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Sample records for mycobacterial hsp65 gene

  1. HSP65-PRA identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria from 4892 samples suspicious for mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, M; Jabbarzadeh, E; Bahrmand, A R; Karimi, A; Pourazar, S; Fateh, A; Masoumi, M; Vahidi, E

    2013-08-01

    Various molecular methods have been used for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species. In this survey, evaluation of antibiotic resistance and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was carried out for identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) isolates from different clinical specimens. Forty-eight different mycobacterial isolates were selected and followed by the conventional and PRA of hsp65 for species identification. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out according to standard methods. A 439 bp PCR product of hsp65 in all selected isolates was amplified and digested with the BstEII and HaeIII restriction enzymes. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were analyzed for species identification. Using PRA for 48 mycobacterial selected isolates, including 15 M. tuberculosis, one M. bovis and all 32 isolates of NTM, revealed 11 different species among the NTM isolates. The most frequent NTM isolates were M. kansasii, M. gordonae III, M. marinum, M. chelonae, M. scrofluaceum and M. gastri. In most cases, the PRA results were perfectly in accordance with the classical biochemical method. Combination of resistance to rifampin and isoniazid was present among M. kansasi, M. gordoniae III, M. scrofluaceum, M. chelonae, M. marinum, M. gastri, M. gordoniae II and M. trivale isolates. A high incidence of co-resistance to six, five, four and three anti-TB drugs was observed in 18.5%, 9.1%, 6.6% and 11.7% of all NTM isolates, respectively. Our results showed that PRA, in comparison with classical methods, is rapid and accurate enough for the identification of mycobacterial species from LJ medium. Additionally, we found that in Iran we have a highly diverse population of NTM isolates among patients suspected of having TB. PMID:22963505

  2. Reliable identification of mycobacterial species by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA-hsp65 in a reference laboratory and elaboration of a sequence-based extended algorithm of PRA-hsp65 patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeit Robert D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM based on phenotypic tests is time-consuming, labor-intensive, expensive and often provides erroneous or inconclusive results. In the molecular method referred to as PRA-hsp65, a fragment of the hsp65 gene is amplified by PCR and then analyzed by restriction digest; this rapid approach offers the promise of accurate, cost-effective species identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether species identification of NTM using PRA-hsp65 is sufficiently reliable to serve as the routine methodology in a reference laboratory. Results A total of 434 NTM isolates were obtained from 5019 cultures submitted to the Institute Adolpho Lutz, Sao Paulo Brazil, between January 2000 and January 2001. Species identification was performed for all isolates using conventional phenotypic methods and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing a 441 bp fragment of hsp65. Phenotypic evaluation and PRA-hsp65 were concordant for 321 (74% isolates. These assignments were presumed to be correct. For the remaining 113 discordant isolates, definitive identification was based on sequencing a 441 bp fragment of hsp65. PRA-hsp65 identified 30 isolates with hsp65 alleles representing 13 previously unreported PRA-hsp65 patterns. Overall, species identification by PRA-hsp65 was significantly more accurate than by phenotype methods (392 (90.3% vs. 338 (77.9%, respectively; p hsp65 provided an incorrect result for only 1.2%. Conclusion PRA-hsp65 is a rapid and highly reliable method and deserves consideration by any clinical microbiology laboratory charged with performing species identification of NTM.

  3. Reliable identification of mycobacterial species by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 in a reference laboratory and elaboration of a sequence-based extended algorithm of PRA-hsp65 patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeit Robert D; Durham Alan; Ueky Suely; Martins Maria; Ferrazoli Lucilaine; Chimara Erica; Leão Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) based on phenotypic tests is time-consuming, labor-intensive, expensive and often provides erroneous or inconclusive results. In the molecular method referred to as PRA-hsp65, a fragment of the hsp65 gene is amplified by PCR and then analyzed by restriction digest; this rapid approach offers the promise of accurate, cost-effective species identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether species identificatio...

  4. Assessment of Partial Sequencing of the 65-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein Gene (hsp65) for Routine Identification of Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mcnabb, Alan; Eisler, Diane; Adie, Kathy; Amos, Marie; Rodrigues, Mabel; Stephens, Gwen; Black, William A.; Isaac-renton, Judith

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the ability of an in-house database, consisting of 111 hsp65 sequences from putative and valid Mycobacterium species or described groups, to identify 689 mycobacterial clinical isolates from 35 species or groups. A preliminary assessment indicated that hsp65 sequencing confirmed the identification of 79.4% of the isolates from the 32 species examined, including all Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, all isolates from 13 other species, and 95.6% of all M. avium-M. intrace...

  5. Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Motta e Bona

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65 para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias.OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65 to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  6. Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  7. Ten tandem repeats of ?-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of ?-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of ?-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with ?-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 and HSP65-?hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-?-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-?hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of ?-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens

  8. Use of PCR-Restriction Enzyme Pattern Analysis and Sequencing Database for hsp65 Gene-Based Identification of Nocardia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rodri?guez-nava, Vero?nica; Couble, Andre?e; Devulder, Gregory; Flandrois, Jean-pierre; Boiron, Patrick; Laurent, Fre?de?ric

    2006-01-01

    Nocardia identification required laborious and time-consuming phenotypic and chemotaxonomic methods until molecular methods were developed in the mid-1990s. Here we reassessed the capacity of PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene to differentiate Nocardia species, including 36 new species. Our results confirm that hsp65 PRA must no longer be used for Nocardia species identification, as many species have the same restriction pattern. We then compared sequencing-based ...

  9. Development of a Peptide Nucleic Acid-Based Multiprobe Real-Time PCR Method Targeting the hsp65 Gene for Differentiation among Mycobacterium abscessus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijeong; Kim, Byoung-Jun; Shim, Tae Sun; Hong, Seok-Hyun; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the need to distinguish between members of the Mycobacterium abscessus group has gained increasing attention. Here, we introduced a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) real-time PCR method targeting the hsp65 gene in order to distinguish between four subspecies within the M. abscessus group (M. abscessus and 3 types of M. massiliense). PMID:25653415

  10. hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory / PCR e análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 (PRA) para identificação de micobactérias no laboratório clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Feher da, SILVA; Suely Yoko Mizuka, UEKI; Débora de Cássia Pires, GEIGER; Sylvia Cardoso, LEÃO.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Mais de 70 espécies de micobactérias já foram definidas e algumas delas podem causar enfermidade em humanos, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. A identificação de espécie, na maioria dos laboratórios clínicos, se baseia em características fenotípicas e testes bioquímicos e resultados def [...] initivos só são obtidos após duas a quatro semanas. Métodos rápidos de identificação reduzem o tempo necessário para o diagnóstico e podem antecipar a instituição do tratamento específico, aumentando as chances de sucesso. A análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 amplificado por PCR (PRA) foi utilizada como método rápido de identificação em 103 isolamentos clínicos. Os padrões de bandas foram interpretados por comparação com tabelas publicadas e padrões disponíveis em um site de Internet (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Resultados concordantes de PRA e identificação bioquímica foram obtidos em 76 de 83 isolamentos (91,5%). Os resultados de 20 isolamentos não puderam ser comparados porque a identificação fenotípica ou por PRA foi inconclusiva. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram que PRA pode ser útil para identificação de rotina de micobactérias por ser um método acurado, rápido e mais econômico do que a identificação convencional. Abstract in english More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to f [...] our weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was used as a rapid method for identification of 103 clinical isolates. Band patterns were interpreted by comparison with published tables and patterns available at an Internet site (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Concordant results of PRA and biochemical identification were obtained in 76 out of 83 isolates (91.5%). Results from 20 isolates could not be compared due to inconclusive PRA or biochemical identification. The results of this work showed that PRA could improve identification of mycobacteria in a routine setting because it is accurate, fast, and cheaper than conventional phenotypic identification.

  11. Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho-castelo, Aam; Trombone, Ap; Rosada, Rs; Santos, Rr; Bonato, Vld; Sartori, A.; Silva, Cl

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess a new strategy of DNA vaccine for a more complete understanding of its action in immune response, it is important to determine the in vivo biodistribution fate and antigen expression. In previous studies, our group focused on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of a plasmid DNA encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and achieved an efficient immune response induction as well as protection against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge. In the prese...

  12. Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) in South Korea by sequencing analysis targeting hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ram; Kim, Jae Myung; Kim, Byoung-Jun; Jang, Yunho; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2014-10-10

    Combinatorial molecular taxonomic approaches targeting 3 genes, 16S rRNA (1.2-1.3kbp), hsp65 (603-bp), and rpoB genes (711-bp) were applied to 43 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains isolated from a Korean native cattle from bronchial lymph nodes and lung, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) in South Korea. Of 43 NTM isolates, Mycobacterium avium complex strains (MAC) were isolated with the highest frequency (31 strains, 72.1%). Contrary to other reports, M. intracellulare strains (23 strains, 53.5%) of MACs were more prevalent than M. avium strains (8 strains, 18.6%). Further separation of isolated M. intracellulare into genotype level by hsp65 analysis showed that isolates of the HG-1 genotype (60.9%, 14/23 isolates), known to be specific to Korean patients, was more prevalent than the HG-2 type (17.4%, 4/23 strains), which include the type strain, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950(T). Compared to NTM infections of Korean human patients, the pronounced difference found in this study is that no M. abscessus infections in Hanwoo were found. In conclusion, our data showed that the isolated species frequency of NTMs, particularly MACs from Hanwoo, was very comparable to that obtained from Korean human infection, suggesting that humans and Korean native cattle may share common environmental sources for NTM infections. PMID:25171916

  13. Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.M., Fonseca; V.L.D., Bonato; C.L., Silva; A., Sartori.

    1495-15-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with [...] its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

  14. Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Fonseca

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65 gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65 was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization, the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2 characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

  15. The genome of Mycobacterium leprae: a minimal mycobacterial gene set

    OpenAIRE

    Vissa, Varalakshmi D.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the recently sequenced genome of the leprosy-causing pathogen Mycobacterium leprae with other mycobacterial genomes reveals a drastic gene reduction and decay in M. leprae affecting many metabolic areas, exemplified by the retention of a minimal set of genes required for cell-wall biosynthesis.

  16. Ub Combination Enhanced Cellular Immune Response Elicited by HSP65 DNA Vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmin Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available  This study observed the immune response induced by a HSP65 DNA vaccine fused with UbGR against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were inoculated with HSP65 DNA vaccine, UbGR-fused HSP65 DNA vaccine (Ub-GR-HSP65 and blank vector respectively. HSP65 DNA vaccine elicited a Thl-polarized immune response. The Thl-type cytokine (IFN-? and proliferative T cell responses from spleen were improved significantly in UbGR-HSP65 group, compared with those in HSP65 DNA vaccine group. Furthermore, this fusion DNA vaccine also led to an increased ratio of IgG2ato IgGl and the cytotoxicity of T cells. IFN-? intracellular staining of splenocytes indicated that UbGR-HSP65 fusion DNA vaccine could activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with much higher CD8+ T cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that the UbGR fusion could improve HSP65-specific cellular immune responses, which is helpful to protect against TB infection.

  17. Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina / Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

  18. Immunomodulation and protection induced by DNA-hsp65 vaccination in an animal model of arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Junior, Rubens R; Sartori, Alexandrina; De Franco, Marcelo; Filho, Orlando G R; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A M; Bonato, Vânia L D; Cabrera, Wafa H K; Ibañez, Olga M; Silva, Célio L

    2005-11-01

    We described a prophylactic and therapeutic effect of a DNA vaccine encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (DNA-hsp65) in experimental murine tuberculosis. However, high homology of the vaccine to the corresponding mammalian hsp60, together with the CpG motifs in the plasmidial vector, could trigger or exacerbate an autoimmune disease. In the present study, we evaluate the potential of DNA-hsp65 vaccination to induce or modulate arthritis in mice genetically selected for acute inflammatory reaction (AIR), either maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin). Mice immunized with DNA-hsp65 or injected with the corresponding DNA vector (DNAv) developed no arthritis, whereas pristane injection resulted in arthritis in 62% of AIRmax mice and 7.3% of AIRmin mice. Administered after pristane, DNA-hsp65 downregulated arthritis induction in AIRmax animals. Levels of interleukin (IL)-12 were significantly lower in mice receiving pristane plus DNA-hsp65 or DNAv than in mice receiving pristane alone. However, when mice previously injected with pristane were inoculated with DNA-hsp65 or DNAv, the protective effect was significantly correlated with lower IL-6 and IL-12 levels and higher IL-10 levels. Our results strongly suggest that DNA-hsp65 has no arthritogenic potential and is actually protective against experimentally induced arthritis in mice. PMID:16259568

  19. hsp65 PCR-restriction analysis (PRA) with capillary electrophoresis in comparison to three other methods for identification of Mycobacterium species

    OpenAIRE

    Sajduda, A.; Martin, A.; Portaels, F.; Palomino, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a scheme for rapid identification of Mycobacterium species using an automated fluorescence capillary electrophoresis instrument. A 441-bp region of the hsp65 gene was examined using PCR-restriction analysis (PRA). The assay was initially evaluated on 38 reference strains. The observed sizes of restriction fragments were consistently smaller than the real sizes for each of the species as deduced from the sequence analysis (mean variance=7bp). Nevertheless, the obtained PRA pattern...

  20. Cell-mediated immune responses and protective efficacy against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced by Hsp65 and hIL-2 fusion protein in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C; Yuan, S; Zhang, H; Zhang, T; Wang, L; Xu, Z

    2009-02-01

    Heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) is an important immunodominant antigen against tuberculosis (TB), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays an important role in the regulation of antimycobacteria immune responses. In order to further increase the immunogenicity of Hsp65 against infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), we expressed MTB Hsp65 and human IL-2 fusion protein, Hsp65-hIL-2, in Escherichia coli. The expression of Hsp65-hIL-2 was confirmed by Western blotting using anti-Hsp65 MoAb and anti-hIL-2 MoAb, respectively. Hsp65-IL-2 and Hsp65 were then purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Mice were immunized with purified Hsp65-hIL-2 or Hsp65 emulsified in the adjuvant combination dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide and monophosphoryl lipid A. Eight weeks after immunization, there was significant proliferation of spleen lymphocytes in response to both Hsp65 and Hsp65-hIL-2 proteins. Interestingly, Hsp65-hIL-2 fusion protein elicited significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in the lymphocytes culture supernatant than that of the BCG (Denmark strain) immunized group and Hsp65 group (P < 0.05). After challenging the immunized mice with MTB, the bacteria loads in the spleens and lungs of mice immunized with the fusion protein were significantly lower than Hsp65 alone group, reaching an equivalent level as BCG immunization group. Our results suggest that the Hsp65 and hIL-2 fusion protein may serve as an alternative vaccine candidate against MTB infection. PMID:19144078

  1. Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding different mycobacterial antigens elicits a Th1 type immune response in lambs and protects against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, L A; Mara, L; Cappai, P; Frothingam, R; Ortu, S; Leoni, A; Ahmed, N; Zanetti, S

    2006-01-16

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a disease of domestic and wild ruminants that culminate with a chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the type of immune response, Th1 or Th2, induced by DNA vaccinations in lambs of Sarda breed. Twenty-five lambs, serum negative for M. paratuberculosis, were selected at birth from equally serum negative mothers. The lambs were inoculated at 5 months of age with three different mycobacterial antigens cloned into a mammalian expression vector as fusion protein with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-N1). The animals were divided in five groups containing each five lambs. Each group was vaccinated as following (A: physiological solution; B: Gudair; C: p-85A-Mav; D: p-85A-BCG; E: p-Hsp65). Immune response was evaluated by measuring the expression of INF-gamma (Th1 type response) and IL-10 (Th2 type response) by real-time PCR. Gene expression was estimated by comparing the results with that of beta-actin. INF-gamma expression level was increased in lambs vaccinated with plasmids codifying mycobacterial antigens, in particular with p-Hsp65, in comparison with the controls suggesting stimulation of a Th1 immune response similar to that supported by natural infection of M. paratuberculosis. Moreover, animals were infected orally with live M. paratuberculosis. Three months after vaccination and again INF-gamma and IL-10 expression was evaluated in order to verify in vivo the protection level of the vaccines. Plasmids p-85A-BCG and p-Hsp65 seem to elicit a stronger protective immune response against M. paratuberculosis by evaluating the expression level of INF-gamma and evaluating the presence of M. paratuberculosis and animal cell organ damage post-mortem. PMID:16183174

  2. Mutational and Phylogenetic Analyses of the Mycobacterial mbt Gene Cluster ?§

    OpenAIRE

    Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Stirrett, Karen L.; Edupuganti, Uthamaphani R.; Vergnolle, Olivia; Sadhanandan, Gigani; Marchiano, Emily; Martin, Che; Qiu, Wei-gang; Soll, Clifford E.; Quadri, Luis E. N.

    2011-01-01

    The mycobactin siderophore system is present in many Mycobacterium species, including M. tuberculosis and other clinically relevant mycobacteria. This siderophore system is believed to be utilized by both pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria for iron acquisition in both in vivo and ex vivo iron-limiting environments, respectively. Several M. tuberculosis genes located in a so-called mbt gene cluster have been predicted to be required for the biosynthesis of the core scaffold of mycobacti...

  3. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by the mycobacterial 65-kilodalton heat shock protein express enhanced microbicidal activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetermans, W E; Langermans, J A; van der Hulst, M E; van Embden, J D; van Furth, R

    1993-03-01

    After an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of purified protein derivative, peritoneal macrophages from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) show an enhanced respiratory burst, inhibit the intracellular proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii, and kill Listeria monocytogenes more efficiently than peritoneal macrophages from normal mice. One of the immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium spp. is the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp 65), and in the present study, we determined whether injection of this protein into mice leads to activation of their peritoneal macrophages. After an i.p. injection of Hsp 65, peritoneal macrophages from BCG-infected CBA/J mice also released more H2O2, inhibited the proliferation of T. gondii, and killed L. monocytogenes faster than peritoneal macrophages from normal mice, although Hsp 65 was less effective than purified protein derivative. When normal mice were injected with Hsp 65 suspended in saline after a booster injection with Hsp 65, their macrophages did not display enhanced antimicrobial activity, indicating that an adjuvant was required for a cellular immune response against Hsp 65. In the present study, the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) was preferred because it contains no endotoxin or mycobacterial antigens and because it has been reported that DDA does not induce the production of gamma interferon. Peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and CBA/J mice that had received a subcutaneous injection of Hsp 65 suspended in DDA followed by an i.p. booster injection of Hsp 65 suspended in saline were activated, as indicated by the enhanced production of H2O2, inhibition of the intracellular proliferation of T. gondii, and increased rate of intracellular killing of L. monocytogenes in vitro relative to that by resident peritoneal macrophages and peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice that had received ovalbumin instead of Hsp 65. The rate of phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes was not affected by Hsp 65 treatment. Despite the in vitro expression of enhanced microbicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages, no difference in the growth of L. monocytogenes in the liver and spleen between Hsp 65-treated and control mice was found. PMID:8432607

  4. Investigation of the population structure of Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains using 17-locus variable number tandem repeat typing and the further distinction of Mycobacterium massiliense hsp65 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shiomi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hideaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a significant pathogen in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF). Nevertheless, there is little description of the genetic diversity of this species. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of M. abscessus complex isolated from respiratory specimens by variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. The results of 104 clinical isolates from 104 non-CF patients were compared using PFGE, hsp65 genotypes and clarithromycin susceptibility. The allelic diversity (Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index) of the 17 loci examined by VNTR typing was high (0.977). We determined that C28 sequevar erm(41) genotypes and clarithromycin-acquired resistance isolates were scattered in the minimum spanning tree. Intriguingly, VNTR typing and PFGE were highly congruent and revealed that there were clear examples of grouping of isolates from different individuals amongst both M. abscessus and M. massiliense, and showed five clusters of distinct identical isolates. Within these clusters, M. massiliense hsp65 type I formed three different clusters. Although the distribution of M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 was low (9.3?%), M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 isolates separated from clusters contained hsp65 type I isolates. Thus, M. massiliense hsp65 genotypes could be discriminated by analysing VNTRs with sufficient genetic distance for intra-species-level discrimination. PMID:25596119

  5. Mycobacterial recombineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kenan C; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Sassetti, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    The precise knockout or modification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes has been critical for the identification of functions important for the growth and pathogenicity of this important bacterium. Schemes have been previously described, using both non-replicating vectors and transducing particles, for the introduction of gene knockout substrates into M. tuberculosis, where the endogenous recombination systems of the host (both homologous and illegitimate) compete for transfer of the modified allele to the chromosome. Recombineering technologies, first introduced in laboratory and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli over the last 16 years, have been developed for use in M. tuberculosis. Described in this chapter is the use of the mycobacterial Che9c phage RecET recombination system, which has been used to make gene knockouts, reporter fusions, promoter replacements, and single base pair modifications within the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis chromosomes at very high frequency. Higher success rates, in a shorter period of time, are routinely observed when recombineering is compared to previously described M. tuberculosis gene knockout protocols. PMID:25779316

  6. Dimerization of an Immunoactivating Peptide Derived from Mycobacterial hsp65 Using N-Hydroxysuccinimide Based Bifunctional Reagents Is Critical for Its Antitumor Properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezouška, Karel; Kubínková, Z.; St?íbrný, J.; Volfová, B.; Pompach, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Šírová, Milada; ?íhová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 10 (2012), s. 2032-2041. ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505; GA ?R GA303/09/0477; GA ?R GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : HUMAN EOSINOPHILS * KILLER - CELLS * CD69 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.580, year: 2012

  7. Enhanced immune response of a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yan, Dong; Jun-Yuan, Gong; Xin, Liu; Jun-Wu, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to construct a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with cytokine GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant (pIRES-Hsp65-ESAT-6-GM-CSF, pIRHEG), and the immune response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the recombinant plasmid to [...] detect the titer of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+, CD8+T cell and IFN ~ ?,IL-2 secretion. The titer of antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+T and CD8+T cells and IFN ~ ?, IL-2 secretion of pIRHEG group was significant higher than other recombinant plasmid groups, which significant differed by statistical mean. The bicistronic DNA vaccine could induce an effective immune response in mice and could be used as vital ingredient of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

  8. A Novel Homozygous p.R1105X Mutation of the AP4E1 Gene in Twins with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia and Mycobacterial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiao-fei; Bousfiha, Aziz; Rouissi, Abdelfettah; Itan, Yuval; Abhyankar, Avinash; Bryant, Vanessa; Okada, Satoshi; Ailal, Fatima; Bustamante, Jacinta; Casanova, Jean-laurent; Hirst, Jennifer; Boisson-dupuis, Ste?phanie

    2013-01-01

    We report identical twins with intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia and short stature, born to a consanguineous family. Intriguingly, both children presented with lymphadenitis caused by the live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Two syndromes – hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and mycobacterial disease – thus occurred simultaneously. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation (p.R1105X) of the AP4E1 gene, which was confirmed by Sange...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261 and Mycobacteria spp. ?-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222. Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261 colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222 colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors.

  10. hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory PCR e análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 (PRA) para identificação de micobactérias no laboratório clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carolina Feher Da; Ueki, Suely Yoko Mizuka; Geiger, De?bora Ca?ssia Pires; Lea?o, Sylvia Cardoso

    2001-01-01

    More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to four weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) of th...

  11. Direct Identification of Mycobacteria in Primary Liquid Detection Media by Partial Sequencing of the 65-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mcnabb, Alan; Adie, Kathy; Rodrigues, Mabel; Black, William A.; Isaac-renton, Judith

    2006-01-01

    We investigated extending the use of direct partial hsp65 gene sequencing for the identification of mycobacteria to isolates in primary liquid detection media as an economical, feasible, and more rapid means of identification. During the course of the study, the hsp65 sequence-based identifications for isolates from 670 primary liquid detection media determined to be positive for acid-fast bacilli were compared to the identifications derived from Accuprobes, biochemical test panels, or 16S rR...

  12. Release of mycobacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlessi, Laleh; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Casadevall, Arturo; Brosch, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved from a Mycobacterium canettii-like progenitor pool into one of the most successful and widespread human pathogens. The pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis is linked to its ability to secrete/export/release selected mycobacterial proteins, and it is also established that active release of mycobacterial antigens is a prerequisite for strong immune recognition. Recent research has enabled mycobacterial secretion systems and vesicle-based release of mycobacterial antigens to be elucidated, which together with host-related specificities constitute key variables that determine the outcome of infection. Here, we discuss recently discovered, novel aspects on the nature and the regulation of antigen release of the tuberculosis agent with particular emphasis on the biological characterization of mycobacteria-specific ESX/type VII secretion systems and their secreted proteins, belonging to the Esx, PE, and PPE categories. The importance of specific mycobacterial antigen release is probably best exemplified by the striking differences observed between the cellular events during infection with the ESX-1-deficient, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG compared to the virulent M. tuberculosis, which are clearly important for design of more specific diagnostics and more efficient vaccines. PMID:25703550

  13. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

  14. Mycobacterial diseases of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; de Lisle, G W; Collins, D M; Griffin, J F T

    2004-08-01

    The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium. The first case of M. bovis infection in farmed deer was identified in New Zealand in 1978. In 1983, a voluntary scheme was introduced in New Zealand to control tuberculosis in farmed deer, followed by a compulsory tuberculosis control scheme in 1990. The primary control measure is the slaughter of infected animals, detected by skin testing and blood testing, together with movement control and vector control. The number of infected deer herds peaked in the mid 1990s at over 160 herds, but by 30 June 2002 this had been reduced to 79 (1.45%), and to 67 (1.23%) by June 2003. Deer-to-deer transmission occurs, but the majority of herd breakdowns are believed to be from infected vectors. Factors likely to affect the susceptibility of deer include age, environment, population density, exposure and genetics. Avian tuberculosis occasionally causes clinical disease in wild, captive and farmed deer in New Zealand and overseas. Mycobacterium intracellulare, and subspecies of M. avium other than M. paratuberculosis, are widespread throughout New Zealand and are thought to be largely responsible for the high level of sensitisation to avian purified protein derivative (PPD), which is used for comparison purposes in tuberculosis skin testing of deer in this country. Infections with these organisms are usually subclinical in farmed deer, although M. avium subsp avium commonly causes lesions in retropharyngeal, mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes. These lesions cause problems because of their gross and microscopic similarity to those due to M. bovis infection. Birds and domestic animals are most likely to become infected via environmental contamination of food, water, bedding litter or soil, while carnivores or scavengers may also become infected by ingesting infected carcasses. Johne's disease has been reported in deer in the wild and in zoos, especially in North America, the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. Since first being confirmed in farmed deer in New Zealand in 1979, the incidence of Johne's disease has increased steadily. To date, M. paratuberculosis has been identified in >600 farmed deer on 300 properties. The majority of cases have been identified from suspected tuberculous lesions submitted from deer slaughter plants. Clinically, Johne's disease in deer is similar to the disease in sheep and cattle, with typical signs of loss of weight and condition, and diarrhoea. However, outbreaks of Johne's disease frequently occur in young red deer, 8-15 months of age, whereas the clinical disease in sheep and cattle is sporadic and usually affects adults 3-5 years of age. The disease is characterised by a chronic granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, especially affecting the jejunum and ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Deer affected subclinically may have lesions in these lymph nodes at slaughter, which are grossly indistinguishable from those due to bovine tuberculosis. Because of the antigenic similarity between M. intracellulare and all the subspecies of M. avium, including M. paratuberculosis, the diagnostic tests for Johne's disease lack sensitivity and specificity, making control difficult. PMID:15726126

  15. Murine T-lymphocyte activation by mycobacterial antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been renewed interest in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections in the United States. Effective immunity to mycobacterial infections, as well as diagnosis by the skin test, involves T-cells rather than antibodies. Studies currently underway use the new technologies of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA to define better mycobacterial antigens for T-cell activation, in the hope of identifying species specific antigens. Lymph node cells from mice sensitized to Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium avium were assayed for activation by mycobacterial fractions, and cell lines and clones were generated. Comparing BALB/c and B10 mice indicated better responses to M. avium sonicate by B10 mice. A recombinant gene product containing a M. intracellulare peptide was assayed with lymph node cells and indicated excellent T-cell stimulation in BALB/c lymph node cells and cell lines. However, assays using B10 T-cell clones have yet to detect responders to the recombinant protein. Future studies using synthetic epitopes produced by recombinant DNA techniques and defined by monoclonal antibodies are necessary for the identification of reactive T-cell epitopes that are potentially species specific. 4 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  16. Three Consecutive Arginines Are Important for the Mycobacterial Peptide Deformylase Enzyme Activity*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Rahul; Kanudia, Pavitra; Datt, Manish; Dar, Haider Hussain; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Singh, Balvinder; Chakraborti, Pradip K.

    2008-01-01

    Genes encoding the peptide deformylase enzyme (def) are present in all eubacteria and are involved in the deformylation of the N-formyl group of newly synthesized polypeptides during protein synthesis. We compared the amino acid sequences of this enzyme in different mycobacterial species and found that they are highly conserved (76% homology with 62% identity); however, when this comparison was extended to other eubacterial homologs, it emerged that the mycobacterial protein...

  17. DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Kris

    2006-06-01

    Plasmid DNA vaccination is a very powerful and easy method for the induction of strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. The technique has also been successfully applied for the definition of immunodominant, human T-cell epitopes using HLA-transgenic mice. By virtue of its strong capacity to induce CD4(+)-mediated Th1 and CD8(+)-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, this vaccine approach is particularly attractive for the prophylaxis of intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and other pathogenic mycobacteria. In small rodents, the potential of mycobacterial DNA vaccines is well established. In humans, DNA vaccines are clearly less immunogenic and, so far, TB-specific DNA vaccines have not been assessed in humans. However, a number of studies in cattle and sheep have demonstrated the potential of mycobacterial DNA vaccines in larger animals. Also, immunization protocols combining the potent priming capacity of plasmid DNA with subsequent boosting with recombinant protein, recombinant pox-viruses or with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine are particularly promising for future applications. The potential of mycobacterial DNA vaccines for immunotherapy and post-exposure prophylaxis is still not clear. PMID:17661686

  18. Mycobacterial pseudotumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mahboubeh; Alroy, Joseph; Zoukhri, Driss; Wein, Richard O; Tischler, Arthur S

    2013-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors have a diverse etiology, mycobacterial pseudotumor (MP) being one of them. MP is a rare entity; it has been reported infrequently in various organs and is extremely rare in the skin. We report a cutaneous MP in an immunosuppressed liver transplant recipient. The lesion consisted mostly of spindle cells, with small numbers of lymphocytes. Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain revealed a large number of acid-fast bacilli within spindled histiocytes and the presence of Mycobacterium avium was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Given that the patient had a prior history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma resected and reconstructed in the same area, establishing the diagnosis was challenging. Immunohistochemical staining for lysosome-associated membrane protein was strongly positive, suggesting the presence of numerous mature lysosomes within infected spindle cells. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumors can mimic malignant or benign neoplasms and should be considered in differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients. Further studies are needed to determine mechanisms that permit the survival of mycobacteria within the lesions and that cause this unusual manifestation of infection. PMID:24114192

  19. Surgical treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yuji

    2014-08-01

    While the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis has been decreasing, the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease has been increasing. Unlike tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is not communicable. However, their indolent nature may result in extensive parenchymal destruction, causing respiratory failure and vulnerability to airway infection. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, therefore, has been becoming a significant health problem. According to the 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America statement on nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases, the primary treatment is a multidrug treatment regimen. However, its efficacy is less than satisfactory for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease, which is the most common type of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases, and for Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease, which is notoriously resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. The statement, therefore, has proposed a multidisciplinary treatment approach for these types of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases: a combination of multidrug treatment regimen and adjuvant resectional surgery. This review covers the rationale, indication, procedure, and outcome of surgical treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. The rationale of surgery is to prevent disease progressing by removing the areas of lung most affected, harboring the largest amounts of mycobacteria. The indications for surgery include a poor response to drug therapy, the development of macrolide-resistant disease, or the presence of a significant disease-related complication such as hemoptysis. The surgical procedures of choice are various types of pulmonary resections, including wedge resection, segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumonectomy. The reported series have achieved favorable treatment outcomes in surgically treated patients with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24740640

  20. Mycobacterial mutants with defective control of phagosomal acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection is associated with an ability to interfere with maturation of the phagosomal compartment after ingestion by macrophages. Identification of the mycobacterial components that contribute to this phenomenon will allow rational design of novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Microarray-based screening of a transposon library was used to identify mutations that influence the fate of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG following uptake by macrophages. A screen based on bacterial survival during a 3-d infection highlighted genes previously implicated in growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and in mice, together with a number of other virulence genes including a locus encoding virulence-associated membrane proteins and a series of transporter molecules. A second screen based on separation of acidified and non-acidified phagosomes by flow cytometry identified genes involved in mycobacterial control of early acidification. This included the KefB potassium/proton antiport. Mutants unable to control early acidification were significantly attenuated for growth during 6-d infections of macrophages. Early acidification of the phagosome is associated with reduced survival of BCG in macrophages. A strong correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those required for growth of M. tuberculosis in mice. In contrast, very little correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those that are up-regulated during intracellular adaptation of M. tuberculosis. This study has identified targets for interventions to promote immune clearance of tuberculosis infection. The screening technologies demonstrated in this study will be useful to the study of pathogenesis in many other intracellular microorganisms.

