pequeñas escalas de la turbulencia, disminuyendo así la acción mecánica de las hojas y el consiguiente daño. Abstract in english In Uruguay, citrus orchards are protected by live fences, constituted by tall trees. While it manages to reduce the average wind speed, it does not reduce the amount of fruit discarded due to wind damage. The rubbing of the leaves’ edges against the fruits would be the most significant source of dam [...] age in young fruits. A field test in a box of citrus plantations was performed, in which artificial fences were installed for wind protection. In the fence protected zones, an increase of the exportable quality fruit was detected. As a difference to live fences, artificial fences are designed to control the turbulence of tree leaves’ size or smaller. Citrus tree’s response under wind action was studied in a wind tunnel for flows with mean velocities between 1 m/s and 6 m/s, and with different energy content at small-scale turbulence. At a fixed mean velocity, if the energy at small-scale turbulence was high, the leaves moved with an amplitude significantly greater than when this energy is low. This leads us to infer that the leaf would remain significantly more time away from the fruit when the energy at the small-scales is greater than when the energy is low, reducing the leaves’ mechanical action and thereby the resulting damage.

  4. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Sensory and textural characterization of citrus and pineapple fruits candied with healthy components

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Sobreira, Carla; S. Abraão, Ana; M. Lemos, André; M. Nunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Production of low-calorie candied fruits was investigated by substituting sucrose with fructose, maltitol, sorbitol and actilight. Quality of candied fruits was evaluated with respect to yields obtained for the fruit candied process, chemical composition, microbial growth, rheological characteristics, color, and sensory attributes. The sensory attributes investigated were influenced by the osmotic agent used. Each of the different OD agents significantly influenced the taste and/or texture...

  6. Recent introduction and recombination in Colletotrichum acutatum populations associated with citrus postbloom fruit drop epidemics in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi-Guillardi, Maisa; Baldauf, Cristina; Souza, Anete Pereira; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Amorim, Lilian

    2014-07-01

    Citrus crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, have been severely affected by postbloom fruit drop disease (PFD), which is caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. This disease leads to the drop of up to 100% of young fruits. Previous studies have assumed that this pathogen exhibits a clonal reproductive mode, although no population genetic studies have been conducted so far. Thus, the genetic structure of six C. acutatum populations from sweet orange orchards showing PFD symptoms was determined using nine microsatellite markers, enabling inference on predominant mode of reproduction. C. acutatum populations exhibit a nearly panmictic genetic structure and a high degree of admixture, indicating either ongoing contemporary gene flow at a regional scale or a recent introduction from a common source, since this pathogen was introduced in Brazil only very recently. Sharing haplotypes among orchards separated by 400 km suggests the natural dispersal of fungal propagules, with the possible involvement of pollinators. A significant population expansion was detected, which was consistent with an increase in host density associated with crop expansion toward new areas across the state. Findings of moderate to high levels of haplotypic diversity and gametic equilibrium suggest that recombination might play an important role in these pathogen populations, possibly via parasexual reproduction or a cryptic sexual cycle. This study provides additional tools for epidemiological studies of C. acutatum to improve prevention and management strategies for this disease. PMID:24423403

  7. Effect of pulse irrigation scheduling with hybrid station controller on fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulate blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2008-2011. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1; Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2; Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3; and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4 with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days.  The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules.  The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha. Fruit weight (154.7 g, TSS (10.22 0Brix and juice percent (40.77% was found with automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times. The automatic drip irrigation scheduling can be better substitute for manual drip irrigation operation and enhancing the water use efficiency.  

  8. In-Line estimation of the standard colour index of citrus fruits using a computer vision system developed for a mobile platform

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vidal; Talens Oliag, Pau; Prats-Montalbán, José Manuel; Cubero García, Sergio; Albert Gil, Francisco Eugenio; BLASCO IVARS, JOSE

    2013-01-01

    A key aspect for the consumer when it comes to deciding on a particular product is the colour. In order to make fruit available to consumers as early as possible, the collection of oranges and mandarins begins before they ripen fully and reach their typical orange colour. As a result, they are therefore subjected to certain degreening treatments, depending on their standard colour citrus index at harvest. Recently, a mobile platform that incorporates a computer vision system capable of pre-so...

  9. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; LI, XIAOGANG; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE conce...

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  11. Guava SSR analysis: Diversity assessment and similarity to accessions associated with reducing citrus greening in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guava (Psidium guajava) is an evergreen tree in the Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. It is grown throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, and is used as a fresh fruit and processed into juice, jelly and paste. Recent introduction of citrus greening (huanglongbing) into Florida...

  12. Mineral characterization of native fruits from the southern region of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Couto, Pereira; Wiliam, Boschetti; Roger, Rampazzo; Paulo Gustavo, Celso; Plinho Francisco, Hertz; Alessandro de Oliveira, Rios; Márcia, Vizzotto; Simone Hickmann, Flores.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the greatest variety of Brazilian flora is in the Amazon region, the Southern region of Brazil also has an estimated number of at least 5,000 species of vascular native plants. These species have been neglected as potential food sources, remaining unknown and under-utilized and limiting the [...] potential variety in the diet of Brazilians and other peoples. Therefore the aim of this study was to characterize the mineral composition and content present in seven native fruit species of Southern Brazil using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The essential element concentrations in the fruit samples were higher or similar to the values reported for traditional fruits. The araticum-do-mato fruit samples had high concentrations of the elements Ca, K, and Cu, and trace elements such as Pb and Sr. Mandacaru-de-três-quinas had predominance of Ba, Bi, and Ga, and the essential elements Mg and Mn. Uvaia and guabiroba had the highest levels of Al and Cr, but uvaia had high levels of Fe and Zn. The pindo palm had high amounts of Cd and Ni, and the yellow guava had high concentrations of Na, while red guava had high levels of Co.

  13. Citrus phenylpropanoids and defence against pathogens. Part II: gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Teresa Lafuente, M; González-Candelas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. PMID:23017425

  14. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)

    OpenAIRE

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25–30 °C, 60–70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and...

  15. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ / Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Ferreira de, Souza; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Elen de Lima, Aguiar - Menezes; Fernando Antônio Abrantes, Ferrara; Stenilson Araújo, Nascimento; William Costa, Rodrigues; Paulo César Rodrigues, Cassino.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco), no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os [...] espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos) foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata) infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial. Abstract in english This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea) that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck ) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to Nove [...] mber, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males) was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata) infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

  16. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no município de Araruama, RJ Diversity of fruit flies in citrus groves in the municipality of Araruama, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ferreira de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea de ocorrência em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis Osbeck e tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco, no município de Araruama, RJ, durante o período de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os espécimes foram coletados em armadilhas McPhail contendo solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos de seis variedades de citros. Nas armadilhas, o total de 2.543 adultos de Tephritoidea (1.430 fêmeas e 1.023 machos foi capturado, sendo dez espécies de Tephritidae, quatro espécies e dois morfotipos de Lonchaeidae. Dos Tephritidae e capturados nas McPhail, quatro espécies (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula e Ceratitis capitata infestaram frutos cítricos, enquanto que, dos Lonchaeidae, somente os morfotipos não infestaram as amostras de citros. Os resultados demonstram que a densidade populacional das moscas-das-frutas pode ser superestimada, quando baseada no número de moscas por armadilha, devido à captura de espécies que não infestam os frutos de interesse comercial.This study was aimed at determining the species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae (Diptera: Tephritoidea that occur on groves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck and tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco in the municipality of Araruama, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from December, 2002 to November, 2003. The specimens were collected by McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruits samples of six varieties of citrus. In the traps the total of 2,543 adults of Tephritoidea (1,430 females and 1,023 males was captured, being ten species of Tephritidae, four species and two morphotypes of Lonchaeidae. From the Tephritidae caught by the McPhail, four species (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. sororcula and Ceratitis capitata infested citric fruits while the Lonchaeidae, the morphotypes did not infest the citrus. The results showed that the population density of fruit flies may be overestimated when based on the number of flies per trap due to the capture of species that not infest the fruits of commercial interest.

  17. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus medica L. cv Diamante flowers, leaves and fruits at two maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Conforti, Filomena; De Luca, Damiano; Statti, Giancarlo A; de Cindio, Bruno; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Since the past decade consumption of certain foods has been reported to have a positive effect on health. The object of the study was to determine for the first time the chemical composition and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic potential of Citrus medica L. cv Diamante flowers, leaves and fruits (endocarp and mesocarp) at two maturity stages. Flowers and leaves were characterized by the highest total phenols and flavonoids content. A declining trend was observed during maturity of fruits for both phenols and flavonoids. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the ?-carotene bleaching test showed a strong activity for flowers and endocarp of mature fruits with IC50 values of 2.8 ?g/mL and 3.5 ?g/mL, respectively, after 30 min of incubation. Interestingly, the mature fruits endocarp (IC50 value of 426.0 ?g/mL) could inhibit ?-amylase with an IC50 value 2-fold higher than immature fruits. None of the tested extracts affected the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts 142BR. The obtained results suggest a potential use of C. medica L. cv Diamante as new valuable Citrus species with functional properties for food or nutraceutical product on the basis of high content of phytochemicals. PMID:21457747

  18. COMPARATIVE DISAPPEARANCE OF DIOXATHION, MALATHION, OXYDEMETONMETHYL AND DIALIFOR FROM FLORIDA CITRUS LEAF AND FRUIT SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface residue disappearance rates of dioxathion, malathion, and oxydemetonmethyl, and dialifor were the same for fruit and leaves, and they increase with temperature. Disappearance rates were in the order of malation, oxydemetonmethyl, dialifor, dioxathion (from largest to smal...

  19. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p???0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

  20. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae) em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção / Damage caused by fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) on citrus under organic production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Felisberto da, Silva; Luíza Rodrigues, Redaelli; Rafael Narciso, Meirelles; Fábio Kessler, Dal Soglio.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação d [...] e sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita. Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) are the main pests of horticulture worldwide. Because they are considered key pests in citrus production, it is necessary to monitor them to avoid the direct damage. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the population variation of Anastrepha fraterculus [...] and the relationship of its population with damage in organic orchards of orange "Céu" cultivar and tangor (C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata) cv "Murcott". Data were collected over the maturation period, from January 2003 to September 2004, in the Caí Valley region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The number of fruit flies was recorded weekly by McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25%. Damageto the fruits were determined by the ratio between healthy fruits and fruit damaged by the flies. Meteorological records of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were obtained from meteorological station 30 km away from the experimental areas. It was found that larger populations of A. fraterculus, the predominant species in the region, were found under ideal conditions of rainfall. The estimatedpopulation of fruit flies capable of causing damage to fruits varied according to the cultivar, in which orange cv 'Céu' was the most susceptible. The highest population peaks were found at the color changing phase of fruits. However, at the phase of fruit maturity, flies caused the greatest damage due to the fruits intolerance to the attack. It was concluded that the infestation of citrus fruits by A. fraterculus is related to the species, the cultivar and climatic factors, especially rainfall. Constant monitoring of fruit fly population is important in determining the infestation at harvest.

  1. Native Australian fruit polyphenols inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron C; Konczak, Izabela; Ramzan, Iqbal; Sze, Daniel M-Y

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the most critical forms of defense against cancer, and the induction of apoptosis by dietary polyphenols represents significant potential for cancer preventive activity. The present study examined polyphenols extracted from selected native Australian fruits--Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus Endl., Podocarpaceae), Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell, Combretaceae), muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), and native currant (Acrotriche depressa R.Br., Epacridaceae)--for antiproliferative activity against a panel of cancer and normal cell lines. Each fruit selectively inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of growth inhibition of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) was determined to be apoptosis by morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry, and caspase-3 induction. Furthermore, Kakadu plum was found to activate caspase-7, -9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), suggesting it acts via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The same fruit also caused direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) as detected using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay. PMID:21391128

  2. Sources of antioxidant activity in Australian native fruits. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven; Konczak, Izabela

    2006-12-27

    Selected native Australian fruits, muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Tasmanian pepper berry (Tasmanian lanceolata R. Br., Winteraceae), Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl., Podocarpaceae), Burdekin plum (Pleiogynium timorense DC. Leenh, Anacardiaceae), Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Davidson's plum (Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell. var. pruriens, Davidsoniaceae), and Molucca raspberry (Rubus moluccanus var. austropacificus van Royen, Rosaceae), were evaluated as sources of antioxidants by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and compared with blueberry (Vaccinum spp. cv. Biloxi). The total reducing capacity of five fruits was 3.5-5.4-fold higher than that of blueberry, and the radical scavenging activities of muntries and Burdekin plum were 1.5- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively. The total phenolic level by Folin-Ciocalteu assay highly correlated with the antioxidant activity. Therefore, systematic research was undertaken to identify and characterize phenolic complexes. In the present study we report on the levels and composition of anthocyanins. The HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS-MS (ESI = electrospray ionization) analyses revealed simple anthocyanin profiles of one to four individual pigments, with cyanidin as the dominating type. This is the first evaluation of selected native Australian fruits aiming at their utilization for the development of novel functional food products. PMID:17177507

  3. Influence of deficit irrigation timing on the fruit quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mac.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G

    2015-05-15

    The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased ?-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels. PMID:25577088

  4. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  5. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-05-01

    This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm). PMID:20501040

  6. Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20 degrees C. PMID:16865899

  7. Consequences of iron deficiency on fruit quality in citrus and stawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M.; Varennes, Amarilis; Miguel, Maria Grac?a; Correia, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (iron chlorosis) is an important nutritional disorder in several plants, including fruit trees and strawberry. Iron chlorosis does not result from a small level of iron in soils but rather from impaired acquisition and use of this metal by plants. Calcium carbonate, present in great amounts in calcareous soils, and the resulting large levels of bicarbonate ions, are the main causes of iron deficiency. Countries in southern Europe, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy and...

  8. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of the citrus fruit epidermis and subepidermis using laser capture microdissection

    OpenAIRE

    Matas, AJ; Agustí, J.; Tadeo, FR; Talón, M; Rose, JK

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of the biochemical and regulatory pathways that are associated with, and control, fruit expansion and ripening are based on homogenized bulk tissues, and do not take into consideration the multiplicity of different cell types from which the analytes, be they transcripts, proteins or metabolites, are extracted. Consequently, potentially valuable spatial information is lost and the lower abundance cellular components that are expressed only in certain cell types can be diluted belo...

  9. Mass and volume modelling of tangerine (Citrus reticulate fruit with some physical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mobli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are instances in which it is desirable to determine relationships among fruit physical attributes. For example, fruits are often graded on the basis of size and projected area, but it may be more economical to develop a machine which would grade by mass or volume. Therefore, the relationships between mass/volume (either mass or volume and other physical attributes of fruit are needed. In this study three Iranian varieties of tangerine were selected and the various models for predicting mass/volume of tangerine from its dimensions, projected area, and volume/mass were established. The models were divided into three classifications: 1 – single and multiple variable regressions of tangerine dimensions, 2 – single and multiple variable regressions of projected areas, 3 – estimating tangerine mass/volume based on its volume/mass. The results revealed that mass and volume modelling on the basis of intermediate diameter, on any projected area, and the measured volume are the best models. Based on the results, mass and volume modelling, respectively on the basis of the actual volume and one projected area, were identified as the best models. The highest determination coefficient in all the models was obtained for volume modelling based on projected area as R2 = 0.97. Finally, volume modelling from economical stand-point was recommended as the most reliable modelling.

  10. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercós Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid ?-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly associated with a major mobilization of mineral elements and with other previously known metabolic and photosynthetic changes. The expression of CcGCC1 was associated with peel ripening since CcGCC1 down-regulation correlated with a delay in colour break induced by genetic, developmental and hormonal causes.

  11. Estimativa da produção de sementes de porta-enxertos cítricos por meio da massa de frutos / Production estimation of citrus rootstock seeds using fruit weight

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moises, Zucoloto; Marcio Gama da, Costa; Lorena Moreira, Carvalho; Dierlei dos, Santos; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do uso de porta-enxertos é de suma importância, especialmente pelo fato de que a citricultura depara-se com um número crescente de doenças que afetam pomares enxertados. O objetivo foi determinar a quantidade de caixas de frutos necessária para a obtenção de uma massa determinada de [...] sementes. Foram tomadas medidas de massa de fruto, número de frutos por caixa, número de sementes por fruto e número de sementes por caixa de nove porta-enxertos. O número máximo de caixas necessárias para obtenção de um quilo de sementes foi de 5,43 para o 'limão-cravo' e o número mínimo foi de 1,01, para o genótipo 'Rangpur' x 'Swingle'. Abstract in english Diversification of rootstocks is crucial, especially because the citrus industry is facing a growing number of diseases affecting orchards. The objective of this study was to determine the number of boxes of citrus needed to obtain a specific mass of seeds. Measurements of fruit weight, fruit number [...] per box, number of seeds per fruit and seed number per box of nine rootstocks were recorded. The maximum number of boxes needed to obtain 1 kg of seeds was 5.43 for the Lemon 'Cravo' and the minimum was 1.01 for genotype Rangpur x Swingle.

  12. Ectopic expression of a fruit phytoene synthase from Citrus paradisi Macf. promotes abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidade, Luciana C; de Oliveira, Tahise M; Mendes, Amanda F S; Macedo, Amanda F; Floh, Eny I S; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Soares-Filho, Walter S; Costa, Marcio G C

    2012-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant responses to environmental stresses and an absolute requirement for stress tolerance. Recently, a third phytoene synthase (PSY3) gene paralog was identified in monocots and demonstrated to play a specialized role in stress-induced ABA formation, thus suggesting that the first committed step in carotenogenesis is a key limiting step in ABA biosynthesis. To examine whether the ectopic expression of PSY, other than PSY3, would similarly affect ABA level and stress tolerance, we have produced transgenic tobacco containing a fruit-specific PSY (CpPSY) of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.). The transgenic plants contained a single- or double-locus insertion and expressed CpPSY at varying transcript levels. In comparison with the wild-type plants, the CpPSY expressing transgenic plants showed a significant increase on root length and shoot biomass under PEG-, NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress. The enhanced stress tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the increased endogenous ABA level and expression of stress-responsive genes, which in turn was correlated with the CpPSY copy number and expression level in different transgenic lines. Collectively, these results provide further evidence that PSY is a key enzyme regulating ABA biosynthesis and that the altered expression of other PSYs in transgenic plants may provide a similar function to that of the monocot's PSY3 in ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance. The results also pave the way for further use of CpPSY, as well as other PSYs, as potential candidate genes for engineering tolerance to drought and salt stress in crop plants. PMID:23011078

  13. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Waard, W.J., de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A. A. C. M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, T.M.C.M., de; Van Schooten, F J; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exert their toxicity. To establish whether or not activation of the AhR pathway by NAhRAs and dioxin-like substances results in similar cellular responses, gene expression pro...

  14. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  15. Gibberellins Contents in Leafy Fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc. in Relation to Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Iqbal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies were designed to find out the role of endogenous Gibberellin like compounds in production of low quality in leafy fruits of Satsuma mandarin. Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy and leafless fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Troyer citrange, Sour orange and Trifoliate orange rootstock was tested with lettuce hypocotyl elongation test. Results showed that Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets was considerably higher than the leafless fruitlets in Troyer citrange. Like wise Gibberellin-like activity in the leafy fruitlets of Satsuma mandarin grafted on Sour orange and Trifoliate orange was also higher than that of leafless fruitlets. Comparison of the leafy fruitlets indicated that maximum gibberellin like activities were noted in case of Trifoliate rootstock which was followed by Troyer citrange and Sour orange, respectively.

  16. Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

  17. Citrus PH5-like H+-ATPase genes: identification and transcript analysis to investigate their possible relationship with citrate accumulation in fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cai-Yun; Song, Rui-Qin; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    PH5 is a petunia gene that encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and determines the vacuolar pH. The citrate content of fruit cell vacuoles influences citrus organoleptic qualities. Although citrus could have PH5-like homologs that are involved in citrate accumulation, the details are still unknown. In this study, extensive data-mining with the PH5 sequence and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least eight PH5-like genes (CsPH1-8) in the citrus genome. CsPHs have a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa, and they have high similarity to PhPH5, AtAHA10 or AtAHA2 (from 64.6 to 80.9%). They contain 13–21 exons and 12–20 introns and were evenly distributed into four subgroups of the P3A-subfamily (CsPH1, CsPH2, and CsPH3 in Group I, CsPH4 and CsPH5 in Group II, CsPH6 in Group IV, and CsPH7 and CsPH8 in Group III together with PhPH5). A transcript analysis showed that CsPH1, 3, and 4 were predominantly expressed in mature leaves, whereas CsPH2 and 7 were predominantly expressed in roots, CsPH5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in flowers, and CsPH8 was predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS). Moreover, the CsPH transcript profiles differed between orange and pummelo, as well as between high-acid and low-acid cultivars. The low-acid orange “Honganliu” exhibits low transcript levels of CsPH3, CsPH4, CsPH5, and CsPH8, whereas the acid-free pummelo (AFP) has only a low transcript level of CsPH8. In addition, ABA injection increased the citrate content significantly, which was accompanied by the obvious induction of CsPH2, 6, 7, and 8 transcript levels. Taken together, we suggest that CsPH8 seems likely to regulate citrate accumulation in the citrus fruit vacuole. PMID:25806039

  18. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak) grafted on twelve different rootstocks / Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins; Rodrigo Rodas, Lemo; Tatiana, Cantuarias-Avilés.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O es [...] paçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); os híbridos 'Cravo' x 'Swingle' (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.) e 'Changsha' x 'English Small' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); as tangerineiras 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) e 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); os limoeiros 'Cravo Limeira' e 'Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); o citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.), o tangeleiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) e os trifoliateiros 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' e 'Flying Dragon' (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com doze tratamentos e seis repetições. Os distintos porta-enxertos induziram diferenças na qualidade dos frutos, entretanto todas as características de qualidade foram consideradas aceitáveis para a variedade, sendo bons substitutos para o limão 'Cravo'. Abstract in english In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB), located in the Bebedouro co [...] unty, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.); the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf) and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.); the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka); the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck); the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.); the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf.) and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern) had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.

  19. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 ?M [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24?h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-? was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  20. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais / Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães, Machado; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving; Dierlei dos, Santos; Silvana Aparecida da Silva, Souza; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citr [...] us sinensis L. Osbeck), tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco) e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten), no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã. Abstract in english Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae) and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [...] L. Osbeck), 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten), in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti) were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet orange 'Baianinha' showed the highest rate of infection and the lower were assigned to the 'Rio' tangerine and 'Poncã' mandarin.

  1. Vascularización del pedicelo y crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis var. Salustiana y su relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético / Pedicel development and fruit growth in Citrus sinensis ‘Salustiana’ and their relation with indol-acetic acid content

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Libia E, Laskowski; Consuelo, Monerri; Amparo, García-Luis; José Luis, Guardiola.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer el proceso de vascularización del pedicelo y el crecimiento inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var. Salustiana en relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. [...] Desde la antesis hasta 118 días después de antesis (dda) se colectaron estructuras reproductivas y en el laboratorio se determinaron los cambios anatómicos y el crecimiento de la superficie en sección transversal del pedicelo y el incremento en masa seca del fruto. Simultáneamente se cuantificó el ácido indolacético (AIA) en estos órganos empleando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). El incremento en la superficie transversal del pedicelo estuvo determinado por el aumento en superficie en la sección transversal del xilema y el floema, con mayor tasa a partir de los 62 dda, debido a la actividad del cambium vascular. El xilema y el floema continuaron desarrollándose hasta el final del estudio, pero a partir de los 76 dda la superficie del floema activo se mantuvo constante debido al desarrollo de capas internas de fibras. Durante el período de crecimiento estudiado, la concentración de AIA tanto en los pedicelos como en el fruto fue marcadamente superior durante la post-antesis y luego disminuyó abruptamente. Los máximos niveles de AIA coincidieron con los procesos de división celular y diferenciación en el pedicelo y con la fase lenta de crecimiento del fruto. Las cinéticas de crecimiento del pedicelo y fruto fueron muy similares, observándose una mayor tasa de incremento en materia seca del fruto durante el período de mayor desarrollo del tejido vascular secundario, principalmente del xilema. Abstract in english Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Salustiana with the objective to establish the relationship between indol-acetic acid content and, fruit and pedicel development during the initial growth stage. Reproductive structures of different trees from an or [...] chard in Museros (Valencia, Spain) were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis and used to determine cross-sectional area of pedicel, anatomical changes, dry mass of fruit, and indol-acetic acid (IAA) content using HPLC. The increase in cross-sectional area of pedicel was related to the increase in cross-sectional area of xylem and phloem, with greater rate from the 62 dda, due to the activity of the vascular cambium. Xylem and phloem continued developing until the end of the study (118 dda), but from the 76 dda the active phloem area remained constant due to the development of internal fiber layers. During the period of study the concentration of AIA in the pedicel as in the fruit was noticeably superior during postanthesis, and soon it diminished sharply. The maximum levels of IAA fitted with processes of cellular division and differentiation in pedicel and with the slow phase of growth of the fruit. Growth kinetic of pedicel and fruit were noticeably similar, being observed a greater rate of increase in fruit dry mass during the period of greater development of the secondary vascular tissue, mainly of xylem.

  2. Vascularización del pedicelo y crecimiento del fruto de Citrus sinensis var. Salustiana y su relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético Pedicel development and fruit growth in Citrus sinensis ‘Salustiana’ and their relation with indol-acetic acid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia E Laskowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer el proceso de vascularización del pedicelo y el crecimiento inicial del fruto de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck var. Salustiana en relación con el contenido de ácido indolacético. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. Desde la antesis hasta 118 días después de antesis (dda se colectaron estructuras reproductivas y en el laboratorio se determinaron los cambios anatómicos y el crecimiento de la superficie en sección transversal del pedicelo y el incremento en masa seca del fruto. Simultáneamente se cuantificó el ácido indolacético (AIA en estos órganos empleando cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC. El incremento en la superficie transversal del pedicelo estuvo determinado por el aumento en superficie en la sección transversal del xilema y el floema, con mayor tasa a partir de los 62 dda, debido a la actividad del cambium vascular. El xilema y el floema continuaron desarrollándose hasta el final del estudio, pero a partir de los 76 dda la superficie del floema activo se mantuvo constante debido al desarrollo de capas internas de fibras. Durante el período de crecimiento estudiado, la concentración de AIA tanto en los pedicelos como en el fruto fue marcadamente superior durante la post-antesis y luego disminuyó abruptamente. Los máximos niveles de AIA coincidieron con los procesos de división celular y diferenciación en el pedicelo y con la fase lenta de crecimiento del fruto. Las cinéticas de crecimiento del pedicelo y fruto fueron muy similares, observándose una mayor tasa de incremento en materia seca del fruto durante el período de mayor desarrollo del tejido vascular secundario, principalmente del xilema.Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. Salustiana with the objective to establish the relationship between indol-acetic acid content and, fruit and pedicel development during the initial growth stage. Reproductive structures of different trees from an orchard in Museros (Valencia, Spain were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis and used to determine cross-sectional area of pedicel, anatomical changes, dry mass of fruit, and indol-acetic acid (IAA content using HPLC. The increase in cross-sectional area of pedicel was related to the increase in cross-sectional area of xylem and phloem, with greater rate from the 62 dda, due to the activity of the vascular cambium. Xylem and phloem continued developing until the end of the study (118 dda, but from the 76 dda the active phloem area remained constant due to the development of internal fiber layers. During the period of study the concentration of AIA in the pedicel as in the fruit was noticeably superior during postanthesis, and soon it diminished sharply. The maximum levels of IAA fitted with processes of cellular division and differentiation in pedicel and with the slow phase of growth of the fruit. Growth kinetic of pedicel and fruit were noticeably similar, being observed a greater rate of increase in fruit dry mass during the period of greater development of the secondary vascular tissue, mainly of xylem.

  3. Técnicas hortícolas para optimizar el tamaño y la calidad del fruto del naranjo (Citrus sinensis L.) / Horticultural techniques for improving orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L.) size and quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco, Cabezas-Gutiérrez; Carlos Andrés, Rodríguez E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de mejorar la calidad del fruto de la variedad de naranja Sweety Orange injertada sobre el patrón enanizante 'Flying Dragon', se realizó un experimento en el que se probaron técnicas de anillado de ramas, defoliación parcial, raleo de frutos, fertilización foliar, aplicaciones de sacarosa [...] al follaje y poda de ramas no productivas. El trabajo se realizó en un huerto comercial en el norte del departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), en plantas de 9 años de edad. Al comparar los resultados con el experimento control se observa que: i) el anillado de ramas productivas influyo significativamente en la producción total de fruta por planta e incremento el número de frutos retenidos en el árbol en un 38%; ii) la aplicación de sacarosa mejoro la calidad interna del fruto al incrementar el contenido de sólidos solubles totales en un 10% y disminuir la acidez en un 36%. Ni la selección de fruta ni la fertilización foliar mostraron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento control. Se concluye que la combinación de anillado y aplicaciones externas de sacarosa pueden ser técnicas útiles para mejorar la calidad del naranjo en la zona cafetera colombiana. Abstract in english Seeking to improve the fruit quality of Sweet Orange grafted on the dwarf rootstock 'Flying Dragon', the present research study tested a series of techniques, namely branch ringing, partial defoliation, fruit thinning, foliar fertilization, sucrose application to the foliage and pruning of non-produ [...] ctive branches. The work was carried out on 9 year old trees in a comercial orchard in the north of the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia). In comparing the treatment results to the control, it was observed that: i) productive branch ringing significantlyinfluenced total fruit production per plant and increased fruit retention on the tree by 38%; ii) sucrose application improved fruit internal quality through increasing total soluble solid content by 10% and reducing acidity by 36%. Neither fruit thinning nor foliar fertilization showed any significant differences with the control. It can be concluded that the combination of branch ringing and external application of sucrose can be useful for improving orange fruit quality in the Colombian coffee zone.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  5. Actividad respiratoria vs. variaciones físicas Y químicas en la maduración de frutos de Naranjita china (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) / Respiratory activity vs. physical and chemical changes in calamondin (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) fruits during ripening

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Guadarrama; Yexsi, Peña.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En los frutos la actividad respiratoria está estrechamente relacionada con los cambios en la maduración, calidad y vida útil en el almacenamiento. Con la finalidad de conocer el patrón respiratorio de frutos de naranjita china y su relación con las variaciones físicas y químicas se realizó el presen [...] te estudio en frutos provenientes de un huerto familiar ubicado en Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Los frutos fueron cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica. Un día después de la cosecha se inició la determinación del patrón respiratorio en condiciones de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (28 ºC y 60-70 % HR). Paralelamente se realizaron análisis físicos (color, firmeza y peso fresco) y químicos (carotenoides, sólidos solubles totales y acidez titulable). La actividad respiratoria se determinó mediante el método clásico, basado en la recolección del CO2 en un álcali. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar y los resultados se evaluaron mediante análisis de regresión y correlación. Los frutos aumentaron la producción de CO2 a medida que transcurrió el tiempo de maduración y en el sexto día presentaron su máximo valor (32,2 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1) para luego comenzar a decrecer hasta estabilizarse entre el octavo y décimo día. A pesar de que estos frutos pertenecen a la categoría de cítricos, mostraron un patrón respiratorio similar al climatérico. Las variables más relacionadas con la respiración fueron el peso fresco y el contenido de carotenoides. Abstract in english Fruit respiratory activity is closely related to changes in maturation, quality and shelf life in storage. In order to know the respiratory pattern of Citrus x microcarpa and its relationship to physical and chemical changes, the present study was conducted using fruits coming from a home garden loc [...] ated in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Fruits were harvested at physiological maturity stage. Starting one day after harvest the respiratory pattern was determined, under storage at room temperature (28 ºC and 60-70 % RH). Parallel analyzes were performed for physical (color, texture, and fresh weight) and chemical (carotenoid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity) variables. Respiratory activity was determined by the classical method, based on the collection of CO2 in alkali. A completely randomized design was used, and results were evaluated under regression and correlation analysis. Fruits increased CO2 production as ripening time elapsed, reaching its maximum value (32.2 mg CO2 ·kg-1 · h-1) at the sixth day; then CO2 production began to decrease until it stabilized between the eighth and tenth day. Although these fruits belong to the category of citrus, they showed a respiratory pattern similar to climacteric fruits. The variables closely related to respiration were fresh weight and carotenoid content.

  6. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as suitable quality indexes indicating proper conditions for storage. PMID:25829574

  7. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  8. TAMANHO ÓTIMO DE AMOSTRAS DE FRUTOS E DE SEMENTES PARA DETERMINAÇÃO DA POLIEMBRIONIA EM CITROS / OPTIMUM SAMPLE SIZE OF FRUITS AND SEEDS FOR POLYEMBRYONY DETERMINATION IN CITRUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CATIANE QUEIROZ DE JESUS, SANTOS; EDUARDO AUGUSTO, GIRARDI; ELVIS LIMA, VIEIRA; CARLOS ALBERTO DA SILVA, LEDO; WALTER DOS SANTOS, SOARES FILHO.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Poliembrionia e apomixia nucelar são atributos importantes, tanto no melhoramento e seleção de porta-enxertos de citros, como para sua multiplicação comercial. Avaliou-se a poliembrionia e estimouse o tamanho ótimo de amostras de frutos e de sementes de genótipos de citros para determinar o [...] número de sementes por fruto, número de embriões por semente e taxa de poliembrionia. As plantas-matrizes que forneceram os frutos e sementes estão instaladas na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Avaliaram-se: tangerineiras ‘Sunki Tropical’, ‘Sunki Maravilha’, ‘Sunki da Flórida’, ‘Sunki Comum’, ‘Dancy’ e ‘Cleópatra’; limoeiros ‘RugosoJambhiri’, ‘Rugoso da Flórida’, ‘Rugoso Comum’, ‘Volkameriano Lagoa Grande’ e ‘Cravo Santa Cruz’; e os híbridos limoeiro ‘Cravo’ x tangerineira ‘Sunki Maravilha’, tangerineira ‘Sunki da Flórida’ x citrangequat ‘Thomasville’ e híbrido de limeira-ácida ‘Tahiti’ obtido por polinização aberta. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, estimando-se equações de máxima curvatura para determinação de tamanho ótimo de amostras de frutos e de sementes a partir de 20 ou 100 frutos e de 156 sementes por variedade, respectivamente. A produção de sementes e a poliembrionia variaram expressivamente entre os genótipos avaliados, podendo estes serem classificados em cinco grupos de produção de sementes e de taxa de poliembrionia, respectivamente, compreendendo os intervalos de 2 a 28 sementes e de 12 a 100%. O tamanho ótimo estimado para as amostras foi de nove frutos uniformes, dez e 23 sementes, para determinar, respectivamente, o número médio de sementes por fruto, o número médio de embriões por semente e a taxa de poliembrionia por contagem direta, pois esses valores representam os tamanhos ótimos que atendem a todos os grupos de variedades estudadas. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Polyembryony and nucellar apomixis are important traits for citrus rootstocks breeding and selection and for commercial multiplication. This study evaluated the polyembryony and estimated the optimal sample size of citrus rootstocks fruits and seeds for fruit seed number, seed embryo numbe [...] r and polyembryony rate, respectively. Fruits and seeds were collected from mother plants in the experimental field of Embrapa Manioc and Fruitculture, in Cruz das Almas, state of Bahia, Brazil. Rootstock species evaluated were: ‘Sunki Tropical’, ‘Sunki Maravilha’,‘Sunki da Florida’, ‘Sunki Comum’, ‘Dancy’ and ‘Cleopatra’ mandarins; ‘Rugoso Jambhiri’, ‘Rugoso da Florida’, ‘Rugoso Comum’ and ‘Volkameriano Lagoa Grande’ lemons; ‘Santa Cruz’ Rangpur lime; and the hybrids ‘Rangpur’ lime x ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin, ‘Sunki da Florida’ mandarin x citrangequat ‘Thomasville’ and an open pollinated hybrid of ‘Tahiti’ lime. Data was submitted to descriptive analysis and equations of maximum curvature were estimated for determination of fruit and seed sample optimal size using 20 or 100 fruits and 156 seeds per genotype, respectively. Seed production and polyembryony varied significantly among the genotypes, which could be grouped by seed production and by polyembryony rate in five classes, respectively comprising intervals of 2 to 28 seeds and 12 to 100%. Optimal size sample was respectively of nine uniform fruits, ten and 23 seeds to determine fruit seed mean number, seed embryo mean number and polyembryony rate by direct counting, because these sample levels were sufficient for all genotypes evaluated.

  9. Calidad y seguridad alimentaria en productos frutihortícolas frescos de exportación: Implicaciones en los procesos laborales de la agroindustria de cítricos dulces de Entre Ríos / Food quality and safety in export fresh fruit horticultural products: Implying in the labor process of agribusiness related to sweat citrus fruit in Entre Rios province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nidia, Tadeo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos de 1990 el mercado mundial incrementa la demanda de productos frutihortícolas en estado fresco, destinada a satisfacer a consumidores que requieren productos estandarizados y envíos "just in time". Simultáneamente, aparecen numerosas normas de calidad y seguridad alimentaria, públicas y [...] privadas, tendientes a la obtención de productos sanos e inocuos, a la vez que se interesan por la protección de los trabajadores, prohibición del trabajo infantil y cuidado del medio ambiente. Este artículo presenta resultados de un estudio de caso referido a la agroindustria de cítricos de la provincia de Entre Ríos, principal productora de cítricos dulces del país. Se indaga en los criterios de calidad y sanidad alimentaria en cítricos dulces de exportación a mercados de contraestación y su repercusión en los procesos de trabajo. Utilizamos información cualitativa obtenida en los años 2005 y 2006 (encuestas directas a empresas empacadoras exportadoras, entrevistas en profundidad a productores citrícolas, empresarios, trabajadores cosecheros y del empaque) complementada con información estadística. Abstract in english In the early 1990s the world market increases the demand of fresh fruit horticultural products in order to satisfy customers who require standardised products and "just in time" delivery. Meanwhile a great number of food quality and safety regulations are developed which are also concerned in worker [...] s wellfare, prohibition of children work and inverorment protection. This article shows the results of a study about citrus fruit and agribusiness related to citrus fruit in Entre Rios province, the main sweet citrus fruit producer in Argentina . Such study deals with food quality and health features of export sweet citrus fruit which are sent to other counter-seasonal markets. We use qualitative information gathered in the years 2005 and 2006 by means of direct survey to packaging export companies, citrus producers, entreproneurs, harvest workers and packaging workers. We add statistic information in this study, as well.

  10. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, W J; Aarts, J M M J G; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Baykus, H; Talsma, E; Punt, A; de Kok, T M C M; van Schooten, F J; Hoogenboom, L A P

    2008-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exert their toxicity. To establish whether or not activation of the AhR pathway by NAhRAs and dioxin-like substances results in similar cellular responses, gene expression profiles induced in Caco-2 cells were studied using microarray analysis. Cells were exposed to indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), an acid reaction product from cruciferous vegetables, and to extracts of citrus pulp and grapefruit juice. Gene expression profiles induced by these NAhRAs were compared to those of the xenobiotic AhR agonists TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Over 20 genes were found more than 1.5 times up- or down-regulated by TCDD, and the expression of most of these genes was modulated in the same direction and to a similar extent by B[a]P and the NAhRAs. Results were confirmed by RT-PCR, and many of these genes may be involved in dioxin-related toxic effects. In conclusion, this in vitro study showed similar effects induced by NAhRAs, TCDD and B[a]P at the transcriptome level in a human intestinal cell line. PMID:18061397

  11. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  12. In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata F., Calegario; Mônica T.V., Labate; Luís A., Peroni; Dagmar Ruth, Stach-Machado; Maxuel O., Andrade; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Carlos A., Labate; Marcos A., Machado; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection [...] and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP) in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

  13. In vitro expression and antiserum production against the movement protein of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata F. Calegario

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, is currently considered the most important viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry due to the high costs required for the chemical control of its vector, the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis. The pathogen induces a non-systemic infection and the disease is characterized by the appearance of localized lesions on citrus leaves, stems and fruits, premature fruit and leaf drop and dieback of stems. Attempts were made to promote in vitro expression of the putative cell-to-cell movement protein of CiLV-C in Escherichia coli and to produce a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein as a tool to investigate the virus-plant-vector relationship. The antibody reacted strongly with the homologous protein expressed in vitro by ELISA, but poorly with the native protein present in leaf lesion extracts from sweet orange caused by CiLV-C. Reactions from old lesions were more intense than those from young lesions. Western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays failed to detect the native protein. These results suggest low expression of the movement protein (MP in host tissues. Moreover, it is possible that the conformation of the protein expressed in vitro and used to produce the antibody differs from that of the native MP, hindering a full recognition of the latter.

  14. The use of native and protonated grapefruit biomass (Citrus paradisi L.) for cadmium(II) biosorption: equilibrium and kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Javier; Esteban, Ginés; Castillo, Julián

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of native and protonated grapefruit biomass, a by-product of the food industry, as an effective and low-cost biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The biomass composition was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showing that hydroxyl and carboxylic groups were the main functional groups implicated in Cd(II) biosorption. The effect of different parameters affecting the biosorption process were studied. The optimum removal of cadmium ions was at pH 4.5. Elution of alkaline-earth ions proved to be related with cadmium uptake, aiming for an ion-exchange mechanism. Protonated biomass showed higher adsorption affinity, binding strength and irreversibility for cadmium than native grapefruit, although the optimum metal uptake and high reaction rate was for the native form of grapefruit. Biosorption experimental data fitted Freundlich > Langmuir > Temkin equilibrium adsorption models. Data for both types of biomass were better fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with an excellent correlation between calculated and experimental values. Because of these experimental results, and taking into account that both types of biomass displayed an exothermic and spontaneous physical adsorption process, native grapefruit can be proposed in further experiments as a cheap, effective, low-cost and environmentally friendly natural sorbent for the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewater effluents, avoiding chemical pretreatment before its use. PMID:22720399

  15. Interferência da redução no volume de aplicação sobre o controle da mancha preta (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' / Interference of spray volume reduction in citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely) control in 'Valência' citrus fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Demétrius de, Araújo; Carlos Gilberto, Raetano; Hamilton Humberto, Ramos; Marcel Belatto, Spósito; Evandro Pereira, Prado.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico do agente causal da mancha-preta-dos-citros (MPC) tem merecido destaque pelo excessivo número de pulverizações, elevando sobremaneira os custos de produção na citricultura. A busca por melhorias na eficiência das pulverizações e reduções na quantidade dos produtos fitossanitários [...] já tem sido realizada, mas os resultados dessa prática ainda não são consistentes para que possa ser aplicado em escala comercial. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a interferência da redução no volume de aplicação, sobre o controle químico da mancha preta em frutos cítricos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial com plantas de 16 anos de idade, da variedade Valência durante o ano agrícola 2007. Os tratamentos consistiram de três volumes de calda, 3,5; 4,5 e 8,5 L planta-1, aplicados por pulverizador de jato transportado Arbus 2000/Export, com ramal especial de bicos, utilizando-se fungicidas e períodos recomendados para o controle da doença em um total de quatro pulverizações e mais um tratamento testemunha (sem pulverização). As avaliações de incidência e severidade da doença ocorreram através de escala visual diagramática de notas em duas épocas (pré-colheita e colheita), em três alturas (baixo, médio e alto) da planta e mais três setores horizontais (entrada, frontal e saída) em dois lados da planta. Os frutos caídos foram contados quinzenalmente, em plantas previamente selecionadas, do início da maturação até a colheita com a quantificação da produção (kg planta-1). A incidência e severidade da doença foram menores quando as pulverizações foram realizadas com 8,5 L planta-1 na primeira época de avaliação (pré-colheita), porém na colheita, não houve diferenças entre os mesmos parâmetros, quando pulverizados 4,5 ou 8,5 L planta-1. Nenhum tratamento reduziu a doença no setor alto da planta, em comparação a testemunha. Os setores da planta com os frutos mais expostos aos raios solares, lado direito e alto da planta, apresentaram maior incidência e severidade da doença. A redução no volume de 8,5 para 4,5 L planta-1 pode ser praticada na citricultura sem prejuízo do nível de controle da MPC. Abstract in english The chemical control of the causal agent of citrus black spot (CBS) has been highlighted for the excessive required number of sprayings, considerably increasing citrus production costs. Improvements in the spray efficiency and reductions in the quantity of phytosanitary products have already been se [...] arched, but the results of that practice are not consistent yet for its use at commercial scale. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the interference of reduced spray volumes in black spot control in citrus fruits. The experiment was carried out in commercial citrus orchard with 16-year-old plants of 'Valencia' variety, during 2007 agricultural season. Treatments consisted of three spray volumes: 3.5; 4.5 and 8.5 liters.plant-1, applied with Arbus 2000/Export airblast sprayer with special manifold of hydraulic nozzles, using fungicides and periods recommended for the disease control, totaling four sprayings plus a control treatment (without spray). The disease incidence and severity were evaluated by visual diagrammatic scale of notes in two different periods (preharvest and harvest), at three plant heights (low, middle and top) and three horizontal sections (entrance, frontal and exit) in two sides of the plant. The fallen fruits were counted every fifteen days, for previously selected plants, from the beginning of maturation to harvest, and the production was quantified (kg.plant-1). The disease incidence and severity were significantly lower when sprayings were done with 8.5 liters.plant-1 in the first evaluation period (pre-harvest), but in the harvest period there were not differences between the same parameters when 4.5 or 8.5 liters.plant-1 were sprayed. None of those treatments reduced the disease on the top section of plants, compared to control. The plant sections with fruits

  16. 76 FR 8603 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...lead to abnormal flowering and fruit production. CVC is currently not known to occur...a company engaged in the commercial production, packing, and shipping of citrus products...List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports,...

  17. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  18. Segurança no trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos com o pulverizador de pistolas em citros / Work safety in pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Leite de, Oliveira; Joaquim Gonçalves, Machado Neto.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias proporcionadas pelas condições de trabalho de aplicação de agrotóxicos em cultura de citros com o pulverizador de pistolas; avaliar a eficiência de medidas de proteção individual e coletiva para esses trabalhadores; deter [...] minar as regiões mais expostas do corpo dos trabalhadores; e classificar as condições de trabalho, sem e com as medidas de proteção testadas, quanto à segurança ocupacional das recomendações de agrotóxicos registrados para o controle das principais pragas e doenças dessa cultura. Verifica-se que, para o tratorista, pulverizando com o pulverizador de pistolas, a medida de proteção mais eficiente foi o conjunto AZR e, para o aplicador, os dois conjuntos avaliados foram eficientes. Para o tratorista, as regiões mais expostas do corpo foram as coxas + pernas - frente, os pés e as mãos; e, para o aplicador foram, os pés e as mãos. Abstract in english The purpose of this study envisaged the quantification of skin and respiratory exposures occasioned by work conditions during pesticide spraying of citrus fruits using hand gun sprayers; the evaluation of the efficiency of individual and group protection measures for the workers; the determination o [...] f workers' most exposed body regions; and the classification of work conditions, with and without the tested work-safety protection measures as recommended for the registered pesticides used to control the main pests and diseases that attack these types of trees and fruits. The AZR protection equipment proved to be the most efficient for the tractor driver, when spraying using pistol sprayers. The two sets of individual protection equipment that were checked also proved to be efficient. The most exposed regions of the tractor driver's body were the thighs, the front of the legs, the feet and hands. The most exposed regions of the individual sprayer working on foot were the hands and feet.

  19. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Haag

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco, L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr., em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco. Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco, varia entre 30 a 95.The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr., State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco; Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Natal (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck; Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. Fruits were picked from 30 days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

  20. Variação de matéria seca e de nutrientes nas folhas e nos frutos, produção de ácido ascórbico e suco, em seis cultivares de citros, durante um ciclo / Six citrus cultivars comparatively evaluated as to their fruit and leaf dry weights and nutrient concentrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.P., Haag; L.E., Gutierrez; A.R., Dechen; F.A.A., Mourão Filho; C.S., Moreira.

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available De uma plantação de citros, com os cultivares T. Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco), L.Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), T. Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), L. Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, L. Valencia (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e L. Pera (Citrus sinensis [...] (L.) Osbeck), situada na "Fazenda Sete Lagoas", no município de Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22% 46° 56'W.Gr.), em Latossolo Vermelho amarelo, fase arenosa, foram coletados frutos 30 dias após florescimento, até a idade da coleta comercial. No material coletado, foram determinadas a variação da matéria seca, a concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas adjacentes ao fruto, a extração de macro e micronutríentes pelos frutos, a produção de suco (ml) por fruto e a concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco). Concluiu-se que: 1. O aumento da matéria seca, intensifica-se a partir do segundo mês apos o florescimento; 2. Com exceção da T. Cravo, ocorre uma diminuição na produção de matéria seca no final do ciclo; 3. A concentração dos macro e micronutrientes nas folhas apresenta oscilações durante o desenvolvimento do fruto; 4. A ordem decrescente de extração de nutrientes é: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn, Cu; 5. A capacidade de exportação de nutrientes pelos cultivares é, em ordem decrescente: L. Pera, L. Hamlin = T. Cravo, T. Murcott, L. Valencia, L. Natal; 6. A quantidade de suco produzido por fruto, oscila entre 43 a 95 ml; 7. A concentração de ácido ascórbico (mg/100 ml de suco), varia entre 30 a 95. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in a commercial citrus orchard located in Mogi-Guaçu (22° 22'S., 46° 56'WGr.), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Five orange types were studied: Cravo (Citrus reticulata Blanco); Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Natal (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck); Valencia (Citrus sine [...] nsis (L.) Osbeck) and Pera (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and a tangerine Murcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). Fruits were picked from 30 days after flowering to the peak of commercial harvest. Leaves nearest the fruits were collected at the same time as the fruits. Sampled material was used to determine: fruit dry weight, macronutrient and micronutrient concentration in the leaves, nutrient extraction by the fruits, juice production per fruit and ascorbic acid concentration in the juice. Fruit dry weight increased following the second month after flowering. Except for Cravo orange fruit dry weight decreased at the end of the cycle. Macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations in the leaves showed variations during fruit development. Rate of nutrient extraction in decreasing order was: K, N, Ca, Mg, P = S, Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu. The cultivar that exported the largest amount of nutrients was Pera followed by Hamlin = Cravo, Murcott, Valencia and Natal. Juice per fruit ranged between 43 and 95 mililiters whereas ascorbic acid concentration ranged between 30 and 95 miligrams per 100 mililiters of juice.

  1. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritoidea) infestation in citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil / Infestação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) em citros no estado de São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton, Raga; Daniela A.O., Prestes; Miguel F., Souza Filho; Mário E., Sato; Romildo C., Siloto; Jorge A., Guimarães; Roberto A., Zucchi.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available No período de fevereiro de 1998 a maio de 2000, frutos de diferentes variedades e híbridos de citros foram coletados para determinar os níveis de infestação e o complexo de espécies de Tephritoidea/parasitóides, nas condições do estado de São Paulo. O total de 12.239 frutos (1.416,93 kg) foi coletad [...] o em 25 municípios. Do total das amostras foram recuperados 5.252 pupários e 3.039 adultos de Tephritoidea. Aproximadamente 78,1% dos adultos foram Tephritidae [77,1% de Anastrepha sp. e 1,0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)], e 21,9%, Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). Todas as fêmeas de Anastrepha foram identificadas como A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adultos de Braconidae, Diapriidae e Eucoilinae emergiram das amostras de citros. Os índices médios de infestação foram 0,4 pupário/fruto e 3,7 pupários/ kg de frutos. As laranjas doces foram as variedades cítricas mais susceptíveis ao ataque de espécies de Tephritoidea, em número de pupários/fruto. Em amostras isoladas, 'Tangerina Cravo' (Citrus reticulata) e 'Laranja Azeda' (Citrus aurantium) apresentaram os maiores índices de infestação por fruto (3,4 e 2,4 pupários, respectivamente). Algumas amostras de 'Kunquat' (Fortunella sp.) e 'Tangerina Cravo' alcançaram níveis altos de infestação (64,0 e 37,9 pupários/kg de frutos, respectivamente). As laranjas doces são as variedades mais suscetíveis à infestação de Tephritoidea no estado de São Paulo. O parasitóide D. areolatus (Opiinae) foi o braconídeo mais freqüente durante o levantamento. Abstract in english From February 1998 to May 2000, fruits of different citrus varieties and hybrids were collected in order to assess the fruit fly infestation levels and tephritoid/parasitoid complex in the state of São Paulo. A total of 12,239 fruits (1,416.93 kg) was collected in 25 municipalities. From all the sam [...] ples 5,252 puparia and 3,039 adults of Tephritoidea were recovered. About 78.1% of all adults collected were Tephritidae [77.1% de Anastrepha sp. and 1.0% de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)] and 21.9% were Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp.). All females of Anastrepha were identified as A. fraterculus (Wied.). Adults of Braconidae, Diapriidae and Eucoilinae emerged from the citrus samples. Mean infestation indices were 0.4 puparium/ fruit and 3.70 puparia/kg of fruits. Sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations when the number of puparia/fruit was considered. In isolated samples, 'Cravo mandarin' (Citrus reticulata) and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) showed the highest infestation indices (3.4 and 2.4 puparia/fruit, respectively). Some samples of 'Kunquat'' (Fortunella sp.) and 'Cravo' mandarin reached high levels of infestation (64.0 and 37.9 puparia/kg of fruits, respectively). The sweet oranges were the most susceptible to Tephritoidea infestations in the state of São Paulo. The parasitoid Opiinae D. areolatus was the most abundant braconid species.

  2. HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel Brito; Javier E. Ramirez; Carlos Areche; Beatriz Sepúlveda; Simirgiotis, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoid...

  3. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas trees transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the species planted in the area with altered land use.

  4. Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

  5. Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo da Silva Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

  6. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental design used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7% alone and added to natural orange juice (10%. Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

  7. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros / Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalton, Raga; Rogério Amaro, Machado; Welci, Dinardo; Pedro Carlos, Strikis.

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea) são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, [...] em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Abstract in english Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly population in citrus orchard. The experimental d [...] esign used was randomized block, with five treatments and five replications. The experiment was set in 30 September, 2003 and evaluated for nine weeks. The attractants tested were the hydrolysate proteins Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca and Aumax®, all diluted in 5% water, sugar cane syrup (7%) alone and added to natural orange juice (10%). Weekly 400 mL aqueous attractants were used into plastic McPhail traps hunged within a tree of 'Pêra Rio' orange. At the time of sampling, flies were removed and conducted to the laboratory for counting, sexing and identification. It was captured 1,821 adults of Tephritoidea, from which 892 of Anastrepha spp., 731 of C. capitata and 198 of Neosilba spp. For these species, Bio Anastrepha and Isca Mosca were highly efficient and similar, corresponding to 44.5% and 41.3% of tephritid adults. No difference was detected in the attractiveness by sex of Tephritidae species provided by Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® and sugar cane syrup. Aumax®, sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, attracted only 4.6%, 1.3% and 1.2% from Tephritidae adults, respectively. Sugar cane syrup, alone and plus orange juice, was efficient to monitoring Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

  8. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  9. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha preta em frutos cítricos / Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic scale to evaluate black spot severity in citrus fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcel B, Spósito; Lilian, Amorim; José, Belasque Junior; Renato B, Bassanezi; Renata de, Aquino.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática, abrangendo os dois tipos prevalentes de sintomas de mancha preta em frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.), os de mancha dura e de falsa melanose, foi desenvolvida para padronizar a avaliação da severidade da doença. A escala foi elaborada considerando os limites máximos e mínimos de [...] severidade da doença observados no campo. Os valores intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos para os sintomas do tipo mancha dura (0,5; 1,7; 5,0; 11,5; 22,5 e 49,0%) e do tipo falsa melanose (1,1; 4,5; 15,0; 31,0; 53,0 e 68,0%). Para a validação da escala, seis avaliadores quantificaram a severidade da doença a partir das imagens digitalizadas de 50 frutos com diferentes níveis de doença. Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala. Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores, utilizando a escala diagramática proposta, estimaram a severidade nos mesmos frutos avaliados anteriormente. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores e proporcionaram maior reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da mancha preta nos frutos e será usada em estudos epidemiológicos e de avaliação de estratégias de controle desta doença. Abstract in english A diagrammatic scale, showing the most common symptoms of black spot in citrus (Citrus spp.) fruits, hard spot and false melanose types, was developed to standardize severity assessment. The scale was elaborated considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field. Th [...] e intermediate values followed logarithmic increments for hard spot (0.5, 1.7, 5.0, 11.5, 22.5, and 49.0%) and false melanose (1.1, 4.5, 15.0, 31.0, 53.0, and 68.0%) symptoms. To validate the scale, six raters quantified the disease severity of digitalized images of 50 fruits with black spot symptoms. Initially, the estimates of severity were done without the use of the scale. Then, the raters estimated the severity of the same fruits previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of greater precision and higher accuracy for all raters, besides being more highly reproducible among the different raters. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate black spot severity in citrus fruits and will be used in epidemiological studies and int he evaluation of control strategies for this disease.

  10. Caracterização química de frutos nativos do cerrado / Chemical characterization of native species of fruits from savanna ecosystem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Reis, Silva; Diracy Betânia Cavalcante Lemos, Lacerda; Grazielle Gebrim, Santos; Denise Mendes de Oliveira, Martins.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversos frutos do cerrado com potencial econômico são consumidos in natura ou processados pela população local. Entretanto, existem poucos trabalhos científicos a respeito de suas características químicas e do valor nutritivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição centesimal, o v [...] alor energético total e o conteúdo de cálcio, ferro e zinco em alguns frutos nativos do cerrado: macaúba, caju-do-cerrado, araticum, murici, gabiroba, cagaita; mangaba, puçá, araçá, chichá e pitomba. As análises de umidade, proteína, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e resíduo mineral fixo foram realizadas utilizando-se metodologias consagradas na literatura especializada. Cálcio, ferro e zinco foram quantificados analiticamente e o valor energético total dos frutos in natura foi estimado conforme os valores de conversão de Atwater. A concentração de proteínas, lipídios e carboidratos dos frutos foi relativamente baixa, com exceção do chichá e da macaúba. O teor de fibra alimentar variou de 1,04 a 11,14g 100g-1, sendo os maiores valores encontrados em araçá, chichá, macaúba e murici. Quanto aos minerais, araticum, chichá, macaúba e mangaba apresentaram valores consideráveis de cálcio, ferro e zinco. Os frutos do cerrado investigados podem ser fontes alternativas de nutrientes. Dessa forma, sugere-se sua utilização em cardápios regionais e cardápios da merenda escolar. Abstract in english Various fruits of the savanna ecosystem with economic potential are consumed raw or processed by the natives. However, there are a few scientific studies on their chemical composition and nutritional values. The aim of this research was to evaluate proximate composition, caloric values, calcium, iro [...] n and zinc content from fruits found in the savanna ecosystem: macaúba; caju-do-cerrado; araticum; murici; gabiroba; cagaita; mangaba; puçá; araçá; chichá and pitomba. Moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fiber and ash were carried out by using methods traditionally used in the specific literature. Calcium, iron and zinc were analytically quantified and the total caloric value of raw fruits was estimated in accordance with Atwater´s conversion values. Protein, fat and carbohydrate concentration of fruits were relatively low, except for chichá and macaúba. The dietary fiber values ranged from 1.04 to 11.14g 100g-1, being the highest values for araçá, chichá, macaúba and murici. Calcium, iron and zinc were found in considerable concentration in araticum, chichá, macaúba and mangaba. The fruits of the savanna ecosystem investigated may be alternative sources of nutrients, thus attention will be turned to the possibility of their utilization in regional menu and snack for school children.

  11. Extending the shelf-life of citrus fruits using irradiation and/or other treatments I. 'Balady' oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation process (0, 1.50 and 2.50 kGy) gamma radiation with or without other treatments before irradiation, i.e. soaking in CaCl2 solution or waxing were used in this study to investigate the effect of such treatments on the shelf-life of 'Balady' orange fruits at room temperature. Marketable properties (browning, decay and texture) in addition to the organoleptic evaluation of firmness, appearance, odour, colour and taste were detected. Results showed the preferability of waxing treatment before irradiation processes. On the other hand, statistical analysis of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that the shelf-life of untreated sample (control) was 20 days at room temperature, while samples exposed to the different suggested treatments were rejected after 30 days under the same conditions. (author)

  12. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  13. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia., 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana., 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki. and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

  14. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  15. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Kupper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A queda prematura dos frutos cítricos (QPFC, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, dados os grandes prejuízos que têm causado aos produtores, constitui-se numa doença de grande importância econômica. O controle da doença é feito predominantemente mediante uso de fungicidas, que eleva o custo de produção e afeta negativamente o meio ambiente. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo buscar um método alternativo de controle da QPFC, mediante o uso de agentes de biocontrole ou de biofertilizantes. Diferentes concentrações de biofertilizantes (originários de duas fontes distintas e denominados de Bio1 e Bio 2; três isolados de Bacillus subtilis (ACB-69; 72 e 77 e três isolados de Trichoderma spp. (ACB-14; 37 e 39 foram testados, isoladamente ou em combinação, sob condições de laboratório, quanto à capacidade inibitória da germinação de conídios de C. acutatum. Estudaram-se, ainda, a produção de metabólitos termoestáveis por B. subtilis e o efeito sobre a germinação do patógeno. Quinze isolados de B. subtilis foram testados quanto à capacidade de prevenir a infecção por C. acutatum em flores destacadas de lima- ácida 'Tahiti' e, no campo, foram instalados dois experimentos, visando a testar ACBs e biofertilizantes no controle da doença. Verificou-se que o isolado ACB-72 (B. subtilis e ACB-37 (T. pseudokoningii foram os que mais inibiram a germinação do patógeno. Quanto à produção de metabólitos termoestáveis, ACB-69 e 77 foram os mais eficientes em produzir substâncias antifúngicas, e em quantidades suficientes para inibirem a germinação do patógeno. A mistura dos quatro isolados de Bacillus (ACBs: 69; 72; 77 e AP3 foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem de inibição (73%. Os biofertilizantes (Bio1 e Bio2, em concentrações acima de 10% e, quando em associação com isolados de Trichoderma spp., promoveram maiores inibições na germinação de C. acutatum. Em testes com flores destacadas, verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença.Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2, three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77 and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39 were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3 presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%. Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2, it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp. decreased the pathogen germination. The experiments with detached flowers showed that the fl

  16. Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman

    2013-10-11

    In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake. PMID:24011420

  17. Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Serrana

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 days caused a significant inhibition of mitosis. The irradiated juice induced the production of anaphase bridges, binucleate cells, cells, cells with elongated nucleus and cells with obliquely oriented equatorial plate.