  1. Mycobacterial osteomyelitis in captive marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P C; Montali, R J; Bush, M

    1982-12-01

    Mycobacterial osteomyelitis was detected in 3 marsupials exhibited at the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC. One Matschiei's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), 1 Parma wallaby (Macropus parma), and 1 long-nosed rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylus) were affected. The Parma wallaby had disseminated granulomatosis. Acid-fast organisms were observed in the bone marrow of the wallaby, using the auramine-O-rhodamine fluorescent technique; however, cultures were negative. The tibiotarsal joint of the rat kangaroo contained exudate, with fistulous tracts and necrosis of the articular surface. Granulomas with necrotic centers from this area were positive by auramine-O-rhodamine but were negative on culture. The tree kangaroo had thickening of the right ischium, with a pocket of exudate caudal to the acetabulum. The musculature in the acetabular area was thickened and fibrotic. Mycobacterium avium serotype 15 was isolated from the ischium and liver of this animal. PMID:7174453

  2. Identification by 16S rRNA Gene Analyses of a Potential Novel Mycobacterial Species as an Etiological Agent of Canine Leproid Granuloma Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, M. S.; James, G.; Ball, N.; Scally, M.; Malik, R.; Wigney, D. I.; Martin, P.; Chen, S.; Mitchell, D.; Love, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    PCR amplifications of the 16S rRNA gene were performed on 46 specimens obtained from 43 dogs with canine leproid granuloma syndrome to help determine its etiology. Sequence capture PCR was applied to 37 paraffin-embedded specimens from 37 dogs, and nested PCR was attempted on DNA from 9 fresh tissue specimens derived from 3 of the 37 aforementioned dogs and from an additional 6 dogs. Molecular analyses of the paraffin-embedded tissues and fresh tissue specimen analyses were performed at separ...

  3. Mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Hua; Pancholi, Preeti

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) includes nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections, tuberculosis (TB), and leprosy. Diagnosis of mycobacterial SSTI can be challenging due to diverse clinical presentation, low yield from cultured specimens, and nonspecific histopathology on tissue biopsy. In addition, immunosuppressed patients may present with atypical or disseminated disease. Despite aggressive medical treatment and often with surgical intervention, results may be suboptimal with poor outcomes. Regimens typically require multiple antibiotics for extended periods of time and are often complicated by medication side effects and drug-drug interactions. Biopsy with culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but newer molecular diagnostics and proteomics such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry have improved diagnosis with increased identification of clinically significant mycobacteria species in clinically relevant time frames. We will review updates in diagnostic tests along with clinical presentation and treatment of mycobacterial SSTI for NTM, TB, and leprosy. PMID:25339245

  4. Searches among mycobacterial cultures for antileprosy vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, C. C.; Landingham, R.; Walker, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    All mycobacteria species share some antigens, so there may be cultivable mycobacterial cultures that can provide vaccine protection against leprosy. Vaccine protection against Mycobacterium leprae infections in mice has been demonstrated for M. leprae itself, as living or heat-killed suspensions, and for Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), as living suspensions. Results are reported here with 17 other cultures. The mycobacterial suspensions were injected intradermally, and the mice were challenged in ...

  5. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections—Comparing the Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Sang; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Shen, Elizabeth P.; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the clinical characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and the species-specific in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Material and Methods In 2000 to 2011 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, multilocus sequencing of rpoB, hsp65 and secA was used to identify NTM isolates from ocular infections. The clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were retrospectively compared between species. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin (AMK), clarithromycin (CLA), ciprofloxacin (CPF), levofloxacin (LVF), moxifloxacin (MXF) and gatifloxacin (GAF) against all strains. The activities of antimicrobial combinations were assessed by the checkerboard titration method. Results A total of 24 NTM strains (13 Mycobacterium abscessus and 11 Mycobacterium massiliense) were isolated from 13 keratitis, 10 buckle infections, and 1 canaliculitis cases. Clinically, manifestations and outcomes caused by these two species were similar and surgical intervention was necessary for medically unresponsive NTM infection. Microbiologically, 100% of M. abscessus and 90.9% of M. massiliense ocular isolates were susceptible to amikacin but all were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Inducible clarithromycin resistance existed in 69.3% of M. abscessus but not in M. massiliense isolates. None of the AMK-CLA, AMK-MXF, AMK-GAF, CLA-MXF and CLA-GAF combinations showed synergistic or antagonistic effect against both species in vitro. Conclusions M. abscessus and M. massiliense are the most commonly identified species for NTM ocular infections in Taiwan. Both species were resistant to fluoroquinolones, susceptible to amikacin, and differ in clarithromycin resistance. Combined antimicrobial treatments showed no interaction in vitro but could be considered in combination with surgical interventions for eradication of this devastating ocular infection. PMID:25581038

  6. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  7. MENDELIAN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASE IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermeen Galal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Tuberculosis remains a major health problem in developing countries especially with the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD is a rare disorder with impaired immunity against mycobacterial pathogens. Reported MSMD etiologies highlight the crucial role of the Interferon gamma /Interleukin 12 (IFN-g/ IL-12 axis and the phagocyte respiratory burst axis.

    Purpose: Screen patients with possible presentations for MSMD.

    Methods: Patients with disseminated BCG infection following vaccination, atypical mycobacterial infections or recurrent tuberculosis infections were recruited from the Primary Immune Deficiency Clinic at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital, Egypt and immune and genetic laboratory investigations were conducted at Human Genetic of Infectious Diseases laboratory in Necker Medical School, France from 2005-2009. IFN-g level in patient’s plasma as well as mutations in the eight previously identified MSMD-causing genes were explored.

    Results: Nine cases from eight (unrelated kindreds were evaluated in detail. We detected a high level of IFN-g in plasma in one patient. Through Sanger sequencing, a homozygous mutation in the IFNGR1 gene at position 485 corresponding to an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine (S485F, was detected in this patient.

    Conclusion: We report the first identified cases of MSMD among Egyptian patients, including in particular a new IFNGR1 mutation underlying IFN-gR1 deficiency. The eight remaining patients need to be explored further. These findings have implications regarding the compulsory Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination policy in Egypt, especially given the high consanguinity rate.

    Keywords: Interferon gamma axis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, consanguinity

  8. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species. PMID:21396338

  9. Serodiagnosis of environmental mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Henriette; Ulea, Irina; Radu, Dorel L; Branaru, Manuela Gheorghiu; Moldovan, Olga; Bogdan, Miron A; Tudose, Cornelia; Raileanu, Marinela; Duiculescu, Dan; Ene, Luminita; Olar, Viorel; Ionita, Catalin; Popa, Gabriela Loredana; Popa, Mircea I; Brennan, Patrick J

    2011-09-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of mycobacterioses due to environmental mycobacteria we utilized a panel of glycolipid antigens selective for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum and Mycobacterium gordonae. The levels of circulating antibodies were determined against the environmental mycobacteria, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative and -positive patient sera. The method used immunomagnetic separation of the antigens, with covalent immobilization of antibodies to superparamagnetic amine and carboxyl terminated particles in solutions of the specific antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 195 patient sera: 34 with infections due to environmental mycobacteria, 114 with tuberculosis, 47 with other respiratory diseases. There were 46 human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected individuals. Among the 34 infections due to environmental mycobacteria, 9 patients were singularly infected with an environmental mycobacterium, and 25 co-infected with both M. tuberculosis and an environmental mycobacterium. Sensitivity, specificity and false positivity ranges were determined for each of the volunteer groups: tuberculosis positive, human immunodeficiency virus negative; tuberculosis positive, human immunodeficiency virus positive; those with infections due to individual environmental mycobacteria (such as M. scrofulaceum and M. kansasii); and those with other respiratory diseases. We demonstrate that such multiple assays, can be useful for the early diagnosis of diverse environmental mycobacterial infections to allow the start of treatment earlier than henceforth. PMID:21641939

  10. Stabilized expression of mRNA is associated with mycobacterial resistance controlled by Nramp1.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D. H.; Lafuse, W. P.; Zwilling, B. S.

    1997-01-01

    Control of innate resistance to the growth of mycobacteria is mediated by a gene termed Nramp1. Although the role of the protein product of Nramp1 in mediating resistance to mycobacterial growth is not known, the effect of the gene is pleiotropic and it has been suggested that the gene controls macrophage priming for activation. We have found that the functional capacity of macrophages from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-susceptible mice can be suppressed by corticosterone, while the function of mac...

  11. First report of cervicofacial lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in an immunocompromised adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Nadia; Sulaiman, Helmi; Chong, Jennifer; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of an immunocompromised adult patient presenting with cervicofacial lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium haemophilum, confirmed using hsp65 gene sequencing and line-probe assays. In resource-limited settings, especially in developing countries, appropriate culture methods and rapid molecular diagnostic tools such as hsp65 gene sequencing for identification of this organism may not be readily available. This may cause M. haemophilum infections to go unrecognised or lead to delays in diagnosis. Lack of heightened awareness about the potential for this mycobacterial species to cause infections may also contribute to possible underestimation of M. haemophilum cases in the developing world. PMID:25771471

  12. Mycobacterial infections in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meije, Y; Piersimoni, C; Torre-Cisneros, J; Dilektasli, A G; Aguado, J M

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterial infections represent a growing challenge for solid organ transplant recipients (SOT). The adverse effects of tuberculosis (TB) therapy present a major difficulty, due to the interactions with immunosuppressive drugs and direct drug toxicity. While TB may be donor-transmitted or community-acquired, it usually develops at a latent infection site in the recipient. Pre-transplant prevention efforts will improve transplant outcomes and avoid the complications associated with post-transplant diagnosis and treatment. The present review and consensus manuscript is based on the updated published information and expert recommendations. The current data about epidemiology, diagnosis, new regimens for the treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), the experience with rifamycins for the treatment of active TB in the post-transplant period and the experience with isoniazid for LTBI in the liver transplant population, are also reviewed. We attempt to provide useful recommendations for each transplant period and problem concerning mycobacterial infections in SOT recipients. PMID:24707957

  13. Intranasal vaccination with messenger RNA as a new approach in gene therapy: Use against tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aristóbolo M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mRNAs are highly versatile, non-toxic molecules that are easy to produce and store, which can allow transient protein expression in all cell types. The safety aspects of mRNA-based treatments in gene therapy make this molecule one of the most promising active components of therapeutic or prophylactic methods. The use of mRNA as strategy for the stimulation of the immune system has been used mainly in current strategies for the cancer treatment but until now no one tested this molecule as vaccine for infectious disease. Results We produce messenger RNA of Hsp65 protein from Mycobacterium leprae and show that vaccination of mice with a single dose of 10 ?g of naked mRNA-Hsp65 through intranasal route was able to induce protection against subsequent challenge with virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover it was shown that this immunization was associated with specific production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in spleen. In order to determine if antigen presenting cells (APCs present in the lung are capable of capture the mRNA, labeled mRNA-Hsp65 was administered by intranasal route and lung APCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that after 30 minutes until 8 hours the populations of CD11c+, CD11b+ and CD19+ cells were able to capture the mRNA. We also demonstrated in vitro that mRNA-Hsp65 leads nitric oxide (NO production through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7. Conclusions Taken together, our results showed a novel and efficient strategy to control experimental tuberculosis, besides opening novel perspectives for the use of mRNA in vaccines against infectious diseases and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the disease protection we noticed as well.

  14. Genetic lessons learnt from X-linked Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Jacinta; Picard, Capucine; Boisson-dupuis, Ste?phanie; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-laurent

    2011-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare syndrome conferring predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccines and nontuberculous, environmental mycobacteria (EM). Since 1996, MSMD-causing mutations have been found in six autosomal genes involved in IL-12/23-dependent, IFN-?-mediated immunity. The aim of this review is to provide the description of the two described forms of...

  15. The vesicle-associated function of NOD2 as a link between Crohn's disease and mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabatov, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    Although Crohn's disease (CD) etiology remains unclear, a growing body of evidence suggests that CD may include an infectious component, with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) being the most likely candidate for this role. However, the molecular mechanism of the MAP involvement in CD pathogenesis remains unclear. The polymorphism of the NOD2 gene, coding for an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, is a factor of predisposition to mycobacterial infections and CD. Recent findings on NOD2 interactions and functions provide the missing pieces in the puzzle of a NOD2-mediated mechanism common for mycobacterial infections and CD. Implications of these new findings for the development of a better understanding and treatments of CD and mycobacterial infections are discussed. PMID:25653718

  16. Lipocalin 2-dependent inhibition of mycobacterial growth in alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Junichi; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Okuyama, Megumi; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Sato, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Makoto; Akira, Shizuo; Yoshikai, Yasunobu; Honda, Kenya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2008-12-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis invades alveolar epithelial cells as well as macrophages. However, the role of alveolar epithelial cells in the host defense against M. tuberculosis remains unknown. In this study, we report that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2)-dependent inhibition of mycobacterial growth within epithelial cells is required for anti-mycobacterial innate immune responses. Lcn2 is secreted into the alveolar space by alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells during the early phase of respiratory mycobacterial infection. Lcn2 inhibits the in vitro growth of mycobacteria through sequestration of iron uptake. Lcn2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to intratracheal infection with M. tuberculosis. Histological analyses at the early phase of mycobacterial infection in Lcn2-deficient mice reveal increased numbers of mycobacteria in epithelial cell layers, but not in macrophages, in the lungs. Increased intracellular mycobacterial growth is observed in alveolar epithelial cells, but not in alveolar macrophages, from Lcn2-deficient mice. The inhibitory action of Lcn2 is blocked by the addition of endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that internalization of Lcn2 into the epithelial cells is a prerequisite for the inhibition of intracellular mycobacterial growth. Taken together, these findings highlight a pivotal role for alveolar epithelial cells during mycobacterial infection, in which Lcn2 mediates anti-mycobacterial innate immune responses within the epithelial cells. PMID:19050270

  17. Computational genomics-proteomics and Phylogeny analysis of twenty one mycobacterial genomes (Tuberculosis & non Tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakham Fathiah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Mycobacterium comprises different species, among them the most contagious and infectious bacteria. The members of the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the most virulent microorganisms that have killed human and other mammals since millennia. Additionally, with the many different mycobacterial sequences available, there is a crucial need for the visualization and the simplification of their data. In this present study, we aim to highlight a comparative genome, proteome and phylogeny analysis between twenty-one mycobacterial (Tuberculosis and non tuberculosis strains using a set of computational and bioinformatics tools (Pan and Core genome plotting, BLAST matrix and phylogeny analysis. Results Considerably the result of pan and core genome Plotting demonstrated that less than 1250 Mycobacterium gene families are conserved across all species, and a total set of about 20,000 gene families within the Mycobacterium pan-genome of twenty one mycobacterial genomes. Viewing the BLAST matrix a high similarity was found among the species of the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis and less conservation is found with other slow growing pathogenic mycobacteria. Phylogeny analysis based on both protein conservation, as well as rRNA clearly resolve known relationships between slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion Mycobacteria include important pathogenic species for human and animals and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is the most cause of death of the humankind. The comparative genome analysis could provide a new insight for better controlling and preventing these diseases.

  18. Evaluation of a low-density hydrogel microarray technique for mycobacterial species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimenkov, Danila V; Kulagina, Elena V; Antonova, Olga V; Krasnova, Maria A; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina N; Zhuravlev, Vyacheslav Y; Kuz'min, Alexey V; Popov, Sergey A; Zasedatelev, Alexander S; Gryadunov, Dmitry A

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the obligatory pathogenic species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium leprae, the genus Mycobacterium also includes conditionally pathogenic species that in rare cases can lead to the development of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Because tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis have similar clinical signs, the accurate identification of the causative agent in a clinical microbiology laboratory is important for diagnostic verification and appropriate treatment. This report describes a low-density hydrogel-based microarray containing oligonucleotide probes based on the species-specific sequences of the gyrB gene fragment for mycobacterial species identification. The procedure included the amplification of a 352-nucleotide fragment of the gene and its hybridization on a microarray. The triple-species-specific probe design and the algorithm for hybridization profile recognition based on the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients, followed by the construction of a profile database, allowed for the reliable and accurate identification of mycobacterial species, including mixed-DNA samples. The assay was used to evaluate 543 clinical isolates from two regions of Russia, demonstrating its ability to detect 35 mycobacterial species, with 99.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity when using gyrB, 16S, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragment sequencing as the standard. The testing of clinical samples showed that the sensitivity of the assay was 89% to 95% for smear-positive samples and 36% for smear-negative samples. The large number of identified species, the high level of sensitivity, the ability to detect mycobacteria in clinical samples, and the up-to-date profile database make the assay suitable for use in routine laboratory practice. PMID:25609722

  19. Recognition of mycobacterial antigens by phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Druszczy?ska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of mycobacterial antigens by receptors of phagocytes is not only a key element of the first line of defense, but also an important link to the specific phase of the immune response. The immune response is based on the existence of a number of pattern recognition receptors (PRR that recognize conservative microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP. These receptors are involved in the processes of opsonization and phagocytosis of pathogens, activation of the complement system, induction of apoptosis and signal transduction cell systems. The initiated signal cascade is supposed to lead to the mobilization of immune forces against the penetrating pathogen and is aimed at its fast elimination from the body. Understanding the role of these receptors in the antimycobacterial immune response appears to be fully justified in view of their potential application in distinguishing persons particularly sensitive to tuberculosis as well as in the development of new generation vaccines for prophylaxis and therapy and new biomarkers for improvement of the difficult and time-consuming diagnosis of mycobacterial infections.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Environmental Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using PCR- RFLP Analysis of 441 Bp Heat Shock Protein 65 Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rezaei-Yazdi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria are environmental opportunistic pathogens that can be found in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There are an epidemiological links between species isolated in tap water and those isolated from patients. hsp65 gene has more variability in its sequences, compared to the some more conserved genes in NTM, for identification of mycobacteria to species level. In this study, the prevalence of NTM in Isfahan City water samples was determined using culture, biochemical tests and PCR-RFLP analyses of hsp65 gene.Methods: Eighty-five water samples were collected and cultured. The mycobacterial isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. A 441 bp fragment of hsp65 genes was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeII. Digested products were analyzed using polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE.Results: 25.9% of the water samples contained different species of NTM. Dominant isolates were M. fortuitum (26.7%, M. chelonae like organism (13.3% and M. mucogenicum (13.3%. Nineteen isolates of Mycobacteria were differentiated using hsp65 genes PCR-RFLP. Three isolates could not be identified at the species level because their RFLP patterns were different from other known PCR-RFLP profiles. There were different hsp65 gene PCR-RFLP profiles produced by digestion with BstEII and HaeIII. Conclusion: This study showed that PCR-RFLP of hsp65 gene in mycobacteria is more reliable method for identification of NTM at the specie level than conventional phenotypic methods (P<0.05. In comparing of RFLP patterns of this study to other investigation, some minor differences were negligible.

  1. Distribution of lactoferrin and 60/65 kDa heat shock protein in normal and inflamed human intestine and liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Peen, E.; Enestro?m, S.; Skogh, T.

    1996-01-01

    Immunisation against the mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp-65) has been proposed to lead to production of autoantibodies against human lactoferrin. Such antibodies occur in ulcerative colitis and in primary sclerosing cholangitis. This study analysed the distribution of hsp-65 and lactoferrin in biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis and studied whether immunisation against mycobacterial hsp-65 resulted in production of antilactof...

  2. The PPE Domain of PPE17 Is Responsible for Its Surface Localization and Can Be Used to Express Heterologous Proteins on the Mycobacterial Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Dona?, Valentina; Ventura, Marcello; Sali, Michela; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Provvedi, Roberta; Palù, Giorgio; Delogu, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    PPE represent a peculiar family of mycobacterial proteins characterized by a 180 aminoacids conserved N-terminal domain. Several PPE genes are co-transcribed with a gene encoding for a protein belonging to another family of mycobacterial specific proteins named PE. Only one PE-PPE couple has been extensively characterized so far (PE25-PPE41) and it was shown that these two proteins form a heterodimer and that this interaction is essential for PPE41 stability and translocation through the myco...

  3. Mycobacterial infections: Still a millennium bug - the imaging features of mycobacterial infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, D.M.; Bell, J.R.G.; Burkill, G.J.C.; Padley, S.P.G.; Healy, J.C

    2001-07-01

    Mycobacterial infection is re-emerging as a major health care concern. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is still the most important pathogen, atypical mycobacterium (AMB) infections are becoming increasingly common. We present a pictorial review of the imaging features of these infections in the chest, abdomen, brain and musculoskeletal system. Imaging similarities and differences between the normal and the immunocompromised host will be highlighted. Koh, D. M. et al. Clinical Radiology (2001)

  4. Mycobacterial infections: Still a millennium bug - the imaging features of mycobacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycobacterial infection is re-emerging as a major health care concern. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is still the most important pathogen, atypical mycobacterium (AMB) infections are becoming increasingly common. We present a pictorial review of the imaging features of these infections in the chest, abdomen, brain and musculoskeletal system. Imaging similarities and differences between the normal and the immunocompromised host will be highlighted. Koh, D. M. et al. Clinical Radiology (2001)

  5. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases in immunocompetent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Won Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic lung disease in immunocompetent adults, and the M. Avium complex, M. Kansasii, and a rapidly growing mycobacteria such as M. abscessus, M. Fortuitum, and M. Chelonae account for most of the pathogens involved. Because the clinical features of NTM disease are not distinguishable from those of tuberculosis, and NTM are ubiquitous in the environment, diagnosis requires that the bacilli are isolated and identified. NTM diseases have been difficult to treat, though since the introduction of new macrolides, the outcome for patients with some NTM diseases has improved significantly. For correct diagnosis and the successful treatment of NTM pulmonary disease, a knowledge of the full spectrum of clinical and radiological findings is important.

  6. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases in immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic lung disease in immunocompetent adults, and the M. Avium complex, M. Kansasii, and a rapidly growing mycobacteria such as M. abscessus, M. Fortuitum, and M. Chelonae account for most of the pathogens involved. Because the clinical features of NTM disease are not distinguishable from those of tuberculosis, and NTM are ubiquitous in the environment, diagnosis requires that the bacilli are isolated and identified. NTM diseases have been difficult to treat, though since the introduction of new macrolides, the outcome for patients with some NTM diseases has improved significantly. For correct diagnosis and the successful treatment of NTM pulmonary disease, a knowledge of the full spectrum of clinical and radiological findings is important

  7. Mycobacterial infection in an inner city children's hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodyear, H. M.; Moore-gillon, J. C.; Price, E. H.; Larcher, V. F.; Savage, M. O.; Wood, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis is perceived by many as a disease of the past. Experience in a children's hospital serving a deprived population suggested that tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections were not declining in clinical practice. Fifty three tuberculous and 11 atypical mycobacterial infections were identified between 1978 and 1992. There was no decline in tuberculosis and nine of the 11 atypical infections occurred in the last five years. Altogether 40% of cases of tuberculosis were...

  8. BCG and BCG/DNAhsp65 Vaccinations Promote Protective Effects without Deleterious Consequences for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Amp Xe Lio Lopes Silva, C.; Alexandrina Sartori; Ana Paula Masson; Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa; Thais Graziela Donegá França; Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci; Clara Pires Fujiara Guerino; Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento

    2013-01-01

    A prime-boost strategy conserving BCG is considered the most promising vaccine to control tuberculosis. A boost with a DNA vaccine containing the mycobacterial gene of a heat shock protein (pVAXhsp65) after BCG priming protected mice against experimental tuberculosis. However, anti-hsp65 immunity could worsen an autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of a previous BCG or BCG/pVAXhsp65 immunization on experimental autoimmune encephalomyeliti...

  9. Evaluation of the GenoType Mycobacterium Assay for Identification of Mycobacterial Species from Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Elvira; Ru?sch-gerdes, Sabine; Hillemann, Doris

    2006-01-01

    A new commercially available DNA strip assay (GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS; Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) was evaluated for the ability to differentiate mycobacterial species. The test is based on a PCR technique targeting a 23S rRNA gene region, followed by reverse hybridization and line probe technology. The GenoType CM is capable of identifying 23, the GenoType AS a further 14, species either alone or in combination with one or more species. Both tests were evaluated with 156 mycobact...

  10. Clinical agreement in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan PJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Nolan Department of Internal Medicine, Toowoomba General Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia Purpose: To consider the clinical agreement among respiratory and infectious disease physicians, working in a tertiary chest diseases center serving a population with a low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (<3/100,000/year, in the assessment of cases of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM lung disease. Method: A series of previously notified cases of NTM disease was abstracted and anonymously presented to a cohort of seven respiratory and infectious disease physicians. Their individual decisions to notify, treat, and follow the cases was evaluated and compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: A wide range was demonstrated in the diagnostic and management decision triage of each case by the physicians participating in the study. Clinical agreement on the likelihood of disease was limited, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.394. Indication to notify the case to the state registry was linked to the clinical intent to initiate a treatment program. Conclusion: There appears to be limited agreement on the clinical significance of NTM isolates from pulmonary specimens among this cohort of experienced clinicians. If this trend is generalizable to a wider population of respiratory and infectious disease physicians, the number of notified and treated cases of disease is likely to be an underestimate of the true burden of disease in the general population. Keywords: diagnostic certainty, Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, lung disease

  11. Inhibitors Selective for Mycobacterial Versus Human Proteasomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Sorio de Carvalho, L; Deng, H; Tao, H; Vogt, G; Wu, K; Schneider, J; Chidawanyika, T; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Many anti-infectives inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins, but none selectively inhibits their degradation. Most anti-infectives kill replicating pathogens, but few preferentially kill pathogens that have been forced into a non-replicating state by conditions in the host. To explore these alternative approaches we sought selective inhibitors of the proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Given that the proteasome structure is extensively conserved, it is not surprising that inhibitors of all chemical classes tested have blocked both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteasomes, and no inhibitor has proved substantially more potent on proteasomes of pathogens than of their hosts. Here we show that certain oxathiazol-2-one compounds kill non-replicating M.?tuberculosis and act as selective suicide-substrate inhibitors of the M.?tuberculosis proteasome by cyclocarbonylating its active site threonine. Major conformational changes protect the inhibitor-enzyme intermediate from hydrolysis, allowing formation of an oxazolidin-2-one and preventing regeneration of active protease. Residues outside the active site whose hydrogen bonds stabilize the critical loop before and after it moves are extensively non-conserved. This may account for the ability of oxathiazol-2-one compounds to inhibit the mycobacterial proteasome potently and irreversibly while largely sparing the human homologue.

  12. Acute kidney injury in a patient with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Brener, Zachary Z.; Zhuravenko, Igor; Bergman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic lung disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Pre-existing lung disease, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, and smoking have been identified as important risk factors in nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, with only few cases of Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in renal failure patients, mostly on peritoneal dialysis. However, acute kidney injury associated with...

  13. Mycobacterial infections in a large Virginia hospital, 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scully Kenneth W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where both tuberculosis (TB and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are prevalent, descriptive studies of the clinical features of individual mycobacteria are needed to inform clinical triage. Methods We queried the University of Virginia Clinical Data Repository for all mycobacterial infections from 2001-2009. Results Of 494 mycobacterial infections in 467 patients there were 22 species. Patients with pulmonary Tb were more likely to be reported as immigrants (p M. kansasii, M. xenopi, and M. fortuitum were more likely than MAC to have cavities. There were at least 83 patients that met criteria for NTM lung disease and these were caused by 9 species. M. abscessus infection was associated with cystic fibrosis and M. xenopi infection was associated with male gender. Conclusions In our center mycobacterial infections were common and of diverse species. Immigrant status, cavities, and effusion were associated with TB vs. NTM.

  14. Optimization of Codon Usage Enhances the Immunogenicity of a DNA Vaccine Encoding Mycobacterial Antigen Ag85B

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Hyun-jeong; Ko, Sung-youl; Kim, Yeon-jeong; Lee, Eun-gae; Cho, Sang-nae; Kang, Chang-yuil

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its many other benefits, DNA vaccine is limited in its application by its insufficient immunogenicity. One promising approach for enhancing its immunogenicity is to maximize its expression in the immunized host. In the current study, we investigated whether codon optimization of the mycobacterial antigen Ag85B gene could enhance the expression and immunogenicity of the Ag85B DNA vaccine. We generated a synthetic humanized Ag85B (hAg85B) gene in which codon usage was optimized for ...

  15. The outer parts of the mycobacterial envelope as permeability barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, P

    1998-12-15

    The permeability of mycobacteria to substances in their environment is controlled by the properties of their envelopes. Two special features are important: an outer lipid barrier based on a monolayer of characteristic mycolic acids and a capsule-like coat of polysaccharide and protein. The mycolate layer prevents entry of small hydrophilic molecules, which obtain access to the cell by way of pore-forming proteins resembling porins of Gram-negative bacteria. More lipophilic molecules can diffuse through the lipid layer. The capsule probably impedes access by macromolecules; in intracellular pathogenic species it forms the electron-transparent zone that separates the bacterium from the membrane of the host phagosome. The structure of the outer lipid barrier seems common to all mycobacteria, fast- and slow-growing, but the capsule is more abundant in slow-growing species, a group which includes all the important mycobacterial pathogens. Mycobacteria secrete proteins into their environment, which are likely to be important in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases. Knowledge of how these proteins, and the polysaccharides of the capsule, cross the outer lipid barrier is minimal at present. It is likely that proper knowledge of mycobacterial permeability will enable new approaches to treatment of mycobacterial disease. PMID:9851911

  16. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by the mycobacterial 65-kilodalton heat shock protein express enhanced microbicidal activity in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Peetermans, W. E.; Langermans, J. A.; Hulst, M. E.; Embden, J. D.; Furth, R.

    1993-01-01

    After an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of purified protein derivative, peritoneal macrophages from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) show an enhanced respiratory burst, inhibit the intracellular proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii, and kill Listeria monocytogenes more efficiently than peritoneal macrophages from normal mice. One of the immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium spp. is the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp 65), and in the present study, we de...

  17. DNA encoding individual mycobacterial antigens protects mice against tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, some of our experiments in which mycobacterial antigens were presented to the immune system as if they were viral antigens have had a significant impact on our understanding of protective immunity against tuberculosis. They have also markedly enhanced the prospects for new vaccines. We now know that individual mycobacterial protein antigens can confer protection equal to that from live BCG vaccine in mice. A critical determinant of the outcome of immunization appears to be the degree to which antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are generated by the immune response. Our most recent studies indicate that DNA vaccination is an effective way to establish long-lasting cytotoxic T cell memory and protection against tuberculosis.