  18. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of both aconitases, an observation correlating with the acidless phenotype. However, in the acidless "Dulce" lemon aconitase expression was normal suggesting that the acidless trait in this variety is not dependent upon aconitases. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies showed the occurrence of five different subfamilies of aconitate hydratase in plants and sequence analyses indentified three active genes in citrus. The pattern of expression of two of these genes, CcAco1 and CcAco2, was normally associated with the timing of acid content reduction in most genotypes. Two exceptions to this general observation suggest the occurrence of additional regulatory steps of citrate homeostasis in citrus.

  19. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos / Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernadete, Reis; Otto Carlos, Koller; Sergio Francisco, Schwarz; Sergiomar, Theisen; Ivar Antônio, Sartori; Fernanda Severo, Nichele; Rafael, Lorscheiter; Henrique Belmonte, Petry.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citru [...] s sinensis) à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC). O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia) e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana.), trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata.), laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis), citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki.) e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC. Abstract in english Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC). This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees to t [...] he bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an experimental orchard, with ten-years-old trees, planted at spacement of 2.5m between trees and 6.0m between rows, located in Butiá city, in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul state. It was used an randomized blocks experimental design, with 7 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of the following rootstoks: Rangpur lime (C. limonia.), 'Volkameriana' lemon (C. volkameriana.), 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata), 'Sunki' tangerine (C. sunki.) and 'Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata). The parameters evaluated were: number of fruits and leaves with citrus canker lesions per plant and at two previously selected and marked branches per plant, at different times . The results revealed that the 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Flying dragon' rootstocks induced the highest productivity index and, the lowest incidence of citrus canker disease on leaves and fruits. 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkameriana' lime rootstocks, promoted a heavy crop load, however, showed higher susceptibility to citrus canker disease.

  20. Efeito da interação abelha-flor na produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effect of bee-flower interaction on fruit production in orange sweet crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Efecto de las interaccion abeja-flor en la producción de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Darclet, Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; André, Luiz Halak.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia floral, a biodiversidade e comportamento de polinizadores em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedade “Pera-rio”, em diferentes localidades e anos e seu efeito na produção dos frutos. A frequência dos insetos foi obtida por contag [...] em nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7h00 às 18h00, com três repetições. Para a porcentagem de frutifi cação, foram marcados 300 botões florais, sendo 150 deles mantidos descobertos e 150 cobertos, impedindo a visita dos insetos. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto a contagem, número de gomos e sementes, pesagens (g), altura (cm), largura (cm), espessura da polpa (mm), pH e volume do suco (ml). Os insetos mais frequentes observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, seguidas por outras espécies de himenópteros, lepidópteros, vespídeos e coleópteros. As abelhas africanizadas preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen e preferiram visitar as flores no período da manhã. Foi observado aumento de 9,6% na fecundação das flores e de 7,35% na produção de frutos livremente visitadas. A abelha africanizada foi espécie mais frequente e constante nas flores. Houve aumento na porcentagem de frutificação das flores, com a presença dos insetos. Os frutos que receberam a visita dos polinizadores foram maiores, mais doces, com maior número de sementes e quantidade de suco. Abstract in spanish Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la biología floral, la biodiversidad y el comportamiento de los polinizadores en la floración de naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variedad Pera-rio, en seis diferentes lugares, en seis años y su efecto en la producción de fruta . La frecuencia de los [...] insectos se obtuvo contando los primeros 10 minutos de cada hora, de 7h00 a 18h00, con tres repeticiones. Para el porcentaje de yemas fructíferas fueron marcados e selecionados 300 botones florales, 150 descubiertos y 150 cubiertos, evitando las visitas de los insectos. Se evaluó la cantidad de frutos, número de brotes y las semillas, de ensayo (g), altura (cm), anchura (cm), espesor de la pulpa (mm), pH y volumen de jugo (ml). Los insectos más frecuentes observados fueron la abeja Apis mellifera, otros Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea y Coleoptera. Las abejas africanizadas colectaron principalmente néctar que polen, mientras que las Trigona spinipes, colectaron prioritariamente polen que néctar y los lepidópteros (mariposas) se alimentan de néctar. Hubo un aumento del 9,6% en la fecundación de las flores y 7,35% en la producción de frutas libremente visitadas. Las abejas africanizadas fueron más frecuentes en las flores. Hubo un aumento en el porcentaje de flores frutales, con la presencia de insectos. Los frutos que fueron visitadas por los polinizadores eran más grandes, más dulce, con más semillas y contenido de jugo. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the floral biology, biodiversity and behavior of pollinators in flowering orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), variety “Pera-Rio”, in six different places, in six years, and its effect on fruit production. The frequency of insects was obtained by counting the [...] fi rst 10 minutes at a time, from 7h00 to 18h00, with three replications. For fruit set, 300 fl ower buds were marked, 150 discovered and 150 of them kept covered, preventing the visit of the insects. Fruits were evaluated for count, number of buds and seeds, weighed (g), height (cm), width (cm), flesh thickness (mm), volume (ml) and pH juice. The insects more frequent observed were honeybees Apis mellifera, others Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Vespidea and Coleoptera (beetles). Africanized bees preferred to collect nectar compared to pollen. Trigona spinipes bees preferred to collect pollen compared to nectar and Lepidoptera (butterfl ies) feeding on nectar. It was observed 9.6% increase in fertilization of the fl owers and 7.35% in fruit production visited freely. The Africanized honeybee was more frequent species

  1. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  2. Efecto del déficit hídrico en el crecimiento y desarrollo de frutos de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta, Colombia / Influence of water deficit on growth and development of fruits valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the piedmont of Meta department, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana Lucía, Garzón Correa; Javier Enrique, Vélez-Sánchez; Javier Orlando, Orduz Rodríguez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el área sembrada con cítricos es marginal, si se compara con el área potencial de cultivo, debido a factores como déficit de agua, nutrición y eficiencia de la formación de frutos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del déficit hídrico mediante la aplicación controlad [...] a de láminas de riego en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en el piedemonte del Meta (departamento del Meta, Colombia). Los tratamientos (T) de riego fueron: T1 = 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = testigo = 0% ETc. El riego se aplicó desde el inicio de la floración en febrero hasta la formación del fruto en abril de 2011. El diseño experimental fue bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento. Las variables evaluadas fueron: humedad del suelo (q g), estado hídrico de la planta (Ytallo), fenología, brotación, floración, formación, crecimiento y calidad del fruto. Los árboles en el T1 presentaron un mayor número y tamaño de fruto, pero no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05) en producción y calidad respecto al testigo; la q g y el Ytallo fueron diferentes (P Abstract in english In Colombia the area planted with citrus is marginal when compared to the potential area for cultivation, due to factors such as water deficit, nutrition and efficiency of fruit formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit by controlled application of water through so [...] il profile in orange crop var.Valencia (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in the foothills Meta department, Colombia. The irrigation treatments (T) were: T1 = 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc); T2 = 50% ETc; T3 = control = 0% ETc. Irrigation was applied from the beginning of flowering in February to fruit formation in April 2011. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replicates per treatment. The variables evaluated were: soil moisture (qg), plant water status (Ytallo), phenology, budding, flowering, formation, growth and fruit quality. The trees in the T1 had a higher number and size of fruit, but found no differences (P > 0.05) in yield and quality compared to the control, the qg and Ytallo were different (P

  3. Identificação e quantificação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares autóctones em municípios produtores de citros no Rio Grande do Sul Identification and quantification of native arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi of citrus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os esporos de FMA presentes em viveiros e pomares de citros no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo e de raízes de dez viveiros e doze pomares de oito municípios produtores de citros, nas quais avaliaramse conteúdo nutricional, número de esporos por 100 g de solo seco e colonização das radicelas, e determinaramse as espécies autóctones. As espécies, em ordem decrescente de ocorrência, foram: Glomus macrocarpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobiculata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.The objective of this work was to identify and quantify AMF spores present in citrus nurseries and orchards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Soil and root samples were collected at ten nurseries and twelve citrus orchards. Mineral composition of the soil samples was determined as well as the number of spores in 100 g of dry soil, root colonization and native species taxonomic identification. AMF species, in decreasing order of occurrence were: Glomus macro- carpum > Scutellospora heterogama > Acaulospora scrobi- culata = Acaulospora birreticulata > Glomus invermaium = Glomus occultum = Entrophospora colombiana > Glomus claroideum = Glomus constrictum > Scutellospora persica.

  4. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered treatment were smaller, more acid and with less quantity of vitamin C than the uncovered ones.

  5. 70 FR 75967 - Importation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-22

    ...permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada...provides that fruits and vegetables grown in Canada...potato wart disease and golden...importation of these fruits and vegetables. Paragraph...citrus canker disease...

  6. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  7. Asymmetric reduction of ketones by biocatalysis using clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit grown in Annaba or by ruthenium catalysis for access to both enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennamane, Manhel; Zeror, Saoussen; Aribi-Zouioueche, Louisa

    2015-03-01

    Biocatalytic reduction of prochiral ketones using freshly ripened clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in aqueous medium is reported. High enantioselectivities were observed, especially for the bioreduction of indanone , tetralone , and thiochromanone with respectively 95%, 99%, and 86% enantiomeric excess (ee). Enantioselective bio- and metal-catalyzed reactions were compared. Chiral ruthenium catalysts afforded good asymmetric inductions (>75% ee) in most cases, enantiomeric excesses depending on the nature of substrate and ligand. N-aminoindanol prolinamide was revealed as the best ligand for most ketones. Interestingly, for several substrates both enantiomers could be obtained using either Citrus reticulata or ruthenium complex. PMID:25482318

  8. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  9. Performance of Different Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) Genotypes on Sour Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Rootstock under the Climatic Conditions of Peshawar

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Nabi; Tasleem Jan; Sharafat Gul; Nadia Kanwal; Umer Rahim

    2004-01-01

    Eight grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) genotypes namely Ruby Red, Red Blush, Marsh JBC-430, Reed, Red Mexican, Shamber, White-I local and White-II local on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock were planted at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan during the year 1996. These genotypes were evaluated for fruit maturity, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of seeds per fruit, number of segments per fruit, juice percentage, rind percentage, fruit texture, rind colour, ...

  10. Preferência para oviposição e ciclo de vida de mosca-negra- dos-citros Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em espécies frutíferas / Oviposition preference and life cycle of citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby on fruit crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislane da Silva, Lopes; Raimunda Nonata Santos de, Lemos; José Ribamar Gusmão, Araujo; Luiz Junior Pereira, Marques; Daniele Lavra, Vieira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby conhecida popularmente como mosca-negra-dos-citros é considerada praga quarentenária A2 no Brasil e ocasiona prejuízo em diversas frutíferas, principalmente em citros (laranja, limão e tangerina). Poucas são as pesquisas relacionadas aos seus aspectos biológicos nas condi [...] ções ambientais brasileiras. Nesse sentido, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a preferência de oviposição e a duração do ciclo de vida de A. woglumi em diferentes hospedeiros. A pesquisa foi conduzida em casa de vegetação, durante o período de março de 2009 a março de 2010. Foram realizados testes de preferência sem chance de escolha em seis hospedeiros, simultaneamente, em períodos de 48 e 72 horas, além da biologia comparada em mangueira e laranjeira. Foram observados nos testes que A. woglumi apresenta preferência por ovipositar nas espécies cítricas (limoeiro, laranjeira e tangerineira), mantendo um padrão de não preferência em cajueiro e goiabeira. Os hospedeiros laranjeira e mangueira não interferiram no ciclo biológico da praga. Abstract in english Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, popularly known as the citrus blackfly is considered A2 quarantine pest in Brazil and causes damage in many fruit crops, especially citrus (orange, lemon and tangerine). Few researches related to biological aspects are carried out in Brazilian environmental conditions. T [...] he present research aimed to determine the oviposition preference and duration of the life cycle of A. woglumi on different hosts. The research was carried out in a greenhouse during the period of March 2009 to March 2010. Tests of preference were done with no chance of choice in six hosts, in periods of 48 and 72 hours, beyond the comparative biology in mango and orange trees. A. woglumi showed preference for laying eggs on citrus species (lemon, orange and mandarin), maintaining a pattern of non-preference in cashew and guava trees. The orange and mango hosts did not interfere in the life cycle of the pest.

  11. Flavonoid Composition of Citrus Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Caristi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early nineties the presence of flavonoids in Citrus juices began to attract the attention of a number of researchers, as a result of their biological and physiological importance. This short review will explore two different aspects. The first part will focus on analytical techniques for the characterization of juices from different Citrus fruits regarding their flavonoid content (even if present in only trace amounts, concentrating on the most widely used methods (LC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The second part analyzes data reported in the literature regarding the composition of Citrus juices. The main components that have been detected so far are flavanone-O-glycosides and flavone-O- or -C-glycosides. The presence of such derivatives in various hand-squeezed and industrial juices is discussed, with special emphasis on their correlation to different species.

  12. Actividad antifúngica del aceite esencial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre hongos postcosecha en frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.) / Anti-fungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus sinensis L.) over post-harvest fungi in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clemencia, Guédez; Luis, Cañizalez; Laura, Avendaño; José, Scorza; Carmen, Castillo; Rafael, Olivar; Yolanda, Méndez; Libert, Sánchez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos postcosecha causan pudriciones que afectan la calidad de los frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Actualmente los aceites esenciales son considerados una alternativa a los fungicidas químicos para controlar estos hongos. En este estudio se evaluó la actividad antifúngica del aceite esenc [...] ial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre los hongos Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer y Aspergillus flavus, en medio de cultivo Papa Dextrosa Agar (PDA) en un diseño completamente al azar. Los resultados mostraron que existe un efecto inhibidor del aceite esencial de naranja (AEN) en el crecimiento micelial de los hongos in vitro, superior al 80% a concentración de AE de 1%, y 100% de inhibición a concentraciones de 2,5% y 5% de AE (p Abstract in english Post-harvest fungi produce rotting that affects the quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) At present, essential oils are considered an alternative to chemical anti-fungal substances for controlling these fungi. In this study we evaluated the antifungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus [...] sinensis L.) over Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillum indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus flavus, in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) culture medium in a completely random design. The results showed that there is an inhibitory effect of essential orange oil (EOO) over the in vitro mycelium growth of fungi, higher than 80% at a 1% EOO concentration and 100% inhibition at 2.5% and 5% EOO concentrations (p

  13. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    OpenAIRE

    SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick ...

  14. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  15. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  16. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil / Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erllens, Éder-Silva; Leonardo Pessoa, Felix; Riselane de Lucena Alcântara, Bruno.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas c [...] onvencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia. Abstract in english This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symm [...] etrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome morphology or the presence of secondary constrictions. In Myrtaceae family, it had been observed a diploid chromosome supplement with 2n=98 in Psidium arboretum Vell. and 2n=44 in P. araça Raddi; 2n=50 in Bromelia karatas L.; in the Malvaceae, 2n=16 for Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; in Sapindaceae, 2n=32 in Talisia esculenta Radlk. and, in Caricaceae, 2n=18 in Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. All chromosome data presented in this work have been karyologically unpublished, except for T. esculenta which had previous reports confirmed. The species are potentially useful in breeding systems, and a heterozygosis inversion seems to be involved in the karyotype evolution of Guazuma ulmifolia.

  17. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, fatty acids and correlation by principal component analysis of exotic and native fruits from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra B., Ribeiro; Elton G., Bonafé; Beatriz C., Silva; Paula F., Montanher; Oscar O., Santos Júnior; Joana S., Boeing; Jesuí V., Visentainer.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As capacidades antioxidante de sete frutas nativas e exóticas do Brasil foram avaliadas usando os métodos DPPH•, ABTS•+ e FRAP, além da determinação do conteúdo de fenólicos totais e composição de ácidos graxos. Murici e dovialis apresentaram os maiores conteúdos de compostos fenólicos (243,42 e 205 [...] ,98 mg EAG 100 g-1, respectivamente), e maiores capacidades antioxidante pelo método de FRAP (24,97 e 23,70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectivamente). Pelos métodos de DPPH• e ABTS•+, dovialis apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, 9,59 e 10,41 ET g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores dos ácidos alfa-linolênico e linoleico foram encontrados na siriguela (107,86 mg AG g-1 LT) e tomatinho do mato (215,50 mg AG g-1 LT), respectivamente. A análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos ácidos graxos gerou três significantes PCs, que representaram 99,75% do conjunto de dados da variância. Os dados de PCA das análises de antioxidantes geraram dois significantes PCs, representando 97,00% do total de variância. Abstract in english The antioxidant capacities of seven exotic and native fruits from Brazil were evaluated using DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP assays, in addition to their total phenolic content and fatty acid composition. Murici and dovialis presented the highest total phenolic contents (243.42 and 205.98 mg GAE 100 g-1, re [...] spectively), and the highest antioxidant capacities by the FRAP assay (24.97 and 23.70 µmol Fe2+ g-1, respectively). In the DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays, dovialis presented the highest antioxidant capacity, 9.59 and 10.41 TE g-1, respectively. The highest alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid contents were found in siriguela (107.86 mg FA g-1 TL) and tomatinho do mato (215.50 mg FA g-1 TL), respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) of fatty acids yielded three significant PCs, which accounted for 99.75% of the data set total variance. The PCA data of the antioxidant analyses yielded two significant PCs, which accounted for 97.00% of the total variance.

  18. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  19. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Mehta; Marilia Santos, Silva; Simone, Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine, Carrer; Marco Aurélio, Takita; Natália F., Martins.

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to seq [...] uence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile). Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  20. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi.

  1. Characterization of the antioxidant capacity of natives fruits from the Brazilian Amazon Region / Caracterização da atividade antioxidante de frutos nativos da região Amazõnica Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Camargo, Neves; André José de, Campos; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

    1165-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar à caracterização química e a capacidade antioxidante em oito espécies de frutos nativos da Amazônia. Todos os frutos foram coletados em completo desenvolvimento da maturidade fisiológica e comercial em propriedades rurais localizadas em: Boa Vista / RR, S [...] ão Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM e Belém / PA. Ao final do experimento, o padrão funcional para os frutos de camu-camu mostrou que o conteúdo de fenólicos totais, de vitamina C e a atividade antioxidante foi superior em compração às demais espécies. Apesar das perdas nos componentes funcionais detectadas para as amostras liofilizadas de camu-camu, todas as amostras dos demais frutos mantidas em temperatura abaixo de -20°C mostraram estabilidade adequada para longos períodos de armazenamento. Além disso, observou-se também que a casca dos frutos apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que a polpa dos frutos e amostras contendo tecidos da casca e da polpa no mesmo extrato. Quando a relação entre a atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC e o conteúdo de fenólicos totais foram observadas, o uxi demonstrou o poder antioxidante mais elevado em comparação aos demais frutos estudados, apesar de apresentar níveis relativamente baixos no contéudo de fenólicos totais e na atividade antioxidante medida pelo método ORAC. Isso significa que existe uma contribuição considerável desses compostos fenólicos na atividade antioxidante do uxi. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemistry and the antioxidant capacity in 8 species of native fruits from Amazonia. All the fruits were collected at full physiological and commercial maturity from properties located at: Boa Vista / RR, São Luiz do Anauá / RR, Manaus / AM, [...] and Belém / PA. At the end of the experiment, the functional pattern for the camu-camu fruits showed that the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant assays were superior compared to the other samples. Despite the functional losses detected for the freeze-dried samples of the camu-camu fruit, all the other freeze-dried samples kept under -20ºC showed appropriate stability for long-term storage. In addition, it was also observed that fruit peel showed higher antioxidant activity than pulp or samples containing peel and pulp tissues in the same extract. When the ratio between the ORAC and total phenolic assays were observed, the uxi fruit demonstrated the highest antioxidant power compared to the other fruits studied, despite its relatively low levels of phenolic compound content and ORAC values. This means that there is a relevant contribution of these phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity of uxi fruit.

  2. Resistance and tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is severely impacting Florida citrus. Productivity declines in many HLB-affected genotypes, often with greatly thinned canopies. Fruit size and quality are often adversely affected as the disease advances. HLB was assessed in diverse cultivars in commercial groves with high HLB-i...

  3. Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Fischer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packinghouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados.The purposes of this work were a to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in 2004/05 and 2005/06; b to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days was not significant in collected fruits.

  4. Incidência de mancha preta em frutos cítricos em diferentes etapas de beneficiamento em packinghouses e na Ceagesp SP / Incidence of black spot in citrus fruits from different processing stages in packinghouses and from São Paulo's wholesale market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Marcel B., Spósito; Lilian, Amorim.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da mancha preta dos citros (MPC) em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packingh [...] ouses, nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06, assim como a incidência da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra' e 'Lima' e em tangor 'Murcott' comercializados na Ceagesp-SP, em 2006. Frutos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25ºC e 85-90% de UR. A incidência da MPC foi avaliada visualmente após um dia e ao final do armazenamento. A incidência da MPC nos frutos do packinghouse de exportação foi decrescente, com valores médios abaixo de 2,0% na chegada e nenhum sintoma em frutos do palete. A incidência média da MPC em laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e em tangor 'Murcott' no packinghouse destinado ao mercado interno foi de 64,1; 39,0; 32,1 e 19,3%, respectivamente, após um dia de armazenamento e manteve-se constante em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. A incidência de frutos com MPC na Ceagesp foi baixa nos meses de inverno e crescente na primavera. O aumento médio na incidência da doença após o armazenamento (21 dias) não foi significativo nos frutos cítricos amostrados. Abstract in english The purposes of this work were a) to evaluate citrus black spot (CBS) incidence in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the export market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors, aimed at the domestic market after different processing stages in packinghouses in [...] 2004/05 and 2005/06; b) to evaluate CBS incidence in 'Pêra' and 'Lima' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors sold at Ceagesp-SP, the biggest wholesale market in the State of São Paulo, in 2006. Citrus fruits were collected at the packinghouse, on their arrival, after pre-washing and de-greening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25ºC and 85-90% RH. The incidence of CBS was visually evaluated after one day and at the end of the storage period. CBS incidence in fruits aimed at the export market decreased, with values under 2.0% on arrival and no CBS symptoms observed on fruits from the pallet. The average incidence of CBS in 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' oranges, and 'Murcott' tangors in the packinghouse aimed at the domestic market were 64.1, 39.0, 32.1 and 19.3%, respectively, after one day of storage, then remaining constant in all processing stages. The incidence of CBS in Ceagesp fruits was low in winter months and increased in the spring. The increase in disease incidence during the storage period (21 days) was not significant in collected fruits.

  5. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchetti Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-?, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1? and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography. Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-? by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-? or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  7. Diversidade de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha em citros, café e fragmento de floresta nativa do Estado de São Paulo / Diversity of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha in citrus, coffee and a fragment of native forest of the State of São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresinha A, Giustolin; João R S, Lopes; Ranyse B, Querino; Rodney R, Cavichioli; Kety, Zanol; Wilson S, Azevedo Filho; Miguel A, Mendes.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e floresta estacional semidecidual com fisionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a influencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agr [...] oecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identificação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A floresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a floresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na floresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à floresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da floresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de insetos vetores e possíveis vetores de doenças de plantas cultivadas nos habitats avaliados indicam a necessidade da implantação do manejo de pragas nessa área. Abstract in english The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agr [...] oecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.

  8. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  9. Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Simona; Lai, Adolfo; Stange, Richard R; McCollum, T Greg; Schirra, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and incubated under conditions favourable for the accumulation of defence related material. Histochemical examination revealed that tissues adjacent to inoculated injuries contained phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reactive material. Solvent washed cell wall preparations of intact and injured-inoculated peel were further purified using a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes. Samples from injured inoculated tissue contained PG-HCl reactive globular material in addition to the fragments of xylem and cuticle found in controls. The principal chemical moieties of the material that accumulates in grapefruit injuries during wound-healing were studied by solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. A complete assignment of the NMR signals was made. From the analysis evidence was found that cellulose and hemicellulose are the biopolymers present in the intact peel samples, in addition, relevant quantities of cutin were found in the residues of enzyme digest. The NMR difference spectrum intact- wounded peels showed resonances which were attributed to all major functional groups of the aromatic-aliphatic suberin polyester of new material produced by the wounds. Information on the latter polyester was obtained by analyzing the T(1)rho (1H) relaxation. PMID:12711139

  10. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Elvin Asay

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed...

  11. Effects of parental nativity and length of stay in the US on fruit and vegetable intake among WIC-enrolled preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Langellier, B A; Wang, M C; Koleilat, M; Whaley, S E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to US culture is negatively associated with fruits and vegetables (F&V) intake. Our goal was to investigate how parent's nativity and length of stay in the US influences preschoolers' F&V intake. We analyzed survey data from 2,352 children, aged 36-60 months, who participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County. Using multiple linear regression, we examined children's F&V intake by parent's nativity and years in the US, adjusting for possible confounders. Children of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for <10 years consumed fewer servings of vegetables than children of US born parents and of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for ?10 years. Children of newer immigrant families may be at greater risk for consuming poor-quality diets. Research to identify determinants of poor diet quality among children of immigrant families may increase the effectiveness of WIC in addressing this population's nutritional needs. PMID:25179897

  12. Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária / Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moeses Andrigo, Danner; Idemir, Citadin; Simone Aparecida Zolet, Sasso; Marcos Robson, Sachet; Rodrigo, Ambrósio.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cereje [...] ira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias), com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias), com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie. Abstract in english Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia [...] uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days), with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days), with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between genotypes of the same species.

  13. Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cerejeira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias, com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias, com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie.Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days, with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days, with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between genotypes of the same species.

  14. Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" / Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan H., Fischer; Leonardo, Toffano; Silvia A., Lourenço; Lílian, Amorim.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado intern [...] o, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri) e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum). Abstract in english Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were col [...] lected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri), and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum).

  15. Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Fischer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum.Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were collected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85% of relative humidity. The incidence of diseases was assessed visually after the removal of the humid chamber and every three days. Fungal pathogenicity was confirmed by fungal inoculation in healthy fruits. Post-harvest disease incidence was similar in different phases of handling system for varieties Lima and Natal. For Pêra and tangor 'Murcott' disease incidence was lower on arrival at the packinghouse compared to other handling phases. Green mold was the most frequent disease in all varieties. Other important diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, stem-end rots (Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phomopsis citri, and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum.

  16. Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miranda Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart., o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart. e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de ésteres metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %, seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %. A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%. A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado.Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart., coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart. and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb. are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %; araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %, followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %. The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %. Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

  17. Composição de ácidos graxos em polpa de frutas nativas do cerrado / Composition of fat acids in pulp of native fruits from the brazilian savanna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Miranda, Lopes; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Ismael da Silva, Gomes; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as fruteiras do Cerrado brasileiro com forte potencial para a exploração sustentada, encontram-se o araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), o coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) e o pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o teor de óleo e o perfil de éste [...] res metílicos da fração lipídica da polpa dos frutos destas três espécies. Os teores de lipídeos foram determinados por extração contínua a quente com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O óleo para perfil de ésteres metílicos foi extraído a frio por Bligh e Dyer e caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A polpa de pequi apresentou elevados teores de óleo, em média 30,89 %; as polpas de araticum e coquinho-azedo apresentaram, respectivamente, médias de 2,14 e 2,73 % de óleo. Os ácidos graxos oleico e palmítico predominaram nas três espécies, e todas apresentaram prevalência de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo a maior concentração encontrada no araticum (78,3 %), seguida pelo coquinho-azedo (63,3 %). A polpa de araticum e de coquinho-azedo apresentaram elevados teores de ácido linolênico (2,5 a 3,7%). A presença de ésteres metílicos de ácido caproico parece estar associada à percepção do aroma frutal típico destas frutas do Cerrado. Abstract in english Araticum (Annona Crassiflora Mart.), coquinho-azedo (Butia Capitata Mart.) and pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense Camb.) are native fruits from the Brazilian Savanna with strong potential for sustained exploration. The objective of this study was the characterization of lipid contents and fatty acid profil [...] es of these species. Total lipids were hot extracted with petroleum ether in Soxhlet extractor. The oil used for methyl ester profiles was cold extracted by Bligh & Dyer and characterized by gas chromatograph, using flame ionization detector. The pequi pulp presented highest oil content (30.89 %); araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented respectively 2.14 and 2.73 %. The oleic and palmitic acids predominated in all three species and all of them presented prevalence of unsaturated fat acids. The highest value was found in araticum pulp (78.3 %), followed by coquinho-azedo pulp (63.3 %). The araticum and coquinho-azedo pulps presented highest content of linolenic acid (2.5 to 3.7 %). Methyl esters of caproic acid found in these pulps seems to be linked to perception of fruit aroma of these native fruits from Cerrado.

  18. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso) Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso)

    OpenAIRE

    Colecio-jua?rez, Maria C.; Rubio-nu?nez, Rubria E.; Botello-a?lvarez, Jose? E.; Martinez-gonza?lez, Gloria M.; Navarrete-bolanos, Jose? L.; Hugo Jiménez-Islas

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso), is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identific...

  19. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  20. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros / Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA, FRANCO; WAGNER, BETTIOL.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a do [...] is, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença. Abstract in english The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among the [...] m, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  1. Citrus improvement using mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by the citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; consequently, most of the commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Rio Red, the most planted grapefruit in Texas has also dark-red flesh and originated by thermal neutrons irradiation of the pinkish Ruby Red grapefruit buds in the third vegetative progeny. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programs, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in USA, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon muto earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding program and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programs in USA will be provided. (author)

  2. Citrus Improvement Using Mutation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus cultivar improvement is hampered by several biological factors inherent to most citrus species. Facultative apomixis, self and cross-incompatibility, long juvenility period, and high heterozygosis are some of the vast arrays of impediments faced by citrus breeders in conventional hybridization. Since oranges and grapefruits are highly polyembryonic, the production of enough numbers of zygotic offspring for selection of superior genotypes of these species is basically impossible; hence, most commercially important cultivars of these species have originated through natural or induced mutation. Star Ruby, a deep-red-fleshed grapefruit, was developed by irradiation of Hudson grapefruit seeds with thermal neutrons. Unlike Hudson, which contains over 50 seeds per fruit, Star Ruby is nearly seedless. Hensz irradiated buds of Ruby Red grapefruit with thermal neutrons and a tree that originated from one of the buds produced fruits three times redder than Ruby Red. It was named A and I-1-48. Ten trees were propagated from A and I -1-48, and out of one of the trees, a budsport mutation was found producing fruits five times redder than Ruby Red. Called Rio Red, it is currently the variety of choice for Texas and is known worldwide for its sweetness, red flesh and beautiful blush. Currently, 37 years after A and I -1-48 was first propagated, the trees are still producing several budsport mutations. So far, in the 2007/2008 season, more than 100 new mutations were obtained fore than 100 new mutations were obtained from a 100-tree block. In the mandarin group, the existence of several monoembryonic cultivars facilitates conventional breeding, but still, induced mutation is part of most mandarin breeding programmes, and proprietary, new seedless cultivars have been produced in the US, Italy, Israel and elsewhere. Seedless mandarins produced by the University of California Riverside include Dayse, Fairchild, Encore, and Nova. The USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Florida released a seedless Pineapple orange, and the University of Florida a seedless Murcot tangor. Mutation has been also important in lemon breeding, and a seedless lemon, with tolerance to a devastating lemon disease was recently reported, in addition to earlier reports of a thornless lemon mutant produced by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation is currently an important component of our breeding programme and several potentially improved cultivars of grapefruit, pummelos, and lemons are in the pipeline. Additional details of citrus irradiation programmes in the US will be provided. (author)

  3. THE EFFECT OF HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS ON LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

  4. LONG DISTANCE SPREAD OF CITRUS CANKER RELATED TO HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) is a serious disease of citrus that causes foliar and fruit lesions leading to extensive yield and quality losses. During Fall 2004, Florida experienced 3 hurricanes (Charlie, Francis, Jeanne) and one tropical storm (Ivan) whose paths crossed the majority of the commercia...

  5. Caracterização de frutos e poliembrionia em sementes de 'flying dragon' e de híbridos de porta-enxerto de citros / Fruit characterization and seed polyembryony of 'flying dragon' and of hybrids citrus rootstocks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Amato, Moreira; José Darlan, Ramos; Maria do Céu Monteiro da, Cruz.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação de porta-enxertos é uma realidade no momento atual da citricultura brasileira, devido aos inúmeros problemas fitossanitários que vêm sendo recorrentes. Neste contexto, algumas alternativas já são implementadas, como a utilização de alguns híbridos produzidos a partir do melhoramento [...] convencional e por variedades já consagradas na citricultura. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a germinação e a poliembrionia das sementes de híbridos e alguns porta-enxertos convencionais. Para caracterização, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 12 amostras (frutos) de cada porta-enxerto. Na avaliação do percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e poliembrionia, foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 (porta-enxertos: híbridos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 e UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' e o Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon') x 2 (com e sem a remoção do tegumento da semente), sendo utilizadas quatro repetições. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: O tamanho do fruto não influenciou no rendimento de sementes. A remoção do tegumento acelerou o tempo de germinação das sementes em todos os porta-enxertos e proporcionou maior percentual de germinação. A poliembrionia não afetou o processo de germinação das sementes. Os porta-enxertos UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' apresentam potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos na propagação de algumas variedades cítricas. Abstract in english The diversification of the rootstocks is a reality at the moment of the brazilian citriculture, due many problems that have been recurring. In this context some alternatives are already a reality as the use of some hybrids produced through conventional breeding and varieties already used in citrus. [...] This work was carried out aiming to characterize the fruit and evaluate the germination and the polyembryony of the seed. For characterization were randomly collected 12 samples of each rootstock. In assessing of germination percetage, germination speed index and polyembryony was used factorial scheme 5 (the rootstocks: hybrid UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3 E UFLAD-4, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' and Poncirus trifoliata var. monstrosa 'Flying Dragon ') x 2 (with and without removing the seedcoat), four replications were used. According to the results it is concluded that the fruit size did not influence in the seed yield. The removal of the seedcoat accelerated the time of seed germination in all the rootstocks and provided a higher germination percentage. The polyembryony doesn't affect the process of seed germination. The rootstocks UFLAD-2, UFLAD-3, UFLAD-4 and citrumeleiro 'Swingle' have potential for use in the production of the rootstocks.

  6. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado Total phenolics and condensed tannins in native fruits from Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.The native fruits from Brazilian savanna are arousing increasing interest due to their nutritional and functional properties combined with the potential to add value and conserve the biodiversity of this biome. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant capacity to neutralize free radicals generated in the body that are associated with many chronic degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three extraction solutions (acetone 70%, ethanol 95% and methanol 99.8 % and determining the levels of phenolic compounds in 10 species of native fruits from Brazilian savanna, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds and vanillin method for condensed tannins. Acetone 70 % proved to be the best solvent extractor for total phenolics and condensed tannins in fruits of Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp. and for total phenolics in Brosimium gaudichaudii and for condensed tannins in Jaracatia spinosa. The ethanol 95 % was more efficient in the extraction of total phenolics of Jaracatia spinosa and condensed tannins of Brosimium gaudichaudii. The methanol 99.8 % was more efficient in the extraction of condensed tannins of Eugenia dysenterica. The contents of phenolic compounds ranged between 90 and 327 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. punicifolia respectively. The levels of condensed tannins ranged between 4 and 291 mg of catechin equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. calcyna respectively. Evaluated species of fruit from Brazilian savanna can be considered good sources of total phenolic compounds, although the specific nature of different types should be evaluated in future studies.

  7. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado / Total phenolics and condensed tannins in native fruits from Brazilian savanna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wesley Silveira, Rocha; Renata Miranda, Lopes; Dijalma Barbosa da, Silva; Roberto Fontes, Vieira; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Tânia da Silveira, Agostini-Costa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividad [...] e de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 %) e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros. Abstract in english The native fruits from Brazilian savanna are arousing increasing interest due to their nutritional and functional properties combined with the potential to add value and conserve the biodiversity of this biome. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant capacity to neutralize free radicals generated i [...] n the body that are associated with many chronic degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three extraction solutions (acetone 70%, ethanol 95% and methanol 99.8 %) and determining the levels of phenolic compounds in 10 species of native fruits from Brazilian savanna, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds and vanillin method for condensed tannins. Acetone 70 % proved to be the best solvent extractor for total phenolics and condensed tannins in fruits of Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp. and for total phenolics in Brosimium gaudichaudii and for condensed tannins in Jaracatia spinosa. The ethanol 95 % was more efficient in the extraction of total phenolics of Jaracatia spinosa and condensed tannins of Brosimium gaudichaudii. The methanol 99.8 % was more efficient in the extraction of condensed tannins of Eugenia dysenterica. The contents of phenolic compounds ranged between 90 and 327 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. punicifolia respectively. The levels of condensed tannins ranged between 4 and 291 mg of catechin equivalent per 100 g of pulp for the species of E. dysenterica and E. calcyna respectively. Evaluated species of fruit from Brazilian savanna can be considered good sources of total phenolic compounds, although the specific nature of different types should be evaluated in future studies.

  8. Efeitos de mbta [cloridrato de n,n-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) / Effects of mbta [n,n-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] on yield and fruit quality of 'pêra' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chryz Melinski, Serciloto; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro; Silvio, Tavares.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do biorregulador MBTA [cloridrato de N,N-dietil-2-(4-metilbenziloxi) etilamina] aplicado em diferentes épocas e concentrações na produtividade e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira 'Pêra'. Em duas safras consecutivas, o MBTA foi aplicado em três difere [...] ntes concentrações (8; 16 e 32 mg L-1) e em duas diferentes fases fenológicas (25% e 100% de flores abertas), em árvores cítricas adultas, utilizando um volume de 7 litros de solução por planta, acompanhado do adjuvante Silwett L-77 0,05%. Foram amostrados 20 frutos por planta, em quatro diferentes épocas estudadas, para determinar o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS); acidez titulável (AT); quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg; pH; rendimento de suco; "ratio" (relação SS/AT), e a massa média dos frutos. Os efeitos do MBTA variaram de acordo com a concentração aplicada e com a fase fenológica de aplicação. O MBTA, na concentração de 8 mg L-1, aplicado com 25% das flores abertas, incrementou o teor de sólidos solúveis, a acidez, a quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e a produtividade. Esse mesmo tratamento também reduziu a massa média dos frutos e não alterou o rendimento de suco e o "ratio" do suco dos frutos. O incremento médio foi de 0,49 a 0,65% na concentração de sólidos solúveis, de 0,11 a 0,13 kg na quantidade de sólidos solúveis por caixa de 40,8 kg e de 20,4 kg/planta na produtividade. Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of MBTA [N,N-diethyl-2-(4-metylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride] bioregulator applied on different times and concentrations on the yield and fruit quality of 'Pera' sweet orange. In two consecutive harvest seasons, the MBTA was sprayed in t [...] hree different concentrations (8; 16 and 32 mg L-1) and in two different phenological phases (25% and 100% open flowers) in citrus mature trees, using 7 L of spray per tree added with Silwett L-77 adjuvant at 0.05%. For each cultivar, twenty fruits per tree were sampled in four different times to determine the soluble solids concentration (SS), titratable acidity (TA), quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box, juice yield, "ratio" (SS/TA) and average fruit weight. The effects of MBTA varied according to the concentration and phenological phase of application. The MBTA at 8 mg L-1 concentration, sprayed on 25% of the open flowers, increased the soluble solids concentration, acidity, the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and the yield. The same treatment also decreased the average fruit weight and did not affect the juice yield and the "ratio". The average increase was from 0.49 to 0.65% on soluble solids concentration, from 0.11 to 0.13 kg on the quantity of soluble solids per 40.8 kg box and 20.4 kg/tree on yield.

  9. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas / Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdely Ferreira, Kinupp; Ingrid Bergman Inchausti de, Barros.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA), Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua [...] composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem. Abstract in english The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA), Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil), presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly reg [...] ard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents, 69 species distributed in 58 genus and 33 botanical families were selected to the study, totalizing 76 analyses of different edible portions. Besides the N converted in protein, the contents of Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S, and B were analyzed. Several species revealed promising contents of protein and minerals with higher values than commercial species with similar uses. Despite of their suitability and abundance in the MRPA region and the significant contents of protein and minerals, the great majority of these species remain unknown or underutilized. Studies and effective incentives to the economical uses of the neglected species could contribute to the conservation, valorization of the indigenous species, and to a more diverse and healthful human diet.

  10. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Schoubroeck, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The confinement of the study to control of the fly leads to the study addressing a broad set of issues that are linked through their relevance to control the pest. Citrus fly control and its consequent doubling of t...

  11. Genomics Meets Induced Mutations in Citrus: Identification of Deleted Genes Through Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the use of genomic approaches to identify pivotal genes in induced citrus mutants. Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world and Spain is the first fresh citrus producer. The survival of the citrus industry is critically dependent on genetically superior cultivars but improvements in fruit quality traits through traditional techniques are extremely difficult due to the unusual combination of biological characteristics of citrus. Genomic science, however, holds promise of improvements in breeding. In this work, we reported the successful identification of genes included in hemizygous deletions induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. Microarray-based CGH was used to identify underrepresented genes in a citrus mutant that shows color break delay. Subsequent confirmation of gene doses through quantitative PCR and comparison of best hits of putative deleted citrus genes against annotated genomes from other eudicots, specially poplar, enabled the prediction that these genes were clustered into a 700 kb fragment. The availability of Citrus BAC end sequences helped to draw a partial physical map of the deletion. Furthermore, gene content and order in the deleted segment was established by PCR location of gene hits on the physical map. Finally, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio was found in green tissues from the mutant, an observation that can be related to the hemizygous deletion of a ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunia ClpC-like gene, coding a putative subunit of a multifunctional protease complex located into the chloroplast. Analysis of gene content and order inside this Citrus deletion led to the conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity with Populus trichocarpa were higher than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In conclusion, a combined strategy including genomics tools and induced citrus mutations has been proved to be a successful approach to identify genes with major roles in citrus fruit development. (author)

  12. Quality of fresh fruits irradiated at disinfestation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality retention of fresh fruits treated with gamma-radiation for disinfestation is one of the criteria for the feasibility of the radiation process. The effectiveness of radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papayas infested by three species of tropical fruit flies and California-grown citrus and stone fruits infested by Mediterranean fruit files (Ceratitis capitata) and the sensory qualities of these irradiated fruits were recently studied in Hawaii. Experimental results showed that papaya can be irradiated to 1.0 kGy without any adverse effects on its sensory and nutrient qualities. A radiation dose of 0.3 kGy should present no problems to the sensory qualities of California stone and citrus fruits. California citrus can tolerate higher doses (0.50-0.75 KGy) than stone fruits, especially if refrigerated storage follows irradiation. Better control of harvesting, shipping, and handling should also help retain the qualities of these irradiated fruits

  13. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas / Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio de Carvalho, Pires; Osvaldo Kiyoshi, Yamanishi; José Ricardo, Peixoto; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Marcelo Alves de Figueiredo, Sousa.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis), apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes [...] da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE) as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP), as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE). As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida), seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0'), com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento. Abstract in english Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to evaluate the production of clonal nursery plants of Australian purple passion fruit it was realized at the Fruit [...] Section of University of Brasília an experiment from May 2005 to February 2006. Randomized blocks were used with 3 replications in a factorial arrangement 7 x 2 x 3 with 7 rootstock, 2 varieties and 3 periods of evaluation, where each parcel had 3 plants. P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, (P. coccinea X P. setacea), P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' were used as rootstock and as a scion the purple passion fruit '96A' and '25' from Australia. The rooted rootstock was transferred to plastic bags and kept under misting condition and grafted 30 days later. The rooting success rate was evaluated 31 and 61 days after grafting (DAG). The scion/rootstock combination ("25" and "96 A" X P. nítida) followed by ("25" and "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0') with 100%, 90%, 90% and 80%, respectively, achieved high success rate 61 DAG. The production of purple passion fruits grafted onto native and commercial species as rootstock P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa 'EC-2-0' and P. edulis is viable since there is no evidence of incompatibility and the grafted plants showed high percentage of success rate.

  14. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ravleen Kour; Ankur Rastogi; R.K. Sharma; Arvind Kumar; Pratiksha Raghuwanshi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora) is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow...

  15. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V) Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Khaskheli, Mazhar I.; Memon, Saima Q.; Sajida Parveen; Khuhawar, Muhammad Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study As (V) was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsor...

  16. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  17. First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rúbia de Oliveira, Molina; William Mário de Carvalho, Nunes; Luciano Grillo, Gil; Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca, Rinaldi; José, Croce Filho; Regina Célia Zonta de, Carvalho.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread i [...] n the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

  18. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested fruits immersed in hot water were evaluated aiming to quantify the total of live and dead larvae, with one groupwas kept as control and not immersed. Quarantine safety using treatment with hot water at 46±1°C was reached at 32.0 and 35.3 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. At 50±1°C, quarantine safety was reached at 20.8 and 21.7 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. C. capitata mortality increased with the rise in temperature and exposure time.

  19. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  20. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  1. Evaluación económica de la producción de cítricos cultivados en el Piedemonte del Departamento del Meta durante 12 años / Economic evaluation of citrus fruit grown in the foothills of the Meta department for 12 years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Mateus C; Xiomara, Pulido C; Albert, Gutiérrez; Javier O, Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información sobre los costos de producción e ingresos en suelos de terraza alta del piedemonte del Meta para los cultivos de tangelo Minneola, naranja Valencia, mandarina Arrayana durante 12 años y lima Tahití por 8 años (por muerte de las plantas por tristeza de los cítricos. Los cul [...] tivos se establecieron en 1997 en el C.I. La Libertad y manejados con las recomendaciones desarrolladas por Corpoica en los Llanos Orientales. La información se presenta por hectárea de cultivo en promedio de 10 ha de naranja, 5 de mandarina, 5 de tangelo y 2 de lima Tahití. Los valores son los precios medios del kg de fruta vendida en el árbol y de los insumos del año 2009, (una vez obtenida la información). A la naranja, la mandarina y la lima se asignó el mismo capital para ser establecidos y cultivados, mientras que en el tangelo se invirtió un poco menos debida al uso de un menor número de plantas por ha, pero con la misma cantidad de insumos por planta que los otros cultivos. La mejor producción y rentabilidad la presentó la naranja Valencia con una tasa interna de retorno (TIR) de 34.31 %, seguido por la lima Tahití (8 años de cultivo), tangelo Minneola y mandarina Arrayana con una TIR de 30.93, 17.08, y 13.88 % respectivamente. Con un valor presente neto (VPN) de 12 % la naranja Valencia obtuvo una utilidad neta de $15.800.000 por ha y una relación Beneficio- Costo (B-C) de 3.23. El VPN para la lima Tahití, el tangelo Minneola y la mandarina Arrayana fue de $4.960.000, 3.200.000 y 1.050.000; mientras que la relación B-C fue de: 2.04, 1.36 % y 1.11 %, respectivamente. La lima Tahití presento una producción acumulada menor. Es necesario continuar la investigación en los patrones, ecofisiología, sanidad de las plantas y de nutrición mineral con el fin de conocer el rendimiento potencial de cada uno de los cultivos de cítricos estudiados en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta. Abstract in english An economic analysis of twelve years of production costs and income is presented for well drained high terrace soils of the piedmont of Meta department on orchards 12 years of Minneola tangelo, Valencia orange, Arrayana tangerine for 8 years of Tahiti lime (due to premature death of plants by citrus [...] tristeza virus). The plants were established in 1997 in the La Libertad research center of Corpoica and followed the recommendations developed by Corpoica for citrus crops. The information is presented per hectare of orchard averaging 10 ha of orange, 5 ha of tangerine and tangelo and 2 ha of lime. The values are the average prices per kg of fruit sold in the tree and input the year 2009 (after obtaining the information). For orange, tangerine and lime was assigned the same capital to be established and cultivated, while the tangelo expenses were less due to a lower plant population per ha, but with the same amount of inputs to plant as other crops. The best production and profitability was for Valencia orange with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 34.31 %, followed by the Tahiti lime (8 years of cultivation), Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine with an IRR of 30.93, 17.08, and 13.88 % respectively. With a net present value (NPV) of 12 % Valencia oranges made a net profit of $ 15,800,000 per ha and a benefit-cost ratio (BC) of 3.23. The NPV for Tahiti lime, the Minneola tangelo and Arrayana tangerine was $ 4,960,000 , 3.2 million and 1.05 million, while the BC ratio was: 2.04, 1.36% and 1.11% respectively. The Tahiti lime had a lower cumulative production. It is necessary to continue researching on patterns, ecophysiology, plant health and mineral nutrition in order to understand the potential performance of each citrus crop conditions studied in the foothills of Meta.

  2. composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (citrus sinensis), mandarina (citrus reticulata) y toronja (citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela / Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alicia M, Rincón; A, Vásquez; Marina, Padilla; Fanny, C.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y algunos compuestos bioactivos en las harinas de cáscaras de varias frutas cítricas de mayor consumo, que se cultivan en Venezuela. Se determinó la composición química, algunos elementos trazas, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, fibr [...] a dietética, polifenoles totales y la eficiencia antirradical de los polifenoles utilizando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH· ) en las cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus reticulata) y toronja, variedad blanca, (Citrus paradisi). Las muestras presentaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel’s flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols [...] and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH· ) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p

  3. CSFRI symposium: research into citrus and subtropical crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication only contains the abstracts of papers delivered on the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute symposium which was held at Nelspruit on 21-23 October 1986. The abstracts primarily discuss the problems in and around the South African fruit industry such as pest control, etiology, plant diseases, problems with greening, flowering, and plant growth. One abstract specifically discusses the effect of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential of false cadling moth

  4. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Batista, Lopes; Carlos Henrique de, Brito; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque.

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C . capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade 'Dancy' infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aos tratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1ºC e [...] 50±1ºC, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1ºC foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1ºC, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0) infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar o total de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1ºC foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 50±1ºC, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermal treatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1ºC and 50±1ºC for [...] different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe) and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1ºC, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1ºC, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested fruits immersed in hot water were evaluated aiming to quantify the total of live and dead larvae, with one group was kept as control and not immersed. Quarantine safety using treatment with hot water at 46±1ºC was reached at 32.0 and 35.3 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. At 50±1ºC, quarantine safety was reached at 20.8 and 21.7 minutes for ripe and semi-ripe fruits, respectively. C . capitata mortality increased with the rise in temperature and exposure time.

  5. EFEITO DO ESTÁGIO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS FLORES E DA APLICAÇÃO DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DA PODRIDÃO FLORAL DOS CITROS FLOWER BUD STAGE AND FUNGICIDE APPLICATION EFFECT CONTROL ON POSTBLOOM FRUIT DROP OF CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO RUFFO ROBERTO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os melhores estágios do desenvolvimento das flores de laranja-doce para o controle da Podridão Floral dos Citros (PFC, avaliando-se diversas épocas de aplicação e doses de fungicidas. Os estudos foram realizados em pomares de laranjas-'Natal' e 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck, onde foram marcados aleatoriamente ramos florais pertencentes à florada temporã (janeiro de 1994, caracterizando as fases de desenvolvimento de cada botão floral. Em um primeiro ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações manuais, onde foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 1 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 0,5 g, no dia de marcação dos ramos (aplicação normal; c benomyl 0,5 g, 3 a 4 dias depois da marcação (aplicação tardia; e d benomyl 0,5 g em 2 aplicações, uma na marcação dos botões e outra uma semana depois. As aplicações foram feitas com pulverizadores manuais, molhando-se apenas os ramos com flores marcados. Em um segundo ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações tratorizadas. Na laranja-'Natal', estudaram-se os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 2.000 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 1 kg em 4/jan; c benomyl 1 kg em 4 e 11/jan; e d benomyl 1 kg em 8/jan. Na laranja-'Pêra', os seguintes tratamentos foram aplicados (doses por 2.000 L: a testemunha; b benomyl 1 kg, 4/jan; c benomyl 1 kg, 4 e 10/jan; d benomyl 1 kg + captan 3,5 kg, 4/jan; e benomyl 0,75 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; f benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; g benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan + benomyl 1 kg, 10/jan; h benomyl 1,5 kg, 4/jan; e i benomyl 1,5 kg, 4 e 10/jan. Avaliaram-se, em intervalos de dois dias, a freqüência e a época de ocorrência das lesões nas pétalas dos botões florais, a porcentagem de pegamento e o índice de cálices retidos de cada parcela. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que o benomyl é eficiente no controle da PFC em doses de 0,5-0,75 g.L-1, e sua resposta podem ser obtida em floradas temporãs tratadas nos estágios de predominância de botões redondos brancos até o período anterior à antese.This research was an attempt to determine the most appropriate flower bud stages of sweet orange in which fungicide application is more effective to control postbloom fruit drop disease. The trials were carried out in a 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet orange orchards (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck. Flower branches of summer bloom (January, 1994 were randomly marked and the different stages of development of buds were characterized. In a first trial, the disease control was evaluated through manual spraying. The following treatments were applied (doses per 1 L: a control; b benomyl 0.5 g, when buds were marked (regular application; c benomyl 0.5 g, 3-4 days after the treatment b (late application, and d benomyl 0.5 g in 2 applications (regular application and 7 days later. In a second trial, the disease control was evaluated through regular spraying, using a tractor and speed sprayer. On 'Natal' orchard, the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L: a control; b benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th; c benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th and 11th; and d benomyl 1 kg on Jan 8th. On 'Pera' the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L: a control; b benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th; c benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th; d benomyl 1 kg + captan 3.5 kg, Jan, 4th; e benomyl 0.75 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; f benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; g benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th + benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 10th; h benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th; and i benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th. Disease lesions on petals, fruit set and incidence of persistent calyx parameters were evaluated every other day. Through the results, it was possible to conclude that benomyl is efficient to control the disease in doses ranging from 0.5-0.75 g.L-1, and its response may be obtained in summer blooms when round to elongate bud stages are prevalent.

  6. EFEITO DO ESTÁGIO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS FLORES E DA APLICAÇÃO DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DA PODRIDÃO FLORAL DOS CITROS / FLOWER BUD STAGE AND FUNGICIDE APPLICATION EFFECT CONTROL ON POSTBLOOM FRUIT DROP OF CITRUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SÉRGIO RUFFO, ROBERTO; ANDREY VETORELLI, BORGES.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar os melhores estágios do desenvolvimento das flores de laranja-doce para o controle da Podridão Floral dos Citros (PFC), avaliando-se diversas épocas de aplicação e doses de fungicidas. Os estudos foram realizados em pomares de laranjas-'Natal' e 'Pêra [...] ' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck), onde foram marcados aleatoriamente ramos florais pertencentes à florada temporã (janeiro de 1994), caracterizando as fases de desenvolvimento de cada botão floral. Em um primeiro ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações manuais, onde foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 1 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 0,5 g, no dia de marcação dos ramos (aplicação normal); c) benomyl 0,5 g, 3 a 4 dias depois da marcação (aplicação tardia); e d) benomyl 0,5 g em 2 aplicações, uma na marcação dos botões e outra uma semana depois. As aplicações foram feitas com pulverizadores manuais, molhando-se apenas os ramos com flores marcados. Em um segundo ensaio, avaliou-se o controle da doença através de pulverizações tratorizadas. Na laranja-'Natal', estudaram-se os seguintes tratamentos (doses por 2.000 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 1 kg em 4/jan; c) benomyl 1 kg em 4 e 11/jan; e d) benomyl 1 kg em 8/jan. Na laranja-'Pêra', os seguintes tratamentos foram aplicados (doses por 2.000 L): a) testemunha; b) benomyl 1 kg, 4/jan; c) benomyl 1 kg, 4 e 10/jan; d) benomyl 1 kg + captan 3,5 kg, 4/jan; e) benomyl 0,75 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; f) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan; g) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2,5 kg, 4/jan + benomyl 1 kg, 10/jan; h) benomyl 1,5 kg, 4/jan; e i) benomyl 1,5 kg, 4 e 10/jan. Avaliaram-se, em intervalos de dois dias, a freqüência e a época de ocorrência das lesões nas pétalas dos botões florais, a porcentagem de pegamento e o índice de cálices retidos de cada parcela. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que o benomyl é eficiente no controle da PFC em doses de 0,5-0,75 g.L-1, e sua resposta podem ser obtida em floradas temporãs tratadas nos estágios de predominância de botões redondos brancos até o período anterior à antese. Abstract in english This research was an attempt to determine the most appropriate flower bud stages of sweet orange in which fungicide application is more effective to control postbloom fruit drop disease. The trials were carried out in a 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet orange orchards (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). Flower b [...] ranches of summer bloom (January, 1994) were randomly marked and the different stages of development of buds were characterized. In a first trial, the disease control was evaluated through manual spraying. The following treatments were applied (doses per 1 L): a) control; b) benomyl 0.5 g, when buds were marked (regular application); c) benomyl 0.5 g, 3-4 days after the treatment b (late application), and d) benomyl 0.5 g in 2 applications (regular application and 7 days later). In a second trial, the disease control was evaluated through regular spraying, using a tractor and speed sprayer. On 'Natal' orchard, the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L): a) control; b) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th; c) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 4th and 11th; and d) benomyl 1 kg on Jan 8th. On 'Pera' the following treatments were applied (doses per 2,000 L): a) control; b) benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th; c) benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th; d) benomyl 1 kg + captan 3.5 kg, Jan, 4th); e) benomyl 0.75 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; f) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th; g) benomyl 1 kg + captan 2.5 kg, Jan, 4th + benomyl 1 kg, Jan, 10th; h) benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th; and i) benomyl 1.5 kg, Jan, 4th and 10th. Disease lesions on petals, fruit set and incidence of persistent calyx parameters were evaluated every other day. Through the results, it was possible to conclude that benomyl is efficient to control the disease in doses ranging from 0.5-0.75 g.L-1, and its response may be obtained in summer blooms when round to elongate bud stages are prevalent.

  7. Controlled in vivo infestation of mandarin fruit with Ceratitis capitata for development of quarantine treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Jacas Miret, Josep Anton; Palou, Llui?s; Beitia Crespo, Francisco Jose?; Ri?o, M. A. Del

    2008-01-01

    Movement of citrus fruit from Ceratitis capitata-infested areas requires mandatory quarantine treatments. Development of such treatments requires the use of infested fruit. The in vivo approach is the most realistic way to obtain these fruit. However, it requires previous studies to determine the optimal fruit:fly ratio to minimize the number of decayed fruit and to maximize the number of flies per fruit obtained. In this study, the optimal fruit:fly ratio for the in vivo infestat...

  8. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Afshar Mohammadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC, 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in the flavedo tissue of two citrus cultivars under low temperature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mansour Afshar, Mohammadian; Zeinab, Mobrami; Reza Hasan, Sajedi.

    Full Text Available Antioxidants production is amongst the physiological responses of plants to protect their tissues from oxidative damages caused by chilling and freezing stresses. Indeed, cold tolerance of plants is related to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to combat oxidative stress. In this [...] study, two citrus cultivars including Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz' and Citrus limon 'Lisbon' grown at the north of Iran were examined to compare antioxidants changes including total flavonoid, total phenol and total antioxidant capacities (TAC) in the flavedo tissue of the fruits under various low temperature treatments of control (15 ºC), 3, 0, -3 and -6 ºC. The results indicated that total flavonoid content and TAC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' was significantly higher than in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. During the treatments, both cultivars showed a significant increase in the flavonoid content. Meanwhile, total phenol content significantly increased from 15 to -6 ºC in Citrus limon 'Lisbon' and from 15 to 0 ºC in Citrus sinensis 'Siavaraz'. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of phenolics and flavonoids in flavedo of citrus fruit in response to low temperature might be correlated with environmental adaptation rather than antioxidant response.

  10. Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues : II. Quantitative Distribution of Naringin in Citrus paradisi MacFad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, P S; McIntosh, C A; Mansell, R L

    1985-04-01

    The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv ;Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured. PMID:16664159

  11. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Li; Kunsong Chen; Jianzhen Huang; Chongde Sun; Jiukai Zhang; Yixiong Zheng; Fenglei Luo; Xiaoyan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit...

  12. Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A citrus processing industry priority is obtaining added value from fruit peel. Approximately one-half of each processed fruit is added to the waste stream. Peel residue mainly is composed of water (~80%), the remaining 20% (solid fraction) consists of pectin, soluble sugars, cellulose, proteins, ph...

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel chromoplast-specific lycopene ?-cyclase from Citrus and its relation to lycopene accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alquézar García, Berta; Zacarías García, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are the main pigments responsible of the colouration of Citrus fruits. The ?-cyclization of lycopene, catalysed by the lycopene ?-cyclases (?-LCY), seems to be a key regulatory step of the carotenoid pathway. In the present study, two ?-LCYs from orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), named Cs?-LCY1 and Cs?-LCY2 have been isolated and the activity of the encoded proteins was demonstrated by functional analysis. Cs?-LCY1 was expressed at low levels and remained relatively constant...