  18. Relationship between mycobacterial species and their carotenoid pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, S; Shimokata, K; Tsukamura, M

    1988-01-01

    A study of the relationship between mycobacterial species and their carotenoid pigments was carried out. According to the carotenoid pigments contained, the mycobacterial species tested were divided into four groups: the first group of Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum, which formed principally only beta-carotene; the second group of M. gordonae, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. xenopi, M. flavescens, M. phlei, M. rhodesiae, M. neoaurum, and M. aichiense, which formed beta-carotene and a zeaxanthin-like substance; the third group of M. aurum and M. obuense, which formed beta-carotene and an eschscholtzxanthin-like substance; and the fourth group of M. chubuense and M. tokaiense, which formed beta-carotene and zeaxanthin- and eschscholtzxanthin-like substances. The common carotenoid pigment throughout the genus Mycobacterium was beta-carotene and the hypophasic carotenoids differed according to the species. PMID:3173145

  19. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates as potential inhibitors of some mycobacterial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Novotná, Eva; Saxena, Shalini; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Švarcová, Markéta; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Antimycobacterially active salicylanilide diethyl phosphates were evaluated to identify their potential drug target(s) for the inhibition of several mycobacterial enzymes, including isocitrate lyase, L-alanine dehydrogenase (MtAlaDH), lysine ?-aminotransferase, chorismate mutase, and pantothenate synthetase. The enzymes are related to the nongrowing state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates represent new candidates with significant inhibitory activity especially against L-alanine dehydrogenase. The most active MtAlaDH inhibitor, 5-chloro-2-[(3-chlorophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl diethyl phosphate, has an IC50 of 4.96 µM and the best docking results. Other mycobacterial enzymes were mostly inhibited by some derivatives but at higher concentrations; isocitrate lyase showed the highest resistance to salicylanilide diethyl phosphates. PMID:25538961

  20. Specific and Randomly Derived Immunoactive Peptide Mimotopes of Mycobacterial Antigens?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Archna; Saha, Abhik; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Subrata; Das Gupta, Sujoy K.

    2006-01-01

    The mycobacterial cell surface contains complex nonprotein antigens that are highly immunoactive in nature. However, these antigens are chemically heterogeneous and structurally complex, thereby limiting their applications. To identify their peptide mimotopes, phage-displayed peptide libraries Ph.D.-7 and Ph.D.-12 were panned on either defined template, monoclonal antibody (MAb) CS-35 against lipoarabinomannan (LAM), or a polyclonal rabbit immune serum reactive against whole cells of Mycobact...

  1. Validating subcellular localization prediction tools with mycobacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Luis F

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The computational prediction of mycobacterial proteins' subcellular localization is of key importance for proteome annotation and for the identification of new drug targets and vaccine candidates. Several subcellular localization classifiers have been developed over the past few years, which have comprised both general localization and feature-based classifiers. Here, we have validated the ability of different bioinformatics approaches, through the use of SignalP 2.0, TatP 1.0, LipoP 1.0, Phobius, PA-SUB 2.5, PSORTb v.2.0.4 and Gpos-PLoc, to predict secreted bacterial proteins. These computational tools were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC using a set of mycobacterial proteins having less than 40% identity, none of which are included in the training data sets of the validated tools and whose subcellular localization have been experimentally confirmed. These proteins belong to the TBpred training data set, a computational tool specifically designed to predict mycobacterial proteins. Results A final validation set of 272 mycobacterial proteins was obtained from the initial set of 852 mycobacterial proteins. According to the results of the validation metrics, all tools presented specificity above 0.90, while dispersion sensitivity and MCC values were above 0.22. PA-SUB 2.5 presented the highest values; however, these results might be biased due to the methodology used by this tool. PSORTb v.2.0.4 left 56 proteins out of the classification, while Gpos-PLoc left just one protein out. Conclusion Both subcellular localization approaches had high predictive specificity and high recognition of true negatives for the tested data set. Among those tools whose predictions are not based on homology searches against SWISS-PROT, Gpos-PLoc was the general localization tool with the best predictive performance, while SignalP 2.0 was the best tool among the ones using a feature-based approach. Even though PA-SUB 2.5 presented the highest metrics, it should be taken into account that this tool was trained using all proteins reported in SWISS-PROT, which includes the protein set tested in this study, either as a BLAST search or as a training model.

  2. Mycobacterium massiliense is differentiated from Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium bolletii by erythromycin ribosome methyltransferase gene (erm) and clarithromycin susceptibility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Youn; Kim, Byoung Jun; Kook, Yoonwon; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2010-06-01

    Erythromycin ribosome methyltransferase gene (erm) sequences of Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium bolletii isolates were newly investigated. Forty nine strains of M. massiliense that were analyzed in the present study had a deleted erm(41). Due to a frame-shift mutation, large deletion, and truncated C-terminal region, the Erm(41) of M. massiliense had only 81 amino acids encoded by 246 nucleotides. Corresponding to these findings, most of the M. massiliense isolates (89.8%) were markedly clarithromycin susceptible, but resistant strains invariably had a point mutation at the adenine (A(2058) or A(2059)) in the peptidyltransferase region of the 23S rRNA gene, which is quite different from Mycobacterium abscessus and M. bolletii. In addition, erm(41) sequences of M. massiliense were more conserved than those of M. abscessus and M. bolletii. The results of species identification using erm(41) showed concordant results with those of multi-locus sequence analysis (rpoB, hsp65, sodA and 16S-23S ITS) where there were originally inconsistent results between rpoB and hsp65 sequence analysis in previous research. Therefore, erm(41) PCR that was used in the present study can be efficiently used to simply differentiate M. massiliense from M. abscessus and M. bolletii. PMID:20536733

  3. The CXCR3-CXCL11 signaling axis mediates macrophage recruitment and dissemination of mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Cui, Chao; Boland, Ralf; Bebelman, Jan-Paul; van der Sar, Astrid M; Smit, Martine J; Siderius, Marco; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2015-03-01

    The recruitment of leukocytes to infectious foci depends strongly on the local release of chemoattractant mediators. The human CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is an important node in the chemokine signaling network and is expressed by multiple leukocyte lineages, including T cells and macrophages. The ligands of this receptor originate from an ancestral CXCL11 gene in early vertebrates. Here, we used the optically accessible zebrafish embryo model to explore the function of the CXCR3-CXCL11 axis in macrophage recruitment and show that disruption of this axis increases the resistance to mycobacterial infection. In a mutant of the zebrafish ortholog of CXCR3 (cxcr3.2), macrophage chemotaxis to bacterial infections was attenuated, although migration to infection-independent stimuli was unaffected. Additionally, attenuation of macrophage recruitment to infection could be mimicked by treatment with NBI74330, a high-affinity antagonist of CXCR3. We identified two infection-inducible CXCL11-like chemokines as the functional ligands of Cxcr3.2, showing that the recombinant proteins exerted a Cxcr3.2-dependent chemoattraction when locally administrated in vivo. During infection of zebrafish embryos with Mycobacterium marinum, a well-established model for tuberculosis, we found that Cxcr3.2 deficiency limited the macrophage-mediated dissemination of mycobacteria. Furthermore, the loss of Cxcr3.2 function attenuated the formation of granulomatous lesions, the typical histopathological features of tuberculosis, and led to a reduction in the total bacterial burden. Prevention of mycobacterial dissemination by targeting the CXCR3 pathway, therefore, might represent a host-directed therapeutic strategy for treatment of tuberculosis. The demonstration of a conserved CXCR3-CXCL11 signaling axis in zebrafish extends the translational applicability of this model for studying diseases involving the innate immune system. PMID:25573892

  4. The CXCR3-CXCL11 signaling axis mediates macrophage recruitment and dissemination of mycobacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Cui, Chao; Boland, Ralf; Bebelman, Jan-Paul; van der Sar, Astrid M.; Smit, Martine J.; Siderius, Marco; Spaink, Herman P.; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of leukocytes to infectious foci depends strongly on the local release of chemoattractant mediators. The human CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is an important node in the chemokine signaling network and is expressed by multiple leukocyte lineages, including T cells and macrophages. The ligands of this receptor originate from an ancestral CXCL11 gene in early vertebrates. Here, we used the optically accessible zebrafish embryo model to explore the function of the CXCR3-CXCL11 axis in macrophage recruitment and show that disruption of this axis increases the resistance to mycobacterial infection. In a mutant of the zebrafish ortholog of CXCR3 (cxcr3.2), macrophage chemotaxis to bacterial infections was attenuated, although migration to infection-independent stimuli was unaffected. Additionally, attenuation of macrophage recruitment to infection could be mimicked by treatment with NBI74330, a high-affinity antagonist of CXCR3. We identified two infection-inducible CXCL11-like chemokines as the functional ligands of Cxcr3.2, showing that the recombinant proteins exerted a Cxcr3.2-dependent chemoattraction when locally administrated in vivo. During infection of zebrafish embryos with Mycobacterium marinum, a well-established model for tuberculosis, we found that Cxcr3.2 deficiency limited the macrophage-mediated dissemination of mycobacteria. Furthermore, the loss of Cxcr3.2 function attenuated the formation of granulomatous lesions, the typical histopathological features of tuberculosis, and led to a reduction in the total bacterial burden. Prevention of mycobacterial dissemination by targeting the CXCR3 pathway, therefore, might represent a host-directed therapeutic strategy for treatment of tuberculosis. The demonstration of a conserved CXCR3-CXCL11 signaling axis in zebrafish extends the translational applicability of this model for studying diseases involving the innate immune system. PMID:25573892

  5. Induction of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor by mycobacterial proteins: the monocyte western blot.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, R. S.; Amir-tahmasseb, M.; Ellner, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves mononuclear phagocytic cells as hosts to intracellular parasites, accessory cells in the induction of the immune response, effector cells for mycobacterial killing, and targets of cytotoxic lymphocytes. When stimulated by whole mycobacteria or various mycobacterial preparations, monocytes and macrophages produce the cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, which possess multiple functions, including immune induction, and may be resp...

  6. The mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 from Mycobacterium bovis BCG influences various growth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurischat Sven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis, M. bovis or M. leprae are characterised by their extremely slow growth rate which plays an important role in mycobacterial virulence and eradication of the bacteria. Various limiting factors influence the generation time of mycobacteria, and the mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 has also been implicated in growth regulation. Our strategy to investigate the role of MDP1 in mycobacterial growth consisted in the generation and characterisation of a M. bovis BCG derivative expressing a MDP1-antisense gene. Results The expression rate of the MDP1 protein in the recombinant M. bovis BCG containing the MDP1-antisense plasmid was reduced by about 50% compared to the reference strain M. bovis BCG containing the empty vector. In comparison to this reference strain, the recombinant M. bovis BCG grew faster in broth culture and reached higher cell masses in stationary phase. Likewise its intracellular growth in mouse and human macrophages was ameliorated. Bacterial clumping in broth culture was reduced by the antisense plasmid. The antisense plasmid increased the susceptibility of the bacteria towards Ampicillin. 2-D protein gels of bacteria maintained under oxygen-poor conditions demonstrated a reduction in the number and the intensity of many protein spots in the antisense strain compared to the reference strain. Conclusion The MDP1 protein has a major impact on various growth characteristics of M. bovis BCG. It plays an important role in virulence-related traits such as aggregate formation and intracellular multiplication. Its impact on the protein expression in a low-oxygen atmosphere indicates a role in the adaptation to the hypoxic conditions present in the granuloma.

  7. Partial overlap of anti-mycobacterial, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies in Crohns disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller, Thomas Schaffer, Alain M Schoepfer, Annamarie Hilty, Thomas Bodmer, Frank Seibold

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To test whether humoral immune reaction against mycobacteria may play a role in anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA generation in Crohn's disease (CD and/or whether it correlates with clinical subtypes.METHODS: The dominant ASCA epitope was detected by Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNL-binding assay. ASCA and IgG against mycobacterial lysates [M avium, M smegmatis, M chelonae, M bovis BCG, M avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP] or purified lipoarabinomannans (LAM were detected by ELISA. ASCA and anti-mycobacterial antibodies were affinity purified to assess cross-reactivities. Anti-mycobacterial IgG were induced by BCG-infection of mice.RESULTS: GNL bound to different extents to mycobacterial lysates, abundantly to purified mannose-capped (Man LAM from M tuberculosis, but not to uncapped LAM from M smegmatis. Fifteen to 45% of CD patients but only 0%-6% of controls were seropositive against different mycobacterial antigens. Anti-mycobacterial IgG correlated with ASCA (r = 0.37-0.64; P = 0.003-P < 0.001. ASCA-positivity and deficiency for mannan-binding lectin synergistically associated with anti-mycobacterial IgG. In some patients, anti-mycobacterial antibodies represent cross-reactive ASCA. Vice-versa, the predominant fraction of ASCA did not cross-react with mycobacteria. Finally, fistulizing disease associated with antibodies against M avium, M smegmatis and MAP (P = 0.024, 0.004 and 0.045, respectively.CONCLUSION: Similar to ASCA, seroreactivity against mycobacteria may define CD patients with complicated disease and a predisposition for immune responses against ubiquitous antigens. While in some patients anti-mycobacterial antibodies strongly cross-react with yeast mannan; these cross-reactive antibodies only represent a minor fraction of total ASCA. Thus, mycobacterial infection unlikely plays a role in ASCA induction.

  8. A mycobacterial coinfection in a dog suspected on blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Claire-Lise; Granat, Fanny; Trumel, Catherine; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Magne, Laurent; Delverdier, Maxence

    2013-12-01

    A 4-year-old neutered female crossbred Shepherd was referred for a history of 10 days of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyadenomegaly, and diarrhea. On physical examination, the dog appeared quiet, responsive, and apyretic, with generalized and severe lymphadenomegaly. Hematologic abnormalities included neutrophilic leukocytosis with left shift, and lymphopenia. Blood smears revealed intracytoplasmic bacilli negatively stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa in neutrophils and monocytes. Lymph node smears revealed pyogranulomatous adenitis with calcified deposits and many negative-staining rod structures, both within the cytoplasm of neutrophils and macrophages, and free in the background. An acid-fast stain (Ziehl-Neelsen) confirmed the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The dog was euthanized for public health and ethical reasons, and the postmortem examination revealed severe and generalized granulomatous and necrotizing lymphadenitis, panniculitis, and hepatitis, and infiltration of epithelioid macrophages in the lungs, colon, and spleen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli, consistent with mycobacterial infection, were observed both in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and giant cells, and free in the background. Mycobacterium bovis was first confirmed by conventional PCR of organ extracts. Mycobacterium avium was detected in a culture of the same organs. Further PCR amplifications and sequencing revealed a coinfection with 2 different species of mycobacterium, one belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and the other to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24320783

  9. A Pseudokinase Debut at the Mycobacterial Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby F. Warner (University of Cape Town; Faculty of Health Sciences REV)

    2012-01-24

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has a complex cellular envelope that comprises both the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer cell wall. Despite advances in elucidating the structural and biochemical composition of these features, the processes that ensure cell wall homeostasis remain poorly understood. New findings implicate the essential mycobacterial serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK), PknB, in regulating the formation of a regulatory complex that includes the integral membrane protein MviN, which is required for peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain protein, FhaA. A model has emerged in which a peptidoglycan-derived muropeptide signal triggers the PknB-mediated phosphorylation of the MviN pseudokinase domain, which in turn recruits the FHA-containing regulatory protein to inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis at the cell poles and septum. In establishing PknB as central regulator of this pathway, the model reinforces the major role of this STPK network in the orchestration of fundamental mycobacterial processes, and, with the identification of MviN as having a catalytically inactive and highly divergent kinase homology domain, the model establishes a pseudokinase as a key player in cell wall metabolism.

  10. Diptera as vectors of mycobacterial infections in cattle and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, O; Mátlová, L; Dvorská, L; Svástová, P; Bartl, J; Melichárek, I; Weston, R T; Pavlík, I

    2001-06-01

    Mycobacteria were isolated from 14 (4.5%) of 314 samples, containing 7791 adult Diptera, which were collected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1997-2000. These flies were collected from three cattle herds with paratuberculosis, two pig herds with mycobacterial infections and one farm that kept both cattle and pigs and that did not have problems of mycobacterial infections. Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from Eristalis tenax Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae) captured from a pig herd. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (serotype 8) was isolated from flies of the genera Drosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Musca Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from a pig herd. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from Musca spp. and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from dung flies of the genus Scatophaga Meigen (Diptera: Scatophagidae), Musca spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) captured in the same herd. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was isolated from S. calcitrans from the farm with both cattle and pigs. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from Scatophaga spp. collected from pastures grazed by one of the cattle herds and from Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Lucilia caesar Linnaeus (Diptera: Calliphoridae) captured in a slaughterhouse, where cattle infected with paratuberculosis were slaughtered. Mycobacterium phlei was isolated from flies of the genus Lucilia captured at a waste bin. These data indicate that mycobacteria may be spread by adult flies that have been in contact with material contaminated with these pathogens. PMID:11434556

  11. Respiratory review of 2014: tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Kyu; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2014-10-01

    Since tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health concern and the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB is increasing globally, new modalities for the detection of TB and drug resistant TB are needed to improve TB control. The Xpert MTB/RIF test can be a valuable new tool for early detection of TB and rifampicin resistance, with a high sensitivity and specificity. Late-generation fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, which are the principal drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB, show equally high efficacy and safety. Systemic steroids may reduce the overall TB mortality attributable to all forms of TB across all organ systems, although inhaled corticosteroids can increase the risk of TB development. Although fixed dose combinations were expected to reduce the risk of drug resistance and increase drug compliance, a recent meta-analysis found that they might actually increase the risk of relapse and treatment failure. Regarding treatment duration, patients with cavitation and culture positivity at 2 months of TB treatment may require more than 6 months of standard treatment. New anti-TB drugs, such as linezolid, bedaquiline, and delamanid, could improve the outcomes in drug-resistant TB. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease has typical clinical and immunological phenotypes. Mycobacterial genotyping may predict disease progression, and whole genome sequencing may reveal the transmission of Mycobacterium abscessus. In refractory Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease, a moxifloxacin-containing regimen was expected to improve the treatment outcome. PMID:25368661

  12. Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii isolated from 24 farmed fishes in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Hattori, Yoko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Wada, Shinpei; Hatai, Kishio; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa

    2012-02-01

    Mycobacteria isolated from epizootics of farmed fishes in western Japan were examined for the first time using multigenotypic analysis. By analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ITS) region and the partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes, M. pseudoshottsii was identified as the causative agent in these infections. Prior to this study, only M. marinum has been known as the causative agent of lethal mycobacterial disease in marine fishes in Japan. PMID:21986278

  13. Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Amy P; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Khan, Javed; Calvo, Katherine R; Lemieux, Jacob E; Patel, Smita Y; Frucht, David M; Vinh, Donald C; Auth, Roger D; Freeman, Alexandra F; Olivier, Kenneth N; Uzel, Gulbu; Zerbe, Christa S; Spalding, Christine; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Kuhns, Douglas B; Ding, Li; Paulson, Michelle L; Marciano, Beatriz E; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C; Orange, Jordan S; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Hickstein, Dennis D; Holland, Steven M

    2011-09-01

    The syndrome of monocytopenia, B-cell and NK-cell lymphopenia, and mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections is associated with myelodysplasia, cytogenetic abnormalities, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and myeloid leukemias. Both autosomal dominant and sporadic cases occur. We identified 12 distinct mutations in GATA2 affecting 20 patients and relatives with this syndrome, including recurrent missense mutations affecting the zinc finger-2 domain (R398W and T354M), suggesting dominant interference of gene function. Four discrete insertion/deletion mutations leading to frame shifts and premature termination implicate haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism of action as well. These mutations were found in hematopoietic and somatic tissues, and several were identified in families, indicating germline transmission. Thus, GATA2 joins RUNX1 and CEBPA not only as a familial leukemia gene but also as a cause of a complex congenital immunodeficiency that evolves over decades and combines predisposition to infection and myeloid malignancy. PMID:21670465

  14. MyBASE: a database for genome polymorphism and gene function studies of Mycobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao George F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterial pathogens are a major threat to humans. With the increasing availability of functional genomic data, research on mycobacterial pathogenesis and subsequent control strategies will be greatly accelerated. It has been suggested that genome polymorphisms, namely large sequence polymorphisms, can influence the pathogenicity of different mycobacterial strains. However, there is currently no database dedicated to mycobacterial genome polymorphisms with functional interpretations. Description We have developed a mycobacterial database (MyBASE housing genome polymorphism data and gene functions to provide the mycobacterial research community with a useful information resource and analysis platform. Whole genome comparison data produced by our lab and the novel genome polymorphisms identified were deposited into MyBASE. Extensive literature review of genome polymorphism data, mainly large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs, operon predictions and curated annotations of virulence and essentiality of mycobacterial genes are unique features of MyBASE. Large-scale genomic data integration from public resources makes MyBASE a comprehensive data warehouse useful for current research. All data is cross-linked and can be graphically viewed via a toolbox in MyBASE. Conclusion As an integrated platform focused on the collection of experimental data from our own lab and published literature, MyBASE will facilitate analysis of genome structure and polymorphisms, which will provide insight into genome evolution. Importantly, the database will also facilitate the comparison of virulence factors among various mycobacterial strains. MyBASE is freely accessible via http://mybase.psych.ac.cn.

  15. Fighting mycobacterial infections by antibiotics, phytochemicals and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Denise; Jantzer, Nora; Leidner, Katharina; Arend, Joachim; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Buruli ulcer is a neglected disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and represents the world's third most common mycobacterial infection. It produces the polyketide toxins, mycolactones A, B, C and D, which induce apoptosis and necrosis. Clinical symptoms are subcutaneous nodules, papules, plaques and ulcerating oedemae, which can enlarge and destroy nerves and blood vessels and even invade bones by lymphatic or haematogenous spread (osteomyelitis). Patients usually do not suffer from pain or systematic inflammation. Surgery is the treatment of choice, although recurrence is common and wide surgical excisions including healthy tissues result in significant morbidity. Antibiotic therapy with rifamycins, aminoglycosides, macrolides and quinolones also improves cure rates. Still less exploited treatment options are phytochemicals from medicinal plants used in affected countries. Vaccination against Buruli ulcer is still in its infancy. PMID:20832501

  16. Sulfatase-activated fluorophores for rapid discrimination of mycobacterial species and strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Kimberly E; Williams, Monique; Carlson, Brian L; Swarts, Benjamin M; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2013-08-01

    Most current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis do not reveal the species or strain of pathogen causing pulmonary infection, which can lead to inappropriate treatment regimens and the spread of disease. Here, we report an assay for mycobacterial strain assignment based on genetically conserved mycobacterial sulfatases. We developed a sulfatase-activated probe, 7-hydroxy-9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one)-sulfate, that detects enzyme activity in native protein gels, allowing the rapid detection of sulfatases in mycobacterial lysates. This assay revealed that mycobacterial strains have distinct sulfatase fingerprints that can be used to judge both the species and lineage. Our results demonstrate the potential of enzyme-activated probes for rapid pathogen discrimination for infectious diseases. PMID:23878250

  17. Doença pulmonar por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e micobactérias não-tuberculosas entre pacientes recém-diagnosticados como HIV positivos em Moçambique, África / Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates among patients with recent HIV infection in Mozambique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabete Abrantes, Nunes; Eduardo Mello, De Capitani; Elizabete, Coelho; Alessandra Costa, Panunto; Orvalho Augusto, Joaquim; Marcelo de Carvalho, Ramos.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A micobacteriose é frequentemente diagnosticada entre pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Em Moçambique, onde apenas um pequeno número de pacientes encontra-se sob tratamento anti-retroviral, e a tuberculose tem alta prevalência, existe a necessidade de melhor caracterização destes agentes bact [...] erianos, em nível de espécie, bem como de se caracterizar os padrões de resistência às drogas antituberculosas. MÉTODOS: Em uma coorte de 503 indivíduos HIV positivos suspeitos de tuberculose pulmonar, 320 apresentaram positividade para baciloscopia ou cultura no escarro e no lavado brônquico. RESULTADOS: Bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes foram detectados no escarro em 73% dos casos com cultura positiva. De 277 isolados em cultura, apenas 3 mostraram-se tratar de micobactérias não-tuberculosas: 2 Mycobacterium avium e uma M. simiae. Todos os isolados de M. tuberculosis inicialmente caracterizados através de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RCP) do gene hsp65 foram posteriormente caracterizados como tal através de RCP do gene gyrB. Resistência à isoniazida foi encontrada em 14% dos casos; à rifampicina em 6%; e multirresistência em 5%. Pacientes previamente tratados para tuberculose mostraram tendência a taxas maiores de resistência às drogas de primeira linha. O padrão radiológico mais freqüente encontrado foi o infiltrado intersticial (67%), seguido da presença de linfonodos mediastinais (30%), bronquiectasias (28%), padrão miliar (18%) e cavidades (12%). Os pacientes infectados por micobactérias não-tuberculosas não apresentaram manifestações clínicas distintas das apresentadas pelos outros pacientes. A mediana de linfócitos CD4 entre todos os pacientes foi de 134 células/mm³. CONCLUSÕES: Tuberculose e AIDS em Moçambique estão fortemente associadas, como é de se esperar em países com alta prevalência de tuberculose. Embora as taxas de resistência a drogas sejam altas, o esquema isoniazida-rifampicina continua sendo a escolha apropriada para o início do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Mycobacteriosis is frequently diagnosed among HIV-infected patients. In Mozambique, where few patients are under antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, there is need for better characterization of mycobacteria at the species level, as well as for the identifica [...] tion of patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs. METHODS: We studied a sample of 503 HIV-infected individuals suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis. Of those 503, 320 tested positive for mycobacteria through sputum smear microscopy or culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Acid-fast bacilli were observed in the sputum of 73% of the individuals presenting positive cultures. Of 277 isolates tested, only 3 were nontuberculous mycobacteria: 2 were identified as Mycobacterium avium and one was identified as M. simiae. Strains initially characterized as M. tuberculosis complex through polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene were later confirmed as such through PRA of the gyrB gene. Among the M. tuberculosis isolates, resistance patterns were as follows: to isoniazid, 14%; to rifampin, 6%; and multidrug resistance, 5%. Previously treated cases showed significantly higher rates of resistance to first-line antituberculous drugs. The most common radiological pattern was interstitial infiltrate (in 67%), followed by mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 30%), bronchiectasis (in 28%), miliary nodules (in 18%) and cavitation (in 12%). Patients infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria presented clinical profiles indistinguishable from those of other patients. The median CD4 lymphocyte count in this group was 134 cells/mm³. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between tuberculosis and AIDS in Mozambique, as expected in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Although drug resistance rates are high, the isoniazid-rifampin regimen continues to b

  18. Mycobacterial Infection of the Gallbladder Masquerading as Gallbladder Cancer with a False Positive Pet Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Majid; Ravish Sanghi Raju; Markus Trochsler; Kanhere, Harsh A.; Maddern, Guy J.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated mycobacterial infection of gall bladder is an extremely rare entity. Only anecdotal reports are evident in the literature. A preoperative diagnosis of mycobacterial infection of gallbladder is therefore very difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male who underwent surgery for suspected gallbladder cancer is presented. The diagnosis of cancer was based on radiological findings and an abnormal uptake of fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) sca...

  19. Studies on the Effect of Mycobacterial Antibodies on Skin-test Reactivity to M. tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Drexhage, H. A.; Flier, B. M. E. Blomberg-v D.; Berg, W. B. V. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of sensitization with mycobacterial antisera on skin-test reactivity to soluble PPD, glutaraldehyde-aggregated PPD and M. tuberculosis H37Ra, killed by u.v. light, was studied in rats and guinea pigs. The mycobacterial antisera used had either been raised in guinea pigs or were obtained from tuberculous patients, while the majority of experimental animals had been immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Swelling, erythema and the histology of the skin-test reactions were r...

  20. MycoProtease-DB: Useful resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacterial proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Lingaraja; Kumar, Satish; Harinath, Bhaskar Chinnaiah

    2012-01-01

    MycoProtease-DB is an online MS SQL and CGI-PERL driven relational database that domiciles protease information of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM), whose complete genome sequence is available. Our effort is to provide comprehensive information on proteases of 5 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv, H37Ra, CDC1551, F11 and KZN 1435), 3 strains of Mycobacterium bovis (AF2122/97, BCG Pasteur 1173P2 and BCG Tokyo 172) and 4 strains of NTM (Mycobacterium avium 104, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2 155, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis K-10 and Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152) at gene, protein and structural level. MycoProtease-DB currently hosts 1324 proteases, which include 906 proteases from MTB complex with 237distinct proteases & 418 from NTM with 404 distinct proteases. Flexible database design and easy expandability & retrieval of information are the main features of MycoProtease-DB. All the data were validated with various online resources and published literatures for reliable serving as comprehensive resources of various Mycobacterial proteases. Availability The Database is publicly available at http://www.bicjbtdrc-mgims.in/MycoProtease-DB/ PMID:23275726

  1. Molecular-based mycobacterial identification in a clinical laboratory setting: a comparison of two methods.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, N

    2012-01-01

    Many mycobacterial species are pathogenic to humans, with infection occurring worldwide. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a well-described global phenomenon, but other mycobacterial species are increasingly shown to be the cause of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary infection and are managed differently from M. tuberculosis infection. Rapid and accurate differentiation of mycobacterial species is, therefore, critical to guide timely and appropriate therapeutic and public health management. This study evaluates two commercially available DNA strip assays, the Genotype Common Mycobacteria (CM) assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) and the Speed-oligo Mycobacteria assay (Vircell, Spain) for their usefulness in a clinical laboratory setting. Both assays were evaluated on 71 clinical mycobacterial isolates, previously identified using Gen-Probe AccuProbe and through a UK mycobacteriology reference laboratory, as well as 29 non-mycobacterial isolates. Concordant results were obtained for 98% of isolates using both assays. The sensitivity was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.3-100%) for the CM assay and 98.6% (95% CI: 95.9-100%) for the Speed-oligo assay. Overall, both assays proved to be useful tools for rapid and sensitive mycobacterial species identification, although interpretation of results was easier with the CM assay. Finally, results were available within one day, compared to current identification times which range between seven days and four weeks.

  2. Imbalanced effector and regulatory cytokine responses may underlie mycobacterial immune restoration disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune restoration disease (IRD is an adverse consequence of antiretroviral therapy, where the restored pathogen-specific response causes immunopathology. Mycobacteria are the pathogens that most frequently provoke IRD and mycobacterial IRD is a common cause of morbidity in HIV-infected patients co-infected with mycobacteria. We hypothesised that the excessive effector immune response in mycobacterial IRD reflects impaired regulation by IL-10. Results We studied two patients who experienced mycobacterial IRD during ART. One patient developed a second episode of IRD with distinct clinical characteristics. Findings were compared with patients 'at risk' of developing IRD who had uneventful immune recovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from all subjects were stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in the form of purified protein derivative (PPD. Supernatants were assayed for IFN? and IL-10. In response to PPD, PBMC from IRD patients generated IFN? during the first IRD episode, whilst cells from non-IRD controls produced more IL-10. Conclusion We present preliminary data from two HIV-infected patients showing an imbalance between IFN? and IL-10 responses to mycobacterial antigens during mycobacterial IRD. Our findings suggest that imbalanced effector and regulatory cytokine responses should be investigated as a cause of IRD.

  3. DedA Protein Relates to Action-Mechanism of Halicyclamine A, a Marine Spongean Macrocyclic Alkaloid, as an Anti-dormant Mycobacterial Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Setiawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A macrocyclic alkaloid, halicyclamine A, was re-discovered from an Indonesian marine sponge of Haliclona sp. 05A08 as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance. To clarify action-mechanism of halicyclamine A, halicyclamine A-resistant strains were screened from the transformants of Mycobacterium smegmatis with the genomic DNA library of M. bovis BCG, which were constructed in the multi-copy shuttle cosmid pYUB145. Sequencing analysis of the cosmids isolated from the halicyclamine A-resistant transformants revealed that the responsible gene was involved in the genome region between 2920.549 kb and 2933.210 kb. Further experiments using the transformants over-expressing individual gene contained in the responsible region were executed, and the transformant, which over-expressed BCG2664 gene assigned as dedA gene, was found to become halicyclamine A-resistant. This evidence strongly suggested that DedA protein correlates with the action-mechanism of halicyclamine A as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance.