  14. Reação de porta-enxertos híbridos ao Citrus tristeza virus / Reaction of hybrid rootstocks to Citrus tristeza virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAULO E., MEISSNER FILHO; WALTER DOS S., SOARES FILHO; KARINNA V. C., VELAME; ELIZIO P., DIAMANTINO; MARIA S. A. S., DIAMANTINO.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A tristeza causada pelo vírus da tristeza dos citros (Citrus tristeza virus, CTV) é uma das principais viroses dos citros (Citrus spp.) no Brasil. Alguns autores têm utilizado a intensidade de caneluras produzidas nos ramos para selecionar plantas com resistência ao vírus. Neste trabalho foi avaliad [...] a a reação de porta-enxertos híbridos, provenientes do programa de melhoramento genético de citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura ao CTV e elaboradas duas escalas, uma fotográfica e outra diagramática, para quantificação de resistência ao CTV. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, a maioria apresentou poucas caneluras, sendo portanto considerados resistentes à tristeza. Verificou-se a manutenção da resistência ao vírus nos híbridos produzidos a partir de progenitores que possuíam algum nível de resistência. Abstract in english Tristeza caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the main virus diseases of citrus (Citrus spp.) in Brazil. Some authors have used the intensity of stem pitting symptoms to select resistant plants to tristeza. This work evalueated the reaction of hybrid rootstocks from the citrus breeding pr [...] ogram of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits. Two scales, for hybrid rootstock evaluation of resistance to CTV were elaborated, one photographic and the other diagrammatic. The majority of the analyzed rootstocks showed a low number of stem pitting and was considered resistant to the virus. Resistance was maintained in hybrids when the parent plants presented resistance to CTV.

  15. Colonization of citrus leaves and secondary conidiation response to citrus flower extracts by non-postbloom fruit drop strains of Colletotrichum acutatum / Colonização de folhas de citros e formação de conídios secundários por isolados de Colletotrichum acutatum não causadores de podridão floral dos citros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven J., MacKenzie; Natalia A., Peres; Lavern W., Timmer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão floral dos citros (PFC), causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, infecta flores e produz lesões necróticas nas pétalas que induzem a abscisão de frutos jovens. O fungo sobrevive em tecidos vegetativos nos períodos entre floradas e a produção de conídios em tecidos colonizados é estimulada pe [...] la aplicação de extrato de flores. Isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros são geneticamente distintos e também podem causar sintomas de podridão floral, porém sua sobrevivência em tecidos vegetativos e sua habilidade de esporulação em resposta à aplicação de extrato de flores é desconhecida. Nesse trabalho, isolados de C. acutatum causadores de antracnose em mirtilo, samambaia-preta, morango e limão galego foram avaliados quanto à sua habilidade de sobrevivência e produção de conídios em resposta a aplicação de extrato de flores. Propágulos viáveis foram obtidos de folhas de citros inoculadas com isolados de todos os hospedeiros e a recuperação de alguns isolados foi igual ou maior do que a de isolados de PFC. O número de propágulos obtidos aumentou significativamente para todos os isolados após o tratamento com extrato de flores. A aplicação de sucrose em folhas inoculadas com um isolado de PFC também aumentou o número de propágulos obtidos, indicando que a resposta ao extrato de flores deve ser devido a nutrientes. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que isolados de C. acutatum de outros hospedeiros podem colonizar e se reproduzir em folhas de citros e sua inabilidade para causar epidemias pode ser atribuída a menor patogenicidade a flores de citros. Abstract in english Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) is caused by a unique strain of Colletotrichum acutatum that infects citrus flowers, producing necrotic lesions on petals and the abscission of fruitlets. This strain survives on vegetative tissues during non-flowering periods, and conidial production on colonized tissue i [...] s stimulated by flower extracts. Genetically distinct strains from other hosts can cause PFD symptoms, but their survival on vegetative tissues and ability to sporulate in response to flower extracts is unknown. Isolates from anthracnose-affected blueberry, leatherleaf fern, strawberry, Key lime and PFD-affected sweet orange were evaluated for their ability to survive on leaves after inoculation and to produce conidia in response to flower extracts. Viable propagules were recovered from leaves inoculated with all non-PFD isolates and recovery of some was equal to or greater than that of the PFD isolate. The number of propagules recovered increased for all isolates after treatment with flower extracts and was comparable across isolates. Application of sucrose to leaves inoculated with the PFD isolate increased the number of propagules recovered from leaves, suggesting that the response to flower extracts was nutritional. Non-PFD isolates of C. acutatum can colonize and reproduce on leaves, and their inability to cause epidemics is probably due to their reduced pathogenicity to flowers.

  16. Citrus paradisi: An Effective bio-adsorbent for Arsenic (V Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar I. Khaskheli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study As (V was removed by citrus paradisi (grape fruit peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradisi peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradisi was 37.76 mg.g-1 at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO and hydroxyl (OH groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradisi peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples.

  17. Citrus paradisi: an effective bio-adsorbent for arsenic (v) remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study As(V) was removed by citrus paradise (grape fruit) peel. Kinetics of the adsorption reaction was analyzed by the Pseudo second order and Morris-weber equations. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were utilized for understanding of the relationship between the arsenic ions and citrus paradise peel adsorbent. The maximum measured uptake capacity of citrus paradise was 37.76 mg.g/sup -1/ at pH 4. FT-IR characterization of unloaded and As (V) loaded citrus paradisi peel adsorbent showed the participation of carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH) groups in adsorption process. The proposed citrus paradis peel adsorbent with optimized parameters was used for the removal of arsenic from arsenic contaminated real water samples. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties with conventional breeding methods of improving grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars lead to the application of mutation breeding with X-rays and thermal neutrons. Thermal neutron treatment of seeds and budwood induced mutations affecting fruit characteristics, including seedy to seedless, red to redder flesh and redder peel colour. Two important commercial grapefruit cultivars were developed, 'Star Ruby' and 'Rio Red'. These two cultivars are now sold under the trademark RIO STAR and marketed as the premium grapefruit produced in Texas. (author). 10 refs

  19. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. PMID:25977000

  20. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  1. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tercilio, Calsa Jr.; Antonio, Figueira.

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those [...] from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark) or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits). Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC).

  2. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o52) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  3. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

    2006-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

  4. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart.) nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense / Characterization of plants and fruit of araticum plant (Annona crassiflora Mart.) native to the Cerrado of Mato Grosso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex Caetano, Pimenta; Patricia Sedrez da Rosa e, Silva; Katia Christina, Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares, Koehler.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao di [...] âmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL) e transversal (DT), a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT), relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira. Abstract in english The araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae) is a native fruit from the Brazilian Cerrado requiring studies to generate data to support research related to its domestication. This research aimed to study a population of araticunzeiro relating to the stem diameter and plant height, produc [...] tion, and physical and physical-chemical characterization of its fruits. Diameter of stem, height, and fruit yield of plants were measured. In the fruits, longitudinal (LD) and transverse (TD) diameters, the LD/TD ratio, the masses of fruit, peel, seed, and pulp were analyzed; and the pulp yield was calculated. In the pulp, determination of soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, pH, and moisture were performed. The trees had stem diameter of 10.4±3.1 cm and height of 3.7±0.7 m with an average yield of 6.0±3.6 fruits per plant. On average, fruits presented 14.2±1.4 LD, 15.2±2.2 TD, and 0.9±0.1 LD/TD ratio; they presented 1,565.5±508.5 g average mass; and masses of peel, seeds, and pulp presented 662.2±198.2 g, 179.8±66.2 g, and 723.5±276.7 g averages, respectively, with average pulp yield equal to 45.9±4.7% of the fruit. In pulp, SS average of 17.60±1.86 ºBrix, TA of 0.37±0.11% malic acid, SS/TA ratio of 52.23±17.64,4, 45±0.23 pH, and average humidity equal to 74.3±2.86%.. The araticunzeiro has physical and chemical characteristics that make it an alternative to the native Brazilian fruit production.

  5. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  6. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  7. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  8. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  9. Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, C C; Rodrigues, J C V; Derrick, K S; Achor, D S; French, J V; Welbourn, W C; Ochoa, R; Kitajima, E W

    2003-01-01

    According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions on fruits and leaves and corresponding absence of similar lesions on grapefruit; (2) yield reduction and die-back on infected trees; and (3) spread of the disease between 1906 and 1925. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of tissue samples from leprosis-like injuries to orange and grapefruit leaves from Florida in 1997, and fruits from grapefruit and sweet orange varieties from Texas in 1999 and 2000 did not contain leprosis-like viral particles or viroplasm inclusions. In contrast, leprosis viroplasm inclusions were readily identified by TEM within green non-senescent tissues surrounding leprosis lesions in two of every three orange leaf samples and half of the fruit samples obtained from Piracicaba, Brazil. Symptoms of leprosis were not seen in any of the 24,555 orange trees examined across Florida during 2001 and 2002. The authors conclude that citrus leprosis no longer exists in Florida nor occurs in Texas citrus based on: (1) lack of leprosis symptoms on leaves, fruit, and twigs of sweet orange citrus varieties surveyed in Florida: (2) failure to find virus particles or viroplasm inclusion bodies in suspect samples from both Florida and Texas examined by TEM; (3) absence of documented reports by others on the presence of characteristic leprosis symptoms in Florida; (4) lack of its documented occurrence in dooryard trees or abandoned or minimal pesticide citrus orchard sites in Florida. In view of the serious threat to citrus in the U.S., every effort must be taken to quarantine the importation of both citrus and woody ornamental plants that serve as hosts for Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus (Banks), and B. obovatus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from countries where citrus leprosis occurs. PMID:14756416

  10. Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Turner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.

  11. Bat Virus Downunder: The Hendra Virus and Its Relationship to Native Fruit Bats, Horses and Human --Learning and Teaching Opportunities for Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2013-01-01

    The fatal effect of the Hendra virus was noticed first in Queensland, Australia in 1994 when several horses died from an "unidentified cause". This was followed by the death of trainers and veterinarians called to assist affected horses. It is now known that the "unidentified cause", is a virus harboured in native Australian…

  12. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia / Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Camargo, Neves; Ronaldo Moreno, Benedette; Jéssica Milanez, Tosin; Edvan Alves, Chagas; Vanuza Xavier da, Silva; Marcos André de Souza, Prill; Sergio Ruffo, Roberto.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. F [...] oi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preli [...] minary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as matrix, and from these ones the following treatments were originated: 2 controls - 100% of pineapple and 100% of passion fruit; 1 blend using the matrix - 50% of pineapple + 50% of passion fruit; 7 blends of each matrix with which chosen fruit in the proportion of 1:1. The sodium benzoate and sulfur dioxide were added in the concentrations of 500 and 200 ppm, respectively, in all nectars and evaluated blends. The results regarding the nutritional composition of blends reflected a significative raise of nutritional values when compared to the matrix, as well when compared to the individual nectars of each fruit. The same behavior was observed even after 10 days of no refrigerated storage. Regarding the microbiological stability, just the blends in which buriti was used as component were damaged. The blends chemical analysis showed different standard in relation to the matrix, however, when submitted to the sensorial analysis, showed to be satisfactory by the panel. The compositions that more enjoyed the panel were the blends of both matrix associated to camu-camu and murici.

  13. Produção de blends a partir de frutos tropicais e nativos da Amazônia Production of blends based on tropical and native fruits from brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se o enriquecimento nutricional de néctares de frutos, pelo processamento de blends, usando-se fruteiras tropicais e Amazônicas produzidas em Roraima. Foram utilizados néctares de abacaxi, buriti, caju, camu-camu, carambola, maracujá, murici, lima-ácida Tahiti e taperebá. Foi realizado um ensaio preliminar onde se constatou que os néctares de abacaxi e maracujá seriam utilizados como matrizes e, dos quais, saíram os tratamentos: 2 controles - 100% de abacaxi e 100% de maracujá; 1 blend entre as matrizes - 50% de abacaxi + 50% de maracujá; 7 blends de cada matriz com cada fruto escolhido, na proporção de 1:1. Foram adicionados benzoato de sódio e dióxido de enxofre, nas concentrações de 500 e 200 ppm, respectivamente, em todos os néctares e blends trabalhados. Os resultados referentes à composição nutricional dos blends refletiram aumento significativo nos valores nutricionais quando em comparação com as matrizes, bem como com os néctares individuais de cada fruto. O mesmo comportamento foi observado mesmo após 10 dias de armazenamento não refrigerado. Com relação à estabilidade microbiológica, apenas os blends que utilizaram o buriti como componente apresentaram comprometimento. As análises químicas dos blends demonstraram padrões distintos das matrizes; entretanto, quando submetidos à análise sensorial, mostraram-se satisfatórias por parte dos julgadores. As composições que mais agradaram os julgadores foram os blends de ambas as matrizes associadas ao camu-camu e murici.The aim of this work was to obtain the nutritional enrichment of nectars of fruits, by means of blends processament, using tropical and Amazonian fruit produced in Roraima. Nectars of pineapple, buriti, cashew, camu-camu, star fruit, passion fruit, murici, Tahiti lime and taperebá were used. A preliminary assay was carried out where it was observed that the nectars of pineapple and passion fruit would be used as matrix, and from these ones the following treatments were originated: 2 controls - 100% of pineapple and 100% of passion fruit; 1 blend using the matrix - 50% of pineapple + 50% of passion fruit; 7 blends of each matrix with which chosen fruit in the proportion of 1:1. The sodium benzoate and sulfur dioxide were added in the concentrations of 500 and 200 ppm, respectively, in all nectars and evaluated blends. The results regarding the nutritional composition of blends reflected a significative raise of nutritional values when compared to the matrix, as well when compared to the individual nectars of each fruit. The same behavior was observed even after 10 days of no refrigerated storage. Regarding the microbiological stability, just the blends in which buriti was used as component were damaged. The blends chemical analysis showed different standard in relation to the matrix, however, when submitted to the sensorial analysis, showed to be satisfactory by the panel. The compositions that more enjoyed the panel were the blends of both matrix associated to camu-camu and murici.

  14. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  15. Land cover classification of VHR airborne images for citrus grove identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós López, J.; Izquierdo Verdiguier, E.; Gómez Chova, L.; Muñoz Marí, J.; Rodríguez Barreiro, J. Z.; Camps Valls, G.; Calpe Maravilla, J.

    Managing land resources using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common practice. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the high accuracy levels demanded by users (public or private companies and governments) in order to be extensively used. This paper presents a multi-stage classification scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information System (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana region (Spain). Spain is the first citrus fruit producer in Europe and the fourth in the world. In particular, citrus fruits represent 67% of the agricultural production in this region, with a total production of 4.24 million tons (campaign 2006-2007). The citrus GIS inventory, created in 2001, needs to be regularly updated in order to monitor changes quickly enough, and allow appropriate policy making and citrus production forecasting. Automatic methods are proposed in this work to facilitate this update, whose processing scheme is summarized as follows. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution aerial images (0.5 m). Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final classification accuracy. Finally, the citrus GIS is automatically updated if a high enough level of confidence, based on the agreement between classifiers, is achieved. This is the case for 85% of the parcels and accuracy results exceed 94%. The remaining parcels are classified by expert photo-interpreters in order to guarantee the high accuracy demanded by policy makers.

  16. Identification of citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR)-like proteins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Morais do, Amaral; Daniel, Saito; Eduardo Fernandes, Formighieri; Edenilson, Rabello; Adriane N. de, Souza; Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Siu Mui, Tsai.

    Full Text Available Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) proteins, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, have been recently shown to play a role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, nothing is known about their expression in citrus. To investigate the occurrence of PDR homol [...] ogues in citrus species, we have surveyed EST sequences from different tissues and conditions of the Citrus Expressed Sequence Tags (CitEST) database, through sequence similarity search analyses and inspections for characteristic PDR domains. Multiple sequence alignments, prediction of transmembrane topology and phylogenetic analysis of PDR-like proteins were additionally performed. This study allowed the identification of nine putative proteins showing characteristic PDR features in citrus species under various conditions, which may indicate a potential correlation between PDRs and stress and metabolism of citrus plants. Moreover, a tissue-specific putative PDR-like protein was found in sweet orange fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the identification of citrus ESTs encoding PDR-like proteins as well as the first to identify a putative full ABC transporter with specific expression in fruits.

  17. Influence of edapho-climatic factors on the sporulation and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Amazonian native fruit species

    OpenAIRE

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of two fruit species, Paullinia cupana Mart. and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., growing in a terra firme ecosystem in Central Amazonia were studied from August 1998 to May 2000. Climatic and edaphic factors were also determined to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. Soil pH, Al, Mn and effective cation exchange capacity exhibited seasonal variations during the investigation period. Temporal ...

  18. Potencial do flavedo (epicarpo de Citrus aurantifolia cv. Tahiti no controle do bolor verde e da antracnose em citros Potential of flavedo (epicarp from Citrus aurantifolia cv.Tahiti on the control of green mold and anthracnose in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Toffano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é considerado o maior produtor de citros e o maior exportador de suco de laranja. Doenças de pós-colheita representam uma grande perda para a citricultura, sendo que para a exportação de frutos são rígidas as exigências com relação a isenção de resíduos químicos nos mesmos. Patógenos de importância em pós-colheita de citros incluem o Penicillium digitatum, agente causal do bolor-verde e o Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose. Dada a importância econômica que representam estas doenças dos frutos cítricos, tanto em termos de comprometimento da qualidade e dificuldade de controle, a busca de alternativas adicionais que possam viabilizar a capacidade produtiva e garantir a obtenção de frutos com excelentes padrões de qualidade torna-se imprescindível. Portanto, estudou-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos do flavedo de Citrus aurantifolia var. Tahiti, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis, albedo de Citrus sinensis var. Valência e do ácido jasmônico no controle póscolheita do bolor verde e da antracnose e na indução de resistência em frutos de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis. Foi possível observar que o extrato aquoso do flavedo (C. aurantifolia apresentou efeito inibitório sobre os patógenos, quando tratados em pós-colheita, em função da redução dos sintomas e esporulação. Porém, os extratos de albedo (C. sinensis, L. edodes, A. subrufescens e o ácido jasmônico não apresentaram efeitos sobre P. digitatum e C. gloeosporioides.Brazil is considered to be the biggest citrus producer and orange juice exporter. Post-harvest diseases represent a great loss in the citriculture, and for many fruits to be exported they should be free of chemical residues. In relation to some pathogens of importance in post-harvest, it can be mentioned Penicillium digitatum (green-mold and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (anthracnose. Because of the economical importance of these diseases for citric fruits, in terms of compromising quality and control difficulties, the search for alternative control measures that can make possible to improve the producing capacity of the producers and the obtaining of fruits with excellent quality are indispensable. Therefore, it was studied the viability of the control of post-harvest diseases in Valência orange fruits (Citrus sinensis by using the biotic agents flavedo (Citrus auratifolia cv. Tahiti, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis, albedo (Citrus sinensis cv. Valência and the abiotic agent jasmonic acid. It was possible to observe that the aqueous extracts from the flavedo (C. aurantifolia inhibited the pathogens in Valência orange fruits when treated in post-harvest, based upon symptom and sporulation reduction. On the other hand, the albedo (C. sinensis, L. edodes, A. subrufescens and jasmonic acid had no effects on P. digitatum and C. gloeosporioides in the fruits.

  19. Oral Dose of Citrus Peel Extracts Promotes Wound Repair in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon, Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise and Orange (Citrus sinensis promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatment with citrus peel extracts on wound repair of the skin of diabetic rats. The extracts were estimated for vitamin C and total carotenoid contents prior to animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg kg-1 b.wt.. One week after diabetes induction, full thickness excision wounds were made in hyperglycemic rats and were divided groups, each containing 6 rats. The different test group animals were treated with different citrus peel extract orally at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 body weight daily for 12 days. The blood glucose, body weight and rate of wound closure of each rat were measured every 3rd day during the experimental period. At the end of experiment, granular tissues of wounds were removed and estimated for hydroxylproline and total protein content. The results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and time to wound closure. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher as determined by total protein and hydroxyl proline content. From our experimental data, we propose that oral administration of citrus peel extracts has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes.

  20. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Evaluación de calidad de frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) / Evaluation of quality in fruits of seven native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Juárez-López; R., Castro-Brindis; T., Colinas-León; P., Ramírez-Vallejo; M., Sandoval-Villa; D. W., Reed; L., Cisneros-Zevallos; S., King.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad en frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, y JCPRV-76, cultivados en hidroponía sin recirculación y bajo invernadero. Como testigo se usó u [...] n híbrido comercial de jitomate tipo "cherry" (H-790). Se evaluó firmeza, días para alcanzar 7% de pérdida de peso (DPP), pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, contenido de licopeno, de ?-caroteno y de ácido ascórbico. Se encontraron diferencias (P?0.05) en todas las variables, excepto en pH, el cual varió de 4.1 a 4.4. En firmeza, H-790 superó 19.5% al genotipo nativo que presentó mayor resistencia (JCPRV-05). En DPP, H-790 superó en 20.6% a JCPRV-10 que presentó el mayor lapso de los genotipos nativos. En sólidos solubles totales, JCPRV-05 superó a H-790 en 10%. En acidez titulable, JCPRV-43 superó 23% a H-790. Respecto al contenido de licopeno, JCPRV-09 fue superior 6.1% a H-790. En contenido de ?-caroteno, JCPRV-76 superó 4.0% a H-790, y en contenido de ácido ascórbico, JCPRV-76 superó 35.4% a H-790. Con excepción de firmeza, DPP y pH de frutos, la mayoría de los genotipos nativos evaluados superaron al híbrido comercial (H-790) en todos los parámetros. Se consideró que estos materiales podrían ser usados como fuente de germoplasma en programas de mejoramiento genético del jitomate para incrementar la calidad interna de los frutos de esta especie. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of seven genotypes native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, and JCPRV-76 were grown in hydroponics without recirculation and under greenhouse. A commercial cherry toma [...] to hybrid was used as a control (H-790). Firmness, days at 7% of weight loss (DWL)), pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, lycopene, ?-carotene and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. There were significant differences in all variables, except pH, which ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. In firmness, H-790 exceeded by 19.5% to the native genotype which showed the highest penetration resistance (JCPRV-05). In DWL, H-790 exceeded by 20.6% to JCPRV-10 which presented the greatest period of native genotypes. In total soluble solids, JCPRV-05 exceeded by 10% to H-790. In acidity, JCPRV-43 exceeded by 23% to H-790. In regard to the lycopene content, JCPRV-09 was 6.1% higher than H-790. In ?-carotene content, JCPRV-76 exceeded by 4.0% to H-790; JCPRV-76 exceeded by 35.4% to H-790 in ascorbic acid content. Except for firmness, pH and DPP fruit, most native evaluated genotypes exceeded to commercial hybrid (H-790) for all parameters. It was considered that these materials could be used as a source of germplasm in breeding programs of tomato in order to increase the internal quality of fruits of this specie.

  2. Comprehending crystalline ?-carotene accumulation by comparing engineered cell models and the natural carotenoid-rich system of citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hongbo; Zhang, Jiancheng; Xu, Jidi; Ye, Junli; Yun, Ze; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis has become a recent focus for the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency. However, the genetically modified phenotypes often challenge the expectation, suggesting the incomplete comprehension of carotenogenesis. Here, embryogenic calli were engineered from four citrus genotypes as engineered cell models (ECMs) by over-expressing a bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB). Ripe flavedos (the coloured outer layer of citrus fruits), which exhibit diver...

  3. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus. PMID:25237738

  4. Determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y compuestos bioactivos de frutas nativas peruanas / Determination of antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds in native peruvian fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ritva, Repo de Carrasco; Christian René, Encina Zelada.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el tomate de árbol se destacó el contenido relativamente alto de fibra cruda 4,5 g/100 g de fruta. El tomate de árbol ( y el aguaymanto ( ) tuvieron mayor contenido de proteínas (1,9 g/100 g para ambos frutos) que las otras frutas estudiadas. En cuanto a compuestos fenólicos, la papaya de monte e [...] s la fruta que presentó mayor contenido de estos compuestos (167 mg de equivalente ácido gálico/g de fruto). El contenido de betalaínas en tuna roja ( ) fue de 68,95 mg/1000 mL. El aguaymanto tuvo el mayor contenido de ácido ascórbico (43,3 mg/100g), seguido por la papaya de monte (31,41 mg/100g) y el tomate de árbol seguida por la tuna roja 16,09 mg/100g y 22,75 mg/100g, respectivamente. El contenido de carotenoides fue mayor en el tomate de árbol (4 mg -caroteno/100 g) seguido por el aguaymanto con 2,64 mg - caroteno/100 g. La tuna roja presentó una capacidad de inhibición del radical DPPH mucho mayor que las otras tunas estudiadas (77,65 %). Comparando las diferentes frutas en cuanto a capacidad antioxidante medido por el método del DPPH, fue el de la papaya de monte (1936 228 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el tomate de árbol (853 52 g equivalente trolox/g de tejido); y la mayor capacidad antioxidante medida por el método del ABTS fue el de la papaya de monte (2141 71 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto); seguido por el aguaymanto (1066 28 g equivalente trolox/g de fruto). Finalmente, se concluyó que el estado de madurez influye en forma directamente proporcional al contenido de compuestos bioactivos en el aguaymanto, los que a su vez generan una mayor capacidad antioxidante en el fruto mientras más maduro esté. Abstract in english In the case of the tree tomato ( ) the relatively high crude fibre content stood out (4,5 g/100 g of fruit). The tree tomato and golden berry had higher protein content (1,9 g/100 g for both fruits) than the other fruits. Regarding to the mineral analysis, the prickle pears are very good sources of [...] phosphorus as well as calcium. On the other hand, the tree tomato is an excellent potassium source followed by golden berry and papaya( ). In addition golden berry is a relatively good source of iron and zinc. The mountain papaya is a very important source of phosphorus surpassing to the other fruits. All the samples presented significant difference as far as the content of total phenolic compounds, but mountain papaya is the fruit that presented the highest content of these compounds (167 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of fruit). The content of betalains in red prickle pear was of 68,95 mg/1000 mL. Golden berry had the highest vitamin C content (43,3 mg/100g) followed by mountain papaya (31,41 mg/100g). The lowest content of this vitamin was in the tree tomato followed by red prickle pear, 16,09 mg/100g and 22,75 mg/100g, respectively. The content of carotenoids was the highest in the tree tomato, (4 mg -carotene/100 g) followed by golden berry with 2,64 mg -carotene/100 g. Red prickle pear presented much greater capacity of inhibition of radical DPPH than the other varieties (77,65%). Comparing the different fruits regarding to the measurement of the antioxidant capacity, the mountain papaya (2141 71 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit) had the highest value followed by golden berry (1066 28 g equivalent trolox/g of fruit), tree tomato and red prickle pear. Finally, it was found that the grade of maturity had a direct effect to the antioxidant capacity.

  5. A Factorial experiment on Citrus stock/scion combinations in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Pietro; Pala, Mario; Falqui, Daniela

    1992-01-01

    Five Citrus varieties ("Washington navel", "Tarocco", "Biondo comune", "Valencia" sweet oranges, and "Avana" mandarin) on different rootstocks (sour orange, "Troyer" citrange, citremon 1449, Poncirus trifoliata "Rubidoux", "Orlando" tangelo), and at two planting distances (4x4 m, 5x5 m) were evaluated for 3 years in a factorial experiment, with a completely randomized design. Observations were made on growth, productivity and fruit quality. Tree growth, productivity and fruit quality we...

  6. Use of phosphite salts in laboratory and semi-commercial tests to control citrus postharvest decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many growers of citrus fruit and other crops often apply phosphite or phosphorous acid containing products before harvest. Phosphite fungicides include calcium or potassium phosphite salts, or the phosphite-generating fungicide fosetyl-aluminium (Aliette®, Bayer CropScience). Recently, two products ...

  7. 78 FR 46249 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Arizona-California Citrus Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...and that the meaning for crop insurance...a potential conflict between the meaning for crop insurance...citrus fruit group for which coverage...read this as meaning ``Southern...Counties'' group with a separate...not address a conflict or...

  8. Temporal responses of peak citrus flowering to climate change in Iran: 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p global warming. Our study highlights the importance of considering location-specific phenophase shifts within given regions, as dissimilar trends may occur within a country; this has important implications for future agricultural planning and fruit crop supply to local and international markets.

  9. Efeito de acibenzolar-S-metil, mananoligossacarídeo e bioflavonóides cítricos no controle da mancha-aquosa e no crescimento do meloeiro Effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl, mannano-oligosaccharides and citrus bioflavonoids on the control of bacterial fruit blotch and growth of melon plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clêidio da Paz Cabral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, mananoligossacarídeos (MOS e bioflavonóides cítricos (BFC no controle da mancha-aquosa causada por Acidovorax citrulli em meloeiros tipo Amarelo (híbrido AF4945 e tipo Pele de Sapo (híbrido Nilo, em diferentes épocas de aplicação (10 e 15 dias após a emergência das plântulas e dosagens (ASM 25; 50 e 75 mg i.a. L-1; MOS 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 p.c. L-1; BFC 2; 3 e 4 mL p.c. L-1; e também no crescimento da planta em solo com ou sem suplementação de NPK. A melhor época para aplicação dos indutores foi dez dias após a emergência das plântulas. Considerando os dois genótipos, ASM (50 mg i.a. L-1 e BFC (3 mL p.c. L-1 elevaram o período de incubação em até 13 e 8 dias e reduziram a incidência da mancha-aquosa em 88 e 60%; o índice de doença em 96 e 88%; e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença em 94 e 74%, respectivamente. No entanto, independente do nível de NPK no solo, ASM e BFC reduziram a altura, biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas de meloeiro em até 24; 41 e 34%, respectivamente.The effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, mannano-oligosaccharides (MOS and citrus bioflavonoids (BFC was studied for control of bacterial fruit blotch of yellow melon (hybrid AF4945 and Pele de Sapo melon (hybrid Nilo, evaluating different application periods (10 and 15 days after plant emergence, and dosages (acibenzolar-S-methyl 25; 50 and 75 mg a.i. L-1; mannano-oligosaccharides 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 c.p. L-1; citrus bioflavonoids 2; 3 and 4 mL c.p. L-1 and also on plant growth in soil supplemented or not with NPK. The best period for application was 10 days after plant emergence. Considering both genotypes, ASM (50 mg a.i. L-1 and BFC (3 mL c.p. L-1 increased incubation period until 13 and 8 days and reduced disease incidence by 88 and 60%; disease index by 96 and 88%; and area under disease progress curve by 94 and 74%, respectively. However, independent of NPK level in the soil ASM and BFC reduced melon plant height by 24%; they also reduced fresh and dry shoot biomass by 41% and 34%, respectively.

  10. Efeito de acibenzolar-S-metil, mananoligossacarídeo e bioflavonóides cítricos no controle da mancha-aquosa e no crescimento do meloeiro / Effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl, mannano-oligosaccharides and citrus bioflavonoids on the control of bacterial fruit blotch and growth of melon plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clêidio da Paz, Cabral; Marco Aurélio Siqueira da, Gama; Elizabethe Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rosa de Lima Ramos, Mariano; Elineide Barbosa da, Silveira.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM), mananoligossacarídeos (MOS) e bioflavonóides cítricos (BFC) no controle da mancha-aquosa causada por Acidovorax citrulli em meloeiros tipo Amarelo (híbrido AF4945) e tipo Pele de Sapo (híbrido Nilo), em diferentes épocas de aplicação (10 e 15 dias [...] após a emergência das plântulas) e dosagens (ASM 25; 50 e 75 mg i.a. L-1; MOS 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 p.c. L-1; BFC 2; 3 e 4 mL p.c. L-1); e também no crescimento da planta em solo com ou sem suplementação de NPK. A melhor época para aplicação dos indutores foi dez dias após a emergência das plântulas. Considerando os dois genótipos, ASM (50 mg i.a. L-1) e BFC (3 mL p.c. L-1) elevaram o período de incubação em até 13 e 8 dias e reduziram a incidência da mancha-aquosa em 88 e 60%; o índice de doença em 96 e 88%; e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença em 94 e 74%, respectivamente. No entanto, independente do nível de NPK no solo, ASM e BFC reduziram a altura, biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas de meloeiro em até 24; 41 e 34%, respectivamente. Abstract in english The effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), mannano-oligosaccharides (MOS) and citrus bioflavonoids (BFC) was studied for control of bacterial fruit blotch of yellow melon (hybrid AF4945) and Pele de Sapo melon (hybrid Nilo), evaluating different application periods (10 and 15 days after plant emergen [...] ce), and dosages (acibenzolar-S-methyl 25; 50 and 75 mg a.i. L-1; mannano-oligosaccharides 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 c.p. L-1; citrus bioflavonoids 2; 3 and 4 mL c.p. L-1) and also on plant growth in soil supplemented or not with NPK. The best period for application was 10 days after plant emergence. Considering both genotypes, ASM (50 mg a.i. L-1) and BFC (3 mL c.p. L-1) increased incubation period until 13 and 8 days and reduced disease incidence by 88 and 60%; disease index by 96 and 88%; and area under disease progress curve by 94 and 74%, respectively. However, independent of NPK level in the soil ASM and BFC reduced melon plant height by 24%; they also reduced fresh and dry shoot biomass by 41% and 34%, respectively.

  11. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  12. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl.(Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn.(Melastomataceae and Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. The applied methodology was the qualitative evaluation of the phenological data (florescence and fruiting observed every fifteen days during the year 2004. The climatic variables as temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation and photoperiod were obtained daily to verify its relation with the phenophasis. The results showed that from all studied species, six of them presented reproductive phenology between January and August, while the others just had aninterruption in the reproductive period during winter, except Aspilia montevidensis, which presented florescence and fruiting throughout the year.

  13. Desarrollo del fruto del Citrus Sinensis var. Salustiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia E Laskowski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar la anatomía del fruto de la naranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Salustiana durante su desarrollo y caracterizar su cinética de crecimiento. Se emplearon plantas de un huerto ubicado en Museros, provincia de Valencia, España. Se colectaron 10 estructuras reproductivas en desarrollo, desde la antesis hasta 118 días después (dda. Para el estudio histológico se realizaron cortes en fresco en micrótomo de congelación y de material incluido en parafina. El estudio de la dinámica de crecimiento incluyó el calculo de la superficie en sección transversal del fruto y tejidos por separado, incluyendo al pericarpo y lóculos. El fruto del cultivar Salustiana mostró un crecimiento ajustado a una curva sigmoidal, con un período de crecimiento lento durante los primeros 48 dda, asociado a la división celular y expansión de células del pericarpo; a continuación se incrementó la tasa de crecimiento, con un aumento lineal en superficie transversal a partir del día 76 dda hasta el final de la toma de datos, asociado con el desarrollo de los lóculos y la expansión celular de las vesículas. El fruto de Salustiana mostró una estructura anatómica general similar a las señaladas para C. sinensis y otras especies de Citrus, con un pericarpo compacto durante la mayor parte del estudio y diferenciación entre flavedo y albedo al final del estudio. El desarrollo de las glándulas fue esquizolisogénico y la diferenciación de vesículas ocurrió a partir de la epidermis y capas subepidérmicas, desde antesis hasta 48 dda.Experiments were performed in fruits collected from Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv Salustiana with the objective to study the development of the different anatomical parts and their kinetic growth. Ten reproductive structures of different cultivated trees from an orchard located in Museros (Valencia, Spain were collected periodically, from anthesis to 118 days after anthesis (daa and used to determine transverse sections area of their anatomical parts: pericarp and locules. For anatomical observations with light microscopy, ten countings of each sampling were obtained with the freezing microtome or after inclusion in paraffin. The growth curve of the fruit of cv. Salustiana fitted a single sigmoide curve. Initial growth was related to both division and cellular expansion in the pericarp. Fruit transversal surface showed important increments as from 48 daa and the linear fruit development stage was initiated as from 76 daa, together with locules/vesicles expansion. The fruit showed an anatomical structure similar to the indicated for C. sinensis and other species of Citrus with clear differentiation between flavedo and albedo only at the end of the study. Secretory cavity fitted schizolysigenous ontogeny and vesicle differentiation derived from epidermal and subepidermal tissue of the endocarpo, from anthesis until 48 dda.

  14. Sensory Analysis of New Varieties of Citrus as a Complementary Strategy to the Brazilian Citriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. A. Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil new varieties of citrus were selected along the years, but none sensory analysis is usually made to verify the acceptance as one of the bottleneck for fresh citrus juice industry and before the commercial release. We have evaluated the response of consumers (n=62 for eight new hybrids of the crossing between sweet orange and mandarin in five sensory attributes and used analysis of variance Tukey's procedure (HSD and internal preference mapping for the data processing. The results were compared in relation to their standard physical-chemical characteristics and with commercial varieties: Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco, Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, Cravo mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Hybrids TM x LP 222 and TC x LP 5 are candidates to become variety and TM x LP 94 was chosen for new sensory analysis. Flavor featured as the most important parameter for orange juice and some hybrids with adequate physical-chemical parameters presented low acceptance, while others with inadequate parameters showed good acceptability, what suggests a new way to fruit selection.

  15. Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, R. N.; O Bannon, J. H.; Keen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month'...

  16. Influence of edapho-climatic factors on the sporulation and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Amazonian native fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of two fruit species, Paullinia cupana Mart. and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., growing in a terra firme ecosystem in Central Amazonia were studied from August 1998 to May 2000. Climatic and edaphic factors were also determined to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. Soil pH, Al, Mn and effective cation exchange capacity exhibited seasonal variations during the investigation period. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. Moreover, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers for both host species were similar during the studied period. Mycorrhizal variables were related to climatic and edaphic factors, however, the intensity and type of influence of climatic and soil characteristics on AMF development tended to vary with the season and host plant species in Central Amazonia conditions.De agosto de 1998 a maio de 2000 foi avaliada a colonização por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e o número de esporos na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas, Paullinia cupana Mart. e Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., crescendo em um ecossistema de terra firme da Amazônia Central. A influência de fatores climáticos e edáficos sobre as variáveis micorrízicas também foram avaliadas. O pH, Al, Mn e capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva do solo exibiram variações sazonais durante o período investigado. Variações temporais nos níveis de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos ocorreram, indicando sazonalidade. Além disso, os padrões de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos para ambas as espécies foram similares durante o período estudado. As variáveis micorrízicas foram relacionadas com os fatores climáticos e edáficos, entretanto, a intensidade e tipo de influência das características climáticas e de solo sobre o desenvolvimento dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tendem a variar com a estação e a espécie de planta hospedeira nas condições de Amazônia Central.

  17. Influence of edapho-climatic factors on the sporulation and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Amazonian native fruit species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlem Nascimento de, Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de, Oliveira.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available De agosto de 1998 a maio de 2000 foi avaliada a colonização por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) e o número de esporos na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas, Paullinia cupana Mart. e Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., crescendo em um ecossistema de terra firme da Amazônia Central. A influência [...] de fatores climáticos e edáficos sobre as variáveis micorrízicas também foram avaliadas. O pH, Al, Mn e capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva do solo exibiram variações sazonais durante o período investigado. Variações temporais nos níveis de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos ocorreram, indicando sazonalidade. Além disso, os padrões de colonização micorrízica e número de esporos para ambas as espécies foram similares durante o período estudado. As variáveis micorrízicas foram relacionadas com os fatores climáticos e edáficos, entretanto, a intensidade e tipo de influência das características climáticas e de solo sobre o desenvolvimento dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tendem a variar com a estação e a espécie de planta hospedeira nas condições de Amazônia Central. Abstract in english Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of two fruit species, Paullinia cupana Mart. and Theobroma grandiflorum Schum., growing in a terra firme ecosystem in Central Amazonia were studied from August 1998 to May 2000. Climatic and edaphic factors were als [...] o determined to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. Soil pH, Al, Mn and effective cation exchange capacity exhibited seasonal variations during the investigation period. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. Moreover, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization levels and spore numbers for both host species were similar during the studied period. Mycorrhizal variables were related to climatic and edaphic factors, however, the intensity and type of influence of climatic and soil characteristics on AMF development tended to vary with the season and host plant species in Central Amazonia conditions.

  18. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our "recipe" for selection of protecting isolates. PMID:23577008

  19. Developing an understanding of cross-protection by Citrus tristeza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV causes two citrus diseases that have caused devastating losses in global citrus production. The first disease is quick decline of trees propagated on the sour orange rootstock. The second disease is stem pitting, which severely affects a number of economically important citrus varieties regardless of the rootstock used and results in reduced tree growth and vigor as well as in reduced fruit size and quality. Both diseases continue to invade new areas. While quick decline could be effectively managed by the use of resistant and/or tolerant rootstocks, the only means to protect commercial citrus against endemic stem pitting isolates of CTV has been cross-protection with mild isolates of the virus. In some citrus areas cross-protection has been successful and allowed production of certain citrus cultivars despite the presence of severe stem pitting isolates in those regions. However, many other attempts to find isolates that would provide sustained protection against aggressive isolates of the virus had failed. In general, there has been no understanding why some mild isolates were effective and others failed to protect. We have been working on the mechanism of cross-protection by CTV. Recent considerable progress has significantly advanced our understanding of how cross-protection may work in the citrus/CTV pathosystem. As we demonstrated, only isolates that belong to the same strain of the virus cross protect against each other, while isolates from different strains do not. We believe that the results of our research could now make finding protecting isolates relatively straightforward. This review discusses some of the history of CTV cross-protection along with the recent findings and our ‘recipe’ for selection of protecting isolates.

  20. ALKALI – CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL

    OpenAIRE

    AGARRY, S. E.; AREMU, M .O; Ajani, A.O; Aworanti, O.A

    2013-01-01

    The potential of oil extracted from the seeds of three different Nigerian citrus fruits for biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape seed oil and tangerine seed oil by transesterification of the oils with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. In the conversion of the citrus seed oils to alkyl esters (biodiesel), the grape seed oil gave the highest yield of 90.6%, while the tangerineseed oil and orange seed oil gave a y...

  1. Citrus Canker: Alternatives for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Weinland (Edison College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker

  2. Combined Effect of Gamma Radiation and Cymbopogon Citratus L. Essential Oil on the Growth and Morphogenesis of Penicillium Digitatum Sacc. The Causal Agent of Green Mold of Citrus Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Penicillium digitatum Sacc. was completely inhibited by using 2.5 l/ml or 3 l/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method on Czapek's medium, respectively. Two kGy gamma radiation treatment decreased the severity of infection of green rot caused by P. digitatum from 100% to 9.8% after 2 weeks of storage. Also, pre-treatment of orange fruits by 2.5 l/ml C. citratus before 2 kGy irradiation prevented infection by green rot for 21 days and decreased the severity of infection to 9.5% for 28 days of storage at 20 C. The microscopic observation using scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out to study the ultra structure modifications of P. digitatum after treatment. The mycelium of the fungus fumigated with the sub-lethal dose of C. citratus showed large alteration and distortion in hyphal and spores morphology.

  3. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  4. Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin- and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelie, K E; Davis, R W; Kolattukudy, P E

    1980-10-01

    Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on the other hand, contained the dihydroxy C16 acids, hydroxyoxo C16 acids, hydroxyepoxy C18 acids and trihydroxy C18 acids. Ultrastructural examination of the inner seed coat showed that an amorphous cuticular layer encircled the entire seed except in the chalazal region which showed several layers of cells with lamellar suberin structure throughout the cell walls. Consistent with the ultrastructural assignment, the compositions of the aliphatic components of the polymers from the chalazal region and the non-chalazal region indicated the presence of suberin and cutin, respectively. The aliphatic portion of the polymer from the chalazal region of the inner seed coat contained C16, C18:1, C22 and C24 ?-hydroxy acids (46% combined total) and the corresponding dicarboxylic acids (43%) as the major components. ?-Hydroxy-9,10-epoxy C18 acids and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acids were the major components (77%) of the polymer from the non-chalazal portion of the inner seed coat. The main portion and the chalazal region of the inner seed coat yielded 17 and 342 ?g/cm(2) of aliphatic monomers, respectively, and the diffusion resistance of these two portions of the inner seed coat were 62 and 192 sec/cm, respectively. The inner seed coat was shown to be the major moisture diffusion barrier influencing imbibition and germination. PMID:24306480

  5. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) / Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Ojito Ramos; Yamila, Herrera Sánchez; Nadine, Vega Pérez; Orelvis, Portal Villafaña.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxid [...] ante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae). Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL). Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina. Abstract in english Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant effect and low toxicity and of their potentialities as pharmaceuticals. Objectives: to determine the in [...] vitro antioxidant activity and toxicity against Artemia salina of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from leaves of Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae). Methods: the ethanol and methanol extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction method, and characterized using phytochemistry assays; the total amount of phenols and flavonoids was also determined. The antioxidant activity was estimated by the free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The toxicity of the extracts was evaluated against Artemia salina. Results: the amount of chemical compounds was higher in ethanol than in methanol extracts. The highest concentration of total phenols was found in methanol extract from Citrus reticulate where that of total flavonoids was seen in the ethanolic extracts from Citrus aurantiifolia and Citrus reticulate, in both solvents. The extracts showed antioxidant activity after the two tests. All the extracts presented moderate toxicity against Artemia salina, being the methanol extract from Citrus latifolia the least toxic (LC50= 464.24 µg/mL). Conclusions: this study showed the existence of phenols and flavonoids, the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. leaves and their moderate toxicity against Artemia salina.

  6. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant effect and low toxicity and of their potentialities as pharmaceuticals. Objectives: to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity and toxicity against Artemia salina of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from leaves of Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Methods: the ethanol and methanol extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction method, and characterized using phytochemistry assays; the total amount of phenols and flavonoids was also determined. The antioxidant activity was estimated by the free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The toxicity of the extracts was evaluated against Artemia salina. Results: the amount of chemical compounds was higher in ethanol than in methanol extracts. The highest concentration of total phenols was found in methanol extract from Citrus reticulate where that of total flavonoids was seen in the ethanolic extracts from Citrus aurantiifolia and Citrus reticulate, in both solvents. The extracts showed antioxidant activity after the two tests. All the extracts presented moderate toxicity against Artemia salina, being the methanol extract from Citrus latifolia the least toxic (LC50= 464.24 µg/mL. Conclusions: this study showed the existence of phenols and flavonoids, the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. leaves and their moderate toxicity against Artemia salina.

  7. Native Words, Native Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout World War I and World War II, American Indians were asked to join the United States armed forces. They served in many different campaigns, and in many different capacities, but perhaps one of the best known groups of American Indians were the "Code Talkers". The "Code Talkers" were asked to develop a way of transmitting secret messages using their own native languages, and they were tremendously successful. This beautifully designed and multi-layered site developed by the National Museum of the American Indian presents the voices of the "Code Talkers", along with other voices, all of which are combined seamlessly with historic images, graphics, and songs. Visitors will learn about the "Code Talkers" experiences in the military, their reintegration into society upon their return from war, and subsequent recognition by both the French and United States governments.

  8. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O. 'Valência' Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA HELENA DUENHAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação convencional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K.The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation either/or way of fertilizers application. The leaves analyses differed as the Ca, Mg and K tenors.

  9. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O.) 'Valência' / Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUIZA HELENA, DUENHAS; ROBERTO LYRA, VILLAS BÔAS; CLÁUDIO MÁRCIO PEREIRA DE, SOUZA; CARLOS RENATO ALVES, RAGOZO; LEONARDO THEODORO, BULL.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação conven [...] cional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional [...] fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation either/or way of fertilizers application. The leaves analyses differed as the Ca, Mg and K tenors.

  10. In vitro mutant obtainment by irradiation of nucellar tissue of citrus (Citrus Sinensis Osb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucellus of cultivar Valencia (Citrus Sinensis, Osb.) extracted from fruits 12 weeks after fertilization, were gamma irradiated (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 kR) before inoculation in culture media (pH 5.7) which comprised of macro and micronutrients of medium MS to which were added (in mg/l): mesoinusitol, 100; pyroxidin HCl, 1; nicotinic acid, 1; thiamine HCl, 0.2; malt extract, 500; sacarose, 50,000; agar-agar, 8,000. They were then Kept under 16 h light and 8h dark at a temperature of 270C. (M.A.C.)

  11. Ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Papiya, Bigoniya; Kailash, Singh.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play an important role in stomach ulcer formation. The present investigation validates the anti ulcer activity of hesperidin, isolated from Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Rutaceae, through the assessment of its antioxidant potential over stomach mucosal tissue by histological examination [...] . Hesperidin was isolated from the dried peel of C. sinensis, and authenticated by TLC, IR and HPLC. The anti-ulcerogenic potential of this fruit was assessed using indomethacin and hypothermic restrain stress-induced ulceration models on rats at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg dose orally. The parameters measured were gastric pH, volume, free and total acidity, ulcer index, and mucin, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein content. Hesperidin at 300 and 450 mg/kg dose showed significant (p

  12. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    WilliamO.Dawson; StephenM.Garnsey; SatyanarayanaTatineni; SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or symptomless in most of their host range. There is little understanding of how the virus causes severe disease in some citrus and none in others. Movement and distribution of CTV differs considerably...

  13. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  14. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  15. Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

  16. In silico prediction of gene expression patterns in Citrus flavedo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irving J., Berger; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Marcelo S., Reis; Maria Luísa P.N., Targon; Marcos A., Machado.

    Full Text Available Out of the 18,942 flavedo expressed sequences (clusters plus singletons) in Citrus sinensis from the Citrus EST Project (CitEST), 25 were statistically supported to be differentially expressed in this tissue after a double in silico hybridization strategy against leaf-, flower-, and bark-derived EST [...] s. Five of them, two terpene synthases and three O-methyltransferases, are absent in the other citrus tissues with concomitant 2x2 statistics, supporting the hypothesis that they are putative flavedo-specific expressed sequences. The pattern of these differentially expressed sequences during fruit development suggests that most of them are developmentally regulated. Some expressed gene products, including a putative germin-like protein highly expressed in flavedo, are shown to be promising candidates for further characterization. In addition to promoter seeking, this kind of analysis can lead to gene discovery, tissue-specific and tissue-enriched expression pattern predictions (as shown herein) and can also be adopted as an in silico first, and probably reliable approach, for detecting expression profiles from EST sequencing efforts before experimental validation is available or for heuristically guiding that validation.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

  18. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti J. Dhanavade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

  19. Present status of citrus leprosis in Argentina and Paraguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Cáceres; Alcides, Aguirre; Norma, Costa; Olga de, Coll; Luis, Gonzáles Segnana; Nelson, Fariña; Aline D., Tassi; Renata F., Calegario; Gilberto J. de, Moraes; Juliana, Freitas-Astúa; Juliana A., Pereira; Renato B., Salaroli; Elliot W., Kitajima.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Citrus leprosis (CL) was first described in South America in the 1920's. It is considered similar to a disease first observed back to 1860 in Florida. It is a destructive disease characterized by localized lesions on the leaves, fruits and stems, which may lead to the death of the affected plant if [...] left untreated. Around 1940, CL was demonstrated to be transmitted by Brevipalpus mites in Argentina. Because little information exists on the status of CL pathosystem in Argentina and Paraguay, a survey was made in several citrus growing areas of these countries from 2009 to 2011, to evaluate its presence and relevance as well as the identification of the virus and the mite vector. CL was found in most of the sweet orange and/or mandarin orchards in Paraguay (Departamentos de Boquerón, Concepción, San Pedro, Cordillera, Alto Paraná, Itapúa) and Argentina (Provincias de Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Ríos). Incidence was usually low. The causal virus was identified as Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) by RT-PCR, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. In all the visited regions in Paraguay and the region of Montecarlo, Argentina, the mites collected in plants infected by CiLV-C were identified as B. phoenicis.

  20. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-15

    The principal objective of the work is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting the energy requirements of citrus fruit processing that will substantially reduce the overall energy usage of citrus processing plants. The components which will make up the alternative systems include: evaporators, dryers, refrigeration units, heat pumps, heat engines, heat exchangers, thermal storage units, and ancillary components. These components will be used to form the five operational units of the citrus processing plant. These operational units are: evaporation, drying, refrigeration, pasteurizing and canning, and the plant electrical load that consists of operations such as conveying and juice extraction. The five operational units are then interrelated to varying degrees with respect to energy exchange to form different types of alternative systems. The approach, work plan, and progress of technical work are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Fumigant Toxicity of Citrus Oils Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moravvej

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of volatile components of Citrus paradisi, C. aurantium, C. limonium and C. sinensis peel essential oils were investigated on the cowpea adult bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.. The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using hydrodistillation. The results indicated that the citrus oils had high fumigant activity against adult beetles. The mortality of 1-2 day-old adults increased with concentration and exposure time from 3 to 24 h. The oil of C. paradisi was more effective than those of C. aurantium and C. limonium (The LC50 values were 125, 145 and 235 ±1 L-1 at 24 h exposure, respectively. The oil of C. sinensis proved to be least toxic (LC50 = 269 ±1 L-1. The results suggested that citrus peel oils can be used as potential control measure against cowpea beetles.

  2. Evaluation of mating disruption for control of lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-04-01

    Three large-scale mating disruption (MD) trials were conducted from 2001 to 2004 in an organic citrus orchard in inland southeastern Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the MD dispenser Isomate LBAM Plus in controlling lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in citrus. At the application rate of 364-728 dispensers per ha, the dispensers reduced pheromone trapping of E. postvittana to almost undetectable levels for approximately 6 mo in the treated area. During this period, most sentinel females in the treated area failed to mate. Infestation by E. postvittana in the treated area was reduced by >50%. If distributed in citrus orchards in late winter (August), the dispensers can be expected to remain effective until next February in southeastern Australia, covering the period when most fruit scarring caused by its larvae occurs. PMID:16686141

  3. Analysis of sucrose synthase genes in citrus suggests different roles and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Akira; Moriguchi, Takaya; Koyama, Kazuhiko; Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was 2-fold; first, a molecular/evolutionary characterization of three sucrose synthase genes from citrus, and second, an analysis of their differential expression related to potential physiological function. Three non-allelic genes (CitSUS1, CitSUSA and CitSUS2) encoding sucrose synthase were isolated from citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Phylogenetic analysis from the deduced amino acid sequences showed that CitSUS1 and CitSUS2 could be classified into a dicot group. However, CitSUSA, together with Arabidopsis SSA, sugar beet SS and pea SusA defined another dicot group designated SUSA. Unlike other dicot sucrose synthases, these show a distinctive, monocot-like arrangement of introns and exons. The CitSUS1 and CitSUSA were also differentially expressed in leaf, flower and fruit tissues. Contrasting expression patterns were observed for CitSUS1 and CitSUSA in edible tissue (juice sacs/segment epidermis) and peel tissue (albedo/flavedo) of fruit: CitSUS1 mRNA levels decreased throughout fruit development, whereas those of CitSUSA increased. Various sugars also influenced the transcript levels of the CitSUS1 and CITSUSA: These results indicate that the CitSUS1 and CitSUSA genes for sucrose synthase in citrus differ markedly in their molecular structure and potential physiological roles. Sucrose synthase activity in edible tissue was high in the early stages and decreased until mid-develoment, then rapidly increased during maturation. The increase in activity during maturation paralleled that of sucrose accumulation. This result suggests that sucrose synthase has important roles on sugar metabolism when sucrose is accumulated in fruit. PMID:11741042

  4. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seemsarthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive controlling low acid fruit in apple. (author). 55 refs

  5. Host Status of Citrus and Citrus Relatives to Tylenchulus graminis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H; Keen, W M

    1989-10-01

    Studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (Citrus limon), sour orange (C. aurantium), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata cv. Argentina), and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata)--to Tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of T. semipenetrans. In an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with T. graminis-infected broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's exposure to T. graminis population densities ranging from 70.0 J2/cm(3) occurred in soil with broomsedge. These findings provide conclusive evidence that T. graminis is a specific parasite of grasses and does not infect citrus. PMID:19287668

  6. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encoura provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  7. Demethylation of a model homogalacturonan with the salt-independent pectin methylesterase from citrus: II. structure function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A non-calcium sensitive pectin, with a degree of esterification (DE) of 94%, was demethylated at pH 4.5 and 7.5 with a monocomponent preparation of a pectin methylesterase isolated from citrus fruit tissue. Endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) was used to digest the pectin samples and to release block regi...

  8. Breeding citrus for HLB resistance at the USDA/ARS U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus breeding has been conducted by the USDA since 1893. The initial objectives included improved disease-resistance, cold hardiness, and easy peeling fruit, which are still important breeding objectives today. The emergence of huanglongbing (HLB) in the US has propelled the development of HLB r...

  9. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  10. Citrus Peel Additives for One-Pot Triazole Formation by Decarboxylation, Nucleophilic Substitution, and Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Desiree E.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment consists of three different reactions occurring in the same flask: a cycloaddition reaction, preceded by decarboxylation and nucleophilic substitution reactions. The decarboxylation and cycloaddition reactions occur using identical Cu(I) catalyst and conditions. Orange, lemon, and other citrus fruit

  11. Evaluación de aislados nativos mexicanos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) provenientes de zonas citrícolas para su producción masiva en cultivo sumergido y bifásico / Evaluation of Mexican native isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) from citrus-growing areas of mass production in submerged and biphasic culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. Lizeth, Gandarilla-Pacheco; Luis J., Galán-Wong; Katiushka, Arévalo-Niño; Myriam, Elías-Santos; Isela, Quintero-Zapata.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La comprensión de los aspectos básicos del desarrollo de los hongos entomopatógenos y el conocimiento detallado de los requerimientos nutricionales para su crecimiento y esporulación es esencial para la producción masiva y comercialización. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la producción de bl [...] astoesporas en un medio de cultivo sumergido y de conidios en un cultivo bifásico, de cuatro aislados nativos y una cepa de B. bassiana con potencial para controlar Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), pertenecientes a la colección del Instituto de Biotecnología, FCB-UANL, México. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y las medias se compararon con la prueba Tukey (p?0.05). En el medio de cultivo líquido formulado con glucosa y casaminoácidos, la producción de blastoesporas a las 72 h mostró para la cepa GHA la mayor (p?0.05) concentración (2.20x10(8) mL-1) y una biomasa de 26 g L-1, y en el aislado HIB-4 ocurrió la producción menor (p?0.05) de blastoesporas (5.25x10(7) m L-1) y biomasa de 7 g L-1. El aislado HIB-2 presentó 56 % de germinación en tierra de diatomeas como soporte y fue el valor mayor entre los hongos estudiados. En la fase sólida (grano de arroz), a los 14 d de incubación, el aislado HIB-4 presentó una producción de 1.82x10(9) conidios g-1 y la cepa GHA produjo 2.35x10(8) conidios g-1. La viabilidad fue superior a 90 % para todos los hongos durante 4 semanas de almacenamiento a 4 °C. Así, es factible producir blastoesporas y conidios de aislados nativos de B. bassiana con potencial para el manejo de plagas que afectan las regiones citrícolas de México. Abstract in english Comprehension of the basic aspects of entomopathogenic fungi development and detailed knowledge of nutritious requirements for their growth and sporulation are fundamental for mass production and commercialization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of blastospores in submerg [...] ed culture medium and of conidia in biphasic culture of four native isolates and a B. bassiana strain showing potential for the control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), which belong to the collection of the FCB-UANL Institute of Biotechnology, México. The experimental design was completely randomized and means were compared using Tukey test (p?0.05). In the liquid culture medium formulated with glucose and casamino acids, at 72 h, blastospore production had the highest (p?0.05) concentration for GHA strain (2.20x10-8 mL-1) and biomass of 26 gL- ¹, while the HIB-4 isolate showed the lowest blastospore production (p? 0.05) (5.25x10(7) m L-1) and biomass of 7 g L-1. Isolate HIB-2 had 56 % germination in diatomaceous earth for support, being the highest value among the studied fungi. In solid hase (rice grain), at 14 d of incubation, HIB-4 isolate presented a production of 1.82x10(9) conidia g-1, and GHA strain producted was 2.35x10(8) conidia g-1. Viability was higher than 90 % for all fungi during 4 weeks of storing at 4 °C. Thus, it is feasible produce blastospores and conidia of native isolates of B. bassiana with the potential of controlling pests which affect the citrus-growing regions of México.

  12. Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

  13. Identificação colorimétrica em citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Bacchi

    1943-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the susceptibility of the various stocks with regard to the new disease "tristeza" ("sadness", a quick and acurate identification of the stock is required. In orchards this cannot be done in most cases as stocks do not always exhibit sprouts and on account of erroneus information frequently given by owners. We have tested the colorimetric identification, already employed in other countries. This identification is based on the differences of color obtained in the watery extract cf the bark taken from the trunk or from the root, when treated by special reagents. The results obtained are somewhat different from those described by the authors of the method. This is perhaps due to variation in environmental conditions. Only the Almen and ferric chloride tests gave satisfactory results, making it possible to arrange the species and varieties examined into four groups : (1 C. aurantium L. ; (2 C. sinensis Osbeck; (3 C. limonia Osbeck ("gigante" variety and (4 all the others. Although deficient in certain respects the test is valuable, permiting us to identify the stocks of orange trees, azeda as well as caipira the most employed in the citrus orchards of the State of S. Paulo.

  14. Identificação colorimétrica em citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo, Bacchi.

    1943-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In order to study the susceptibility of the various stocks with regard to the new disease "tristeza" ("sadness"), a quick and acurate identification of the stock is required. In orchards this cannot be done in most cases as stocks do not always exhibit sprouts and on account of erroneus information [...] frequently given by owners. We have tested the colorimetric identification, already employed in other countries. This identification is based on the differences of color obtained in the watery extract cf the bark taken from the trunk or from the root, when treated by special reagents. The results obtained are somewhat different from those described by the authors of the method. This is perhaps due to variation in environmental conditions. Only the Almen and ferric chloride tests gave satisfactory results, making it possible to arrange the species and varieties examined into four groups : (1) C. aurantium L. ; (2) C. sinensis Osbeck; (3) C. limonia Osbeck ("gigante" variety) and (4) all the others. Although deficient in certain respects the test is valuable, permiting us to identify the stocks of orange trees, azeda as well as caipira the most employed in the citrus orchards of the State of S. Paulo.