  4. Mycobacterial Esx-3 Requires Multiple Components for Iron Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Steigedal, Magnus; Ahmad, Rushdy; Mehra, Alka; Dragset, Marte S.; Schuster, Brian M.; Philips, Jennifer A.; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VII secretion systems are conserved across mycobacterial species and in many Gram-positive bacteria. While the well-characterized Esx-1 pathway is required for the virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and conjugation in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, Esx-3 contributes to mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition in these bacteria. Here we show that several Esx-3 components are individually required for function under low-iron conditions but that at least one, the membrane-bound protease MycP3 of M. smegmatis, is partially expendable. All of the esx-3 mutants tested, including the ?mycP3ms mutant, failed to export the native Esx-3 substrates EsxHms and EsxGms to quantifiable levels, as determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Although we were able to restore low-iron growth to the esx-3 mutants by genetic complementation, we found a wide range of complementation levels for protein export. Indeed, minute quantities of extracellular EsxHms and EsxGms were sufficient for iron acquisition under our experimental conditions. The apparent separation of Esx-3 function in iron acquisition from robust EsxGms and EsxHms secretion in the ?mycP3ms mutant and in some of the complemented esx-3 mutants compels reexamination of the structure-function relationships for type VII secretion systems. PMID:24803520

  5. Non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic activity of blood mononuclear cells stimulated with secreted mycobacterial proteins and other mycobacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1994-01-01

    Several observations indicate that non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity, mediated for example by natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, may serve as an important antimicrobial defense mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of different mycobacterial antigens on non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity and further to investigate the ways by which various lymphocyte subpopulations contribute to the development of this cytotoxicity. Non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity was induced following stimulation of mononuclear cells with tuberculin purified protein derivative, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), short- and long-term culture filtrates of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and 30-31-kDa secreted mycobacterial protein. These antigens also induced proliferation and production of gamma interferon. The CD4+ cells proliferated and expressed interleukin-2 receptors following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens. Depletion studies after antigen stimulation showed that the cytotoxic effector cells were CD16+ CD56+ and CD4-; the CD4+ cells alone did not mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. To evaluate the influence of CD4+ cells on the development of non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity, blood mononuclear cells were depleted of CD4+ cells before antigen stimulation. When mononuclear cells were incubated with purified protein derivative or short-term culture filtrate in the absence of CD4+ cells, cytotoxic activity was reduced. This reduction was abolished by interleukin-2 but not by gamma interferon. We conclude that several mycobacterial antigens are able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. This study indicates that non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens is induced by cytokines released by antigen-specific activated CD4+ cells.

  6. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections. PMID:8783698

  7. Molecular evidence of lateral gene transfer in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium yongonense strains via multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Hong, Seok-Hyun; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel species, Mycobacterium yongonense (DSM 45126(T)), was introduced and while it is phylogenetically related to Mycobacterium intracellulare, it has a distinct RNA polymerase ?-subunit gene (rpoB) sequence that is identical to that of Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum, which is a distantly related scotochromogen, which suggests the acquisition of the rpoB gene via a potential lateral gene transfer (LGT) event. The aims of this study are to prove the presence of the LGT event in the rpoB gene of the M. yongonense strains via multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). In order to determine the potential of an LGT event in the rpoB gene of the M. yongonense, the MLSA based on full rpoB sequences (3447 or 3450 bp) and on partial sequences of five other targets [16S rRNA (1383 or 1395 bp), hsp65 (603 bp), dnaJ (192 bp), recA (1053 bp), and sodA (501 bp)] were conducted. Incongruences between the phylogenetic analysis of the full rpoB and the five other genes in a total of three M. yongonense strains [two clinical strains (MOTT-12 and MOTT-27) and one type strain (DSM 45126(T))] were observed, suggesting that rpoB gene of three M. yongonense strains may have been acquired very recently via an LGT event from M. parascrofulaceum, which is a distantly related scotochromogen. PMID:23382812

  8. Gas chromatography of mycobacterial fatty acids and alcohols: diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, E; Tangen, T; Eng, J

    1989-11-01

    Capillary gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids and alcohols has been used as a routine method for a period of two years in the mycobacterial diagnostic laboratory of Statens institutt for folkehelse, Oslo, Norway. All mycobacteria (165 isolates) other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MOTT) and 24 randomly selected M. tuberculosis isolates were studied. Twelve characteristic lipid constituents allowed the construction of a diagnostic scheme. Without exceptions, all 36 examined isolates belonging to the M. tuberculosis-complex were characterized by a relatively high concentration level of hexacosanoic acid (mean: 4%, range: 1-13%), low level of tetracosanoic acid (mean: 1%, range: 0.1-3%), lack of methylbranched acids other than tuberculostearic acid, and lack of fatty alcohols. Members of the MAIS-complex (73 isolates) were all characterized by the general presence of the fatty alcohols 2-octadecanol (mean: 2%, range: 0.1-5%) and 2-eicosanol (mean: 7%, range: 2-21%), relatively high levels of tetracosanoic acid (mean: 5%, range: 1-15%) and lack (or trace) of hexacosanoic acid and methylbranched acids other than tuberculostearic acid. All 16 isolates of M. gordonae were easily recognized by their unique lack of tuberculostearic acid and their content of 2-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (mean: 5%, range: 2-12%), and the M. xenopi isolates were the only examined strains containing the fatty alcohol 2-docosanol (mean: 9%, range: 2-13%). The six M. malmoense strains contained the two unique constituents 2-methyl eicosanoic acid (mean: 3%, range: 1-4%) and 2,4,6-trimethyl tetracosanoic acid (mean: 3%, range: 2-4%). The ten strains of M. kansasii were characterized by 2,4-dimethyl tetradecanoic acid (mean: 5%, range: 1-11%), whereas the seven strains of M. marinum shared 2,4-dimethyl hexadecanoic acid (mean: 4%, range 0.2-12%) as a specific marker. PMID:2590535

  9. Isolated Splenic Mycobacterial Disease: A Cause of Persistent Fever in a Hairy Cell Leukemia Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kartsios, Charalambos; Spyrou, Anastassia; Loukidis, Kostas; Miyakis, Spyridon; Pervana, Stavroula; Makridis, Charalambos; Kioumi, Anna; Korantzis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 69-year-old male patient who was referred for the investigation of long-lasting fever, anemia and neutropenia. Hairy cell leukemia was diagnosed and treated successfully. However, fever persisted despite thorough investigation and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Four months after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent explorative laparotomy and splenectomy. Spleen biopsy revealed multiple necrotizing mycobacterial granulomata while the patient's fever disappeared permanently. Isolated splenic mycobacterial disease is very rare. This case report emphasizes that investigation of chronic fever in hairy cell leukemia requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Early diagnostic procedures for evidence of atypical mycobacterial infection should be considered. When everything else fails, surgery can be helpful in selected cases. PMID:21060695

  10. Secretome differences between the taxonomically related but clinically differing mycobacterial species Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagjit S. Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are significant human pathogens which show high inter-species differences in clinical characteristics (virulence, host immune response during infection even within a given NTM complex. Understanding the differences between the secreted proteomes of the member species for an NTM complex may reveal the basis of their differential virulence and host pathogenesis potential including host immune reactions. In this study, major secreted proteins of the two taxonomically close but clinically differing member species M. abscessus and M. chelonae of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus(MCA complex were compared using an approach based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and MALDI-TOF analyses. The two secretomes showed dramatic differences. Of the 73 major secreted proteins identified, majority were expressed in a species-specific manner, including 37 in M. chelonae and 32 in M. abscessus. Interestingly, 9 of these differentially expressed proteins were orphan proteins showing homology to either hypothetical proteins or those with no defined function. The other 60 distinctly expressed proteins were homologs of those associated with various bacterial cellular functions and virulence, namely cell wall synthesis or lipid metabolism, metabolic and respiratory pathways, stress response and signal transduction, gene regulation, and immune response. This information on species-specific secreted proteins would help understand the critical virulence factors and host pathogenesis mechanisms in these mycobacterial species and provide the basis for developing better therapeutic strategies. These proteins may also serve as potential targets for species-specific diagnosis as an additional outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize the secretome of M. chelonae (for which the genome sequence is not yet available and the secretome differences between M. abscessus and M. chelonae.

  11. Enhanced mycobacterial diagnostics in liquid medium by microaerobic bubble flow in Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias

    2013-06-01

    Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit (PMEU) method with microaerobic bubbling speeded up the growth of otherwise slowly starting and propagating Mycobacterium sp. Mycobacterium fortuitum growth was detected after 10-11h and Mycobacterium marinum produced clear growth in 4 days. A mycobacterial environmental isolate was verified in 2 days in the PMEU Spectrion(®) equipped with infrared sensors. In parallel static (without gas bubbling) cultures hardly any growth occurred. In conclusion, PMEU technology provided thus a rapid detection of environmental and clinical mycobacterial isolates. It would also help in the field diagnosis of antibiotic resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24075064

  12. hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carolina Feher Da; Ueki, Suely Yoko Mizuka; Geiger, De?bora Ca?ssia Pires; Lea?o, Sylvia Cardoso

    2001-01-01

    More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to four weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) of th...

  13. Acanthamoeba encephalitis: isolation of genotype T1 in mycobacterial liquid culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Rula; Badenoch, Paul R; Francis, Michelle J; Fernandez, Charles; Adamson, Penelope J; Dendle, Claire; Woolley, Ian; Robson, Jenny; Korman, Tony M; Graham, Maryza

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of Acanthamoeba encephalitis diagnosed from an antemortem brain biopsy specimen, where the organism was first isolated in mycobacterial liquid medium and first identified by using a sequence generated by a commercial panfungal sequencing assay. We correlate susceptibility results with clinical outcome. PMID:25502534

  14. Lack of Adherence to Evidence-based Treatment Guidelines for Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Prevots, D. Rebecca; Gallagher, Jack; Heap, Kylee; Gupta, Renu; Griffith, David

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The 2007 American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommend that patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or M. abscessus be treated with a macrolide-based multidrug antibiotic regimen until sputum culture negative for 1 year. After 6 years, the degree of adherence to recommended guidelines among physicians remains unknown.

  15. Potential of two nucleic acid amplification assays for quantifying mycobacterial load in respiratory and non-respiratory specimens: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnimr, Amani Mansour; Hassan, Manal Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Quantification of bacillary load plays a critical prognostic role in tuberculosis patients. This study evaluated the potential of the Cepheid GeneXpert (GX) MTB/RIF and the BD ProbeTec system as quantitative assays. The time to positivity (TTP) measured by the Mycobacterial Growth Index Tube system was compared to the cycle threshold (Ct) of GX MTB/RIF and the Metric Other than Acceleration (MOTA) scores generated by the ProbeTec system. Out of 714 samples examined, 44 culture confirmed cases were identified. The Ct values in 21 respiratory samples showed a high linear fit with the TTP in liquid culture (Spearman's correlation coefficient r = 0.9, P value < 0.0001), which was not the case in 23 non-respiratory samples. In both types of specimens, the MOTA scores did not correlate with the TTP in liquid culture. This indicates the suitability of GX as a quantitative measurement of mycobacterial load in respiratory but not non-respiratory specimens. PMID:24369994

  16. A SHORT INTERFERING RNA MOLECULAR BEACON FOR THE ATTENUATION OF MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the pathogen Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB to invade and survive within macrophages of granulomas is attributed to the product of the Mammalian Cell Entry (MCE operon whose gene, mce4A, encodes a cholesterol transporter that transports host lipids into the bacterium that allows the bacterium to survive during chronic infection. Here, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon can be used to attenuate mycobacterial infection in macrophages. Mce4A gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli (E. coli-4A and differentiated U937 cells were transduced with piLenti-siRNA-GFP phage expressing the mce4A siRNA for 24 h. This was followed by infection with either E. coli-4A or M. smegmatis for 3 h followed by incubation for 0, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. The cells were lysed and the lysates were plated on LB agar plates containing ampicillin (100 µg mL-1 or on 7H11 media and incubated at 37°C overnight. Our results showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated E.coli-4A infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h by 0, 77, 59.6 and 99.7%, respectively. Our results also showed that the siRNA treatment attenuated M. smegmatis infection in macrophages at 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. by 94.8, 70.3, 98.9 and 93.4%, respectively. In conclusion, a mce4A siRNA molecular beacon was successfully delivered and stably expressed in macrophages which attenuated E. coli expressing mce4A (E. coli-4A and M. smegmatis infection in macrophages.

  17. Lysogeny and transformation in mycobacteria: stable expression of foreign genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapper, S B; Lugosi, L; Jekkel, A; Melton, R E; Kieser, T; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1988-09-01

    Requisite to a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of bacterial pathogenesis is a genetic system that allows for the transfer, mutation, and expression of specific genes. Because of the continuing importance of tuberculosis and leprosy worldwide, we initiated studies to develop a genetic system in mycobacteria and here report the use of two complementary strategies to introduce and express selectable genetic markers. First, an Escherichia coli cosmid was inserted into the temperate mycobacteriophage L1, generating shuttle phasmids replicating as plasmids in E. coli and phage capable of lysogenizing the mycobacterial host. These temperate shuttle phasmids form turbid plaques on Mycobacterium smegmatis and, upon lysogenization, confer resistance to superinfection and integrate within the mycobacterial chromosome. When an L1 shuttle phasmid containing a cloned gene conferring kanamycin resistance in E. coli was introduced into M. smegmatis, stable kanamycin-resistant colonies--i.e., lysogens--were obtained. Second, to develop a plasmid transformation system in mycobacteria, M. fortuitum/E. coli hybrid plasmids containing mycobacterial and E. coli replicons and a kanamycin-resistance gene were constructed. When introduced into M. smegmatis or BCG (Mycobacterium tuberculosis typus bovinus var. Bacille-Calmette-Guérin) by electroporation, these shuttle plasmids conferred stable kanamycin resistance upon transformants. These systems should facilitate genetic analyses of mycobacterial pathogenesis and the development of recombinant mycobacterial vaccines. PMID:2842799

  18. Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Roles for the Mono-ADP-Ribosyltransferase Arr in the Mycobacterial DNA Damage Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Christina L.; Chu, Linda; Li, Lucy X.; Glickman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the mycobacterial response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) differs substantially from previously characterized bacteria. These differences include the use of three DSB repair pathways (HR, NHEJ, SSA), and the CarD pathway, which integrates DNA damage with transcription. Here we identify a role for the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase Arr in the mycobacterial DNA damage response. Arr is transcriptionally induced following DNA damage and cellular stress. Although Ar...

  19. A structural and functional investigation of a novel protein from Mycobacterium smegmatis implicated in mycobacterial macrophage survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahine, Adam; Littler, Dene; Brammananath, Rajini; Chan, Phooi Y; Crellin, Paul K; Coppel, Ross L; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

    2014-09-01

    The success of pathogenic mycobacterial species is owing in part to their ability to parasitize the generally inhospitable phagosomal environment of host macrophages, utilizing a variety of strategies to avoid their antimycobacterial capabilities and thereby enabling their survival. A recently identified gene target in Mycobacterium smegmatis, highly conserved within Mycobacterium spp. and denoted MSMEG_5817, has been found to be important for bacterial survival within host macrophages. To gain insight into its function, the crystal structure of MSMEG_5817 has been solved to 2.40?Å resolution. The structure reveals a high level of structural homology to the sterol carrier protein (SCP) family, suggesting a potential role of MSMEG_5817 in the binding and transportation of biologically relevant lipids required for bacterial survival. The lipid-binding capacity of MSMEG_5817 was confirmed by ELISA, revealing binding to a number of phospholipids with varying binding specificities compared with Homo sapiens SCP. A potential lipid-binding site was probed by alanine-scanning mutagenesis, revealing structurally relevant residues and a binding mechanism potentially differing from that of the SCPs. PMID:25195741

  20. Mycobacterial phenolic glycolipid inhibits phagosome maturation and subverts the pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nirmal; Kolter, Thomas; Wolke, Martina; Rybniker, Jan; Hartmann, Pia; Plum, Georg

    2008-11-01

    Inhibition of phagosome maturation is an important hallmark of mycobacterial pathogenesis. A variety of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been used to pin down the molecule responsible for this pathogenic principle. We in this study characterize a glycolipid of Mycobacterium marinum identified through a screen of mutants disabled in inhibiting phagosome maturation to be phenolphthiocerol diester (phenolic glycolipid, PGL). This molecule is sufficient to impart its ability to inhibit phagosome maturation onto other microbial cells and even inert beads that are used as model pathogens. In addition, it abrogates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion induced by strong inducers such as heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin. This strong dual agonistic effect of PGL overrides pro-inflammatory and pro-lysosomal delivery impulses set not only by mycobacteria but also by other pathogens and thus provides convincing evidence that this molecule is a vital mycobacterial virulence factor. PMID:18764820

  1. Under-explored experimental topics related to integral mycobacterial vaccines for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormus, Bobby J; Meyers, Wayne M

    2003-12-01

    Many leprosy vaccine studies have utilized live or killed whole mycobacteria, such as Bacille Calmette-Guérin, Indian Cancer Research Center (ICRC) bacilli and Mycobacterium w either alone or in combination with killed Mycobacterium leprae. For Bacille Calmette-Guérin, the vaccine dose is generally that which gives the largest delayed-type hypersensitivity response with minimal side effects. The doses of other integral mycobacterial vaccines appear to be arbitrarily chosen. Hypotheses governing immunologic responses to complex antigens predict that the doses used may be too high, resulting in protection of some individuals and increasing the susceptibility of other individuals to leprosy. The natural history of an individual's prior exposure to environmental mycobacteria will affect the outcome of protective vaccination using a given dose of mycobacterial vaccine in the individual. PMID:14711362

  2. Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, N; Kleynhans, L; Thiart, L; van Helden, P D; Brombacher, F; Horsnell, W G C; Walzl, G

    2013-09-01

    Co-infection with mycobacteria and helminths is widespread in developing countries, but how this alters host immunological control of each pathogen is not comprehensively understood. In this study, we demonstrate that acute Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) murine infection reduce early pulmonary mycobacterial colonization. This Nb-associated reduction in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis colony-forming units was associated with early and increased activation of pulmonary CD4 T cells and increased T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. An accelerated and transient augmentation of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages (AMs) was also observed in co-infected animals. AMs displayed markers of both classical and alternative activation. Intranasal transfer of pulmonary macrophages obtained from donor mice 5 days after Nb infection significantly reduced pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin clearance in recipient mice. These data demonstrate that early stage Nb infection elicits a macrophage response, which is protective during the early stages of subsequent mycobacterial infection. PMID:23250274

  3. Serum antigen 85 levels in adjunct testing for active mycobacterial infections in orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, A M; Godfrey, H P; Cook, R A; Calle, P P; Bosi, E J; Bentley-Hibbert, S I; Huygen, K; Andau, M; Ziccardi, M; Karesh, W B

    2001-01-01

    Diagnosis of active mycobacterial disease in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) has been impeded by high levels of non-specific intradermal skin test reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. This may be due in part to cross reactivity between antigens, tuberculin concentrations used or other species-specific factors. Antigen 85 (Ag85) complex proteins are major secretory products of actively growing mycobacteria, and measurement of serum Ag85 could provide a method for determining active mycobacterial infections that was not dependent on host immunity. Serum Ag85 was measured by dot-immunobinding assay using monoclonal anti-Ag85, purified Ag85 standard and enhanced chemiluminescence technology in coded serum samples from 14 captive orangutans from a zoo in Colorado, 15 semi-captive orangutans in Malaysia, and 19 free-ranging wild orangutans in Malaysia. Orangutans from Colorado (USA) were culture negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium, although all had laboratory suspicion or evidence of mycobacterial infection; median serum Ag85 was 10 microU/ml (range, <0.25-630 microU/ml). Of the semi-captive orangutans, six were skin test reactive and two were culture positive for M. avium on necropsy. Median serum Ag85 for this group was 1,880 microU/ml (0.75-7,000 microU/ml), significantly higher than that of Colorado zoo or free-ranging Malaysian orangutans. Median serum Ag85 in the latter group was 125 microU/ml (range, 0.75-2,500 microU/ml). These data suggest that suggest that additional studies using more specific reagents and more samples from animals of known status are appropriate. PMID:11272506

  4. Biochip System for Rapid and Accurate Identification of Mycobacterial Species from Isolates and Sputum?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Jiang, Guanglu; Wang, Shengfen; Wang, Can; Li, Qiang; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Bing; Huang, Hairong; Xing, Wanli; Mitchelson, Keith; Cheng, Jing; Zhao, Yanlin; Guo, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The accurate detection of mycobacterial species from isolates and clinical samples is important for pathogenic diagnosis and treatment and for disease control. There is an urgent need for the development of a rapid, simple, and accurate detection method. We established a biochip assay system, including a biochip, sample preparation apparatus, hybridization instrument, chip washing machine, and laser confocal scanner equipped with interpretation software for automatic diagnosis. The biochip si...

  5. Towards the use of CD1 presented mycobacterial lipids in vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T. K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diseases caused by mycobacteria, such as tuberculosis humans and ruminants occur worldwide and cause health problem in addition to major economic losses. Vaccines that are currently available, cause problems in diagnosis of other diseases and/or have limited efficacy. Most of the novel vaccine candidates against mycobacterial infections are MHC-presented protein antigens. Lipid, abundant components of mycobacteria, has not yet been considered as antigens to include as subunit in a vaccin...

  6. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The world's most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been show...

  7. Mycobacterial growth and sensitivity to H2O2 killing in human monocytes in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Laochumroonvorapong, P.; Paul, S.; Manca, C.; Freedman, V. H.; Kaplan, G.

    1997-01-01

    The intracellular growth and susceptibilities to killing by H2O2 in cultured human monocytes of a number of mycobacterial species including laboratory strains and clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare were examined. The clinical isolate of M. avium-M. intracellulare did not replicate in freshly explanted monocytes (generation time of >400 h); BCG replicated with a ...

  8. Comparison of Three Methods for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterial Clinical Isolates to the Species Level?

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xueqiong; Zhang, Junxian; Liang, Jianqin; Lu, Yang; Li, Hongmin; Li, Chuihuan; Yue, Jun; Zhang, Lishui; Liu, Zhihui

    2007-01-01

    A new PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) assay was developed for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium species in clinical isolates. The assay, which targets the 16S rRNA, was evaluated for 27 mycobacterial reference strains and 340 clinical isolates that were simultaneously identified by DNA sequencing and conventional methods, including growth characteristics, pigment production, colony morphology, and biochemical tests. All reference strains and clinical isolates hybridized to t...

  9. Relationships between Mycobacterium Isolates from Patients with Pulmonary Mycobacterial Infection and Potting Soils? †

    OpenAIRE

    Groote, Mary Ann; Pace, Norman R.; Fulton, Kayte; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2006-01-01

    High numbers of mycobacteria, including known pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium chelonae, were recovered from aerosols produced by pouring commercial potting soil products and potting soil samples provided by patients with pulmonary mycobacterial infections. The dominant mycobacteria in the soil samples corresponded to the dominant species implicated clinically. Profiles of large restriction fragments obtained by pulsed-field gel e...

  10. Isolated Splenic Mycobacterial Disease: A Cause of Persistent Fever in a Hairy Cell Leukemia Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kartsios, Charalambos; Spyrou, Anastassia; Loukidis, Kostas; Miyakis, Spyridon; Pervana, Stavroula; Makridis, Charalambos; Kioumi, Anna; Korantzis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 69-year-old male patient who was referred for the investigation of long-lasting fever, anemia and neutropenia. Hairy cell leukemia was diagnosed and treated successfully. However, fever persisted despite thorough investigation and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Four months after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent explorative laparotomy and splenectomy. Spleen biopsy revealed multiple necrotizing mycobacterial granulomata while the patient's fever disappeared perman...

  11. Identification of Phthiodiolone Ketoreductase, an Enzyme Required for Production of Mycobacterial Diacyl Phthiocerol Virulence Factors†

    OpenAIRE

    Onwueme, Kenolisa C.; Vos, Cheryl J.; Zurita, Juan; Soll, Clifford E.; Quadri, Luis E. N.

    2005-01-01

    Diacyl phthiocerol esters and their congeners are mycobacterial virulence factors. The biosynthesis of these complex lipids remains poorly understood. Insight into their biosynthesis will aid the development of rationally designed drugs that inhibit their production. In this study, we investigate a biosynthetic step required for diacyl (phenol)phthiocerol ester production, i.e., the reduction of the keto group of (phenol)phthiodiolones. We utilized comparative genomics to identify phthiodiolo...

  12. Acid-Fast Staining and Petroff Hausser Chamber Counting of Mycobacterial Cells in Liquid Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Treuer, Robin; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and rapid cell counts of mycobacterial species in culture are difficult to obtain. Here, a method using modified Kinyoun acid-fast staining was adapted for use with a Petroff-Hausser sperm and bacteria cell counting chamber by using a liquid suspension staining technique. Cell counts obtained by this method were compared to viable cell counts by agar plate counting, revealing accurate correlation.

  13. Computational genomics-proteomics and Phylogeny analysis of twenty one mycobacterial genomes (Tuberculosis & non Tuberculosis strains)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakham Fathiah; Aouane Othmane; Ussery David; Benjouad Abdelaziz; Ennaji Moulay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Mycobacterium comprises different species, among them the most contagious and infectious bacteria. The members of the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the most virulent microorganisms that have killed human and other mammals since millennia. Additionally, with the many different mycobacterial sequences available, there is a crucial need for the visualization and the simplification of their data. In this present study, we aim to highlight a comparative genom...

  14. Macrophage control of mycobacterial growth induced by picolinic acid is dependent on host cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Tf; Appelberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of picolinic acid (PA) on the intramacrophagic growth of Mycobacterium avium were studied. PA reduced M. avium growth inside mouse macrophages and led to a complete control of mycobacterial growth when added together with IFN-gamma. The mechanism involved did not require TNF-alpha, NO, or the respiratory burst, and was not dependent on either iron or,zinc withholding, The mycobacteriostatic activity of the macrophages was associated with the induction of morphological changes that...

  15. Comparative Genomic and Phylogenetic Approaches to Characterize the Role of Genetic Recombination in Mycobacterial Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Silvia E.; Showers-corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N.; Harpending, Henry H.; Martin, Darren P.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacteri...

  16. Mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein mediates collagen-dependent cytoadherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alves Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular matrices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp, a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  17. Mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein mediates collagen-dependent cytoadherence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Alves, Dias; Dominique, Raze; Cristiana Soares de, Lima; Maria Angela de Melo, Marques; Hervé, Drobecq; Anne-Sophie, Debrie; Michelle Lopes, Ribeiro-Guimarães; Franck, Biet; Maria Cristina Vidal, Pessolani.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular mat [...] rices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp), a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  18. The molecular biology of mycobacterial trehalose in the quest for advanced tuberculosis therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Ana; Alarico, Susana; Maranha, Ana; Mendes, Vitor; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2014-08-01

    Trehalose is a natural glucose disaccharide identified in the 19th century in fungi and insect cocoons, and later across the three domains of life. In members of the genus Mycobacterium, which includes the tuberculosis (TB) pathogen and over 160 species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), many of which are opportunistic pathogens, trehalose has been an important focus of research over the last 60 years. It is a crucial player in the assembly and architecture of the remarkable mycobacterial cell envelope as an element of unique highly antigenic glycolipids, namely trehalose dimycolate ('cord factor'). Free trehalose has been detected in the mycobacterial cytoplasm and occasionally in oligosaccharides with unknown function. TB and NTM infection statistics and death toll, the decline in immune responses in the aging population, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS or other debilitating conditions, and the proliferation of strains with different levels of resistance to the dated drugs in use, all merge into a serious public-health threat urging more effective vaccines, efficient diagnostic tools and new drugs. This review deals with the latest findings on mycobacterial trehalose biosynthesis, catabolism, processing and recycling, as well with the ongoing quest for novel trehalose-related mechanisms to be targeted by novel TB therapeutics. In this context, the drug-discovery pipeline has recently included new lead compounds directed toward trehalose-related targets highlighting the potential of these pathways to stem the tide of rising drug resistance. PMID:24858083

  19. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.

    2008-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented, scotochromogenic, slowly growing mycobacterial strain, designated T1921(T), was isolated from the disseminated osteomyelitic lesions of a 7-year-old child with an underlying partial gamma interferon receptor alpha-1 deficiency. Hybridization by the line probe assay indicated the presence of a Mycobacterium species. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the hsp65 and rpoB genes revealed that strain T1921(T) could be differentiated from all recognized species of the genus Mycobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain T1921(T) was related most closely to Mycobacterium intracellulare, whereas analysis based on the ITS and hsp65 and rpoB genes indicated that it was most closely related to Mycobacterium avium. Phenotypic tests were not able to differentiate strain T1921(T) from similar slowly growing mycobacteria. Strain T1921(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T1921(T) (=DSM 45069(T) =ATCC BAA-1401(T)) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10

  20. An Inducible System for the Identification of Target Genes for a Regulator in Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We described principle and application of an inducible system for identification of target genes of a given mycobacterial protein with a regulatory function. This vector system, a promoter-probe vector, carries (i promoterless lacZ as the reporter gene and (ii the mycobacterial gene encoding the regulatory protein under the transcriptional control of the promoter of highly inducible mycobacterial gene encoding acetamidase. A promoter library of M.tuberculosis is constructed in this vector upstream of the lacZ gene. It is then possible to screen for those promoters that are responsive to the presence of the regulatory protein by inducing the expression of the regulatory gene. The presence of lacZ permits the screening of the promoters based on simple blue-white selection. This system is specifically designed for those regulatory genes of M.tuberculosis which are associated with virulence and thus are absent from M.smegmatis (the non-pathogenic, saprophytic species of mycobacteria, although in principle, modifications can be incorporated in the selection scheme to make it applicable for the identification of target promoter(s of any regulatory gene of mycobacterial origin. This strategy will be helpful in quick identification of targets for the development of anti-tubercular drugs and in alleviating some of the stumbling blocks faced by the investigators working in the area of molecular genetics of M.tuberculosis.

  1. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited.

  2. Effect of Mycobacterial Drug Resistance Patterns on Patients’ Survival: A Cohort Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Anuwatnonthakate

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance substantially increases tuberculosis (TB mortality. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of mycobacterial drug resistance pattern and association of common resistance patterns with TB mortality in Thailand. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using TB surveillance data. A total of 9,518 culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB patients registered from 1 October 2004 to 31 December 2008 from the Thailand TB Active Surveillance Network were included in this study. Patients were followed up until TB treatment completion or death. Mycobacterial drug resistance patterns were categorized as pan-susceptible, rifampicin resistance, isoniazid monoresistance, and ethambutol/streptomycin resistance. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was determined by Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT liquid culture systems. Survival analysis was applied. Result: Isoniazid monoresistance was the most common pattern, while rifampicin resistance had the largest impact on mortality. Cox regression analysis showed a significantly higher risk of death among patients with rifampicin resistance (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR 1.9, 95% confident interval (CI, 1.5-2.5 and isoniazid monoresistance (aHR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7 than those with pan-susceptible group after adjustment for age, nationality, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART status, diabetes mellitus, cavitary disease on chest x-ray, treatment observation, and province. HIV co-infection was associated with higher mortality in patients both on ART (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.5 and not on ART (aHR 8.1, 95% CI 6.8-9.8. Conclusion: Rifampicin resistance and isoniazid monoresistance were associated with increased TB mortality. HIV-coinfection was associated with a higher risk of death including among those taking antiretroviral therapy.

  3. A chemically synthesized peptide which elicits humoral and cellular immune responses to mycobacterial antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Minden, P.; Houghten, R. A.; Spear, J. R.; Shinnick, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed to Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) and to M. tuberculosis H37Rv (H37Rv) were used in conjunction with affinity chromatography to prepare a mycobacterial component which was designated BCG-a. A synthetic peptide antigen was prepared based on the amino acid sequence of BCG-a and was designated BCG-a-P. Significant immunological similarities were found between BCG-a-P and antigens in extracts of BCG and H37Rv but not between BCG-a-P and antigens of nontuberculous myc...

  4. Targeted gene knockout and essentiality testing by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Warner, Digby F; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an updated experimental protocol for generating allelic exchange mutants of mycobacteria by two-step selection using the p2NIL/pGOAL system. The types of mutants that can be generated using this approach are targeted gene knockouts marked with a drug resistance gene, unmarked deletion mutants, or strains in which a point mutation/s has been introduced into the target gene. A method for assessing the essentiality of a gene for mycobacterial growth by means of allelic exchange is also described. This method, which utilizes a merodiploid strain carrying a second copy of the gene of interest on an integration vector, allows the exploration by means of complement switching of structure-function relationships in proteins that are essential for mycobacterial growth. PMID:25779314

  5. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  6. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The world's most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been shown to activate the Syk-Card9 signaling pathway in macrophages through binding to the C-type lectin receptor Mincle. The Mincle-Card9 pathway is required for activation of macrophages by TDM in vitro and for granuloma formation in vivo following injection of TDM. Whether this pathway is also exploited by MTB to reprogram the macrophage into a comfortable niche has not been explored yet. Several recent studies have investigated the phenotype of Mincle-deficient mice in mycobacterial infection, yielding divergent results in terms of a role for Mincle in host resistance. Here, we review these studies, discuss possible reasons for discrepant results and highlight open questions in the role of Mincle and other C-type lectin receptors in the infection biology of MTB. PMID:23355839

  7. [Evaluation of mycobacterial infections using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography: results of nine cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruga, Hironori; Ishihara, Makiko; Hanada, Shigeo; Takaya, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Morokawa, Nasa; Fujii, Takeshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Kishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a useful technique for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions, although the occurrence of false-positive results in cases involving benign lesions is possible. We evaluated nine patients with mycobacterial infections who underwent FDG-PET/CT from April 2008 to July 2010. FDG-PET/CT was performed 1-2h (during the early and late phases) after administration of FDG at a dose of 185 MBq/individual after fasting for at least 5h. Out of the nine patients, four were diagnosed with pulmonary nonmycobacterium tuberculosis, two with pulmonary tuberculosis, two with tuberculous lymphadenopathy, and one with pleural tuberculoma. All patients had a maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) of > 2.5, and the SUV(max) increased from the early to the late phase. One lesion that occurred due to tuberculous pleurisy after treatment demonstrated high FDG uptake, similar to the other cases. It is difficult to distinguish mycobacterial infections from malignant diseases using FGD-PET alone; hence, the use of high-resolution CT and bacteriological tests is required for diagnosis and distinction. PMID:24716357

  8. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-08-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria.

  9. Characterization of two heparan sulphate-binding sites in the mycobacterial adhesin Hlp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Previato Jose O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone-like Hlp protein is emerging as a key component in mycobacterial pathogenesis, being involved in the initial events of host colonization by interacting with laminin and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. In the present study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR was used to map the binding site(s of Hlp to heparan sulfate and identify the nature of the amino acid residues directly involved in this interaction. Results The capacity of a panel of 30 mer synthetic peptides covering the full length of Hlp to bind to heparin/heparan sulfate was analyzed by solid phase assays, NMR, and affinity chromatography. An additional active region between the residues Gly46 and Ala60 was defined at the N-terminal domain of Hlp, expanding the previously defined heparin-binding site between Thr31 and Phe50. Additionally, the C-terminus, rich in Lys residues, was confirmed as another heparan sulfate binding region. The amino acids in Hlp identified as mediators in the interaction with heparan sulfate were Arg, Val, Ile, Lys, Phe, and Thr. Conclusion Our data indicate that Hlp interacts with heparan sulfate through two distinct regions of the protein. Both heparan sulfate-binding regions here defined are preserved in all mycobacterial Hlp homologues that have been sequenced, suggesting important but possibly divergent roles for this surface-exposed protein in both pathogenic and saprophic species.

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of mycobacterial DNA vaccines incorporating plasmid-encoded cytokines against Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah L; Slobbe, Lynn J; Peacey, Matthew; Gilbert, Sarah C; Buddle, Bryce M; de Lisle, Geoffrey W; Buchan, Glenn S

    2010-08-01

    DNA-based vaccines, alone or in combination with other sub-unit vaccination regimes, represent an alternative to live mycobacterial vaccines for protective immunization against tuberculosis. Here, we have used a murine immunization or Mycobacterium bovis aerosol challenge model to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of mycobacterial DNA vaccines. Mice that received immunization with DNA constructs encoding M. bovis antigen 85A (Ag85-A) and arget(ESAT-6) produced measurable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to CD4(+) T-cell epitope-peptide recall antigens in vitro. The magnitude of these responses was enhanced by co-delivery of a construct encoding murine cytokines (macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1 alpha or interleukin(IL)-7), although they did not the match responses observed in mice that received Bacille Calmette-Guerin(BCG) immunisation. In contrast, DNA priming followed by boosting with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine (expressing M. tuberculosis Ag85-A) invoked higher IFN-gamma levels, with the most immunogenic regime of Ag85 or ESAT or IL-7 prime followed by MVA boost being of commensurate immunogenicity to BCG. Despite this, neither DNA alone nor DNA-prime or MVA boost regimes conferred measurable protection against aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis. These data highlight both the promise and the shortcomings of new generation subunit tuberculosis vaccines, with particular emphasis on their potential as vaccines against M. bovis. PMID:20231853

  11. Elastin, a novel extracellular matrix protein adhering to mycobacterial antigen 85 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Jung; Ptak, Christopher P; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Akey, Bruce L; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2013-02-01

    The antigen 85 complex (Ag85) consists of three predominantly secreted proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C), which play a key role in the mycobacterial pathogenesis and also possess enzymatic mycolyltransferase activity involved in cell wall synthesis. Ag85 is not only considered to be a virulence factor because its expression is essential for intracellular survival within macrophages, but also because it contributes to adherence, invasion, and dissemination of mycobacteria in host cells. In this study, we report that the extracellular matrix components, elastin and its precursor (tropoelastin) derived from human aorta, lung, and skin, serve as binding partners of Ag85 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The binding affinity of M. tuberculosis Ag85 to human tropoelastin was characterized (K(D) = 0.13 ± 0.006 ?m), and a novel Ag85-binding motif, AAAKAA(K/Q)(Y/F), on multiple tropoelastin modules was identified. In addition, the negatively charged Glu-258 of Ag85 was demonstrated to participate in an electrostatic interaction with human tropoelastin. Moreover, binding of Ag85 on elastin siRNA-transfected Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced (34.3%), implying that elastin acts as an important ligand contributing to mycobacterial invasion. PMID:23250738

  12. Elastin, a Novel Extracellular Matrix Protein Adhering to Mycobacterial Antigen 85 Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Jung; Ptak, Christopher P.; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Akey, Bruce L.; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The antigen 85 complex (Ag85) consists of three predominantly secreted proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C), which play a key role in the mycobacterial pathogenesis and also possess enzymatic mycolyltransferase activity involved in cell wall synthesis. Ag85 is not only considered to be a virulence factor because its expression is essential for intracellular survival within macrophages, but also because it contributes to adherence, invasion, and dissemination of mycobacteria in host cells. In this study, we report that the extracellular matrix components, elastin and its precursor (tropoelastin) derived from human aorta, lung, and skin, serve as binding partners of Ag85 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The binding affinity of M. tuberculosis Ag85 to human tropoelastin was characterized (KD = 0.13 ± 0.006 ?m), and a novel Ag85-binding motif, AAAKAA(K/Q)(Y/F), on multiple tropoelastin modules was identified. In addition, the negatively charged Glu-258 of Ag85 was demonstrated to participate in an electrostatic interaction with human tropoelastin. Moreover, binding of Ag85 on elastin siRNA-transfected Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced (34.3%), implying that elastin acts as an important ligand contributing to mycobacterial invasion. PMID:23250738

  13. Evaluation of performance of the Real-Q NTM-ID kit for rapid identification of eight nontuberculous mycobacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Kyung Sun; Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Ji-Youn; Kwon, Hyeon Jeong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis assay (Real-Q NTM-ID kit; Biosewoom, Seoul, South Korea) for the identification of eight common nontuberculous mycobacterial species, using 30 type strains and 230 consecutive clinical isolates. The concordance rate of this assay with multigene sequence-based typing was 97.0% (223/230 isolates). PMID:25165078

  14. GenoType Mycobacterium Assay for Identification of Mycobacterial Species Isolated from Human Clinical Samples by Using Liquid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, P.; Gutierrez, J.; Zerolo, F. J.; Casal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The GenoType Mycobacterium assay was used to identify 98 mycobacteria isolates by using liquid cultures from positive BACTEC, MGIT, and ESP bottles. This system identifies 16 mycobacteria. There was complete agreement between the GenoType results and the laboratory identifications for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and other Mycobacterium spp. GenoType also identified mixed mycobacterial infections. PMID:12149385

  15. Rapid identification of strains belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus group through erm(41) gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shiomi; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Motohisa; Okada, Masaji; Shimada, Ryoko; Hayashi, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense lung infections have different clarithromycin susceptibilities, making proper identification important; however, standard multi-gene sequencing in clinical laboratories is laborious and time consuming. We developed a pyrosequencing-based method for rapid identification of strains belonging to the M. abscessus group by targeting erm(41). We examined 55 isolates from new pulmonary M. abscessus infections and identified 28 M. abscessus, 25 M. massiliense, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii isolates. Multi-gene sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB, and the 16S-23S ITS region was concordant with the results of erm(41) pyrosequencing; thus, the M. abscessus group can be identified by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in erm(41). The method also enables rapid identification of polymorphic, inducible clarithromycin-resistant sequevars (T28 or C28). Pyrosequencing of erm(41) is a rapid, reliable, high-throughput alternative method for identifying and characterizing M. abscessus species. Further testing of a diverse collection of isolates is necessary to demonstrate the discriminatory power of erm(41) sequencing to differentiating species with this highly divergent group. PMID:24809859

  16. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis by identification of Antigen 85 in mycobacterial culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpae, Ponrut; Chanwong, Sakarin; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Apiratmateekul, Napaporn; Makeudom, Anupong; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2014-03-01

    The standard culture for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis takes a long time to perform. We introduce here a method for fast identification of M. tuberculosis in mycobacterial culture system. Antibodies to Antigen (Ag) 85 of M. tuberculosis were produced and subsequently used to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting Ag85 in the culture filtrate. By this detection, rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was achieved in comparison to the standard culture system with 89.6% sensitivity and 94% specificity. We thus suggest a new TB diagnosis strategy in which clinical samples are cultured in mycobacteria liquid culture medium. The culture filtrates are taken for detection of the Ag85 by ELISA. Using this strategy, 25%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of TB patients will be detected within day 3, week 1, 2, and 4, respectively. The established assay will enable a faster diagnosis of TB, leading to more efficient treatment of TB patients and control of disease transmission. PMID:24418370

  17. Detection and Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Isolates by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K.; Tuohy, Marion J.; Hall, Gerri S.; Reischl, Udo; Gordon, Steven M.; Procop, Gary W.

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause a variety of illnesses that differ in severity and public health implications. The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of primary importance for infection control and choice of antimicrobial therapy. Despite advances in molecular diagnostics, the ability to rapidly diagnose M. tuberculosis infections by PCR is still inadequate, largely because of the possibility of false-negative reactions. We designed and validated a real-time PCR for mycobacteria by using the LightCycler system with 18 reference strains and 168 clinical mycobacterial isolates. All clinically significant mycobacteria were detected; the mean melting temperatures (with 99.9% confidence intervals [99.9% CI] in parentheses) for the different mycobacteria were as follows: M. tuberculosis, 64.35°C (63.27 to 65.42°C); M. kansasii, 59.20°C (58.07 to 60.33°C); M. avium, 57.82°C (57.05 to 58.60°C); M. intracellulare, 54.46°C (53.69 to 55.23°C); M. marinum, 58.91°C (58.28 to 59.55°C); rapidly growing mycobacteria, 53.09°C (50.97 to 55.20°C) or 43.19°C (42.19 to 44.49°C). This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis consistently accurately detected and differentiated M. tuberculosis from NTM. Detection of an NTM helps ensure that the negative result for M. tuberculosis is a true negative. The specific melting temperature also provides a suggestion of the identity of the NTM present, when the most commonly encountered mycobacterial species are considered. In a parallel comparison, both the LightCycler assay and the COBAS Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay correctly categorized 48 of 50 specimens that were proven by culture to contain M. tuberculosis, and the LightCycler assay correctly characterized 3 of 3 specimens that contained NTM. PMID:14605148

  18. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14CO2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14CO2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  19. Lactoferrin modulation of mycobacterial cord factor trehalose 6-6'-dimycolate induced granulomatous response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Kerry J; Hwang, Shen-An; Hunter, Robert L; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2010-10-01

    The immune system responds to tuberculosis (TB) infection by forming granulomas. However, subsequent immune-mediated destruction of lung tissue is a cause of significant morbidity and contributes to disease transmission. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties that decrease tissue destruction and promote T(H)1 immune responses, both of which are essential for controlling TB infection. The cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) model of granuloma formation mimics many aspects of TB infection with a similar histopathology accompanied by proinflammatory cytokine production. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM. A subset of mice was given 1 mg of bovine lactoferrin 24 h post-TDM challenge. Lung tissue was analyzed for histological response and for the production of proinflammatory mediators. C57BL/6 mice demonstrated a granuloma formation that correlated with an increased production of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?,) IL-12p40, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), and IL-10 protein. Mice treated with lactoferrin postchallenge had significantly fewer and smaller granulomas compared with those given TDM alone. Proinflammatory and T(H)1 cytokines essential to the control of mycobacterial infections, such as TNF-? and IFN-?, were not significantly different in mice treated with lactoferrin. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-? were increased. A potential mechanism for decreased tissue damage observed in the lactoferrin-treated mice is proposed. Because of its influence to modulate immune responses, lactoferrin may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of granulomatous inflammation occurring during mycobacterial infection. PMID:20875896

  20. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle.

  1. Anti-mycobacterial activity of root and leaf extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis (Loganiaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Esimone Charles; Nworu Chukwuemeka; Onuigbo Ebere; Omeje Justina; Nsirim Kelechi; Ogbu Joy; Ngwu Maria; Chah Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    We screened the aqueous and methanol leaf and root extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Diospyros mespiliformis, and their combinations for possible anti-mycobacterial activities using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a surrogate screen. These plants are reputed among folk practices as potent remedy in the management of tuberculosis and leprosy cases. In the sensitivity screening study, only the methanol extracts of A. djalonensis and D. mespiliformis showed anti-mycobacterial activity, while the ...

  2. Mycobacterial growth inhibition in murine splenocytes as a surrogate for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsay, Leanne; Matsumiya, Magali; Tanner, Rachel; Poyntz, Hazel; Griffiths, Kristin L; Stylianou, Elena; Marsh, Philip D; Williams, Ann; Sharpe, Sally; Fletcher, Helen; McShane, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Development of an improved vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by the lack of a surrogate of protection. Efficacy of new TB vaccines in humans can only be evaluated by expensive and time consuming efficacy trials within TB endemic areas. It is critical that vaccines with the greatest potential to protect are selected for these trials. Mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) have been developed with the hope that these in-vitro functional assays will correlate with protection, which could aid in the selection of the best vaccine candidates. The present study describes the use of the BACTEC system to perform MGIAs in mice. We demonstrate reproducible mycobacterial growth inhibition in splenocytes from BCG immunised mice compared with unimmunised mice (P protection in humans and preclinical animal models is now warranted. PMID:23726784

  3. Mycobacterial growth inhibition in murine splenocytes as a surrogate for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb).

    OpenAIRE

    Marsay, L.; Matsumiya, M.; Tanner, R.; Poyntz, H.; Griffiths, Kl; Stylianou, E.; Marsh, Pd; Williams, A.; Sharpe, S.; Fletcher, H.; Mcshane, H.

    2013-01-01

    Development of an improved vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is hindered by the lack of a surrogate of protection. Efficacy of new TB vaccines in humans can only be evaluated by expensive and time consuming efficacy trials within TB endemic areas. It is critical that vaccines with the greatest potential to protect are selected for these trials. Mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) have been developed with the hope that these in-vitro functional assays will correlate with protection,...

  4. Mycobacterial Phosphatidylinositol Mannoside 6 (PIM6) Up-Regulates TCR-Triggered HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Loyd, Candace M.; Ding, Xuedong; Karim, Ahmad F.; Mcdonald, David J.; Canaday, David H.; Rojas, Roxana E.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) worldwide. HIV-1 load and heterogeneity are increased both locally and systemically in active TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection supports HIV-1 replication through dysregulation of host cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors. However the possibility that mycobacterial molecules released from MTB infected macrophages directly interact with CD4+ T cells triggering H...

  5. Effect of rifampin and rifabutin on serum itraconazole levels in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and coexisting nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong Mi; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Lee, Soo-Youn; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rifampin and rifabutin on serum itraconazole levels in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Serum itraconazole concentrations were significantly lower in patients who received itraconazole with rifampin (median, 0.1 ?g/ml; P itraconazole alone (median, 5.92 ?g/ml). Concomitant use of rifampin or rifabutin and itraconazole should be avoided in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and coexisting mycobacterial infections. PMID:25313207

  6. Exploring the Structure and Function of the Mycobacterial KatG Protein Using trans-Dominant Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Devito, Joseph A.; Morris, Sheldon

    2003-01-01

    In order to probe the structure and function of the mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme (KatG), we employed a genetic approach using dominant-negative analysis of katG merodiploids. Transformation of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with various katG point mutants (expressed from low-copy-number plasmids) resulted in reductions in peroxidase and catalase activities as measured in cell extracts. These reductions in enzymatic activity usually correlated with increased resistance to the antitubercul...

  7. Evaluation of GenoType and LiPA MYCOBACTERIA Assays for Identification of Finnish Mycobacterial Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?kinen, Johanna; Sarkola, Aleksi; Marjama?ki, Merja; Viljanen, Matti K.; Soini, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Two DNA strip assays, INNO-LiPA MYCOBACTERIA and GenoType Mykobakterien, were evaluated for identification of 81 Finnish mycobacterial isolates. The LiPA assay correctly identified 89.4% of the 66 isolates studied, and the GenoType assay identified 95.1% of 81 isolates. The GenoType assay had a wider selection of species and less stringent temperature requirements.

  8. Mycobacterial HSP60 and HSP70 prevents the severe form of acute DSS colitis in Balb/c mice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Zákostelská, Zuzana; Tlaskalová, Helena; Van der Zee, R.; Van Eden, W.

    Innsbruck : Elsevier, 2007, s. 49-49. [European Crohn ´s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) Congress. Innsbruck (AT), 01.03.2007-03.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA5020205; GA AV ?R 1QS500200572; GA ?R GD310/03/H147 Grant ostatní: XE(XE) Broad Medical Research Program IBD-0159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : mycobacterial hsp60 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  9. Utility of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing for Differentiating Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates of the Beijing Family

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, Kai Man; Yip, Chi Wai; Tse, Lai Wa; Wong, Kin Lai; Lam, Tak Kam; Kremer, Kristin; Au, Betty Kam Yan; Soolingen, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) typing has been found to allow rapid, reliable, high-throughput genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may represent a feasible approach to study global M. tuberculosis molecular epidemiology. To evaluate the use of MIRU typing in discriminating drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype family, 102 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates and 253 randomly selected non-MDR isolates collected from 2000 to 2003 in Ho...

  10. ESX-1-induced apoptosis during mycobacterial infection: to be or not to be, that is the question

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilo?, Nacho; Marinova, Dessislava; Marti?n, Carlos; Pardo, Julia?n

    2013-01-01

    The major Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor ESAT-6 exported by the ESX-1 secretion system has been described as a pro-apoptotic factor by several independent groups in recent years, sustaining a role for apoptosis in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. This role has been supported by independent studies in which apoptosis has been shown as a hallmark feature in human and mouse lungs infected with virulent strains. Nevertheless, the role of apoptosis during mycobacterial infection is subje...

  11. Mechanisms involved in mycobacterial growth inhibition by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow macrophages: role of reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    OpenAIRE

    Flesch, I. E.; Kaufmann, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages are able to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium bovis after stimulation with recombinant gamma interferon. This antimycobacterial activity was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a specific inhibitor of nitrite and nitrate synthesis from L-arginine. Furthermore, there was a complete lack of mycobacterial growth inhibition in a medium deficient in L-arginine. Nitrite is generated by gamma interferon-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages after infec...

  12. Proposal for Standardization of Optimized Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis? †

    OpenAIRE

    Supply, Philip; Allix, Caroline; Lesjean, Sarah; Cardoso-oelemann, Mara; Ru?sch-gerdes, Sabine; Willery, Eve; Savine, Evgueni; Haas, Petra; Deutekom, Henk; Roring, Solvig; Bifani, Pablo; Kurepina, Natalia; Kreiswirth, Barry; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2006-01-01

    Molecular typing based on 12 loci containing variable numbers of tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTRs) has been adopted in combination with spoligotyping as the basis for large-scale, high-throughput genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, even the combination of these two methods is still less discriminatory than IS6110 fingerprinting. Here, we define an optimized set of MIRU-VNTR loci with a significantly higher discriminatory power. The resol...

  13. Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Amy P.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Khan, Javed; Calvo, Katherine R.; Lemieux, Jacob E.; Patel, Smita Y.; Frucht, David M.; Vinh, Donald C.; Auth, Roger D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Uzel, Gulbu; Zerbe, Christa S.; Spalding, Christine; Pittaluga, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The syndrome of monocytopenia, B-cell and NK-cell lymphopenia, and mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections is associated with myelodysplasia, cytogenetic abnormalities, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and myeloid leukemias. Both autosomal dominant and sporadic cases occur. We identified 12 distinct mutations in GATA2 affecting 20 patients and relatives with this syndrome, including recurrent missense mutations affecting the zinc finger-2 domain (R398W and T354M), suggesting dominant inter...

  14. Analytical performance of the Roche Lightcycler® Mycobacterium Detection Kit for the diagnosis of clinically important mycobacterial species

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Shaheed V.; Roth, Andreas; Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Erasmus, Linda; Ehlers, M. M.; Kock, Marleen M.; Paulse, Nuraan; Said, Halima M.; Hoosen, Anwar Ahmed; Reischl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The LightCyclerH Mycobacterium Detection Kit based on real-time PCR technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii was recently developed. This study evaluated its analytical sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasmid standards were prepared and used to determine the limit of detection. The assay was also performed against organisms other than mycobacteria, other mycobacterial st...

  15. Identification of Beijing Lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Combined Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Loci 26, 31, and ETR-A?

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Pei-ju; Chiu, Chen-che; Jou, Ruwen

    2007-01-01

    A rapid method for identification of Beijing lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still needed in regions of tuberculosis endemicity, especially if genotyping methods are not readily accessible. After analyzing 1,557 clinical isolates, a PCR method with combined mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit loci 26, 31, and ETR-A for differentiation of Beijing lineage isolates was established, the sensitivity and specificity of which are 94.7% and 98.5%, respectively.

  16. Anti-mycobacterial activity of root and leaf extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis (Loganiaceae and Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esimone Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We screened the aqueous and methanol leaf and root extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Diospyros mespiliformis, and their combinations for possible anti-mycobacterial activities using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a surrogate screen. These plants are reputed among folk practices as potent remedy in the management of tuberculosis and leprosy cases. In the sensitivity screening study, only the methanol extracts of A. djalonensis and D. mespiliformis showed anti-mycobacterial activity, while the aqueous extracts exhibited no inhibitory activity on M. smegmatis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the methanol leaf and root extract of A. djalonensis against M. smegmatis were 125 ?g/ml. The MIC of the methanol leaf and root extracts of D. mespiliformis is 167 and 250 ?g/ml, respectively. In the interaction studies, four out of nine decimal combinations of the two medicinal plant extracts exhibited synergism with fractional inhibitory concentration indices < 1 and a negative activity index values. The 8:2 ratio of D. mespiliformis and A. djalonensis exhibited the greatest degree of antimycobacterial synergy against M. smegmatis. The result of this study supports the claims of efficacy reported in the folk use of these plants in mycobacterial infection and the plants could therefore be investigated further and harnessed as potent antimycobacterial agents.

  17. Increased serum anti-mycobacterial antibody titers in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Is there any specific antigenic target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to investigate the presence of immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Ra) and to detect the target of the immune reaction. This study was carried out on 60 patients with RA, and 25 patients with no joint diseases in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology Department of Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey between July 2003 to January 2004. Secreted and cellular antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) were isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography to antigenic fractions. The immunoreactivity of patient and control sera against these antigens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in RA patients were significantly higher than controls. Significant difference between patients and controls has been determined with M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) culture fluid and sonicate antigens, but not with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This suggests that the antigen triggering immune response in patients with RA may belong to or mainly expressed on M. bovis BCG. The ELISA results showed significant difference between RA patients and controls with all antigenic fractions. Presence of increased immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with RA was detected. When statistical analysis was considered, we cannot put forward ais was considered, we cannot put forward any antigenic fraction alone as the one responsible for the increased reactivity. (author)

  18. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections and quantitation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis load by two real-time calibrated PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, Francesco; Scarpellini, Paolo; Locatelli, Giuseppe; Zingale, Anna; Brambilla, Anna M; Cichero, Paola; Sechi, Leonardo A; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S

    2003-10-01

    Sensitive and specific techniques to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly in clinical specimens are important for the diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis (TB). We developed two real-time PCR assays, based on the IS6110 multicopy element and on the senX3-regX3 intergenic region, which provide a rapid method for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections. The sensitivity and specificity of both assays were established by using purified DNA from 71 clinical isolates and 121 clinical samples collected from 83 patients, 20 of whom were affected by TB. Both assays are accurate, sensitive, and specific, showing a complementary pattern of Mycobacterium recognition: broader for the IS6110-based assay and restricted to the M. tuberculosis complex for the senX3-regX3-based assay. Moreover, the addition of a synthetic DNA calibrator prior to DNA extraction allowed us to measure the efficiency of DNA recovery and to control for the presence of PCR inhibitors. The mycobacterial burden of the clinical samples, as assessed by direct microscopy, correlates with the M. tuberculosis DNA load measured by the senX3-regX3-based assay. In addition, reduced levels of M. tuberculosis DNA load are present in those patients subjected to successful therapy, suggesting a potential use of this assay for monitoring treatment efficacy. Therefore, these assays represent a fully controlled high-throughput system for the evaluation of mycobacterial burden in clinical specimens. PMID:14532183

  19. Targeted delivery of mycobacterial antigens to human dendritic cells via Siglec-7 induces robust T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Norihito; Rillahan, Cory D; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Macauley, Matthew S; Moody, D Branch; Paulson, James C

    2014-08-15

    Lipids from mycobacteria can be presented to human T cells by group 1 CD1 Ag-presenting molecules (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c). Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells are activated by lipid Ags presented by myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), after which they generate antibacterial effector functions, including IFN-? secretion and cytolysis. Thus, mycobacterial lipids are being investigated as components of novel vaccines for mycobacterial infections. In this study we show that the mycobacterial lipid Ag C80 glucose-6-monomycolate can be delivered to human CD1b(+) DCs via targeted liposomal nanoparticles, leading to robust group 1 CD1-restricted activation of T cells. Targeting was achieved by decorating the liposomes with a high-affinity glycan ligand of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-7, a siglec receptor expressed on DCs that mediates rapid endocytosis and transport of its cargo to lysosomes. An Ab to Siglec-7 completely blocked the binding of targeted liposomes to human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), demonstrating their targeting specificity. Mo-DCs pulsed with targeted liposomes containing C80 glucose-6-monomycolate more potently activated a CD1b-restricted T cell line relative to Mo-DCs pulsed with free lipid Ag or antigenic liposomes without Siglec-7 ligand. These data suggest that the endocytic function of Siglec-7 can be exploited to deliver glycolipid Ags to their target cell and increase the efficiency of display to T cells. PMID:25000981

  20. Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    In order to describe a cell at molecular level, a notion of a “gene” is neither necessary nor helpful. It is sufficient to consider the molecules (i.e., chromosomes, transcripts, proteins) and their interactions to describe cellular processes. The downside of the resulting high resolution is that it becomes very tedious to address features on the organismal and phenotypic levels with a language based on molecular terms. Looking for the missing link between biological disciplines dealing w...

  1. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Kenji; Miyake, Yasunobu; Yamasaki, Sho

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcR?. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria. PMID:24533147

  2. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) Disease in Immunocompetent Patients: Expanding Image Findings on Chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyo Hyun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mok Hee; Choi, Song; Song, Sang Gook; Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chest CT features of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease regardless of the specific organisms. This study included 74 consecutive patients (35 men, 39 women; mean age, 63 years; age range, 25-89 years) who were diagnosed with NTM disease according to the American Thoracic Society Guidelines (1997 and 2007) between January 2005 and July 2007. Chest CT images were randomly reviewed by two radiologists with consensus. The most common organism associated with NTM disease is M. avium-intracellulare complex (87.8%), followed by M. abscesses, M. kansasii, and M. chelonae. The most common chest CT finding was a nodular bronchiectatic lesion (n = 35, 46.7%), followed by a cavitary lesion of the upper lobe (n = 21, 28.0%), combined lesions of two prior subtypes (n = 6, 8.0%), consolidative lesion (s) (n = 5, 6.7%), a bronchogenic spreading pulmonary tuberculosis-like lesion (n = 5, 6.7%), a cavitary mass lesion with small satellite nodules (n = 2, 2.7%), and a miliary nodular lesion (n = 1, 1.3%). More than 5 segments were involved in 60 cases (81.1%). The nodular bronchiectatic lesion or cavitary lesion of upper lobe presents with multi-segmental involvement and the occurrence of combined consolidation is indicative of NTM disease

  3. X-ray and CT appearance of pulmonary nontuberculosis mycobacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest X-ray and CT appearance of pulmonary non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection. Methods: The chest X-ray or CT findings of 42 cases with cultures positive for pulmonary non-tuberculosis mycobacterium were reviewed. All abnormalities and predominant lobe involvement were recorded. The findings of chest X-ray and CT were compared. Results: The chest X-ray showed that air space consolidation and cavities were most frequently seen, nodules (n=19) and linear disease (n=19) were observed too. The abnormalities involved bilateral multiple lobes, with upper lobe more often than lower ones. Multiple manifestations were often co-existed. On CT scans, bronchiectasis, 'tree in bud' sign, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were seen on CT but not on chest X-ray. Conclusion: Space con- solidation, cavity, nodule, fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and 'tree in bud' sign were major abnormalities of pulmonary NTMB, which were indistinguishable from those of secondary pulmonary TB, and the CT findings were helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary NTMB infection. (authors)

  4. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections after solid organ transplantation: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, S A; Blumberg, E A; Barton, T D; Vinnard, C

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections and survival among solid organ transplant recipients is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure the impact of NTM infection on survival in this patient population, comparing the effect of Mycobacterium abscessus infection with that of infections due to other pathogenic NTM species. We identified 33 patients with NTM infection post-transplantation, 18 with infection that was diagnosed within the first year. Although drug resistance was common among M. abscessus isolates, patients with M. abscessus infection did not have increased mortality compared with patients with other types of NTM infections (p 0.64). In contrast, we observed a significant association overall between early NTM infection and 3-year mortality post-transplantation (hazard ratio 8.76, 95% CI 2.69-28.57). The mortality burden of NTM infection following transplantation may be due to factors other than the virulence of the organisms. Multicentre studies are needed to identify the optimal approach for diagnosing and treating these uncommon but serious infections. PMID:25636926

  5. Azithromycin blocks autophagy and may predispose cystic fibrosis patients to mycobacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Maurizio; Schaffner, Catherine; Brown, Karen; Shang, Shaobin; Tamayo, Marcela Henao; Hegyi, Krisztina; Grimsey, Neil J.; Cusens, David; Coulter, Sarah; Cooper, Jason; Bowden, Anne R.; Newton, Sandra M.; Kampmann, Beate; Helm, Jennifer; Jones, Andrew; Haworth, Charles S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Ordway, Diane J.; Rubinsztein, David C.; Floto, R. Andres

    2011-01-01

    Azithromycin is a potent macrolide antibiotic with poorly understood antiinflammatory properties. Long-term use of azithromycin in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), results in improved outcomes. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that azithromycin use in patients with CF is associated with increased infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Here, we confirm that long-term azithromycin use by adults with CF is associated with the development of infection with NTM, particularly the multi-drug-resistant species Mycobacterium abscessus, and identify an underlying mechanism. We found that in primary human macrophages, concentrations of azithromycin achieved during therapeutic dosing blocked autophagosome clearance by preventing lysosomal acidification, thereby impairing autophagic and phagosomal degradation. As a consequence, azithromycin treatment inhibited intracellular killing of mycobacteria within macrophages and resulted in chronic infection with NTM in mice. Our findings emphasize the essential role for autophagy in the host response to infection with NTM, reveal why chronic use of azithromycin may predispose to mycobacterial disease, and highlight the dangers of inadvertent pharmacological blockade of autophagy in patients at risk of infection with drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:21804191