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS STATISTICAL CLASSIFIERS IN DETECTING THE DISEASED CITRUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER REDDY BANDI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are in lofty obligation because the humans consume them daily. This research aims to amend citrus production, which knows a low upshot bourgeois on the production and complex during measurements. Nowadays citrus plants grappling some traits/diseases. Harm of the insect is one of the major trait/disease. Insecticides are not ever evidenced effectual because insecticides may be toxic to some gracious of birds. Farmers get outstanding difficulties in detecting the diseases ended open eye and also it is quite expensive.Machine vision and Image processing techniques helps in sleuthing the disease mark in citrus leaves and sound job. In this search, Citrus leaves of four classes like Normal, Greasy spot, Melanose and Scab are collected and investigated using texture analysis based on the Color Co-occurrence Method (CCM to take Hue, Saturation and Intensity (HSI features. In the arrangement form, the features are categorised for all leafage conditions using k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Naive Bayes classifier (NBC, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA classifier and Random Forest Tree Algorithm classifier (RFT. The experimental results inform that proposed attack significantly supports 98.75% quality in automated detection of regular and struck leaves using texture psychotherapy based CCM method using LDA formula. Eventually all the classifiers are compared using Earphone Operative Characteristic contour and analyzed the performance of all the classifiers.

  16. Reasoned opinion on the setting of an import tolerance for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, The Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Exponent International Ltd (on behalf of ICA International Chemicals (PTY Ltd to set an import tolerance in citrus from South Africa for the active substance didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC at the level of 6 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the data require the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg for citrus. However, additional information on the typical South African post-harvest treatment practice should be provided to decide whether the submitted trials are representative of the authorised GAP. A sufficiently validated analytical method to enforce the proposed MRL of DDAC on citrus is available. EFSA concludes that the consumer risk assessment did not identify a consumer health risk resulting from the post harvest uses of DDAC on citrus fruits. However it should be noted that the risk assessment is affected by a high degree of uncertainties which result from data gaps identified in the dossier. Finally, EFSA concludes that risk managers have to decide whether the setting of an import tolerance of 6 mg/kg is acceptable since the MRL currently into force for citrus in South Africa is 2 mg/kg only.

  17. QCM immunoassay for recombinant cysteine peptidase: a potential protein biomarker for diagnosis of citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Zanetti, Bianca F; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2013-01-30

    Citrus canker is one of the most important agricultural citrus diseases worldwide. It is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) bacterium that infects leaves and the fruits produce a cysteine peptidase (CPXaC), which makes it a potential target for the development of effective and rapid detection methods for citrus canker. We report here the studies on the development of piezoelectric immunoassay for CPXaC using a polyclonal antibody against CPXaC (anti-CPXaC). Three different strategies for covalent immobilization of anti-CPXaC on gold surfaces were evaluated by monitoring the frequency (?f) and energy dissipation (?D) variation in real time when 64.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) CPXaC was added. Anti-CPXaC immobilized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) showed the best relation between the frequency and dissipation factor variation, and strong values for the kinetic and equilibrium binding constant were obtained. The immunosensor showed a detection limit of 13.0 nmol L(-1) with excellent specificity, showing no response for different proteins that include another cysteine peptidase that is used as a target to detect Xylella fastidiosa bacterium, responsible for another important citrus disease. These results provide good perspectives for the use of CPXaC as a new biomarker for citrus canker. PMID:23597909

  18. Detection and molecular identification protocols for Phyllosticta citricarpa from citrus matter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda, Meyer; René, Jacobs; Jan M, Kotzé; Mariette, Truter; Lise, Korsten.

    Full Text Available Strict quarantine measures for the export of South African citrus fruit to European and US markets require the development of sensitive and accurate detection methods for the pathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa - a fungus causing citrus black spot disease. Because of the presence of other, non-pathogen [...] ic Phyllosticta species, rapid and accurate verification of the Phyllosticta species present on exported citrus fruit is important to producers, exporters and regulatory authorities to prevent unnecessary losses. We have analysed over 800 samples collected over 7 years and have compared sample preparation and detection protocols applied in different environments: nurseries, production systems including phytosanitary inspections in orchards, pack houses and export terminals in order to compile protocols for the detection of P. citricarpa. Standard procedures of sample preparation and DNA extraction were adapted to suit diverse inoculum sources. Low pathogen numbers in symptomless green leaves, for example, obliged the use of a wet-dry enrichment technique constituting the stimulation of fungal growth for easier detection. Physical maceration was adapted for sturdy material using liquid nitrogen or bead beating. The use of a two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with nested primers significantly increased both the sensitivity and the specificity of the PCR performed on soil samples, overcoming problems with relatively impure DNA extracts and low pathogen numbers. The assays have proven to be highly consistent, thereby providing a reliable, reproducible and highly sensitive detection and diagnostic service to the southern African citrus industries in order to sustain market access.

  19. Effectivity of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, Nasnaran Mandarin (Citrus amblycarpa, and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Leaf Extract Against Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The used of chemicals as larvicidal may causing resistance, health problem, and environment problem. Leaf extracts of Citrus as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae can be used as an alternative larvicidal. The aims of this study is to find out the species of Citrus in the study sample, which is the most effective as biolarvicidal. This study was conducted using nested experiment design, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 and 48 hours. Then, data were analyzed by probit. The results of this study show that (1 the LC95 value after 24 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 3,176 ppm; 4,174 ppm; and 6,369 ppm. (2 the LC95 value after 48 hours of exposure of leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix, Citrus amblycarpa, and Citrus maxima, were each 2,499 ppm; 3,256 ppm; and 4,886 ppm. (3 leaf extract of Citrus hystrix is the most effective among others as biolarvicidal against Aedes aegypti larvae. Leaf extract of Citrus hystrix can be used as alternative biolarvicidal.

  20. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  1. Mutation breeding in Philippine fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions

  2. Agronomic performance of Pera and related sweet orange accessions naturally infected with Citrus tristeza virus in northern Paraná State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Y., Baba; José S., Giampani; Zuleide H., Tazima; Inês F. U., Yada; Luzia D., Paccola-Meirelles; Rui P., Leite Júnior.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the susceptibility to the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Pera sweet orange is the most important citrus cultivar in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CTV aggressiveness and the relationship with the agronomic performance of 24 accessions of Pera and related sweet orang [...] es. Accessions belonging to the Citrus Germplasm Collection of the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR), Londrina, PR, were included in the study. Citrus tristeza disease was rated based on the severity of stem pitting symptoms. Yields were evaluated in the 2010/2011, 2011/2012, and 2012/2013 seasons, and tree growth in 2012. The best performance regarding stem pitting severity was shown by Redonda accession, followed by Ipiguá II. Vegetative tree vigor was more evident for Redonda, Tardia CO3, and Guilherme Spagnol accessions. These Pera and related sweet oranges accessions also showed the highest fruit yields, along with Vimusa, Santa Tereza, Ipiguá, Ipiguá II, D-6, and Paulo Rosa. Vegetative tree vigor, yield and number of fruits were inversely correlated with citrus tristeza disease stem pitting severity. Therefore, the poor agronomic performance of some Pera and related sweet oranges is probably related to the presence of severe CTV complexes infecting these accessions.

  3. 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for evaluation of metabolic changes in citrus sinensis Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis (Xac) bacterium causes one of the most feared and untreatable diseases in citriculture: citrus canker. To understand the response mechanisms of orange trees when attacked by Xac, leaves and fruits of Citrus sinensis were directly evaluated by HRMAS NMR (high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. This technique allows the analysis of samples without laborious pre-treatments and also allows access to important information about chemical composition of samples. The orange tree leaves and fruit peels investigated in this study demonstrated the biochemical changes caused by Xac. Aided by chemometric analysis, the HRMAS NMR results show relevant changes in amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and terpenoids content. (author)

  4. Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Keller

    2009-06-12

    Native Americans are made up of many fascinating groups of people with multiple cultures. We will explore the main cultural areas of these groups. We will describe and compare some of these groups of people such as Eastern Woodlands, Plains, Great Basin, Southwestern, Arctic, Northwest, Incan, Aztec, and Mayan. We will also identify how these people maintain their cultural traditions today. We will explore each of this interesting cultures and take notes as we explore with individualized graphic organizers. Learning about Native Americans Woodland Tribes Great Plains Tribes Great Basin Native Americans Northwest Southwest Aztec, Mayans Inca BRAINTEASER The Inca Trail and Machu Picchu Glossary Links ...

  5. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE MARKETING CHANNELS IN CITRUS INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREA CRISTINA DORR; JAQUELINE CARLA GUSE; RUBIA STRASSBURGER; ALINE ZULIAN; MARIVANE VESTENA ROSSATO

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the marketing channels adopted and the contractual relations present among certified and uncertified producers of citrus production chain in the region of Vale do Cai, RS, Brazil. 49 producers of this region were selected randomly and semi-structured forms were applied to them. The producers had the biggest success in this market with certified fruits starting from the moment when they became members of a cooperative or an association, preserving a ...

  6. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Fan; Johnson, Michelle H.; Mary Ann Lila; Gad Yousef; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC) isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for thei...

  7. Seedless and citrus cranker tolerant mutant clones in sweet orange induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Seven mutant clones of sweet orange, induced by gamma rays, were field tested together with their parent variety, 'Pera', from 1997-2001. Six lines were seedless mutants while the other was a less seed mutant. Two lines were identifies to be more tolerant to the citrus cranker disease. Although all lines had lower fruit yield per plant, it may not influence the yield per area. (author)

  8. Studies on the storage effects and the peel structure of citrus irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When radiated with 0.5 kGy electron radiation, the peel structure of citrus was normal, the waxy layers were thick, the oil cells and parenchyma cells arranged closely, which results in plump fruits, lower rate of rot and weight loss during storage, and little reduction in flavour. The content of Vitamin C, total acid and total sugar were close to those of control. (author)

  9. / Experiências de cavalos para citrus II

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. G., Brieger; Sílvio, Moreira.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The English resumé is given in a different form from the Portuguese "conclusões". In the former we gave mainly the results which may be of general interest, explaining the tables (quadros) and the procedure of statistical analysis, while in the other the properties of the different rootstocks are di [...] scussed in detail since they are of immediate local interest. 1. In a previous publication, Moreira (19) explained the layout and the first results of an experiment, under way since 1936 in the Limeira Exp. Sta., on the influence of twelve different types of Citrus rootstocks on three scion varieties : the oranges "Baianinha" and "Pera" and the grape-fruit "Marsh Seedless". We report here three main results obtained during the first six years of the experiment: a) all plants budded on sour and bitter-sweet oranges (C. aurantium), showed definite signs of the new disease "tristeza" ; b) other rootstocks such as citron (C. medica), ponderosa lemon (C. lemon) had such disadvantageous effect that they could be eliminated as suitable stocks ; c) the data of the first four crops permit to determine certain particularities of some rootstocks varieties used in the experiment. The present paper deals with the complete

  10. Experiências de cavalos para citrus II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1945-01-01

    Full Text Available The English resumé is given in a different form from the Portuguese "conclusões". In the former we gave mainly the results which may be of general interest, explaining the tables (quadros and the procedure of statistical analysis, while in the other the properties of the different rootstocks are discussed in detail since they are of immediate local interest. 1. In a previous publication, Moreira (19 explained the layout and the first results of an experiment, under way since 1936 in the Limeira Exp. Sta., on the influence of twelve different types of Citrus rootstocks on three scion varieties : the oranges "Baianinha" and "Pera" and the grape-fruit "Marsh Seedless". We report here three main results obtained during the first six years of the experiment: a all plants budded on sour and bitter-sweet oranges (C. aurantium, showed definite signs of the new disease "tristeza" ; b other rootstocks such as citron (C. medica, ponderosa lemon (C. lemon had such disadvantageous effect that they could be eliminated as suitable stocks ; c the data of the first four crops permit to determine certain particularities of some rootstocks varieties used in the experiment. The present paper deals with the complete

  11. Nonhost status of Citrus sinensis cultivar valencia and C. paradisi cultivar ruby red to Mexican Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Piñero, Jaime; McPheron, Bruce; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente

    2003-12-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is recognized as a pest of citrus, apples, and blackberries in South America. In Mexico, it is mainly found in fruit of the family Myrtaceae and has never been reported infesting citrus. Here, we sought to determine whether females stemming from Mexican A. fraterculus populations (collected in the state of Veracruz) would lay eggs in 'Valencia' oranges and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit and, if so, whether larvae would hatch and develop. We worked under laboratory and seminatural conditions (i.e., gravid females released in fruit-bearing, bagged branches in a commercial citrus grove) and used Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a notorious pest of citrus, as a control species. Under laboratory conditions, A. ludens readily accepted both oranges and grapefruit as oviposition substrates, but A. fraterculus rarely oviposited in these fruit (but did so in guavas, a preferred host) and no larvae ever developed. Eggs were deposited in the toxic flavedo (A. fraterculus) and nontoxic albedo (A. ludens) regions. Field studies revealed that, as was the case in the laboratory, A. fraterculus rarely oviposited into oranges or grapefruit and that, when such was the case, either no larvae developed (oranges) or of the few (13) that developed and pupated (grapefruit), only two adults emerged that survived 1 and 3 d, respectively (5-17% of the time necessary to reach sexual maturity). In sharp contrast, grapefruit exposed to A. ludens yielded up to 937 pupae and adults survived for >6 mo. Therefore, the inability of Mexican A. fraterculus to successfully develop in citrus renders the status of Mexican A. fraterculus as a pest of citrus in Mexico as unsubstantiated. PMID:14977105

  12. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONYA A LANDER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule. Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. También fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos. Nuestros datos indican que las flores de G. keule son visitadas predominantemente por sírfidos durante marzo y abril, y que dichos sírfidos transportan una mayor proporción de polen de G. keule que cualquier otro insecto recolectado. El bosque nativo y los sistemas agrícolas no intensivos parecen proporcionar a los sírfidos un habitat en el cual alimentarse y donde G. keule es capaz de fructificar, lo cual no sucede en las plantaciones de pinos exóticos. Esto sugiere que un paisaje compuesto por un mosaico de diferentes tipos de uso del suelo no es necesariamente hostil para la reproducción continua de G. keule, pero que la combinación y tipos de uso del suelo e intensidad de su manejo deben ser consideradas cuidadosamente.

  13. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments / Producción de flores y frutas y polinización por insectos de Gomortega keule en bosque nativo y en terrenos agrícolas, un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TONYA A, LANDER; STEPHEN A, HARRIS; DAVID H, BOSHIER.

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de establecer si los patrones de producción de flores y frutos de Gomortega keule (Gomortegaceae), un árbol chileno en peligro de extinción, son diferentes entre áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos, terrenos agrícolas y áreas de bosque nativo. Ta [...] mbién fue llevado a cabo un estudio piloto para identificar los principales polinizadores de G. keule. A pesar de que en tierras agrícolas y en áreas de bosque nativo floreció una proporción similar de árboles de G. keule, en zonas agrícolas fructificó una mayor proporción en comparación con los árboles de áreas de bosque nativo. La floración y fructificación de G. keule fue extremadamente rara en las áreas de plantaciones de pinos exóticos. Nuestros datos indican que las flores de G. keule son visitadas predominantemente por sírfidos durante marzo y abril, y que dichos sírfidos transportan una mayor proporción de polen de G. keule que cualquier otro insecto recolectado. El bosque nativo y los sistemas agrícolas no intensivos parecen proporcionar a los sírfidos un habitat en el cual alimentarse y donde G. keule es capaz de fructificar, lo cual no sucede en las plantaciones de pinos exóticos. Esto sugiere que un paisaje compuesto por un mosaico de diferentes tipos de uso del suelo no es necesariamente hostil para la reproducción continua de G. keule, pero que la combinación y tipos de uso del suelo e intensidad de su manejo deben ser consideradas cuidadosamente. Abstract in english This study was undertaken to discover whether patterns of flower and fruit production for Gomortega keule, an endangered Chilean tree, differ between exotic pine plantation, agricultural and native forest environments. A pilot study was also undertaken to identify the primary pollinators of G. keule [...] . Although similar proportions of G. keule trees flowered in the agricultural and native forest áreas, more trees in the agricultural sites produced fruit compared to trees in the native forest sites. Flowering and fruiting of G. keule was extremely rare in the exotic pine plantations. Our data show that G. keule flowers are predominantly visited by syrphid flies in March-April, and that syrphids carry a greater proportion of G. keule pollen than the other insects collected. Native forest and low intensity agricultural systems appear to provide habitat in which syrphids forage and G. keule is able to produce fruit successfully, but exotic pine plantation does not; suggesting that a landscape made up of a mosaic of different landuse types is not necessarily inimical to the continued reproduction of G. keule, but that the combination and types of landuses and intensity of management must be carefully considered.

  14. Improvement of Control Efficacy of Mancozeb Wettable Powder against Citrus Melanose by Mixing with Paraffin Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyoung-Ho Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of mixing with paraffin oil on rainfastness of mancozeb on citrus fruits and assay the improvement of control effect of mancozeb against citrus melanose by mixing with paraffin oil. In artificial rainfall condition (7.2 mm/hr, the attached contents of mancozeb on detached fruits were the most in treatment of mancozeb 0.2% + paraffin oil 0.1% as the contents was 7.43 ?g/cm2 after treatment of rainfall for 10 hr. In open field condition, the contents of attached mancozeb on fruits were significantly more in treatment of mancozeb 0.2% + paraffin oil 0.1% or 0.25% than the other treatments 1, 15 and 25 days after treatment 2009 and 2010 seasons. The disease incidence was significantly lower in treatment of mancozeb 0.2% + paraffin oil 0.1% or 0.25% than treatment of mancozeb 0.2% only 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons. Based on this study, it was suggested that the control effect of mancozeb against citrus melanose can be improved by mixing with paraffin oil.

  15. Potencial do flavedo (epicarpo) de Citrus aurantifolia cv. Tahiti no controle do bolor verde e da antracnose em citros / Potential of flavedo (epicarp) from Citrus aurantifolia cv.Tahiti on the control of green mold and anthracnose in citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Toffano; Ivan Herman, Fischer; Silvia, Blumer; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é considerado o maior produtor de citros e o maior exportador de suco de laranja. Doenças de pós-colheita representam uma grande perda para a citricultura, sendo que para a exportação de frutos são rígidas as exigências com relação a isenção de resíduos químicos nos mesmos. Patógenos de imp [...] ortância em pós-colheita de citros incluem o Penicillium digitatum, agente causal do bolor-verde e o Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose. Dada a importância econômica que representam estas doenças dos frutos cítricos, tanto em termos de comprometimento da qualidade e dificuldade de controle, a busca de alternativas adicionais que possam viabilizar a capacidade produtiva e garantir a obtenção de frutos com excelentes padrões de qualidade torna-se imprescindível. Portanto, estudou-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos do flavedo de Citrus aurantifolia var. Tahiti, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis), albedo de Citrus sinensis var. Valência e do ácido jasmônico no controle póscolheita do bolor verde e da antracnose e na indução de resistência em frutos de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis). Foi possível observar que o extrato aquoso do flavedo (C. aurantifolia) apresentou efeito inibitório sobre os patógenos, quando tratados em pós-colheita, em função da redução dos sintomas e esporulação. Porém, os extratos de albedo (C. sinensis), L. edodes, A. subrufescens e o ácido jasmônico não apresentaram efeitos sobre P. digitatum e C. gloeosporioides. Abstract in english Brazil is considered to be the biggest citrus producer and orange juice exporter. Post-harvest diseases represent a great loss in the citriculture, and for many fruits to be exported they should be free of chemical residues. In relation to some pathogens of importance in post-harvest, it can be ment [...] ioned Penicillium digitatum (green-mold) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (anthracnose). Because of the economical importance of these diseases for citric fruits, in terms of compromising quality and control difficulties, the search for alternative control measures that can make possible to improve the producing capacity of the producers and the obtaining of fruits with excellent quality are indispensable. Therefore, it was studied the viability of the control of post-harvest diseases in Valência orange fruits (Citrus sinensis) by using the biotic agents flavedo (Citrus auratifolia cv. Tahiti), Lentinula edodes, Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus brasiliensis), albedo (Citrus sinensis cv. Valência) and the abiotic agent jasmonic acid. It was possible to observe that the aqueous extracts from the flavedo (C. aurantifolia) inhibited the pathogens in Valência orange fruits when treated in post-harvest, based upon symptom and sporulation reduction. On the other hand, the albedo (C. sinensis), L. edodes, A. subrufescens and jasmonic acid had no effects on P. digitatum and C. gloeosporioides in the fruits.

  16. CALOGÊNESE EM ÓVULOS DE ESPÉCIES E VARIEDADES DE CITRUS / CALLUS INDUCTION FROM CITRUS SPECIES AND VARIETIES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROBERTO PEDROSO DE, OLIVEIRA; GENI CARMEN, ZANOL; JOAQUIM ALVES, GONÇALVES; WALTER DOS SANTOS, SOARES FILHO.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura vem realizando ações de pesquisa visando à obtenção de híbridos somáticos de citros, particularmente porta-enxertos, melhor adaptados às condições tropicais de cultivo brasileiras que as variedades atualmente em uso. Como objetivo principal, busca-se a seleção de ge [...] nótipos tolerantes à seca e ao alumínio, tolerantes/resistentes a gomose de Phytophthora e tristeza dos citros, além de adaptados a altas densidades populacionais. Como fontes de protoplastos, vêm sendo utilizadas as tangerinas-'Cleópatra', 'Sunki' e 'Swatow', limões-'Cravo Santa Cruz' e 'Santa Bárbara', 'Volkameriano' e 'Rugoso Mazoe', laranja 'Hamlin CNPMF 04' e 'CNPMF 20', laranjas-azedas 'Comum' e 'Narrow Leaf', citrange-'Troyer', Citrus amblycarpa e Microcitrus papuana. O estudo concentrou-se na etapa de obtenção e cultivo de calos embriogênicos. Foram utilizados óvulos extraídos de frutos imaturos, empregando-se como meio de cultura o MT, adicionando-se 50 g.L-1 de sacarose e 500 mg.L-1de extrato de malte e solidificando com 7 g.L-1 1de ágar. Em geral, a indução de calos nas variedades estudadas ocorreu entre a 6ª e a 8ª semana de cultivo, com maior precocidade na laranja-‘Hamlin’, sendo que, em limão-‘Cravo’, laranja-‘Hamlin’ , tangerinas-‘Cleópatra’ e ‘Swatow’ e citrange-‘Troyer’, a porcentagem de formação de calos foi igual ou superior a 50%, destacando-se a tangerina-‘Cleópatra’ com um porcentual próximo a 70% de calogênese. Abstract in english Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Research with citrus aim at obtaining somatic hybrids, particularly rootstocks, better adapted to the Brazilian tropical cultivation conditions than the varieties currently in use. The main objectives are the selection of genotypes tolerant to drought and aluminum toxicity, [...] tolerant/resistant to Phytophthora foot rot and citrus tristeza virus, besides being well adapted to high planting densities. The following varieties have being used as protoplast sources: Cleopatra, Sunki and 'Swatow' mandarins, Rangpur lime selections Santa Cruz and Santa Bárbara, Volkamer lemon and Mazoe rough lemon, 'Hamlin' sweet orange selections CNPMF 04 and CNPMF 20, sour orange selections Common and Narrow Leaf, Troyer citrange, Citrus amblycarpa and Microcitrus papuana. The study focused on obtaining and cultivating embryogenic calli. Ovules taken from immature fruits were used in a modified MT culture medium, containing 50g.L-1 of sucrose and 500 mg.L-1 of malt extract, solidified with 7 g.L-1 of agar. In general, callus induction in the studied varieties was observed between the 6th and the 8th weeks of cultivation. In the Rangpur lime, 'Hamlin' sweet orange, Cleopatra and 'Swatow' mandarins and Troyer citrange, the percentage of callus formation was equal or superior to 50%. The Cleopatra mandarin stood out with a percentage near 70% of callus formation.

  17. CALOGÊNESE EM ÓVULOS DE ESPÉCIES E VARIEDADES DE CITRUS CALLUS INDUCTION FROM CITRUS SPECIES AND VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO PEDROSO DE OLIVEIRA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura vem realizando ações de pesquisa visando à obtenção de híbridos somáticos de citros, particularmente porta-enxertos, melhor adaptados às condições tropicais de cultivo brasileiras que as variedades atualmente em uso. Como objetivo principal, busca-se a seleção de genótipos tolerantes à seca e ao alumínio, tolerantes/resistentes a gomose de Phytophthora e tristeza dos citros, além de adaptados a altas densidades populacionais. Como fontes de protoplastos, vêm sendo utilizadas as tangerinas-'Cleópatra', 'Sunki' e 'Swatow', limões-'Cravo Santa Cruz' e 'Santa Bárbara', 'Volkameriano' e 'Rugoso Mazoe', laranja 'Hamlin CNPMF 04' e 'CNPMF 20', laranjas-azedas 'Comum' e 'Narrow Leaf', citrange-'Troyer', Citrus amblycarpa e Microcitrus papuana. O estudo concentrou-se na etapa de obtenção e cultivo de calos embriogênicos. Foram utilizados óvulos extraídos de frutos imaturos, empregando-se como meio de cultura o MT, adicionando-se 50 g.L-1 de sacarose e 500 mg.L-1de extrato de malte e solidificando com 7 g.L-1 1de ágar. Em geral, a indução de calos nas variedades estudadas ocorreu entre a 6ª e a 8ª semana de cultivo, com maior precocidade na laranja-‘Hamlin’, sendo que, em limão-‘Cravo’, laranja-‘Hamlin’ , tangerinas-‘Cleópatra’ e ‘Swatow’ e citrange-‘Troyer’, a porcentagem de formação de calos foi igual ou superior a 50%, destacando-se a tangerina-‘Cleópatra’ com um porcentual próximo a 70% de calogênese.Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Research with citrus aim at obtaining somatic hybrids, particularly rootstocks, better adapted to the Brazilian tropical cultivation conditions than the varieties currently in use. The main objectives are the selection of genotypes tolerant to drought and aluminum toxicity, tolerant/resistant to Phytophthora foot rot and citrus tristeza virus, besides being well adapted to high planting densities. The following varieties have being used as protoplast sources: Cleopatra, Sunki and 'Swatow' mandarins, Rangpur lime selections Santa Cruz and Santa Bárbara, Volkamer lemon and Mazoe rough lemon, 'Hamlin' sweet orange selections CNPMF 04 and CNPMF 20, sour orange selections Common and Narrow Leaf, Troyer citrange, Citrus amblycarpa and Microcitrus papuana. The study focused on obtaining and cultivating embryogenic calli. Ovules taken from immature fruits were used in a modified MT culture medium, containing 50g.L-1 of sucrose and 500 mg.L-1 of malt extract, solidified with 7 g.L-1 of agar. In general, callus induction in the studied varieties was observed between the 6th and the 8th weeks of cultivation. In the Rangpur lime, 'Hamlin' sweet orange, Cleopatra and 'Swatow' mandarins and Troyer citrange, the percentage of callus formation was equal or superior to 50%. The Cleopatra mandarin stood out with a percentage near 70% of callus formation.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of peel waste and wastewater for on site energy generation in a citrus processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A citrus processing facility produces significant quantities of both peel waste and wastewater. A leach – bed batch anaerobic digester was operated successfully at thermophilic (55 °C) temperature for biogasification of citrus peel waste. The retention time in the digester was 25 days. The citrus processing wastewater was digested in a thermophilic DSFF (down flow stationary fixed film) anaerobic reactor fed continuously and operated for 76 days. At an average organic loading rate of 0.51 kg sCOD m?3 d?1 the hydraulic retention time was 16 days. No long term toxicity issues due to limonene were observed during digestion of both citrus waste feedstocks. Biogasification yielded, 0.116 m3 methane at STP kg?1 peel waste received and 2.1 m3 at STP m?3 wastewater received. An energy analysis showed that in a citrus processing plant handling 600 tons per day of fruits, the biogas produced from the waste streams is more than sufficient to meet all the electricity and fuel demands. Excess electricity generated from biogas may be sold generating estimated revenues of more than a $1 million annually (at electricity sale price of $0.04/kWhe). - Highlights: • Citrus peel waste digestion yields 0.116 m3 of methane at STP per kg as received. • Citrus processing wastewater digestion yields 2.1 m3 of methane at STP per m3. • 600 ton/day citrus factory can produce 3.2 MWe on site, using biogas from wastes. • Biogas can supply all the energy (electricity and fuel) needs of the plant

  19. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  20. NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY SURVEY OF CITRUS SINENSIS (L.)CULTIVARS GROWN AT THE MOST NORTHERN LIMIT OF THEMEDITERRANEAN LATITUDE

    OpenAIRE

    BOUNOUS, Giancarlo; MELLANO, Maria Gabriella; DONNO, DARIO; BECCARO, GABRIELE LORIS; CANTERINO, SARA

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Citrus sinensis fruit grown in the Lake Maggiore area (Italy), the upmost Northern distribution range of the genus Citrus in Europe. Total ascorbic acid (TAA), bioflavonoids, total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity, total soluble solid, total acidity and sensory characteristics were evaluated on oranges harvested during the 2009–2010 season.The range of values detected was as follows: TAA from36.89 to 67.34 mg/100 mL, hesperidin from18.97 to 31.87 mg/100 m...

  1. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1?-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  2. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1?-treated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases

  3. Characterization and developmental expression of genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Citrus paradisi Macf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcio G C; Moreira, Cristina D; Melton, John R; Otoni, Wagner C; Moore, Gloria A

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequences of PSY, PDS, and ZDS, encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the carotenoid pathway of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), were isolated and characterized for the first time. CpPSY contained a 1311-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids, CpPDS contained a 1659-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 552 amino acids, and CpZDS contained a 1713-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 570 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpPSY shares homology with PSYs from Citrus, tomato, pepper, Arabidopsis, and the monocot PSY1 group, while CpPDS and CpZDS are most closely related to orthologs from Citrus and tomato. Expression analysis revealed fluctuations in CpPSY, CpPDS, and CpZDS transcript abundance and a non-coordinated regulation between the former and the two latter genes during fruit development in albedo and juice vesicles of white ('Duncan') and red ('Flame') grapefruits. A 3× higher upregulation of CpPSY expression in juice vesicles of red-fleshed 'Flame' as compared to white-fruited 'Duncan' was observed in the middle stages of fruit development, which correlates with the well documented accumulation pattern of lycopene in red grapefruit. Together with previous data, our results suggest that the primary mechanism controlling lycopene accumulation in red grapefruit involves the transcriptional upregulation of CpPSY, which controls the flux into the carotenoid pathway, and the downregulated expression of CpLCYB2, which controls the step of cyclization of lycopene in chromoplasts during fruit ripening. A correlation between CpPSY expression and fruit color evolution in red grapefruit is demonstrated. PMID:21594623

  4. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  5. Polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in tangelo (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Bisignano, Carlo; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

    2013-11-15

    A separation/identification protocol based on RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS has been employed for the characterisation of the flavonoid fraction of the juice from tangelos (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) grown in Southern Italy. Eleven compounds were identified in a single chromatographic course. Of these, two C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2 and vicenin-2) and an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) were identified for the first time. Fruit juice antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH, O2(-), OH and ABTS(+) radicals, and to reduce iron (FRAP). Moreover, the influence of the identified polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity has been elucidated. We also checked the antimicrobial activity of a broad fraction, containing all the detected flavonoids obtained by preparative HPLC, in terms of MICs for Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23790942

  6. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants. PMID:20438136

  7. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon, Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent weight methoxyl content, each content solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH as well as sugar and organic acid. The result showed that the colors of the pectin from these 3 sources were the same i.e., Brown they were all soluble in hot and cold alkali and water, the moisture content, the methoxyl content and the ash were all higher in the pectin extracted from peels of sweet orange with 95.25, 5.79 and 35%, respectively. However, the equivalent weight of the pectin extracted from peels of grape was higher with 793.6 mg/mol. The overall results showed that the pectin from these sources were suitable for industrial use.