  6. Autoimmunity, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferation, and mycobacterial disease in patients with activating mutations in STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapaniemi, Emma M; Kaustio, Meri; Rajala, Hanna L M; van Adrichem, Arjan J; Kainulainen, Leena; Glumoff, Virpi; Doffinger, Rainer; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Trotta, Luca; Chiang, Samuel; Kulmala, Petri; Eldfors, Samuli; Katainen, Riku; Siitonen, Sanna; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kovanen, Panu E; Otonkoski, Timo; Porkka, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Hänninen, Arno; Bryceson, Yenan T; Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Saarela, Janna; Seppänen, Mikko; Mustjoki, Satu; Kere, Juha

    2015-01-22

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors orchestrate hematopoietic cell differentiation. Recently, mutations in STAT1, STAT5B, and STAT3 have been linked to development of immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked-like syndrome. Here, we immunologically characterized 3 patients with de novo activating mutations in the DNA binding or dimerization domains of STAT3 (p.K392R, p.M394T, and p.K658N, respectively). The patients displayed multiorgan autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and delayed-onset mycobacterial disease. Immunologically, we noted hypogammaglobulinemia with terminal B-cell maturation arrest, dendritic cell deficiency, peripheral eosinopenia, increased double-negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)) T cells, and decreased natural killer, T helper 17, and regulatory T-cell numbers. Notably, the patient harboring the K392R mutation developed T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia at age 14 years. Our results broaden the spectrum of phenotypes caused by activating STAT3 mutations, highlight the role of STAT3 in the development and differentiation of multiple immune cell lineages, and strengthen the link between the STAT family of transcription factors and autoimmunity. PMID:25349174

  7. The feasibility of sputum transportation system in china: effect of sputum storage on the mycobacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; DU, Jian; Zhang, Zhi Ying; Ou, Xi Chao; Li, Qiang; Xia, Hui; Qu, Yan; Zhao, Yan Lin

    2014-12-01

    Sputum transportation from county-level to prefecture-level is an ideal strategy to cover the shortage of the laboratory capability in the resource-poor setting. Here, we firstly evaluated the feasibility of sputum transportation system in China by analyzing the culture and molecular diagnosis results from 1982 smear-positive patients with different delay in processing for culture. In this study, the total contamination rate was 2.32% and the total smear positive/culture negative (S+/C-) rate was 7.57%. We found that sputum specimens refrigerated for no more than 7 d before mycobacterial detection did not affect culture significantly. In addition, the invalid result rates among 0-3 d, 3-7 d, and 7+ d group were 3.63%, 3.14%, and 12.48%, respectively. Statistic analysis revealed that molecular diagnostic results while the invalid result rate of genechip for the specimen with more than 7 d delay was significantly higher (P<0.001). The refrigerators equipped in county laboratories, transport at low temperature and frequent transport services once a week will ensure the feasibility of sputum transportation system in China. PMID:25484017

  8. Evaluation of the humoral response against mycobacterial peptides, homologous to MOG?????, in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Davide; Mameli, Giuseppe; Masala, Speranza; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2014-12-15

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Clinical data indicates that BCG vaccination exerts anti-inflammatory effects in MS; conversely, MAP is thought to be one of the possible infectious factors responsible of MS through a molecular mimicry mechanism. A peptide-based indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies against the encephalitogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 epitope, and two mycobacterial peptides sharing sequence homology with the latter: MAP_2619c352-361/BCG_1224355-364 and BCG_3329c64-74. Among 40 MS patients and 39 healthy volunteers included in the study, only MOG35-55 was capable of inducing a significantly higher humoral response in MS subjects compared to controls. Indeed, 11 out of 40 MS subjects (27.5%) and only 2 out of 39 controls (5%) were antibody-positive for MOG35-55 (p=0.01, AUC=0.65). These findings strengthen the importance of MOG35-55 in MS pathogenesis. The MAP and BCG MOG-homologues epitopes investigated were not recognized in MS patients. Overall, the results allow us concluding that sharing homology of linear epitopes is necessary but not sufficient to induce antibody-mediated cross-reactivity. PMID:25271190

  9. Structure of mycobacterial maltokinase, the missing link in the essential GlgE-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Joana; Maranha, Ana; Mendes, Vitor; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Empadinhas, Nuno; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A novel four-step pathway identified recently in mycobacteria channels trehalose to glycogen synthesis and is also likely involved in the biosynthesis of two other crucial polymers: intracellular methylglucose lipopolysaccharides and exposed capsular glucan. The structures of three of the intervening enzymes - GlgB, GlgE, and TreS - were recently reported, providing the first templates for rational drug design. Here we describe the structural characterization of the fourth enzyme of the pathway, mycobacterial maltokinase (Mak), uncovering a eukaryotic-like kinase (ELK) fold, similar to methylthioribose kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. The 1.15?Å structure of Mak in complex with a non-hydrolysable ATP analog reveals subtle structural rearrangements upon nucleotide binding in the cleft between the N- and the C-terminal lobes. Remarkably, this new family of ELKs has a novel N-terminal domain topologically resembling the cystatin family of protease inhibitors. By interfacing with and restraining the mobility of the phosphate-binding region of the N-terminal lobe, Mak's unusual N-terminal domain might regulate its phosphotransfer activity and represents the most likely anchoring point for TreS, the upstream enzyme in the pathway. By completing the gallery of atomic-detail models of an essential pathway, this structure opens new avenues for the rational design of alternative anti-tubercular compounds. PMID:25619172

  10. Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I; Harkins, Kelly M; Herbig, Alexander; Coscolla, Mireia; Weber, Nico; Comas, Iñaki; Forrest, Stephen A; Bryant, Josephine M; Harris, Simon R; Schuenemann, Verena J; Campbell, Tessa J; Majander, Kerttu; Wilbur, Alicia K; Guichon, Ricardo A; Wolfe Steadman, Dawnie L; Cook, Della Collins; Niemann, Stefan; Behr, Marcel A; Zumarraga, Martin; Bastida, Ricardo; Huson, Daniel; Nieselt, Kay; Young, Douglas; Parkhill, Julian; Buikstra, Jane E; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stone, Anne C; Krause, Johannes

    2014-10-23

    Modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Americas are closely related to those from Europe, supporting the assumption that human tuberculosis was introduced post-contact. This notion, however, is incompatible with archaeological evidence of pre-contact tuberculosis in the New World. Comparative genomics of modern isolates suggests that M. tuberculosis attained its worldwide distribution following human dispersals out of Africa during the Pleistocene epoch, although this has yet to be confirmed with ancient calibration points. Here we present three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons, revealing that a member of the M. tuberculosis complex caused human disease before contact. The ancient strains are distinct from known human-adapted forms and are most closely related to those adapted to seals and sea lions. Two independent dating approaches suggest a most recent common ancestor for the M. tuberculosis complex less than 6,000 years ago, which supports a Holocene dispersal of the disease. Our results implicate sea mammals as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans across the ocean. PMID:25141181

  11. Structure of mycobacterial maltokinase, the missing link in the essential GlgE-pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Joana; Maranha, Ana; Mendes, Vitor; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Empadinhas, Nuno; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A novel four-step pathway identified recently in mycobacteria channels trehalose to glycogen synthesis and is also likely involved in the biosynthesis of two other crucial polymers: intracellular methylglucose lipopolysaccharides and exposed capsular glucan. The structures of three of the intervening enzymes - GlgB, GlgE, and TreS - were recently reported, providing the first templates for rational drug design. Here we describe the structural characterization of the fourth enzyme of the pathway, mycobacterial maltokinase (Mak), uncovering a eukaryotic-like kinase (ELK) fold, similar to methylthioribose kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. The 1.15?Å structure of Mak in complex with a non-hydrolysable ATP analog reveals subtle structural rearrangements upon nucleotide binding in the cleft between the N- and the C-terminal lobes. Remarkably, this new family of ELKs has a novel N-terminal domain topologically resembling the cystatin family of protease inhibitors. By interfacing with and restraining the mobility of the phosphate-binding region of the N-terminal lobe, Mak's unusual N-terminal domain might regulate its phosphotransfer activity and represents the most likely anchoring point for TreS, the upstream enzyme in the pathway. By completing the gallery of atomic-detail models of an essential pathway, this structure opens new avenues for the rational design of alternative anti-tubercular compounds. PMID:25619172

  12. Mycobacterial envelope lipids fingerprint from direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of intact bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Puzo, Germain

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lipids including glycolipids and lipoglycans play a crucial role in the modulation of the host immune response by targeting the innate receptors C-type lectins, TLRs and the CD1 proteins of class 1. Glycolipids have been shown to be biomarkers of M. tuberculosis strains and also of opportunistic mycobacteria called non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Most of the structural and functional work of the Mtb lipids has been done using lipids arising from M. tuberculosis cell growth in vitro. However it is likely that lipid structures can change during infection or among the M. tuberculosis or opportunistic clinical strains. Here we describe a new, rapid and sensitive analysis of lipids directly on whole mycobacteria which can be done in few minutes and on less than 1000 mycobacteria by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using an unusual solvent matrix. By this new methodology, which does not require extraction or purification steps, we are able to discriminate mycobacteria belonging to the Mtb complex as well as opportunistic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria. This method was also found to be successful for identification of an envelope lipid mutant. This work opens a new analytical route for in vivo analysis of mycobacterial lipids. PMID:25488848

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genes Induced during Infection of Human Macrophages†

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnau, Eugenie; Fonta?n, Patricia; Manganelli, Riccardo; Soares-appel, Sonia; Smith, Issar

    2002-01-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes preferentially expressed during infection of human macrophages using a promoter trap adapted for this pathogen. inhA encodes an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase that is required for mycolic acid biosynthesis (A. Quemard et al., Biochemistry 34:8235-8241, 1995) and is a major target for isoniazid (INH) in mycobacterial species (A. Banerjee et al., Science 263:227-230, 1994). Since overexpression of inhA confers INH resistance in Mycobacterium ...

  14. Drug-resistant tuberculosis can be predicted by Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Feng, Wen; Chao, Jiang; Xian-Feng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat) is associated with drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of 24 MIRU loci to predict the drug resistance of Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RFP), Streptomycin (SM), Ethambutol (EMB) and Pyrazinamide (PZA). We collected the drug resistance and MIRU loci information of 109 strains of M. tuberculosis from an open database. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the VNTR polymorphism of MTUB04 was related to INH resistance [odds ratio (OR) = 2.82, P = 0.00], RFP resistance (OR = 1.91, P = 0.02), SM resistance (OR = 1.98, P = 0.01) and EMB resistance (OR = 1.95, P = 0.03). MIRU40 was associated with INH resistance (OR = 2.22, P = 0.00). MTUB21 was connected with INH resistance (OR = 1.63, P = 0.02) and SM resistance (OR = 1.69, P = 0.01). MIRU26 was correlated with SM resistance (OR = 1.52, P = 0.04). MIRU39 was associated with EMB resistance (OR = 4.07, P = 0.02). The prediction power of MIRU loci were 0.84, 0.70, 0.85, and 0.74 respectively for INH (predicted by MTUB04, MIRU20, and MTUB21), RFP (predicted by MTUB04), SM (predicted by MTUB21 and MIRU26) and EMB (MTUB04 and MIRU39) through ROC analysis. Our results showed that MIRU loci were related to anti-tuberculosis drug and could predict the drug resistance of tuberculosis. PMID:25759689

  15. CT findings of mycobacterial infection other than tuberculosis : comparison with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the CT findings of mycobacterial infection other than tuberculosis (MOTT) with those of tuberculosis (TB). The chest CT scans of 30 immunocompetent patients with culture-proven pulmonary MOTT (M:F =3D 11:19); mean age, 51.2 yrs.) and of 24 patients with active tuberculosis (M:F 12:12; mean age, 42.5 yrs.) were analyzed by two radiologists; decisions were reached by consensus. Common findings for both MOTT and TB included brochogenically-spread bronchogenic spread nodular lesion (93.3% for MOTT, 100% for TB), bronchiectasis (90%, 83.3%), bronchial wall thickening (66.7%, 54.2%), granuloma (63.3%, 75%), parenchymal scarring (53.3%, 54.2%), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (50%, 37.5%). Less commonly observed findings were emphysema (46.7%, 29.7%), atelectasis (36.7%, 29.2%), narrowing of a major airway (23.3%, 25%), consolidation (23.3%, 29.2%)and pleural disease (16.7%, 29.2%). Except for cavity (30%, 53.3%; P less than 0.05), the frequencies of each finding were not different between the two groups. A lobe-matched frequency comparison showed that only bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe (40%, 16.7%), right lower lobe (63.3%, 33.3%) and lingula division (53.3%, 25%) was significantly more common in MOTT than in TB (p less than 0.05). The number of lobes in which bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening were involved was greater in MOTT (3.20) than in TB (2.04) (p=3D 0.011). Although the CT findings of MOTT and TB overlap considerably, cavities are mor TB overlap considerably, cavities are more common in TB, while in MOTT, bronchiectasis in the lower lung zone is more common and bronchiectasis tends to be more extensive. (author)

  16. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning?Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning?

  17. Drug-resistant tuberculosis can be predicted by Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-feng, Wen; Chao, Jiang; Xian-feng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat) is associated with drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of 24 MIRU loci to predict the drug resistance of Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RFP), Streptomycin (SM), Ethambutol (EMB) and Pyrazinamide (PZA). We collected the drug resistance and MIRU loci information of 109 strains of M. tuberculosis from an open database. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the VNTR polymorphism of MTUB04 was related to INH resistance [odds ratio (OR) = 2.82, P = 0.00], RFP resistance (OR = 1.91, P = 0.02), SM resistance (OR = 1.98, P = 0.01) and EMB resistance (OR = 1.95, P = 0.03). MIRU40 was associated with INH resistance (OR = 2.22, P = 0.00). MTUB21 was connected with INH resistance (OR = 1.63, P = 0.02) and SM resistance (OR = 1.69, P = 0.01). MIRU26 was correlated with SM resistance (OR = 1.52, P = 0.04). MIRU39 was associated with EMB resistance (OR = 4.07, P = 0.02). The prediction power of MIRU loci were 0.84, 0.70, 0.85, and 0.74 respectively for INH (predicted by MTUB04, MIRU20, and MTUB21), RFP (predicted by MTUB04), SM (predicted by MTUB21 and MIRU26) and EMB (MTUB04 and MIRU39) through ROC analysis. Our results showed that MIRU loci were related to anti-tuberculosis drug and could predict the drug resistance of tuberculosis.

  18. Effect of apoptotic cell recognition on macrophage polarization and mycobacterial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Fulco, Tatiana; Andrade, Priscila Ribeiro; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; Pinto, Thiago Gomes Toledo; Ferreira, Paula Fernandez; Ferreira, Helen; da Costa Nery, José Augusto; Real, Suzana Côrte; Borges, Valéria Matos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo

    2014-09-01

    Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae infection modifies host macrophage programming, creating a protective niche for bacterial survival. The milieu regulating cellular apoptosis in the tissue plays an important role in defining susceptible and/or resistant phenotypes. A higher density of apoptotic cells has been demonstrated in paucibacillary leprosy lesions than in multibacillary ones. However, the effect of apoptotic cell removal on M. leprae-stimulated cells has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) induces different phenotypes in proinflammatory (M?1) and anti-inflammatory (M?2) macrophages in the presence of M. leprae. We stimulated M?1 and M?2 cells with M. leprae in the presence or absence of apoptotic cells and subsequently evaluated the M. leprae uptake, cell phenotype, and cytokine pattern in the supernatants. In the presence of M. leprae and apoptotic cells, M?1 macrophages changed their phenotype to resemble the M?2 phenotype, displaying increased CD163 and SRA-I expression as well as higher phagocytic capacity. Efferocytosis increased M. leprae survival in M?1 cells, accompanied by reduced interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-6 levels and increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and IL-10 secretion. M?1 cells primed with M. leprae in the presence of apoptotic cells induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in autologous T cells compared with cultures stimulated with M. leprae or apoptotic cells alone. Efferocytosis did not alter the M?2 cell phenotype or cytokine secretion profile, except for TGF-?. Based on these data, we suggest that, in paucibacillary leprosy patients, efferocytosis contributes to mycobacterial persistence by increasing the M?2 population and sustaining the infection. PMID:25024361

  19. Effect of Apoptotic Cell Recognition on Macrophage Polarization and Mycobacterial Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Fulco, Tatiana; Andrade, Priscila Ribeiro; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; Pinto, Thiago Gomes Toledo; Ferreira, Paula Fernandez; Ferreira, Helen; da Costa Nery, José Augusto; Real, Suzana Côrte; Borges, Valéria Matos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae infection modifies host macrophage programming, creating a protective niche for bacterial survival. The milieu regulating cellular apoptosis in the tissue plays an important role in defining susceptible and/or resistant phenotypes. A higher density of apoptotic cells has been demonstrated in paucibacillary leprosy lesions than in multibacillary ones. However, the effect of apoptotic cell removal on M. leprae-stimulated cells has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) induces different phenotypes in proinflammatory (M?1) and anti-inflammatory (M?2) macrophages in the presence of M. leprae. We stimulated M?1 and M?2 cells with M. leprae in the presence or absence of apoptotic cells and subsequently evaluated the M. leprae uptake, cell phenotype, and cytokine pattern in the supernatants. In the presence of M. leprae and apoptotic cells, M?1 macrophages changed their phenotype to resemble the M?2 phenotype, displaying increased CD163 and SRA-I expression as well as higher phagocytic capacity. Efferocytosis increased M. leprae survival in M?1 cells, accompanied by reduced interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-6 levels and increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and IL-10 secretion. M?1 cells primed with M. leprae in the presence of apoptotic cells induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in autologous T cells compared with cultures stimulated with M. leprae or apoptotic cells alone. Efferocytosis did not alter the M?2 cell phenotype or cytokine secretion profile, except for TGF-?. Based on these data, we suggest that, in paucibacillary leprosy patients, efferocytosis contributes to mycobacterial persistence by increasing the M?2 population and sustaining the infection. PMID:25024361

  20. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  1. CCR4 Participation in Th Type 1 (Mycobacterial) and Th Type 2 (Schistosomal) Anamnestic Pulmonary Granulomatous Responses1

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Christine M.; Stolberg, Valerie R.; Chiu, Bo-chin; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Kunkel, Steven L.; Chensue, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    CCR4 is purported to be a Th type 2 (Th2) cell-biased receptor but its functional role is unclear. Recent studies suggest that chemokine receptor expression and function are more complex in vivo and raise doubts regarding restricted CCR4 expression by Th2 cells. To address these issues, we analyzed the role of CCR4 in highly polarized models of Th type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell-mediated pulmonary granulomas, respectively, elicited by i.v. challenge of primed mice with either mycobacterial purified...

  2. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ab-Aziz, Aini [University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, (Morocco)

    2010-06-15

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  3. Mincle is essential for recognition and adjuvanticity of the mycobacterial cord factor and its synthetic analogue trehalose-dibehenate1

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenen, Hanne; Bodendorfer, Barbara; Hitchens, Kelly; Manzanero, Silvia; Werninghaus, Kerstin; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Agger, Else Marie; Stenger, Steffen; Andersen, Peter; Ruland, Ju?rgen; Brown, Gordon D.; Wells, Christine; Lang, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analogue trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in antigen presenting cells. Here, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein Fc receptor gamma chain (FcR?) was essential for macrophage activation and Th17 adjuvanticity. The FcR?-associated C-type lectin re...

  4. Bilateral Candida and atypical mycobacterial infection after frontalis sling suspension with silicone rod to correct congenital ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Brett W; Bratton, Emily M; Durairaj, Vikram D; Hink, Eric M

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, the authors describe an unusual complication of a frontalis sling suspension with silicone rods. A 5-year-old girl with blepharophimosis syndrome underwent frontalis sling suspension using an open sky technique. Four weeks after surgery, she was noted to have pustules over both upper eyelids and eyebrows. Cultures from the surgical sites grew Mycobacterium chelonae and Candida parapsilosis. Intravenous antibiotics and antifungals and sling explantation were curative. One month after sling explantation, the patient maintained an adequate marginal reflex distance 1. Atypical mycobacterial and Candida infection should be considered in the differential diagnoses of postoperative infection after frontalis sling suspension with silicone rods. PMID:23381566

  5. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyun-woo; Chung, June-key; Ab-aziz, Aini; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient’s lung lesions improved. Extraskeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptak...

  6. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis / Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Corti; Domingo J., Palmero.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis [...] por Mycobacterium avium), con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento. Abstract in english Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease), under the scope of pharmacological interaction [...] s between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  7. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  8. Mycobacterial sulfolipid shows a virulence by inhibiting cord factor induced granuloma formation and TNF-alpha release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yuko; Fujita, Yukiko; Naka, Takashi; Hirai, Manabu; Tomiyasu, Ikuko; Yano, Ikuya

    2006-06-01

    Virulence mechanism of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is currently focused to be clarified in the context of cell surface lipid molecule. Comparing two mycobacterial glycolipids, we observed toxicity and prominent granulomatogenic activity of trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) injection in mice, evident by delayed body weight gain and histological observations, whereas 2,3,6,6'-tetraacyl trehalose 2'-sulfate (SL) was non-toxic and non-granulomatogenic. Likewise, TDM but not SL caused temporarily, but marked increase of lung indices, indicative of massive granuloma formation. Interestingly, co-administration of TDM and SL prevented these symptoms distinctively and SL inhibited TDM-induced release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Histological findings and organ index changes also showed marked inhibition of TDM induced granuloma formation by co-administration of SL. Simultaneous injection of SL together with TDM was highly effective for this protection, as neither injection 1h before nor after TDM injection showed highly inhibitory. In parallel studies on a cellular level, TDM elicited strong TNF-alpha release from alveolar but not from peritoneal macrophages in vitro. This effect was blocked when alveolar macrophages were incubated in wells simultaneously coated with TDM and SL, indicating that SL suppresses TDM-induced TNF-alpha release from macrophages. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which SL could contribute to virulence at early stage of mycobacterial infection or stimulation with the glycolipids by counteracting the immunopotentiating effect of TDM. PMID:16626929

  9. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Antituberculosis Treatment on Mycobacterial Interferon-? T Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzullo, Ilaria; Mengoni, Fabio; Lichtner, Miriam; Massetti, Anna Paola; Rossi, Raffaella; Iannetta, Marco; Marocco, Raffaella; Borgo, Cosmo Del; Soscia, Fabrizio; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, the impact of antituberculous treatment on interferon (IFN)-? response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens has been widely investigated, but the results have been controversial. The objective of the present study was: i) to evaluate longitudinal changes of IFN-? response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in TB patients during antituberculous treatment by using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) assay; ii) to compare the differences in T-cell response after a short or prolonged period of stimulation with mycobacterial antigens; iii) to assess the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with effector/memory and central/memory phenotype; iv) to investigate the direct in vitro effects of antituberculous drugs on the secretion of IFN-?. Principal Findings 38 TB patients was evaluated at baseline and at month 2 and 4 of treatment and at month 6 (treatment completion). 27 (71%) patients had a QFT-G reversion (positive to negative) at the end of therapy, while 11 (29%) TB patients remained QFT-G positive at the end of therapy. Among the 11 patients with persistent positive QFT-G results, six had a complete response to the treatment, while the remaining 5 patients did not have a resolution of the disease. All 27 patients who became QFT-G negative had a complete clinical and microbiological recovery of the TB disease. In these patients the release of IFN-? is absent even after a prolonged 6-day incubation with both ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens and the percentage of effector/memory T-cells phenotype was markedly lower than subjects with persistent positive QFT-G results. The in vitro study showed that antituberculous drugs did not exert any inhibitory effect on IFN-? production within the range of therapeutically achievable concentrations. Conclusions The present study suggests that the decrease in the M. tuberculosis-specific T cells responses following successful anti-TB therapy may have a clinical value as a supplemental tool for the monitoring of the efficacy of pharmacologic intervention for active TB. In addition, the antituberculous drugs do not have any direct down-regulatory effect on the specific IFN-? response. PMID:19365543

  10. Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle vectors for operon and gene fusions to lacZ: the pJEM series.

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, J.; Lim, E. M.; Gicquel, B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of Escherichia coli-mycobacteria shuttle plasmids for the isolation and study of gene regulatory sequences was constructed. These pJEM vectors contain an efficient transcription terminator and multiple cloning sites and allow either operon or gene fusions to lacZ. By constructing operon fusions with pJEM15, we assessed various previously characterized mycobacterial promoters in the fast-growing species Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing species M. bovis BCG. Our results sug...

  11. Structural and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase from the pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus: differences from other mycobacterial isoforms and implications for selective inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Kubiak, Xavier; Xu, Ximing; Garnier, Guillaume; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Chi-Bui, Linh; Dairou, Julien; Busi, Florent; Abuhammad, Areej; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean Marie; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic rapid-growing mycobacterium and is one of the most resistant organisms to chemotherapeutic agents. However, structural and functional studies of M. abscessus proteins that could modify/inactivate antibiotics remain nonexistent. Here, the structural and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) from M. abscessus [(MYCAB)NAT1] are reported. This novel prokaryotic NAT displays significant N-acetyltransferase activity towards aromatic substrates, including antibiotics such as isoniazid and p-aminosalicylate. The enzyme is endogenously expressed and functional in both the rough and smooth M. abscessus morphotypes. The crystal structure of (MYCAB)NAT1 at 1.8?Å resolution reveals that it is more closely related to Nocardia farcinica NAT than to mycobacterial isoforms. In particular, structural and physicochemical differences from other mycobacterial NATs were found in the active site. Peculiarities of (MYCAB)NAT1 were further supported by kinetic and docking studies showing that the enzyme was poorly inhibited by the piperidinol inhibitor of mycobacterial NATs. This study describes the first structure of an antibiotic-modifying enzyme from M. abscessus and provides bases to better understand the substrate/inhibitor-binding specificities among mycobacterial NATs and to identify/optimize specific inhibitors. These data should also contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for the pathogenicity and extensive chemotherapeutic resistance of M. abscessus. PMID:25372695

  12. Predicting the subcellular localization of mycobacterial proteins by incorporating the optimal tripeptides into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pan-Pan; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhong, Zhe-Jin; Deng, En-Ze; Ding, Hui; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a bacterium that causes tuberculosis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases. Predicting the subcellular localization of mycobacterial proteins in this bacterium may provide vital clues for the prediction of protein function as well as for drug discovery and design. Therefore, a computational method that can predict the subcellular localization of mycobacterial proteins with high precision is highly desirable. We propose a computational method to predict the subcellular localization of mycobacterial proteins. An objective and strict benchmark dataset was constructed after collecting 272 non-redundant proteins from the universal protein resource (the UniProt database). Subsequently, a novel feature selection strategy based on binomial distribution was used to optimize the feature vector. Finally, a subset containing 219 chosen tripeptide features was imported into a support vector machine-based method to estimate the performance of the dataset in accurately and sensitively identifying these proteins. We found that the proposed method gave a maximum overall accuracy of 89.71% with an average accuracy of 81.12% in the jackknife cross-validation. The results indicate that our prediction method gave an efficient and powerful performance when compared with other published methods. We made the proposed method available on a purpose built Web server called MycoSub that is freely accessible at . We anticipate that MycoSub will become a useful tool for studying the functions of mycobacterial proteins and for designing and developing anti-mycobacterium drugs. PMID:25437899

  13. Increased Sensitivity of the BACTEC 460 Mycobacterial Radiometric Broth Culture System Does Not Decrease the Number of Respiratory Specimens Required for a Definitive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Harvell, Jeff D.; Hadley, W. Keith; Ng, Valerie L.

    2000-01-01

    The BACTEC 460 radiometric mycobacterial broth culture system has consistently demonstrated faster and increased recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from respiratory specimens of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis than conventional culture methods. We thus questioned whether three sputa were still necessary to definitively diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis if the BACTEC radiometric culture system were in use. We performed a retrospective analysis of 430 sequential respiratory specimens sub...

  14. Usefulness of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit Locus PCR Amplification in Rapid Diagnosis of Beijing Lineage Strain Infection among Pediatric Tuberculosis Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ruixi; Xing, Linlin; Peng, Ze; Zhang, Yukun; Zhu, Chaomin; Yang, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat loci 26, 31, ETR-A, Mtub30, and Mtub02 and a deletion-targeted multiplex PCR in identifying pediatric Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage strain infection. We found that the Beijing lineage isolates accounted for ?62% (130/210) of the study isolates.

  15. IgG subclass distribution of antibody responses to protein and polysaccharide mycobacterial antigens in leprosy and tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A O; Henry, S; Marója, F M; Lee, F K; Brum, L; Singh, M; Lagrange, P H; Aucouturier, P

    1998-01-01

    Immunoenzymatic assays were developed for the measurement of antibodies against mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a cell-free proteic extract (CFX) of Mycobacterium leprae, and the 38-kD protein antigen of M. tuberculosis. Sera from 108 leprosy patients, belonging to all clinical–immunological forms of the spectrum, and 81 patients with localized or disseminated tuberculosis (TB) were tested for antibodies of the four IgG subclasses. Standard calibration curves were used to allow comparisons between results of different isotypes and specificities. Mean concentrations of total IgG antibodies were higher in the overall leprosy population than in TB patients. In leprosy, levels of anti-CFX increased from tuberculoid toward lepromatous forms, with a clear switch from IgG1 to IgG2 subclass predominance. A similar IgG1 to IgG2 conversion was observed in anti-LAM antibodies, although total levels of anti-LAM were similar in patients with tuberculoid and lepromatous forms. In TB, antibodies against polysaccharide and protein antigens were both predominantly of IgG1 subclass, whatever the patient's clinical status, although lower in disseminated forms, probably due to concomitant HIV infection. A hypergammaglobulinaemia was also found in most leprosy and TB patients. In TB this was due to increased IgG1 and IgG3, especially in HIV co-infected patients. Based on the current knowledge of the influence of T cell-secreted cytokines on human immunoglobulin isotype expression, these results do not fit with a putative role of Th1 (such as found in TB and tuberculoid leprosy (TT)) and Th2 (such as found in leprosy lepromatous (LL) leprosy) environment in the isotypy of antibody responses in mycobacterial infections. Nor do variations of isotypy according to pathological conditions seem to be related to the biochemical nature of antigens, since antibodies to LAM and protein antigens had comparable evolutions of their subclass distribution. Other factors are to be investigated in order to understand better the significance and possible roles of antibodies in mycobacterial diseases. PMID:9472660

  16. Successful treatment of refractory cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum with a combined regimen containing amikacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Yingxue Huang,* Xiulian Xu,* Yi Liu, Kan Wu, Wei Zhang, Pai Liu, Xuesi Zeng, Jianfang Sun, Yiqun Jiang, Hongsheng WangKey Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The incidence of Mycobacterium marinum infection has been increasing. First-line antituberculous drugs and other common antibiotics are effective for most cutaneous M. marinum infections; however, treatment failure still occurs in some rare cases. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with refractory cutaneous infection caused by M. marinum. Reasons for delayed diagnosis and related factors of the refractory infection are also discussed.Methods: Samples of lesional skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium for acid-fast bacilli. Species of mycobacterium were identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. We then carried out genotyping by using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units and sequencing of heat shock protein 65 (hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes.Results: Tissue cultures for acid-fast bacilli were positive. PCR-RFLP analysis and sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed the isolated organisms to be M. marinum. Systemic therapy with rifampicin, clarithromycin, and amikacin empirically over 6 months led to complete resolution of skin lesions leaving only some residual scars.Conclusion: Key diagnostic elements for M. marinum infections include a high index of suspicion raised by chronic lesions, poor response to conventional treatments, and a history of fish-related exposure. Strong clinical suggestion of M. marinum infection warrants initial empirical treatment. The duration of therapy is usually several months or even longer, especially for elderly patients. Amikacin can be considered in multidrug therapy for treatment of some refractory M. marinum infections.Keywords: amikacin, clarithromycin, skin infection, Mycobacterium marinum, nontuberculous mycobacteria

  17. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like syndrome presented as lupus-like syndrome with mycobacterial joint infection evolved into the lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Hoon; Lee, Choong Ki

    2009-03-01

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and ALPS-like syndrome are variable clinical conditions characterized by lymphoproliferative disease, autoimmune cytopenias and susceptibility to malignancy. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for intractable generalized pain and stiffness with multiple swollen joints for 2 weeks. A low-grade fever, intermittent hypotension and confusion were associated with the pain. The evaluation revealed multiple joint bony erosions with effusion and a ruptured Baker's cyst and positive AFB testing on the joint biopsy of the right wrist. In addition, there were a macular skin rash with telangiectasia and perivascular lymphocyte infiltration, a cytopenia without abnormal cells, a hepatosplenomegaly, a pericardial thickness with effusion and pleural effusion. The patient was treated with anti-mycobacterial drugs, NSAIDs and glucocorticoids for 10 months. But with the symptoms worsening, the patient developed cervical lymph node enlargements and was diagnosed as a diffuse large B cell lymphoma with hemophagocytosis on biopsy. PMID:18820932

  18. Anti-mycobacterial treatment reduces high plasma levels of CXC-chemokines detected in active tuberculosis by cytometric bead array

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caroline de Souza, Almeida; Clarice, Abramo; Caio César de Souza, Alves; Luciano, Mazzoccoli; Ana Paula, Ferreira; Henrique Couto, Teixeira.

    1039-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chemokines recruit and activate leukocytes, assisting granuloma formation. Herein, we evaluated plasma chemokines in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB) and after completing treatment (TTB) and compared them to BCG-vaccinated healthy controls (HC). Levels of chemokines were measured by cytometri [...] c bead array. Levels of CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were higher in ATB patients compared to HC, but they decreased in TTB. Levels of CCL2 and CCL5 in ATB patients were similar to those observed in HC. Thus, the high levels of CXC-chemokines detected during ATB, which can modulate the trafficking of immune cells from the periphery to the site of infection, were reversed by anti-mycobacterial treatment.

  19. Techniques of DNA hybridization detect small numbers of mycobacteria with no cross-hybridization with non-mycobacterial respiratory organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional methods used in identifying mycobacteria, such as acid-fast bacillus stains and culture, are often time-consuming, insensitive, and nonspecific. As part of an ongoing program to improve diagnosis and characterization of mycobacteria, the authors have found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization techniques using isotopically labeled, single-stranded, total DNA can be used to detect as little as 10(-4) micrograms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) DNA. This amount of DNA represents approximately 2 X 10(4) genomes. They have also shown the MTb DNA is sufficiently different from the DNA of non-mycobacterial microorganisms such that cross-hybridization with MTb DNA does not occur under the hybridization conditions employed. The authors speculate that DNA hybridization techniques may allow the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of mycobacteria

  20. ESX-1-induced apoptosis during mycobacterial infection: to be or not to be, that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Nacho; Marinova, Dessislava; Martín, Carlos; Pardo, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The major Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor ESAT-6 exported by the ESX-1 secretion system has been described as a pro-apoptotic factor by several independent groups in recent years, sustaining a role for apoptosis in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. This role has been supported by independent studies in which apoptosis has been shown as a hallmark feature in human and mouse lungs infected with virulent strains. Nevertheless, the role of apoptosis during mycobacterial infection is subject to an intense debate. Several works maintain that apoptosis is more evident with attenuated strains, whereas virulent mycobacteria tend to inhibit this process, suggesting that apoptosis induction may be a host mechanism to control infection. In this review, we summarize the evidences that support the involvement of ESX-1-induced apoptosis in virulence, intending to provide a rational treatise for the role of programmed cell death during M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24364000

  1. [Implementation of the technical requirements of the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in a mycobacterial laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Ocete Mochón, M Dolores; Lahiguera, M José; Bresó, M Carmen; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard defines the requirements for quality and competence that must be met by medical laboratories. These laboratories should use this international standard to develop their own quality management systems and to evaluate their own competencies; in turn, this standard will be used by accreditation bodies to confirm or recognize the laboratories' competence. In clinical microbiology laboratories, application of the standard implies the implementation of the technical and specific management requirements that must be met to achieve optimal quality when carrying out microbiological tests. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación). This review aims to discuss the practical application of the standard's technical requirements in mycobacterial laboratory. Firstly, we define the scope of accreditation. Secondly, we specify how the items of the standard on personnel management, control of equipment, environmental facilities, method validation, internal controls and customer satisfaction surveys were developed and implemented in our laboratory. PMID:23453231

  2. A novel inhibitor of gyrase B is a potent drug candidate for treatment of tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Christopher P; Jones, Steven M; Hanzelka, Brian L; Perola, Emanuele; Shoen, Carolyn M; Cynamon, Michael H; Ngwane, Andile H; Wiid, Ian J; van Helden, Paul D; Betoudji, Fabrice; Nuermberger, Eric L; Thomson, John A

    2015-03-01

    New drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis are urgently needed. Extensively drug-resistant and probably the totally drug-resistant tuberculosis strains are resistant to fluoroquinolones like moxifloxacin, which target gyrase A, and most people infected with these strains die within a year. In this study, we found that a novel aminobenzimidazole, VXc-486, which targets gyrase B, potently inhibits multiple drug-sensitive isolates and drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro (MICs of 0.03 to 0.30 ?g/ml and 0.08 to 5.48 ?g/ml, respectively) and reduces mycobacterial burdens in lungs of infected mice in vivo. VXc-486 is active against drug-resistant isolates, has bactericidal activity, and kills intracellular and dormant M. tuberculosis bacteria in a low-oxygen environment. Furthermore, we found that VXc-486 inhibits the growth of multiple strains of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium kansasii (MICs of 0.1 to 2.0 ?g/ml), as well as that of several strains of Nocardia spp. (MICs of 0.1 to 1.0 ?g/ml). We made a direct comparison of the parent compound VXc-486 and a phosphate prodrug of VXc-486 and showed that the prodrug of VXc-486 had more potent killing of M. tuberculosis than did VXc-486 in vivo. In combination with other antimycobacterial drugs, the prodrug of VXc-486 sterilized M. tuberculosis infection when combined with rifapentine-pyrazinamide and bedaquiline-pyrazinamide in a relapse infection study in mice. Furthermore, the prodrug of VXc-486 appeared to perform at least as well as the gyrase A inhibitor moxifloxacin. These findings warrant further development of the prodrug of VXc-486 for the treatment of tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections. PMID:25534737

  3. Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cheryl L; Abrahams, Deborah A; Lerumo, Lesedi; Janse van Rensburg, Esme; Stone, Lynnett; O'rie, Terrence; Pienaar, Bernadette; de Kock, Marwou; Kaplan, Gilla; Mahomed, Hassan; Dheda, Keertan; Hanekom, Willem A

    2011-09-01

    High Ag load in chronic viral infections has been associated with impairment of Ag-specific T cell responses; however, the relationship between Ag load in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells in humans is not clear. We compared M. tuberculosis-specific T cell-associated cytokine production and proliferative capacity in peripheral blood from adults with progressively higher mycobacterial loads-that is, persons with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI), with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and smear-positive TB. Patients with smear-positive TB had decreased polyfunctional IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) and IL-2-producing specific CD4 T cells and increased TNF-? single-positive cells, when compared with smear-negative TB and LTBI. TB patients also had increased frequencies of M. tuberculosis-specific CD8 T cells, compared with LTBI. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferative capacity was profoundly impaired in individuals with smear-positive TB, and correlated positively with ex vivo IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) CD4 T cells, and inversely with TNF-? single-positive CD4 T cells. During 6 mo of anti-TB treatment, specific IFN-?(+)IL-2(+)TNF-?(+) CD4 and CD8 T cells increased, whereas TNF-? and IFN-? single-positive T cells decreased. These results suggest progressive impairment of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses with increasing mycobacterial load and recovery of responses during therapy. Furthermore, these data provide a link between specific cytokine-producing subsets and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells, and between the presence of specific CD8 T cells ex vivo and active TB disease. These data have potentially significant applications for the diagnosis of TB and for the identification of T cell correlates of TB disease progression. PMID:21775682

  4. Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cheryl L.; Abrahams, Deborah A.; Lerumo, Lesedi; van Rensburg, Esme Janse; Stone, Lynnett; O’rie, Terrence; Pienaar, Bernadette; de Kock, Marwou; Kaplan, Gilla; Mahomed, Hassan; Dheda, Keertan; Hanekom, Willem A.

    2011-01-01

    High antigen load in chronic viral infections has been associated with impairment of antigen-specific T cell responses; however, the relationship between antigen load in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cells in humans is not clear. We compared Mtb-specific T cell-associated cytokine production and proliferative capacity in peripheral blood from adults with progressively higher mycobacterial loads, i.e., persons with latent Mtb infection (LTBI), with smear ? pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and with smear+ TB. Patients with smear+ TB had decreased polyfunctional IFN-?+IL-2+TNF-?+ and IL-2-producing specific CD4 T cells and increased TNF-?-single positive cells, when compared with smear ? TB and LTBI. TB patients also had increased frequencies of Mtb-specific CD8 T cells, compared with LTBI. Mtb-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferative capacity was profoundly impaired in individuals with smear+ TB, and correlated positively with ex vivo IFN-?+IL-2+TNF-?+ CD4 T cells, and inversely with TNF-? single-positive CD4 T cells. During 6 months of anti-TB treatment, specific IFN-?+IL-2+TNF-?+ CD4 and CD8 T cells increased, whereas TNF-?- and IFN-?-single positive T cells decreased. These results suggest progressive impairment of Mtb-specific T cell responses with increasing mycobacterial load, and recovery of responses during therapy. Furthermore, these data provide a link between specific cytokine-producing subsets and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cells, and between the presence of specific CD8 T cells ex vivo and active TB disease. Taken together, these data have potentially significant applications for diagnosis of TB and for identification of T cell correlates of TB disease progression. PMID:21775682

  5. Molecular characterisation of clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from South African gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Geoffrey; Churchyard, Gavin J; Thorrold, Catherine; Heron, Ian; Stevenson, Karen; Duse, Adriano G; Marais, Elsé

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is a major cause of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in the South African gold-mining workforce, but the source of infection and molecular epidemiology are unknown. This study investigated the presence of M. kansasii in gold and coal mine and associated hostel water supplies and compared the genetic diversity of clinical and environmental isolates of M. kansasii. Five M. kansasii and ten other potentially pathogenic mycobacteria were cultured mainly from showerhead biofilms. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene on 196 clinical and environmental M. kansasii isolates revealed 160 subtype I, eight subtype II and six subtype IV strains. Twenty-two isolates did not show the typical M. kansasii restriction patterns, suggesting that these isolates may represent new subtypes of M. kansasii. In contrast to the clonal population structure found amongst the subtype I isolates from studies in other countries, DNA fingerprinting of 114 clinical and three environmental subtype I isolates demonstrated genetic diversity amongst the isolates. This study demonstrated that showerheads are possible sources of M. kansasii and other pathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in a gold-mining region, that subtype I is the major clinical isolate of M. kansasii strain and that this subtype exhibits genetic diversity. PMID:25719478

  6. One-plasmid tunable coexpression for mycobacterial protein–protein interaction studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yong; Mead, David; Dhodda, Vinay; Brumm, Phil; Fox, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    A single plasmid that allows controlled coexpression has been developed for use in mycobacteria. The tetracycline inducible promoter, PtetO, was used to provide tetracycline-dependent induction of one gene, while the Psmyc, Pimyc, or Phsp promoters were used to provide three different levels of constitutive expression of a second gene. The functions of these four individual promoters were established using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a newly identified red fluorescence inducible prote...

  7. In vivo inactivation of the mycobacterial integral membrane stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase DesA3 by a C-terminus-specific degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong; Wesenberg, Gary E; Bingman, Craig A; Fox, Brian G

    2008-10-01

    DesA3 (Rv3229c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a membrane-bound stearoyl coenzyme A Delta(9) desaturase that reacts with the oxidoreductase Rv3230c to produce oleic acid. This work provides evidence for a mechanism used by mycobacteria to regulate this essential enzyme activity. DesA3 expressed as a fusion with either a C-terminal His(6) or c-myc tag had consistently higher activity and stability than native DesA3 having the native C-terminal sequence of LAA, which apparently serves as a binding determinant for a mycobacterial protease/degradation system directed at DesA3. Fusion of only the last 12 residues of native DesA3 to the C terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was sufficient to make GFP unstable. Furthermore, the comparable C-terminal sequence from the Mycobacterium smegmatis DesA3 homolog Msmeg_1886 also conferred instability to the GFP fusion. Systematic examination revealed that residues with charged side chains, large nonpolar side chains, or no side chain at the last two positions were most important for stabilizing the construct, while lesser effects were observed at the third-from-last position. Using these rules, a combinational substitution of the last three residues of DesA3 showed that either DKD or LEA gave the best enhancement of stability for the modified GFP in M. smegmatis. Moreover, upon mutagenesis of LAA at the C terminus in native DesA3 to either of these tripeptides, the modified enzyme had enhanced catalytic activity and stability. Since many proteases are conserved within bacterial families, it is reasonable that M. tuberculosis will use a similar C-terminal degradation system to posttranslationally regulate the activity of DesA3 and other proteins. Application of these rules to the M. tuberculosis genome revealed that approximately 10% the proteins encoded by essential genes may be susceptible to C-terminal proteolysis. Among these, an annotation is known for less than half, underscoring a general lack of understanding of proteins that have only temporal existence in a cell. PMID:18723625

  8. In Vivo Inactivation of the Mycobacterial Integral Membrane Stearoyl Coenzyme A Desaturase DesA3 by a C-Terminus-Specific Degradation Process ? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Fox, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    DesA3 (Rv3229c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a membrane-bound stearoyl coenzyme A ?9 desaturase that reacts with the oxidoreductase Rv3230c to produce oleic acid. This work provides evidence for a mechanism used by mycobacteria to regulate this essential enzyme activity. DesA3 expressed as a fusion with either a C-terminal His6 or c-myc tag had consistently higher activity and stability than native DesA3 having the native C-terminal sequence of LAA, which apparently serves as a binding determinant for a mycobacterial protease/degradation system directed at DesA3. Fusion of only the last 12 residues of native DesA3 to the C terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was sufficient to make GFP unstable. Furthermore, the comparable C-terminal sequence from the Mycobacterium smegmatis DesA3 homolog Msmeg_1886 also conferred instability to the GFP fusion. Systematic examination revealed that residues with charged side chains, large nonpolar side chains, or no side chain at the last two positions were most important for stabilizing the construct, while lesser effects were observed at the third-from-last position. Using these rules, a combinational substitution of the last three residues of DesA3 showed that either DKD or LEA gave the best enhancement of stability for the modified GFP in M. smegmatis. Moreover, upon mutagenesis of LAA at the C terminus in native DesA3 to either of these tripeptides, the modified enzyme had enhanced catalytic activity and stability. Since many proteases are conserved within bacterial families, it is reasonable that M. tuberculosis will use a similar C-terminal degradation system to posttranslationally regulate the activity of DesA3 and other proteins. Application of these rules to the M. tuberculosis genome revealed that ?10% the proteins encoded by essential genes may be susceptible to C-terminal proteolysis. Among these, an annotation is known for less than half, underscoring a general lack of understanding of proteins that have only temporal existence in a cell. PMID:18723625

  9. Characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex by restriction polymorphism of the rRNA gene region.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Nineteen Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains, including strains of bovine, caprine, ovine, cervid, subhuman primate, and human origins, were compared with organisms of the M. avium complex by restriction fragment length polymorphism with a 5S rRNA gene probe as the reference DNA. Mycobacterial DNA was extracted, digested with several restriction enzymes, subjected to electrophoresis and Southern blotting, and then hybridized with a 5S rRNA gene probe from Escherichia coli. Hybridizing band...

  10. Using riboswitches to regulate gene expression and define gene function in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vlack, Erik R; Seeliger, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria include both environmental species and many pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool for examining gene function and essentiality, both in in vitro culture and in host cell infections. The theophylline-inducible artificial riboswitch has recently emerged as an alternative to protein repressor-based systems. The riboswitch is translationally regulated and is combined with a mycobacterial promoter that provides transcriptional control. We here provide methods used by our laboratory to characterize the riboswitch response to theophylline in reporter strains, recombinant organisms containing riboswitch-regulated endogenous genes, and in host cell infections. These protocols should facilitate the application of both existing and novel artificial riboswitches to the exploration of gene function in mycobacteria. PMID:25605389

  11. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65. With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65. Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of mycobacterial antigen-induced responses in infants vaccinated with BCG at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Adrian VS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel tuberculosis (TB vaccines recently tested in humans have been designed to boost immunity induced by the current vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Because BCG vaccination is used extensively in infants, this population group is likely to be the first in which efficacy trials of new vaccines will be conducted. However, our understanding of the complexity of immunity to BCG in infants is inadequate, making interpretation of vaccine-induced immune responses difficult. Methods To better understand BCG-induced immunity, we performed gene expression profiling in five 10-week old infants routinely vaccinated with BCG at birth. RNA was extracted from 12 hour BCG-stimulated or purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD-stimulated PBMC, isolated from neonatal blood collected 10 weeks after vaccination. RNA was hybridised to the Sentrix® HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip (Illumina to measure expression of >16,000 genes. Results We found that ex vivo stimulation of PBMC with PPD and BCG induced largely similar gene expression profiles, except that BCG induced greater macrophage activation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway, including PPAR-?, involved in activation of the alternative, anti-inflammatory macrophage response was down-regulated following stimulation with both antigens. In contrast, up-regulation of genes associated with the classic, pro-inflammatory macrophage response was noted. Further analysis revealed a decrease in the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM, which is known to be important for entry of mycobacteria into the macrophage. Interestingly, more leukocyte genes were down-regulated than up-regulated. Conclusion Our results suggest that a combination of suppressed and up-regulated genes may be key in determining development of protective immunity to TB induced by vaccination with BCG.

  13. AADNMR: A Simple Method for Rapid Identification of Bacterial/Mycobacterial Infections in Antibiotic Treated Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Samples for Diagnosis of Infectious Peritonitis

    CERN Document Server

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method is reported for rapid identification of bacterial or mycobacterial infection in a suspected clinical/biological sample. The method is based on the fact that the ring methylene protons of cyclic fatty acids (constituting the cell membrane of several species of bacteria and mycobacteria) resonate specifically between -0.40 and 0.68 ppm region of the 1H NMR spectrum. These cyclic fatty acids are rarely found in the eukaryotic cell membranes. Therefore, the signals from cyclic ring moiety of these fatty acids can be used as markers (a) for the identification of bacterial and mycobacterial infections and (b) for differential diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. However, these microbial fatty acids when present inside the membrane are not easily detectable by NMR owing to their fast T2 relaxation. Nonetheless, the problem can easily be circumvented if these fatty acids become suspended in solution. This has been achieved by abolishing the membrane integrity using broad spectrum antibiot...

  14. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Liquid Cultures by Using Peptide Nucleic Acid-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Drobniewski, F. A.; More, P. G.; Harris, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    A blinded comparison of peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) with routine identification methods was performed on 74 consecutively positive mycobacterial liquid cultures. All Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures (48 of 48) and 22 of 27 (81.5%) nontuberculous cultures were correctly identified (including one mixed culture). Five isolates yielded no reaction with either probe and were identified as Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium fortuitum, or Mycobacterium flav...

  15. Mycobacterial HBHA induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis through the generation of reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, J-a; Lim, Y-j; Cho, S-n; Lee, J-h; Jeong, J. A.; Kim, E. J.; Park, J. B.; Kim, S. H.; Park, H. S.; Kim, H-j; Song, C-h

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial heparin-binding haemagglutinin antigen (HBHA) is a virulence factor that induces apoptosis of macrophages. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is an important regulatory response that can be utilised to study the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In the present study, HBHA stimulation induced ER stress sensor molecules in a caspase-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with an I?B kinase 2 inhibitor reduced not only C/EBP homology protein expression bu...

  16. Can 15-Locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis Provide Insight into the Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Andrea; Brown, Timothy; Baker, Lucy; Drobniewski, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The phylogeny and evolution of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still poorly understood despite the application of a variety of molecular techniques. We analyzed 469 M. tuberculosis and 49 Mycobacterium bovis isolates to evaluate if the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) commonly used for epidemiological studies can define the phylogeny of the M. tuberculosis complex. This population was characterized by previously identified sile...

  17. Use of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing To Examine Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yong-jiang; Bellamy, Richard; Lee, Ann S. G.; Ng, Sze Ta; Ravindran, Sindhu; Wong, Sin-yew; Locht, Camille; Supply, Philip; Paton, Nicholas I.

    2004-01-01

    Strain typing using variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) is a powerful tool for studying the epidemiology and genetic relationships of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. For this study, isolates from 291 patients in Singapore were genotyped by this method. One hundred sixty-six distinct MIRU-VNTR patterns were detected. One hundred sixty-two strains were grouped into 1 of 35 different MIRU-VNTR clusters and 131 isolates were unique. In th...

  18. Automated High-Throughput Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains by a Combination of PCR and Nondenaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jason T.; Hawkey, Peter M.; Smith, E. Grace; Boese, Kerstin A.; Warren, Roderic E.; Hong, George

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates is portable, 100% reproducible, and highly discriminatory. Nondenaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (non-dHPLC) with use of a WAVE microbial analysis system is a promising method of PCR amplicon analysis as it is low cost and requires no preanalysis processing. The aims of this study were to validate the application of WAVE microbial analysis s...

  19. The Incidence and Clinical Implication of Sputum with Positive Acid-Fast Bacilli Smear But Negative in Mycobacterial Culture in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Eui-chong; Joo, Sei Ick; Lee, Sang-min; Yoo, Chul-gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-soo; Yim, Jae-joon

    2008-01-01

    Although it is not rare to find sputum that is positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear but subsequent culture fails to isolate mycobacteria in clinical practice, the incidence and clinical implication of those sputa from new patients has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical implication of sputum with positive AFB smear but negative in mycobacterial culture. All sputa that were positive AFB smear requested during diagnostic work up for n...

  20. Rapid Mycobacterial Liquid Culture-Screening Method for Mycobacterium avium Complex Based on Secreted Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay?

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sung Jae; Anklam, Kelly; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Collins, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Sensors in automated liquid culture systems for mycobacteria, such as MGIT, BacT/Alert 3D, and Trek ESP II, flag growth of any type of bacteria; a positive signal does not mean that the target mycobacteria are present. All signal-positive cultures thus require additional and often laborious testing. An immunoassay was developed to screen liquid mycobacterial cultures for evidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The method, called the MAC-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), relies...

  1. Characterization of the katG and inhA genes of isoniazid-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, D. A.; Li, Z.; Bai, G. H.; Morris, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Resistance to isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been associated with mutations in genes encoding the mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase (katG) and the InhA protein (inhA). Among the 26 isoniazid-resistant clinical isolates evaluated in this study, mutations in putative inhA regulatory sequences were identified in 2 catalase-positive isolates, katG gene alterations were detected in 20 strains, and 4 isolates had wild-type katG and inhA genes. Mutations in the katG gene were detected i...

  2. Phylogenetic detection of horizontal gene transfer during the step-wise genesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Turenne Christine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the availability of complete genome sequence data has greatly facilitated comparative genomic research aimed at addressing genetic variability within species. More recently, analysis across species has become feasible, especially in genera where genome sequencing projects of multiple species have been initiated. To understand the genesis of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a genus where the majority of species are harmless environmental organisms, we have used genome sequence data from 16 mycobacteria to look for evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT associated with the emergence of pathogenesis. First, using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 housekeeping genes across these species, we derived a phylogeny that serves as the basis for HGT assignments. Next, we performed alignment searches for the 3989 proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv against 15 other mycobacterial genomes, generating a matrix of 59835 comparisons, to look for genetic elements that were uniquely found in M. tuberculosis and closely-related pathogenic mycobacteria. To assign when foreign genes were likely acquired, we designed a bioinformatic program called mycoHIT (mycobacterial homologue investigation tool to analyze these data in conjunction with the MLSA-based phylogeny. Results The bioinformatic screen predicted that 137 genes had been acquired by HGT at different phylogenetic strata; these included genes coding for metabolic functions and modification of mycobacterial lipids. For the majority of these genes, corroborating evidence of HGT was obtained, such as presence of phage or plasmid, and an aberrant GC%. Conclusion M. tuberculosis emerged through vertical inheritance along with the step-wise addition of genes acquired via HGT events, a process that may more generally describe the evolution of other pathogens.

  3. Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study

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    Afessa Bekele

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective observational study was done to describe nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate. Results Patient age (mean ± SD was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/?L. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85 in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51 in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40 in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11 in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10 in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10 in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3 in 3, fungus ball (2 in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1, herpes simplex virus (1, Histoplasma capsulatum (1, lymphoma (3 in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2 in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1. The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications. Conclusion Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.

  4. The mycobacterial cord factor adjuvant analogue trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweneker, Katrin; Gorka, Oliver; Schweneker, Marc; Poeck, Hendrik; Tschopp, Jürg; Peschel, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Gross, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    The success of a vaccine consists in the induction of an innate immune response and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune system. Because antigens are usually not immunogenic, the addition of adjuvants that activate innate immunity is required. The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic adjuvant analogue trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) rely on the C-type lectin Mincle and the signaling molecules Syk and Card9 to trigger innate immunity. In this study, we show that stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with TDB induces Nlrp3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1? secretion. While Card9 is required for NF-?B activation by TDB, it is dispensable for TDB-induced activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Additionally, efflux of intracellular potassium, lysosomal rupture, and oxygen radical (ROS) production are crucial for caspase-1 processing and IL-1? secretion by TDB. In an in vivo inflammation model, we demonstrate that the recruitment of neutrophils by TDB is significantly reduced in the Nlrp3-deficient mice compared to the wild-type mice, while the production of chemokines in vitro is not influenced by the absence of Nlrp3. These results identify the Nlrp3 inflammasome as an essential mediator for the induction of an innate immune response triggered by TDB. PMID:22921586

  5. Mycobacterium bourgelatii sp. nov., a rapidly growing, non-chromogenic species isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Pichat, Catherine; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Lamy, Brigitte

    2013-12-01

    Three independent strains of a rapidly growing, non-chromogenic member of the genus Mycobacterium were isolated from lymph nodes of French cattle. Identification of the isolates was carried out using a polyphasic approach. The nearly complete SSU rRNA gene sequences (>1200 bp) of the strains MLB-A23, MLB-A30 and MLB-A84(T) were identical. A phylogenetic analysis of these unique SSU rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains were most closely related to Mycobacterium intermedium. Further phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (2854 bp) of four housekeeping genes (hsp65, rpoB, sodA and tuf), the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and SSU rRNA genes indicated that these three strains represented a distinct species that shares a common ancestor with M. intermedium. Phylogenetic and phenotypic data strongly indicate that the strains MLB-A23, MLB-A30 and MLB-A84(T) belong to a novel mycobacterial species for which the name Mycobacterium bourgelatii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MLB-A84(T) (?=?CIP 110557(T)?=?DSM 45746(T)). PMID:23990648

  6. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system: pattern of infection and efficacy of combined surgical/antimicrobial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J W; Kim, Y S; Yoon, J O; Kim, J S; Chang, J S; Kim, J M; Chun, J M; Jeon, I H

    2014-11-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection of the musculoskeletal tissue is a rare disease. An early and accurate diagnosis is often difficult because of the indolent clinical course and difficulty of isolating pathogens. Our goal was to determine the clinical features of musculoskeletal NTM infection and to present the treatment outcomes. A total of 29 patients (nine females, 20 males between 34 and 85 years old, mean age 61.7 years; 34 to 85) with NTM infection of the musculoskeletal system between 1998 to 2011 were identified and their treatment retrospectively analysed. Microbiological studies demonstrated NTM in 29 patients: the isolates were Mycobacterium intracellulare in six patients, M. fortuitum in three, M. abscessus in two and M. marinum in one. In the remaining patients we failed to identify the species. The involved sites were the hand/wrist in nine patients the knee in five patients, spine in four patients, foot in two patients, elbow in two patients, shoulder in one, ankle in two patients, leg in three patients and multiple in one patient. The mean interval between the appearance of symptoms and diagnosis was 20.8 months (1.5 to 180). All patients underwent surgical treatment and antimicrobial medication according to our protocol for chronic musculoskeletal infection: 20 patients had NTM-specific medication and nine had conventional antimicrobial therapy. At the final follow-up 22 patients were cured, three failed to respond to treatment and four were lost to follow-up. Identifying these diseases due the initial non-specific presentation can be difficult. Treatment consists of surgical intervention and adequate antimicrobial therapy, which can result in satisfactory outcomes. PMID:25371475

  7. High-throughput mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marie; Bidault, Floriane; Mosnier, Amandine; Bablishvili, Nino; Tukvadze, Nestani; Somphavong, Silaphet; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Berland, Jean-Luc

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB) represents a major public health concern. Understanding the transmission routes of the disease is a key factor for its control and for the implementation of efficient interventions. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) marker typing is a well-described method for lineage identification and transmission tracking. However, the conventional manual genotyping technique is cumbersome and time-consuming and entails many risks for errors, thus hindering its implementation and dissemination. We describe here a new approach using the QIAxcel system, an automated high-throughput capillary electrophoresis system that also carries out allele calling. This automated method was assessed on 1,824 amplicons from 82 TB isolates and tested with sets of markers of 15 or 24 loci. Overall allele-calling concordance between the methods from 140 to 1,317 bp was 98.9%. DNA concentrations and repeatability and reproducibility performances showed no biases in allele calling. Furthermore, turnaround time using this automated system was reduced by 81% compared to the conventional manual agarose gel method. In sum, this new automated method facilitates MIRU-VNTR genotyping and provides reliable results. Therefore, it is well suited for field genotyping. The implementation of this method will help to achieve accurate and cost-effective epidemiological studies, especially in countries with a high prevalence of TB, where the high number of strains complicates the surveillance of circulating lineages and requires efficient interventions to be carried out in an urgent manner. PMID:25428144

  8. Exploring the structure and function of the mycobacterial KatG protein using trans-dominant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Joseph A; Morris, Sheldon

    2003-01-01

    In order to probe the structure and function of the mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme (KatG), we employed a genetic approach using dominant-negative analysis of katG merodiploids. Transformation of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with various katG point mutants (expressed from low-copy-number plasmids) resulted in reductions in peroxidase and catalase activities as measured in cell extracts. These reductions in enzymatic activity usually correlated with increased resistance to the antituberculosis drug isoniazid (INH). However, for the N138S trans-dominant mutant, the catalase-peroxidase activity was significantly decreased while the sensitivity to INH was retained. trans-dominance required katG expression from multicopy plasmids and could not be demonstrated with katG mutants integrated elsewhere on the wild-type M. bovis BCG chromosome. Reversal of the mutant phenotype through plasmid exchange suggested the catalase-peroxidase deficiency occurred at the protein level and that INH resistance was not due to a second site mutation(s). Electrophoretic analysis of KatG proteins from the trans-dominant mutants showed a reduction in KatG dimers compared to WT and formation of heterodimers with reduced activity. The mutants responsible for these defects cluster around proposed active site residues: N138S, T275P, S315T, and D381G. In an attempt to identify mutants that might delimit the region(s) of KatG involved in subunit interactions, C-terminal truncations were constructed (with and without the D381G dominant-negative mutation). None of the C-terminal deletions were able to complement a DeltakatG strain, nor could they cause a dominant-negative effect on the WT. Taken together, these results suggest an intricate association between the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of KatG and may be consistent with a domain-swapping mechanism for KatG dimer formation. PMID:12499190

  9. Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study

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    Lee Li-Na

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10% episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30% (Mtb group. The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%. Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion.

  10. Tomography high Resolution CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Comparison between the first treatment and the re treatment group

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    Gwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Ki Man [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To analyze and compare the thin section CT findings of first and re treatment nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 121 patients with positive sputum culture for NTM were recruited. We included only 32 patients underwent high resolution chest CT and were confirmed by American Thoracic Society criteria NTM pulmonary infection (first treatment 15, re treatment 17 patients). CT images of 32 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated the frequency and laterality of the followings; nodule, increased density, bronchial change, parenchymal change. The significantly frequent CT findings of the re treatment NTM group were well defined nodules (retreatment 82.4%, first treatment 33.3%, p = 0.00), consolidations (retreatment 88.2%, first treatment 53.3%, p = 0.03), bronchial changes (bronchiectasis; retreatment 100%, first treatment 66.6%, p = 0.01, bronchial narrowing; retreatment 23.5%, first treatment 0%, p = 0.04 and mucoid impaction; retreatment-58.8%, first treatment-20.0%, p = 0.03) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis (retreatment-88.2%, first treatment 26.7%, p = 0.00). However, most of the evaluated thin section CT findings, such as centrilobular and ill defined nodules, lobular, segmental and subpleural consolidations, ground glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening, cavities, pleural lesions, fibrotic band, emphysema and laterality of lesions, have not shown significant differences between first treatment and the re treatment group. Thin section CT findings of well defined nodules, consolidations, bronchial changes (bronchiectasis, bronchial narrowing and mucoid impaction) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis are highly suggestive of re treatment NTM pulmonary disease.