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Peels of Lemon (Citrus limon), Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisi) and Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aina, V. O.; Barau, Mustapha M.; Mamman, O. A.; Amina Zakari; Hauwa Haruna; Hauwa Umar, M. S.; Yagana Baba Abba

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent we...

  9. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...172.860. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids Complying with § 172...ester of maleic anhydride-modified wood rosin Acid number of 134-145; drop-softening...Complying with § 172.250. Sperm oil As adjuvant. [42 FR 14491,...

  10. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  11. Qualities of Native Apple Cultivar Juices Characteristic of Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rene KIZEK; Daniela SUMCZYNSKI; Vojtech ADAM; SOCHOR, JIRI; Vojtech REZNICEK; Otakar ROP; Martin POSOLDA; MLCEK, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    During the last century due to the changes in landscape management, in country people’s lives and with intensive fruit-growing the native cultivars of apple fruit trees have been gradually disappearing. The aim of the study was to compare the juices made of native apple cider cultivars. The cultivars-‘Boikovo’, ‘Jadernicka moravska’, ‘Kardinal zihany’, ‘Panenske ceske’, ‘Parmena zlata zimni’, ‘Strymka’ growing in the locality of the Litencicke Hills in the eastern part of the Czech Republic w...

  12. Exploring the potential of biobeds for the depuration of pesticide-contaminated wastewaters from the citrus production chain: Laboratory, column and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high wastewater volumes produced during citrus production at pre- and post-harvest level presents serious pesticide point-source pollution for groundwater bodies. Biobeds are used for preventing such point-source pollution occurring at farm level. We explored the potential of biobeds for the depuration of wastewaters produced through the citrus production chain following a lab-to-field experimentation. The dissipation of pesticides used pre- or post-harvest was studied in compost-based biomixtures, soil, and a straw-soil mixture. A biomixture of composted grape seeds and skins (GSS-1) showed the highest dissipation capacity. In subsequent column studies, GSS-1 restricted pesticides leaching even at the highest water load (462 L m?3). Ortho-phenylphenol was the most mobile compound. Studies in an on-farm biobed filled with GSS-1 showed that pesticides were fully retained and partially or fully dissipated. Overall biobeds could be a valuable solution for the depuration of wastewaters produced at pre- and post-harvest level by citrus fruit industries. - Highlights: ? High pesticide amounts are used for pre- and post-harvest treatments of citrus fruits. ? Pesticide-containing wastewaters from citrus production activities require depuration. ? Biobeds is a possible means for the depuration of wastewaters from the citrus industry. ? Biomixture and water management of biobeds were optimized via lab and column studies. ? On-farm offset biobed showed? On-farm offset biobed showed a high dissipation capacity against citrus pesticides. - Biobeds provide an effective solution for the depuration of wastewaters produced by the citrus production industry at both on-farm and post-harvest level.

  13. Danos da morte súbita dos citros sobre a produção de laranja Citrus sudden death damages on sweet orange yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B Bassanezi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A Morte Súbita dos Citros (MSC afeta laranjeiras doces (Citrus sinensis e algumas tangerineiras (Citrus reticulata enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia no norte do Estado de São Paulo e sul do Triângulo Mineiro. O progresso da doença nos pomares têm causado grande preocupação para o agronegócio citrícola. Para caracterizar e quantificar os danos causados pela MSC, a produção de frutos (peso total e número de frutos por planta e tamanho dos frutos foi avaliada em quatro talhões para cada combinação variedade ('Hamlin', 'Pêra', 'Natal' e 'Valência' / classe de idade (três a cinco anos, seis a dez anos e 11 a 15 anos. Em cada talhão, as plantas foram classificadas de acordo com a severidade de MSC (0 = sadia, 1 = sintomas iniciais e 2 = sintomas severos. Para cada nível de severidade foram colhidas dez plantas escolhidas ao acaso. Os danos foram caracterizados pela redução do peso total de frutos por planta (28% e 50% para o nível 1 e 2, respectivamente, do número total de frutos por planta (12% e 26% para o nível 1 e 2, respectivamente e do tamanho do fruto (22% e 41% para nível 1 e 2, respectivamente. As variedades de laranja não diferiram em relação à porcentagem de redução para todas as variáveis de produção avaliadas. As plantas mais jovens tiveram a maior redução no número total de frutos por planta e as plantas com mais de cinco anos de idade tiveram as maiores reduções no tamanho dos frutos. As classes de idade não diferiram na porcentagem de redução do peso total de frutos por planta.Citrus Sudden Death (CSD affects sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis and some mandarins (Citrus reticulata grafted on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia in the northern region of the State of São Paulo and south of the Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil. The progress of the disease in these groves is of great concern to citrus agribusiness. To characterize and quantify the damage caused by CSD, fruit yield (total weight and fruit number by plant, and fruit size was assessed in four blocks for each combination of sweet orange varieties ('Hamlin', 'Pêra', 'Natal', and 'Valência' and class of age (three to five years, six to ten years, and 11 to 15 years. In each block, trees were classified according to CSD severity (0 = healthy, 1 = initial symptoms, and 2 = severe symptoms. For each severity level, ten trees were selected at random and harvested. Damage was characterized by reduction of total weight of harvested fruit per plant (28% and 50% for level 1 and 2, respectively, total number of fruit per plant (12% and 26% for level 1 and 2, respectively, and fruit size (22% and 41% for level 1 and 2, respectively. There was no difference in percentage of reduction of all evaluated variables of fruit yield among the tested sweet orange varieties. The youngest plants showed a higher reduction in fruit number per plant, while plants older than five years showed a higher reduction in fruit size. There was no difference in percentage of reduction of total weight of fruit per plant among plants of different age classes.

  14. Citrus auraptene acts as an agonist for PPARs and enhances adiponectin production and MCP-1 reduction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus fruit compounds have many health-enhancing effects. In this study, using a luciferase ligand assay system, we showed that citrus auraptene activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and PPAR?. Auraptene induced up-regulation of adiponectin expression and increased the ratio of the amount of high-molecular-weight multimers of adiponectin to the total adiponectin. In contrast, auraptene suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Experiments using PPAR? antagonist demonstrated that these effects on regulation of adiponectin and MCP-1 expression were caused by PPAR? activations. The results indicate that auraptene activates PPAR? in adipocytes to control adipocytekines such as adiponectin and MCP-1 and suggest that the consumption of citrus fruits, which contain auraptene can lead to a partial prevention of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities

  15. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield

  16. Reproductive performance of the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) on citrus and coffee, using life table parameters Desempenho reprodutivo do ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) em citros e em cafeeiro, utilizando parâmetros de tabela de vida

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Teodoro; P. R. Reis

    2006-01-01

    The flat-mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered important in citrus (Citrus spp.) and coffee plants (Coffea spp.) in Brazil, and is known as the leprosis and coffee ring spot mite, as being a vector of the Citrus Leprosis Rhabdovirus - CitLV and Coffee Ring Spot Virus - CoRSV. The objective of this work is to find out about the reproductive success of B. phoenicis on citric fruits and coffee leaves by fertility life table parameters and its biology. T...

  17. Dispersion of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mandarin Orchards on Montenegrin Seacoast

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Radonji?

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Widem. has been an established pest on the Montenegrin seacoast for more than ten years, although with variable abundance in different years and localities. From an economic aspect, its most important host in Montenegro is the mandarin unshiu (Citrus unshiu Marc.), particularly its cultivar Owari. Dispersion of C. capitata in citrus orchards (prevailingly mandarin) was monitored on Baosici, Lastva Grbaljska and...

  18. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  19. Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on the Yield and Quality of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to study the effect of foliar application of micronutrients on the yield, quality and leaf composition of sweet orange, Blood red variety at Shabazgari, Mardan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in 23 factorial arrangement. Zinc, manganese and boron were applied as foliar spray at the rate of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.04 kg ha-1, respectively in the presence of 1.56 kg N ha-1 as urea and 0.4 kg surfactance ha-1 (as wetting agent in 400 L of water. The maximum fruit yield was obtained, when 0.4 kg Zn ha-1 and 0.2 kg Mn ha-1 was sprayed along with 1.56 kg N ha-1 and 0.4 kg surfactance ha-1 in 400 L of water. The minimum % peel was obtained with B alone and minimum % rag with Zn + Mn, maximum fruit size with Zn + B and maximum fruit volume with Zn + Mn. Similarly, % juice in sweet oranges was increased significantly by B alone, reducing sugar by Mn alone and vitamin C contents by Zn + B through foliar spray, suggested that each micronutrient had different role on the quality of citrus fruit. Foliar spray of Zn, Mn and B along with urea significantly increased the concentration of Zn and Mn in citrus leaves, while the concentration of B was not affected with foliar spray, perhaps due to dilution within the citrus tissues. Therefore, it is suggested that either Zn+Mn or Zn+B may be applied as foliar spray in combination with urea and surfactance for getting the maximum yield and improved quality of citrus fruit under prevailing conditions.

  20. Citrus plant nutritional profile in relation to huanglongbing prevalence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus is an important fruit crop in Pakistan that requires proper crop nutrition and disease management strategies as it is a tree crop and withstands harsh seasonal conditions for decades. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a century old, devastating disease of citrus caused by phloem limiting bacteria of the alpha-proteobacteria subdivision. As disease has no known cure, so, effective prevention methods are useful in crop management. Improper crop nutrition impairs plant genetic resistance to invasive pathogens, decreases yield and reduces productive life of the plant. In this study we selected 116 citrus trees from 43 orchard of Punjab for a nutritional assessment. All the trees were showing HLB symptoms and were subjected to NPK and Zn analysis as well as molecular detection of Candidatus L. asiaticus, the pathogen associated with HLB. Nitrogen and Zn were significantly higher (P=0.05) in HLB infected trees. Out of 48 diseased trees, 19, 43 and 27 were deficient in nitrogen, phosphorous and potash, respectively. Our study concludes that there is no relationship between nutritional deficiency status and HLB incidence in citrus; however, nutritional treatments may help in stress relief to infected plants. (author)

  1. Determining some physical properties of bergamot (Citrus medica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mobli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties are often required for designing post harvest handling/processing equipment for agricultural products. Bergamot is a species of citrus fruit. Physical properties of bergamot are necessary for equipment used in activities such as transportation, storage, grading, packing, and in food production processes like drying, jam production and so on. In this study some physical properties of bergamot were determined. Properties which were measured included fruit dimensions, mass, volume, projected area, fruit density, shell ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and surface area. Bulk density, porosity and also packing coefficient were measured for three groups of small, medium and large category of bergamots. Experiments were carried out at moisture content of 84.9% w.b. for bergamot shell and 87.34% w.b. for its meat. Result showed that average mass and volume were 291.9 g and 456.83 cm3, respectively. Dimensions increased from 78.7 to 160 mm in length, 64.2 to 128.5 mm in width, and 64 to 125 mm in thickness. The mean projected area perpendicular to length, width, and thickness obtained 7063.61, 7933.39 and 8137.77 mm2, respectively. The geometric mean diameter and surface area were calculated as 97.02 mm, 30412.31 mm2, respectively, while sphericity and shell ratio (w.b. were measured at 0.89 and 0.62%, respectively.

  2. Demethylation of a model homogalacturonan with the salt-independent pectin methylesterase from citrus: I. effect of pH on demethylated block size and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model homogalacturonan (HG); composed of galacturonic acid (94-97 %) and galactose (3-6 %), having a 94 % degree of esterification (DE) was used to produce a demethylated HG series by reacting it with the salt-independent pectin methylesterase (PME) from citrus fruit at pH 4.5 and 7.5. HGs with a...

  3. Viroides em citros / Viroids in Citrus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Eiras; Simone Rodrigues, Silva; Eduardo Sanches, Stuchi; Maria Luisa Penteado Natividade, Targon; Sérgio Alves, Carvalho.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Os viroides são os menores fitopatógenos conhecidos. Constituídos por uma molécula de RNA de fita simples, circular, que não é encapsidada e não codifica proteínas, são capazes de se replicar de maneira autônoma nas células do hospedeiro. Os viroides de citros pertencem à família Pospiviroidae (cujo [...] s membros apresentam uma região central conservada, replicam-se no núcleo das células hospedeiras e não apresentam atividade ribozimática) com cinco espécies: Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd (Pospiviroid), Hop stunt viroid, HSVd (Hostuviroid), Citrus bark cracking viroid, CBCVd (Cocadviroid) e Citrus bent leaf viroid, CBLVd e Citrus dwarfing viroid, CDVd (Apscaviroid). Além disso, Citrus viroid original source (CVd-OS) e mais recentemente, Citrus viroid V (CVd-V) foram propostas como espécies tentativas do gênero Apscaviroid. Os viroides de citros são transmitidos via enxertia e disseminados principalmente pela propagação de material contaminado. Sabe-se que os viroides de citros infectam praticamente todas as espécies do gênero Citrus e afins. Porém, há somente duas doenças importantes descritas em citros, induzidas por viroides: (i) a exocorte; (ii) e a xiloporose (ou cachexia). Apesar dos viroides induzirem sintomas severos, ou simplesmente afetarem o tamanho das árvores, muitas espécies de citros são assintomáticas, sendo o controle baseado em medidas preventivas, como utilização de gemas livres de viroides aliadas a métodos confiáveis de indexação. A proposta desta revisão é apresentar ao leitor os recentes avanços nas pesquisas com viroides de citros, principalmente na taxonomia, distribuição geográfica, métodos de detecção, limpeza e indexação, epidemiologia e controle, além do histórico e importância desses patógenos para a citricultura mundial. Abstract in english Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens consisting of a non-encapsidated, circular, single-stranded RNA that replicate autonomously in their host plants. Viroids are classified into two families (Pospiviroidae and Avsunviroidae). All citrus viroids belong to the Pospiviroidae family (species [...] that present a central conserved region, replicate in the nucleus of infected cells and lack of ribozyme activity) with five citrus viroid species: Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd (Pospiviroid), Hop stunt viroid, HSVd (Hostuviroid), Citrus bark cracking viroid, CBCVd (Cocadviroid) and Citrus bent leaf viroid, CBLVd and Citrus dwarfing viroid, CDVd (Apscaviroid). In addition, Citrus viroid original source (CVd-OS) and, more recently, Citrus viroid V (CVd-V) have been proposed as tentative species of the genus Apscaviroid. Citrus viroids are graft-transmitted and their dissemination occurs mainly by propagation of contaminated material. It is known that they have a broad host range, infecting species of citrus and plants of citrus-related genera. Two important diseases in citrus are viroid-induced: (i) exocortis; (ii) and cachexia. Symptoms vary from severe to asymptomatic, and their control is based on preventive measures as availability of viroid-free budwood as a source of propagation material follow by adequate indexing procedures. The purpose of this review is to present the reader the recent advances on citrus viroid research, mainly on taxonomy, geographical distribution, methods of detection, indexing and cleaning, epidemiology and control.

  4. Viroides em citros Viroids in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eiras

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Os viroides são os menores fitopatógenos conhecidos. Constituídos por uma molécula de RNA de fita simples, circular, que não é encapsidada e não codifica proteínas, são capazes de se replicar de maneira autônoma nas células do hospedeiro. Os viroides de citros pertencem à família Pospiviroidae (cujos membros apresentam uma região central conservada, replicam-se no núcleo das células hospedeiras e não apresentam atividade ribozimática com cinco espécies: Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd (Pospiviroid, Hop stunt viroid, HSVd (Hostuviroid, Citrus bark cracking viroid, CBCVd (Cocadviroid e Citrus bent leaf viroid, CBLVd e Citrus dwarfing viroid, CDVd (Apscaviroid. Além disso, Citrus viroid original source (CVd-OS e mais recentemente, Citrus viroid V (CVd-V foram propostas como espécies tentativas do gênero Apscaviroid. Os viroides de citros são transmitidos via enxertia e disseminados principalmente pela propagação de material contaminado. Sabe-se que os viroides de citros infectam praticamente todas as espécies do gênero Citrus e afins. Porém, há somente duas doenças importantes descritas em citros, induzidas por viroides: (i a exocorte; (ii e a xiloporose (ou cachexia. Apesar dos viroides induzirem sintomas severos, ou simplesmente afetarem o tamanho das árvores, muitas espécies de citros são assintomáticas, sendo o controle baseado em medidas preventivas, como utilização de gemas livres de viroides aliadas a métodos confiáveis de indexação. A proposta desta revisão é apresentar ao leitor os recentes avanços nas pesquisas com viroides de citros, principalmente na taxonomia, distribuição geográfica, métodos de detecção, limpeza e indexação, epidemiologia e controle, além do histórico e importância desses patógenos para a citricultura mundial.Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens consisting of a non-encapsidated, circular, single-stranded RNA that replicate autonomously in their host plants. Viroids are classified into two families (Pospiviroidae and Avsunviroidae. All citrus viroids belong to the Pospiviroidae family (species that present a central conserved region, replicate in the nucleus of infected cells and lack of ribozyme activity with five citrus viroid species: Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd (Pospiviroid, Hop stunt viroid, HSVd (Hostuviroid, Citrus bark cracking viroid, CBCVd (Cocadviroid and Citrus bent leaf viroid, CBLVd and Citrus dwarfing viroid, CDVd (Apscaviroid. In addition, Citrus viroid original source (CVd-OS and, more recently, Citrus viroid V (CVd-V have been proposed as tentative species of the genus Apscaviroid. Citrus viroids are graft-transmitted and their dissemination occurs mainly by propagation of contaminated material. It is known that they have a broad host range, infecting species of citrus and plants of citrus-related genera. Two important diseases in citrus are viroid-induced: (i exocortis; (ii and cachexia. Symptoms vary from severe to asymptomatic, and their control is based on preventive measures as availability of viroid-free budwood as a source of propagation material follow by adequate indexing procedures. The purpose of this review is to present the reader the recent advances on citrus viroid research, mainly on taxonomy, geographical distribution, methods of detection, indexing and cleaning, epidemiology and control.

  5. Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

  6. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly. PMID:21404839

  7. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  8. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  9. Analysis of Nutritional Constituents in Twenty Citrus Cultivars from the Mediterranean Area at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Citrus cultivars grown in the Mediterranean climate were analysed at different stages of fruit maturity to determinate changes in organic acids, vitamin C and sugars. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds. The influences of variety, rootstocks and different stages of fruit maturity were observed. Generally, the vitamin C content was higher in varieties grafted on Troyer citrange that the corresponding cultivars grafted on Cleopatra mandarin. At commercial harvest stage, lemons, clementine mandarins and sweet oranges, showed the highest concentrations of vitamin C; citrons, limes and lemons, the higher amounts of organic acids; and mandarins and hybrids the highest amounts of sugars. Since sugars and acids played an important role in fruit flavor and their nature and concentration largely affect taste characteristic and organoleptic quality, we hope to relate genotypes and differences in final fruit quality. We have found clear differences in the content of sugars, ascorbic and organic acids for the different groups in agreement with the Citrus classification. Also climatic and cultural factors have affected to fruit quality, and anticipate or delay the collection generally results in a loss of bioactive compounds. The fruit quality was affected differently and we have observed differences in accordance with the rootstocks used but, the major differences in nutritional composition must be attributed mainly to genetic factors. The data presented are an important factor to chose varieties with a high potential as nutraceutical source.

  10. Produção de frutos e caracterização de ambientes de ocorrência de plantas nativas de araticum no cerrado de Goiás Fruit production and environment characterization of the occurrence of native plants of araticum in the Cerrado of Goiás state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de frutos de araticum no Cerrado do Estado de Goiás. Foram selecionadas, para a realização do trabalho, 14 áreas de ocorrência natural do araticum no Estado de Goiás, de janeiro de 2000 a julho de 2002. Em cada área, foram selecionadas de 30 a 40 plantas adultas de araticum. O delineamento experimental adotado corresponde ao modelo hierárquico, para produção de frutos, sendo os dados obtidos submetidos à análise de variância. A estrutura espacial da variação fenotípica entre as populações das áreas analisadas foi investigada a partir do critério de ligação UPGMA. Os resultados demonstraram que a produção de frutos de araticum é baixa e variável entre as áreas e entre os anos, sendo a média de 2,97 aproveitáveis e de 1,37 frutos inaproveitáveis por planta. A variação fenotípica de caracteres morfológicos entre populações de araticum do Estado de Goiás não apresenta um padrão de estruturação espacial. A produção de frutos por planta é muito variável, sendo que algumas plantas apresentam características produtivas e de qualidade aparente de frutos que as credenciam com potencial para plantas-matrizes. As principais pragas que atacam os frutos de araticum são: Spermologus funereus, Cerconota anonella e Bephratelloides pomorum. A pressão antrópica sobre os ambientes naturais de produção de araticum tem reduzido a produção atual e pode inviabilizar as produções futuras.This study had the objective to evaluate the production of araticum fruits in the Cerrado of the Goiás State. Fourteen areas with high natural occurrences of araticum in the whole state were selected from January 2000 to July 2002. In each area, thirty to forty mother trees were selected. The experimental research corresponds to the hierarchical model for the fruit production, and that means that the original data was submitted to an analysis of variance. The spatial phenotypic structure variation among populations was investigated through dendrograms by the UPGMA linking criterion. The results demonstrated that the production of araticum fruits is low and changeable in areas and years, and the average corresponds to 2.97 usable fruits and 1.37 not usable fruits per plant. The phenotypic variation of morphologic characters between populations of araticum of the Goiás state does not present a standard of space arrangement. The production of fruits per plant is very changeable, since some plants present productive and apparent quality characteristics of fruits that make them potential plants matrix. The main pests that attack the fruits of araticum are: Spermologus funereus, Cerconota anonella and Bephratelloides pomorum. The anthropic pressure on natural environments of production of araticum has reduced the current production and can make the future productions impracticable.

  11. A California citrus germplasm tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinboWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP, Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM. Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California at early (1907-1957 in comparison to that of central California isolates collected from later (1957-2009 time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection.

  12. Comparative de novo transcriptome analysis and metabolic pathway studies of Citrus paradisi flavedo from naive stage to ripened stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik; Manvar, Toral; Apurwa, Sachin; Ghosh, Arpita; Tiwari, Tanushree; Chikara, Surendra K

    2014-05-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus pardisi) is a popular citrus fruit that is a cross between a sweet orange and pummelo. This research article focuses on an in silico approach for comparative analysis of C. paradisi green flavedo (GF) and ethylene treated flavedo (ETF) transcriptome data. Our pathway analysis provides comprehensive information of genes playing significant role in different stages of ripening in fruit. De novo assembly was carried out using six different assemblers namely GS assembler, SeqMan NGEN, Velvet/Oases, CLC, iAssembler and Cortex followed by subsequent meta-assembly, annotation and pathway analysis. We conclude that de novo transcriptome assembly using meta-assembly approach is used to increase assembly quality in comparison to single assembler. PMID:24477585

  13. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    OpenAIRE

    JinboWang; OrhanBozan; RaymondK.Yokomi; RichardFLee; SvetlanaYFolimonova

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular m...

  14. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial

  15. LOS JUGOS DE CÍTRICOS INHIBEN LA OXIDACIÓN DE LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE BAJA DENSIDAD: RELACIÓN ENTRE ACTIVIDAD CAPTADORA DE RADICALES LIBRES Y MOVILIDAD ELECTROFORÉTICA / CITRUS JUICE INHIBITS LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN OXIDATION: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREE RADICAL SCAVENGER ACTIVITY AND ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julián, Londoño L; Guillermo, Montoya P; Karina, Guerrero M; Leidy, Aristizabal; Gabriel J., Arango A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que el consumo de frutas y vegetales se asocia con efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud humana, incluyendo reducción del riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). Las frutas y sus jugos contienen compuestos que inhiben la oxidación de Lipoproteínas de Baja [...] Densidad (LDL), un proceso clave en el desarrollo de la lesión arterial. Se ha desarrollado un estudio para determinar el contenido de compuestos fenólicos, la actividad captadora de radicales libres y el efecto sobre la oxidación de LDL, de jugos de cítricos cultivados en el suroeste de Antioquia (Colombia). Cinco variedades de cítricos fueron analizadas: Citrus sinensis valencia, Citrus reticulata clementina, Citrus reticulata oneco, Tangelo orlando, Tangelo mineola. Se demostró que en estos jugos no existe correlación entre el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y la actividad captadora de radicales libres (ACRL), sin embargo, se encontró una alta capacidad para inhibir la oxidación de LDL Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with beneficial effects on human health including the reduction of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Fruits and their juices contain phytochemicals that inhibit in vitro the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ox [...] idation, a key process involved in the generation of arterial lessions. We developed an study to examine the phenolics compound content of citrus juice cultivated in the southwest of Antioquia, Colombia, its free radical scavenger activity and in vitro effect on LDL oxidation. Five citrus varieties were analyzed: Citrus sinensis valencia, Citrus reticulata clementina, Citrus reticulata oneco, Tangelo Orlando and Tangelo mineola. The results showed that no correlation exists between phenolic compounds content and free radical scavenger activity in the citrus juices analyzed. However a high inhibitory capacity of LDL oxidation was found

  16. LOS JUGOS DE CÍTRICOS INHIBEN LA OXIDACIÓN DE LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE BAJA DENSIDAD: RELACIÓN ENTRE ACTIVIDAD CAPTADORA DE RADICALES LIBRES Y MOVILIDAD ELECTROFORÉTICA CITRUS JUICE INHIBITS LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN OXIDATION: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREE RADICAL SCAVENGER ACTIVITY AND ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Londoño L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que el consumo de frutas y vegetales se asocia con efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud humana, incluyendo reducción del riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV. Las frutas y sus jugos contienen compuestos que inhiben la oxidación de Lipoproteínas de Baja Densidad (LDL, un proceso clave en el desarrollo de la lesión arterial. Se ha desarrollado un estudio para determinar el contenido de compuestos fenólicos, la actividad captadora de radicales libres y el efecto sobre la oxidación de LDL, de jugos de cítricos cultivados en el suroeste de Antioquia (Colombia. Cinco variedades de cítricos fueron analizadas: Citrus sinensis valencia, Citrus reticulata clementina, Citrus reticulata oneco, Tangelo orlando, Tangelo mineola. Se demostró que en estos jugos no existe correlación entre el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y la actividad captadora de radicales libres (ACRL, sin embargo, se encontró una alta capacidad para inhibir la oxidación de LDLEpidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with beneficial effects on human health including the reduction of coronary artery disease (CAD risk. Fruits and their juices contain phytochemicals that inhibit in vitro the low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, a key process involved in the generation of arterial lessions. We developed an study to examine the phenolics compound content of citrus juice cultivated in the southwest of Antioquia, Colombia, its free radical scavenger activity and in vitro effect on LDL oxidation. Five citrus varieties were analyzed: Citrus sinensis valencia, Citrus reticulata clementina, Citrus reticulata oneco, Tangelo Orlando and Tangelo mineola. The results showed that no correlation exists between phenolic compounds content and free radical scavenger activity in the citrus juices analyzed. However a high inhibitory capacity of LDL oxidation was found

  17. Differentially expressed stress-related genes in the compatible citrus-Citrus leprosis virus interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana de Freitas-Astúa; Marinês Bastianel; Locali-fabris, Eliane C.; Novelli, Valdenice M.; Ana Carla Silva-Pinhati; Ana Carolina Basílio-Palmieri; Targon, Maria Luisa P. N.; Machado, Marcos A.

    2007-01-01

    Leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type (CiLV-C), is the main viral disease in the Brazilian citrus industry. This occurs because of the widespread source of inoculum and the year-round presence of the vector, the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, in citrus plants. In addition, while some Citrus species are resistant to CiLV-C, C. sinensis, the main cultivated species in the country, is extremely susceptible to the disease. The main objective of this work was to iden...

  18. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  19. Gibberellic Acid Reduces Flowering Intensity in Sweet Orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Repressing CiFT Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mun?oz Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo Conejos, Carlos; Gonzalez Ma?s, Mª Carmen; Agusti? Fonfri?a, Manuel; Iglesias, Domingo J.; Primo-millo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In Citrus, gibberellic acid (GA(3)) applied at the floral bud inductive period significantly reduces flowering intensity. This effect is being used to improve the fruit set of parthenocarpic cultivars that tend to flower profusely. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process remain unclear. To contribute to the knowledge of this phenomenon, adult trees of 'Salustiana' sweet orange were sprayed at the floral bud inductive period with 40 mg L-1 of GA(3) and the expression pattern ...

  20. Detection and molecular identification protocols for Phyllosticta citricarpa from citrus matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Truter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict quarantine measures for the export of South African citrus fruit to European and US markets require the development of sensitive and accurate detection methods for the pathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa – a fungus causing citrus black spot disease. Because of the presence of other, non-pathogenic Phyllosticta species, rapid and accurate verification of the Phyllosticta species present on exported citrus fruit is important to producers, exporters and regulatory authorities to prevent unnecessary losses. We have analysed over 800 samples collected over 7 years and have compared sample preparation and detection protocols applied in different environments: nurseries, production systems including phytosanitary inspections in orchards, pack houses and export terminals in order to compile protocols for the detection of P. citricarpa. Standard procedures of sample preparation and DNA extraction were adapted to suit diverse inoculum sources. Low pathogen numbers in symptomless green leaves, for example, obliged the use of a wet-dry enrichment technique constituting the stimulation of fungal growth for easier detection. Physical maceration was adapted for sturdy material using liquid nitrogen or bead beating. The use of a two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR with nested primers significantly increased both the sensitivity and the specificity of the PCR performed on soil samples, overcoming problems with relatively impure DNA extracts and low pathogen numbers. The assays have proven to be highly consistent, thereby providing a reliable, reproducible and highly sensitive detection and diagnostic service to the southern African citrus industries in order to sustain market access.

  1. A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanee Nilla-or5

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco and pomelo (C. maxima Merr. as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species of FPM were collected from these crops. The greatest species richness and relative abundance were observed in citrus, covering 23 species from 452 individuals trapped. In pomelo, 20 different species were