  11. Proposal for Standardization of Optimized Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Allix, Caroline; Lesjean, Sarah; Cardoso-Oelemann, Mara; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Willery, Eve; Savine, Evgueni; de Haas, Petra; van Deutekom, Henk; Roring, Solvig; Bifani, Pablo; Kurepina, Natalia; Kreiswirth, Barry; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin; Vatin, Vincent; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Fauville, Maryse; Niemann, Stefan; Skuce, Robin; Kremer, Kristin; Locht, Camille; van Soolingen, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Molecular typing based on 12 loci containing variable numbers of tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTRs) has been adopted in combination with spoligotyping as the basis for large-scale, high-throughput genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, even the combination of these two methods is still less discriminatory than IS6110 fingerprinting. Here, we define an optimized set of MIRU-VNTR loci with a significantly higher discriminatory power. The resolution and the stability/robustness of 29 loci were analyzed, using a total of 824 tubercle bacillus isolates, including representatives of the main lineages identified worldwide so far. Five loci were excluded for lack of robustness and/or stability in serial isolates or isolates from epidemiologically linked patients. The use of the 24 remaining loci increased the number of types by 40%—and by 23% in combination with spoligotyping—among isolates from cosmopolitan origins, compared to those obtained with the original set of 12 loci. Consequently, the clustering rate was decreased by fourfold—by threefold in combination with spoligotyping—under the same conditions. A discriminatory subset of 15 loci with the highest evolutionary rates was then defined that concentrated 96% of the total resolution obtained with the full 24-locus set. Its predictive value for evaluating M. tuberculosis transmission was found to be equal to that of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, as shown in a companion population-based study. This 15-locus system is therefore proposed as the new standard for routine epidemiological discrimination of M. tuberculosis isolates and the 24-locus system as a high-resolution tool for phylogenetic studies. PMID:17005759

  12. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2015-03-31

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera. PMID:25697505

  13. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  14. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System

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    Santhosh Sivaramakrishnan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors.

  15. Evolutionary Link between the Mycobacterial Plasmid pAL5000 Replication Protein RepB and the Extracytoplasmic Function Family of ? Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Arnab; Chatterjee, Sujoy; Chatterjee, Soniya; Das Gupta, Sujoy K.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial plasmid pAL5000 represents a family of plasmids found mostly in the Actinobacteria. It replicates using two plasmid-encoded proteins, RepA and RepB. While BLAST searches indicate that RepA is a replicase family protein, the evolutionary connection of RepB cannot be established, as no significant homologous partner (E < 10?3) outside the RepB family can be identified. To obtain insight into the structure-function and evolutionary connections of RepB, an investigation was undert...

  16. Antagonists of Hsp16.3, a Low-Molecular-Weight Mycobacterial Chaperone and Virulence Factor, Derived from Phage-Displayed Peptide Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Abhik; Sharma, Archna; Dhar, Amlanjyoti; Bhattacharyya, Bhabatarak; Roy, Siddhartha; Das Gupta, Sujoy K.

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of concern in tuberculosis (TB) therapy. In the persistent mode the pathogen can resist drug therapy, allowing the possibility of reactivation of the disease. Several protein factors have been identified that contribute to persistence, one of them being the 16-kDa low-molecular-weight mycobacterial heat shock protein Hsp16.3, a homologue of the mammalian eye lens protein alpha-crystallin. It is believed that Hsp16.3 plays a key ro...

  17. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex in a child with normal immunity: successful treatment with anti-mycobacterial drugs and laser bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedimonte, G; Wolford, E T; Fordham, L A; Leigh, M W; Wood, R E

    1997-10-01

    We report on the case of a 9-month-old Caucasian girl referred to our institution with a history of fever of unknown origin and wheezing, unresponsive to bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory therapy. Subsequent investigation led to a diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). The infected lymph tissue infiltrated and obstructed the right bronchus and significantly compressed the left bronchus to the point of near closure. Given the high degree of morbidity and potential mortality from thoracic surgery in this patient, we treated her with a combination of anti-mycobacterial drugs (rifabutin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clofazimine, amikacin, ethambutol) and glucocorticoids to relieve airway compression. The endobronchial granulation tissue was resected by laser bronchoscopy. This combined approach led to eventual normalization of radiologic and endoscopic findings, and the anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was discontinued 12 months after the first bronchoalveolar lavage culture was negative for MAI. The patient remains asymptomatic 1 year after completion of this course of therapy. We suggest that mediastinal lymphadenopathy with bronchial infiltration and extrinsic airway compression caused by MAI in otherwise healthy children can be successfully treated with aggressive chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, and laser bronchoscopy. PMID:9368263

  18. Mycobacteriophage TM4: genome structure and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M E; Stenstrom, C; Hendrix, R W; Hatfull, G F

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacteriophage TM4 is a dsDNA-tailed phage that infects both fast-growing and slow-growing strains of mycobacteria. While TM4 has been used extensively for the construction of mycobacterial shuttle phasmids and for the delivery of reporter genes and transposons into mycobacterial cells, little is known about its genetics or molecular biology. We describe here the complete 52,797 bp genome sequence of TM4 and a map of its genome organization. While not a close relative of other mycobacteriophages, TM4 encodes several proteins with sequence similarity to those of other bacteriophages--including L5 and D29--indicating that they have common ancestry. In addition, TM4 encodes proteins with similarity to haloperoxidases, glutaredoxins and the WhiB family of transcriptional regulators. Following infection, TM4 genes are expressed in a defined temporal pattern, with the virion structural proteins expressed late in the phage growth cycle. Understanding the genetics of TM4 will greatly facilitate its use as a tool for the genetic manipulation of the mycobacteria. PMID:10645443

  19. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3.8 were significant socio-demographic factors associated with the risk of occurrence of mycobacterioses among the pastoral communities in Uganda. Conclusion The socio-demographic, environmental and household related factors influence the risk of occurrence as well as pastoralists' knowledge of mycobacterial infections in the pastoral households at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife pastoral interface areas of Uganda.

  20. Rapid identification of mycobacteria from AIDS patients by capillary electrophoretic profiling of amplified SOD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, T J; Shanson, D C; Archard, L C

    1995-06-01

    Aim-Rapid differentiation of mycobacterial species at the genomic level.Methods-The manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene (464 bp) and 16SrRNA (353 bp) from 104 isolates (18 species) of mycobacteria were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Products were sequenced and a phenogram of SOD sequences derived. PCR products of SOD gene were digested with HaeIII, and restriction fragment profiles visualised using capillary electrophoresis.Results-Novel SOD sequences were found for M szulgai, M marinum, M phlei, M smegmatis, M chelonei, M paratuberculosis, M malmoense, M intracellulare serotype 7, M intracellulare serotype 18, and M celatum types 1, 2, and 3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 18 of 19 species studied had 8-29% interspecies and <6% intraspecies sequence diversity in the SOD gene. No consistent differences were detected between AIDS and non-AIDS isolates. M paratuberculosis showed a unique SOD sequence with a 1.1% (SD 0.5%) diversity from M avium. Capillary electrophoresis profiles were able to differentiate 16 of 18 species within 24 hours.Conclusions-A phenogram of SOD sequences clearly delineated all mycobacterial species and showed two distinct clusters, fast growing species, and the M avium complex (MAC). Within the MAC, M avium (five types), M intracellulare (five types), M scrofulaceum (two types), and M paratuberculosis (one type) could be demonstrated. Phylogenetic diversity of M celatum from MAC, previously suggested by 16SrRNA data, was confirmed. This simple and rapid method for DNA extraction, in conjunction with capillary electrophoresis of SOD restriction fragments, allows rapid identification of mycobacterial isolates. PMID:16695992

  1. Various stages in the life cycle of syrphid flies (Eristalis tenax; Diptera: Syrphidae) as potential mechanical vectors of pathogens causing mycobacterial infections in pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, O A; Mátlová, L; Dvorská, L; Svástová, P; Bartos, M; Weston, R T; Pavlík, I

    2006-01-01

    We defined the role of the syrphid fly Eristalis tenax in the survival and transmission of mycobacteria in pigs. The conditionally pathogenic mycobacterial (CPM) species Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from 10 % of liquid dung samples, and both M. chelonae and another CPM species M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (78 %) of the examined E. tenax larvae collected from the same location. Mycobacteriosis of the lymph nodes of pigs from 3 infected farms was caused by M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. fortuitum. M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of identical genotype and serotypes and M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (1.9 %) larvae, 2 (7.4 %) puparia, and one (1.6 %) imago. The count of colony forming units isolated from larval skin covering (pouch) was higher (p tenax larvae to spread mycobacteria throughout pig herds and the surrounding environment. PMID:16821726

  2. Evaluation of four mycobacterial blood culture media: BACTEC 13A, Isolator/BACTEC 12B, Isolator/Middlebrook agar, and a biphasic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agy, M B; Wallis, C K; Plorde, J J; Carlson, L C; Coyle, M B

    1989-01-01

    Four commercially available mycobacterial blood culture systems were compared for sensitivity and time to detection of growth. A 5-ml volume of SPS-anticoagulated blood was cultured in a BACTEC 13A vial and a modified M7H11/BHI biphasic medium. In addition, two aliquots of Isolator concentrates, each derived from 5 ml of blood, were inoculated into a BACTEC 12B vial and onto a pair of Middlebrook 7H11 agar plates (M7H11). Mycobacteria were recovered from 32 of 180 cultured specimens (17.8%). Growth was detected in 30 (93.7%) of the 13A vials, 27 (84.4%) of the M7H11 agar plates, 26 (81.2%) of the 12B vials, and 14 (43.8%) of the biphasic bottles. The mean times to growth detection in the 13A vial (14.2 days) and the 12B vial (13.7 days) were shorter than in either the M7H11 plates (20.8 days) or the biphasic medium (24.1 days). When the Isolator/12B vial-and-M7H11 plates were evaluated as a single system, 29 cultures (90.6%) had a mean time to growth detection of 13.5 days. Colony-forming units per ml were inversely associated with time to growth detection. Delay in transport (greater than 24 h) appeared to reduce viability. The direct inoculation feature makes the 13A vial very suitable for mycobacterial blood cultures. PMID:2591167

  3. Evaluation of INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia García-Agudo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 54 rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from patients attended in the two hospitals of Cádiz Bay (Spain were selected during a seven-year-period (2000-2006 in order to evaluate the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay for mycobacterial identification, based on the reverse hybridization principle. The strains were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 media and identified to the species level by sequencing of the 16S rRNA, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene, conventional tests and INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. By the molecular methods we identified a total of 12 different species: 23 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae, 10 M. abscessus, 2 M. senegalense, 1 M. alvei, 1 M. brumae, 1 M. mageritense, 1 M. mucogenicum, 1 M. neoaurum, 1 M. peregrinum, 1 M. septicum and 1 M. smegmatis. Fifty two strains (96.3% were correctly identified by conventional techniques and 47 strains (87.0% by INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. We find INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay simple to perform but it provides few advantages in comparison with conventional methods and sometimes needs complementary tests to identify Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, M. chelonae complex and specific species due to the great heterogeneity in the RGM group.

  4. Evaluation of INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lidia, García-Agudo; Iría, Jesús; Manuel, Rodríguez-Iglesias; Pedro, García-Martos.

    1220-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 54 rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from patients attended in the two hospitals of Cádiz Bay (Spain) were selected during a seven-year-period (2000-2006) in order to evaluate the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay for mycobacterial identification, based on the reverse hybridizatio [...] n principle. The strains were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 media and identified to the species level by sequencing of the 16S rRNA, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene, conventional tests and INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. By the molecular methods we identified a total of 12 different species: 23 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae, 10 M. abscessus, 2 M. senegalense, 1 M. alvei, 1 M. brumae, 1 M. mageritense, 1 M. mucogenicum, 1 M. neoaurum, 1 M. peregrinum, 1 M. septicum and 1 M. smegmatis. Fifty two strains (96.3%) were correctly identified by conventional techniques and 47 strains (87.0%) by INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. We find INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay simple to perform but it provides few advantages in comparison with conventional methods and sometimes needs complementary tests to identify Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, M. chelonae complex and specific species due to the great heterogeneity in the RGM group.

  5. Disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hwanyul; Choi, Go-Eun; Lee, Byung Soo; Whang, Jake; Shin, Sung Jae

    2011-12-01

    A disseminated infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (MAA) was diagnosed in a 57-yr-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) housed at the Seoul Zoo, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea. An apparent granulomatous inflammation with central caseous necrosis was evident in the lung sections. To confirm mycobacterial infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) of the rpoB and hsp65 genes was performed from multiple organs and cultured bacteria. The PCR-RFLP revealed a M. avium subspecies. MAA was identified by multiplex PCR for detection of IS901 and IS1311. Thus, it is believed that MAA caused the disseminated infection in this case. Although the source of infection was not determined, the elephant may have become infected through contamination of soil and feed by free-living birds infected with MAA. This is the first reported case of disseminated infection due to MAA in a captive elephant in the Republic of Korea. PMID:22204075

  6. Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

  7. The mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenases require a specific chaperonin-like protein for functional expression in a heterologous host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Hayashi, Mika; Semba, Hisashi; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-02-01

    The mimABCD gene clusters in Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc(2) 155 and Mycobacterium goodii strain 12523 encode binuclear iron monooxygenases that oxidize propane and phenol. In this study, we attempted to express each mimABCD gene cluster in a heterologous host. The actinomycetous strain Rhodococcus opacus B-4, which is phylogenetically close to Mycobacterium, was selected as the host. Each mimABCD gene cluster was cloned into the Rhodococcus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pTip-QC2, and then introduced into R. opacus cells. Although whole-cell assays were performed with phenol as a substrate, the transformed R. opacus cells did not oxidize this substrate. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed that the oxygenase large subunit MimA was expressed in the insoluble fraction of R. opacus cells. We found that a gene designated mimG, which lies downstream of mimABCD, exhibits similarity in the amino acid sequence of its product with the products of genes encoding the chaperonin GroEL. When the mimG gene was cloned and coexpressed with each mimABCD gene cluster in R. opacus strain B-4, this host successfully acquired oxidation activity towards phenol. SDS/PAGE and western blotting analyses demonstrated that MimA was clearly soluble when in the presence of MimG. These results indicated that MimG played essential roles in the productive folding of MimA, and that the resulting soluble MimA protein led to the active expression of MimABCD. PMID:23171424

  8. Characterization of Mycobacterium montefiorense sp. nov., a Novel Pathogenic Mycobacterium from Moray Eels That Is Related to Mycobacterium triplex

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Michael H.; Bartell, John; Gandolfo, Leanne; Smole, Sandra C.; Costa, Sylvia F.; Weiss, Louis M.; Johnson, Linda K.; Osterhout, Gerard; Herbst, Lawrence H.

    2003-01-01

    The characterization of a novel Mycobacterium sp. isolated from granulomatous skin lesions of moray eels is reported. Analysis of the hsp65 gene, small-subunit rRNA gene, rRNA spacer region, and phenotypic characteristics demonstrate that this organism is distinct from its closest genetic match, Mycobacterium triplex, and it has been named M. montefiorense sp. nov.

  9. Mutation in alkylhydroperoxidase D gene dramatically decreases persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guerin in infected macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farivar Taghi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from a single bacterial species in the world and is subjected to a highly oxidative environment in its host macrophage and consequently has evolved protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Alkyl hydroperoxidase D (AhpD is a molecule from these mycobacterial defense systems that has a dual function. It not only works with Alkyl hydroperoxidase C (AhpC in mycobacterial defense system against oxidative stress but also has a role in oxidation/reduction of succinyltransferase B (SucB, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD and AhpC. The present study was undertaken to find out the effects of inactivation of ahpD gene in the intra-macrophage persistence of resulted BCG mutant. Materials and Methods: We did allelic exchange mutagenesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and evaluate the effects of this mutagenesis in intracellular persistence of wild type BCG strains and ahpD mutant ones by comparing colony forming units (CFU in infected macrophage. Results: Our findings showed that after producing allelic exchange mutagenesis in ahpD gene of M.bovis BCG a sever decrease in the CFU?s of ahpD mutant BCG strains has been observed and intracellular persistence of ahpD mutant BCG strains decreased significantly. Conclusion: Mutagenesis in ahpD gene will cause significant decrease in intracellular survival of ahpD mutant strains than wild type M.bovis BCG strains and could leads to an inefficiency in pyruvate dehydrogenase pathway and could also impair impairs mycobacterial defense system against oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  10. Evaluation of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis and Spoligotyping for Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates and a Comparison with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mclernon, Joanne; Costello, Eamon; Flynn, Orla; Madigan, Gillian; Ryan, Fergus

    2010-01-01

    Common strain typing methods for differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates include restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, spoligotyping, and, more recently, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping were evaluated in this study, and these typing methods were compared with RFLP typing. A total of 386 M. bovis isolates from cattle, badgers, and ...

  11. Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-02-15

    The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45?M. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300?g/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51?M, mammalian ATPase IC50>100?M, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12?g/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100?g/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5?g/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173?mol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

  12. Cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis BCG are inflammatory when inoculated within a gel matrix: characterization of a new model of the granulomatous response to mycobacterial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Elizabeth R; Geisel, Rachel E; Butcher, Barbara A; McDonough, Sean; Russell, David G

    2005-05-01

    The chronic inflammatory response to Mycobacterium generates complex granulomatous lesions that balance containment with destruction of infected tissues. To study the contributing factors from host and pathogen, we developed a model wherein defined mycobacterial components and leukocytes are delivered in a gel, eliciting a localized response that can be retrieved and analysed. We validated the model by comparing responses to the cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to reported activities in other models. BCG lipid-coated beads and bone marrow-derived macrophages (input macrophages) were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. Input macrophages and recruited peritoneal exudate cells took up fluorescently tagged BCG lipids, and matrix-associated macrophages and neutrophils produced tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6. Leukocyte numbers and cytokine levels were greater in BCG lipid-bearing matrices than matrices containing non-coated or phosphatidylglycerol-coated beads. Leukocytes arrived in successive waves of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, followed by NK and T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+), or gammadelta) at 7 days and B cells within 12 days. BCG lipids also predisposed matrices for adherence and vascularization, enhancing cellular recruitment. We submit that the matrix model presents pertinent features of the murine granulomatous response that will prove to be an adaptable method for study of this complex response. PMID:15850754

  13. Comparison of spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing and IS6110-RFLP in a study of genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Delhi, North India

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mandira, Varma-Basil; Sujeet, Kumar; Jyoti, Arora; Archana, Angrup; Thierry, Zozio; Jayant Nagesh, Banavaliker; Urvashi Balbir, Singh; Nalin, Rastogi; Mridula, Bose.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods - spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) typing - with the gold-standard IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 101 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculos [...] is to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from Delhi, North India. Spoligotyping resulted in 49 patterns (14 clusters); the largest cluster was composed of Spoligotype International Types (SITs)26 [Central-Asian (CAS)1-Delhi lineage], followed by SIT11 [East-African-Indian (EAI) 3-Indian lineage]. A large number of isolates (75%) belonged to genotypic lineages, such as CAS, EAI and Manu, with a high specificity for the Indian subcontinent, emphasising the complex diversity of the phylogenetically coherent M. tuberculosis in North India. MIRU typing, using 11 discriminatory loci, was able to distinguish between all but two strains based on individual patterns. IS6110-RFLP analysis (n = 80 strains) resulted in 67 unique isolates and four clusters containing 13 strains. MIRUs discriminated all 13 strains, whereas spoligotyping discriminated 11 strains. Our results validate the use of PCR-based molecular typing of M. tuberculosis using repetitive elements in Indian isolates and demonstrate the usefulness of MIRUs for discriminating low-IS6110-copy isolates, which accounted for more than one-fifth of the strains in the present study.

  14. Mycobacterial antigen driven activation of CD14++CD16- monocytes is a predictor of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Bruno B; Singh, Amrit; Narendran, Gopalan; Schechter, Melissa E; Nayak, Kaustuv; Subramanian, Sudha; Anbalagan, Selvaraj; Jensen, Stig M R; Porter, Brian O; Antonelli, Lis R; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Wilkinson, Robert J; Meintjes, Graeme; van der Plas, Helen; Follmann, Dean; Barber, Daniel L; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sher, Alan; Sereti, Irini

    2014-10-01

    Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response occurring in a subset of TB-HIV co-infected patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here, we examined monocyte activation by prospectively quantitating pro-inflammatory plasma markers and monocyte subsets in TB-HIV co-infected patients from a South Indian cohort at baseline and following ART initiation at the time of IRIS, or at equivalent time points in non-IRIS controls. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers of innate and myeloid cell activation were increased in plasma of IRIS patients pre-ART and at the time of IRIS; this association was confirmed in a second cohort in South Africa. Increased expression of these markers correlated with elevated antigen load as measured by higher sputum culture grade and shorter duration of anti-TB therapy. Phenotypic analysis revealed the frequency of CD14(++)CD16(-) monocytes was an independent predictor of TB-IRIS, and was closely associated with plasma levels of CRP, TNF, IL-6 and tissue factor during IRIS. In addition, production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was higher in IRIS patients compared to controls pre-ART. These data point to a major role of mycobacterial antigen load and myeloid cell hyperactivation in the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS, and implicate monocytes and monocyte-derived cytokines as potential targets for TB-IRIS prevention or treatment. PMID:25275318

  15. T cell reactivity against mycolyl transferase antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB coinfected subjects and in AIDS patients suffering from tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Pascal; Drowart, Annie; Bourreau, Eliane; Couppie, Pierre; Farber, Claire-Michèle; Van Vooren, Jean-Paul; Huygen, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B) group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen. PMID:20936150

  16. Reactividad serológica y celular frente a proteínas micobacterianas en la enfermedad de Hansen / Serological and cellular reactivity to mycobacterial proteins in Hansen´s disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elsa, Rada; Nacarid, Aranzazu; Vestalia, Rodríguez; Rafael, Borges; Jacinto, Convit.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se diseñó un estudio para evaluar la reactividad inmunológica frente a diferentes preparaciones proteicas micobacterianas utilizando pruebas serológicas y de inmunidad celular. Para el estudio fueron incluídos pacientes con manifestaciones clínicas de lepra predominantemente de la forma multibacilar [...] . Todos los pacientes fueron adultos con edad comprendida entre 20 y 39 años. El 58% correspondía a la forma clínica de Lepra Lepromatosa (LL) n= 81, el 29% a la forma Borderline Lepromatosa (BL) n=41 y 10% a Borderline Borderline (BB) n=14. Solo el 3% fueron pacientes Borderline Tuberculoide (BT): 74% masculino y 26% femenino. El fenómeno reaccional más frecuente fue del tipo eritema nodoso leproso (ENL). Las proteínas micobacterianas ensayadas fueron: antígenos proteicos crudos totales de Mycobacterium leprae (MlSA), Mycobacterium bovis (MbSA y MbSA de excreción), antígeno proteico de excreción parcialmente purificado con una movilidad relativa de 30 kDa (Ml 30) y proteínas recombinantes de Mycobacterium (Mt70, Mb 65, Ml 36, 28, 18 y 10 kDa) encontrandose que las proteínas recombinantes (Ml10 kDa, Ml 36 kDa) a mayor carga bacilar presentaban una mayor reactividad serológica estadísticamente significativa (p= 0,0051 y 0,050 respectivamente). La proteína de 30 kDa fue predominantemente reconocida por anticuerpos de los pacientes multibacilares. Los resultados demuestran que el promedio de los valores de anticuerpos en pacientes no reaccionales fueron superiores en presencia de proteínas completas (MbSA y MbSA de exc) en comparación con el grupo de pacientes que presentaron fenómenos reaccionales (p=0,000567 y 0,000061 respectivamente) Este mismo comportamiento se observó frente a las proteínas micobacterianas individuales (30 kDa, 10 kDa y 36 kDa). La respuesta proliferativa de los linfocitos T en los pacientes multibacilares reaccionales y no reaccionales frente a las proteínas micobacterianas (MlSA, Ml 10 kDa, MbSA, MbSA de excreción) fue negativa en ambos grupos. Abstract in english The study was designed for evaluating immunological reactivity to various mycobacterial protein preparations using serological and cell-mediated immunological tests in patients with clinical leprosy signs, predominantly, with the multibacillary forms. All patients were adults with ages between 20 an [...] d 30 years. Fifty eight (n= 81) percent corresponded to Lepromatous Leprosy (LL), 29% (n= 41) to Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) and 10% (n=41) to Borderline Borderline Leprosy (BB); only 3% were Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) patients: 74% males and 26% females. The most frequent reactional phenomenon was of the Erythema Nodosum (ENL) type. The mycobacterial proteins tested were: total crude Mycobacterium leprae antigens (MISA); Mycobacterium bovis (MbSA and excretion MbSA); partially purified excretion protein antigen, with a 30kDa relative movility (Ml30); and recombinant M. leprae proteins (Mt70, Mb 65, Ml 36, 28, 18 and 10 kDa). Two of the recombinant proteins (Ml10 and Ml 36 kDa) presented a statiscally significant higher serological reactivity, directly related with a larger bacillary load (p= 0.0051 and 0.050 respectively). The 30 kDa protein was predominantly recognized by antibodies from multibacillary patients. Results show that mean antibody values were higher in non reactional patients when tested against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) when compared with the group of patients who presented reactional phenomena (p= 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). Comparing reactional with non reactional patients, it was seen that mean antibody values against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) were higher in non reactional individuals (p= 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). This same behavior occurred towards individual mycobacterial proteins (30, 10 and 36 kDa). The T lymphocyte prolypherative response in reactional and non reactional patients towards mycobacterial proteins (MlSA, Ml 10 kDa, MbSA, ex MbSA) was negative.

  17. Identificación de micobacterias no tuberculosas: comparación de métodos bioquímicos y moleculares / Identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria: comparison between biochemical and molecular methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María José, Godoy; Loren, Orozco; Cohinta, Hernández; Omaira, DaMata; Jacobus, De Waard; Susana, González Rico.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones causadas por micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) o atípicas constituyen en la actualidad un grave problema de salud, especialmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Estas micobacterias presentan patrones de susceptibilidad a antibióticos particulares y distintos a M. tuberculosis, po [...] r lo que la administración del tratamiento adecuado requiere de un método rápido, sencillo y sensible de identificación. La técnica de PRA (Análisis de Restricción de Productos de PCR), basada en la digestión enzimática del producto de amplificación del gen hsp65, ha mostrado ser un método adecuado de identificación de micobacterias. En el presente trabajo se comparó la técnica de PRA con el estándar de identificación de micobacterias representado por las pruebas bioquímicas en 30 aislados provenientes del Laboratorio de Tuberculosis del Instituto de Biomedicina. La técnica de PRA permitió identificar 96% de las cepas analizadas, en comparación con 92.% de cepas identificadas por las técnicas bioquímicas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron idénticos en 18 de 22 cepas, correspondiendo al 82% de los resultados. Se concluye que el PRA es un método rápido, sencillo y económico que produce resultados concordantes con las técnicas tradicionales, con un menor grado de error. Basados en estos resultados se recomienda el uso del PRA en los laboratorios clínicos como método de identificación de rutina para micobacterias. Abstract in english Infections caused by atypical mycobacteria at present constitute a serious health problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. These mycobacteria present particular susceptibility patterns, different from M. tuberculosis, due to which the administration of an adequate treatment requires a fast [...] , simple and sensitive identification method. The PRA technique (PCR Restriction), based on the enzymatic digestion of the amplification product of the hsp65 gene has shown to be an adequate method for the identification of mycobacteria. In this study we compared the PRA technique with the standard mycobacterial identification method, represented by biochemical tests, in 30 isolates from the Tuberculosis Laboratory of the Instituto de Biomedicina. The PRA technique allowed the identification of 96% of the strains analyzed, as compared with 92% of strains identified through biochemical methods. The results obtained were identical in 18 of 22 strains, corresponding to 82% of the results. It is concluded that the PRA technique is a fast, simple and economical method that produces results in concord with traditional techniques, with a lesser degree of error. Based in these results, the use of PRA as routine identification technique for mycobacteria is recommended for clinical laboratories.

  18. First Case of Disseminated Infection with Nocardia cerradoensis in a Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, Caroline; Kerjouan, Mallorie; Le Mouel, Marc; Patrat-Delon, Solene; Henaux, Pierre-Louis; Brun, Vanessa; Morin, Marie-Pascale; Gautier, Philippe; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Kayal, Samer

    2015-03-01

    Here we report in a human, a renal transplant patient, the first disseminated infection with Nocardia cerradoensis, isolated after a brain biopsy. Species identification was based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and hsp65 gene analyses. Antibiotic treatment was successful by combining carbapenems and aminoglycosides and then switching to oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:25568436

  19. Induction of human hsp60 expression in monocytic cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferm, Mt; So?derstro?m, K.; Jindal, S.; Gro?nberg, A.; Ivanyi, J.; Young, R.; Kiessling, R.

    1992-01-01

    Both bacterial and mammalian heat shock proteins (HSP) are recognized by some T cells, and hsp60 recognition has been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis. We have developed a model to study the induction of hsp60 in human monocytic cell lines. An anti-mycobacterial hsp65 mAb (ML30), cross-reacting with human hsp60 was used to screen 21 human tumor cell lines in Western blot analysis. All T cell and B cell lymphomas constitutively expressed hsp60 protein at moderate to high levels, while little...

  20. The radiology of IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) in patients with mycobacterial tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: appearances in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the radiological manifestations of IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) in patients with HIV and mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection, in the context of their demographic and clinical data. Materials and methods: The radiological imaging, demographic and clinical data of 11 patients diagnosed with IRIS associated with HIV and mycobacterial tuberculosis co-infection were studied retrospectively. Where available, follow-up imaging studies were also reviewed. Results: The most common radiological feature of IRIS was lymph node enlargement (73%), with central low attenuation centres, in keeping with necrosis, present in most of these cases (88%). Most commonly affected were intra-abdominal nodes (70%), followed by axillary (40%) and mediastinal lymph nodes (36%). Within the lung parenchyma, diffuse, bilateral pulmonary nodules were seen in 55% of cases. Unilateral small volume pleural effusions were seen in two cases with associated parenchymal changes seen in only one. Small volume ascites was seen in two cases. Thirty-six percent of cases presented with new or worsening abscesses despite treatment. In this context, image-guided radiological drainage proved a useful adjunct to the conventional medical therapy for IRIS. The most common clinical signs of IRIS included fever (64%), abdominal pain (36%) and cough (27%). Conclusion: We have described the radiological features that are characteristic in IRIS and the importance of putting thesin IRIS and the importance of putting these into context with the clinical and pathological findings as part of a multidisciplinary approach in making the diagnosis. The role of the radiologist is central in diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and management of complications in patients with IRIS

  1. NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE GENE IS EXPRESSED THROUGH MULTIPLE TRANSCRIPTS IN Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Arumugam, Deepak Anand, Namperumalsamy Vijayarangan, Chandrasekaran Anbukayalvizhi, Megha Rao, Srinivasan Vijay, Haryadi Rajeswari and Parthasarathi Ajit kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDK, plays a vital role in maintaining pools of nucleoside triphosphates and their respective deoxynucleoside triphosphates for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. Transcriptional regulation of ndk in mycoacteria remains unknown, although modulation of ndk expression under stress conditions involving DNA and, RNA synthesis arrest and cell division arrest had been studied in several bacterial systems. Therefore, in the present study, the start sites of transcription of ndk of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msmndk were identified and putative promoter regions were predicted. Using transcriptional fusions of the cloned putative promoter regions to mycobacterial codon-optimised reporter gene, gfpm2+, promoter activity was examined under active phase of growth, nutrient starvation and other stress conditions involving DNA replication inhibition and cell division arrest. Msmndk was found to be expressed through two transcripts, T1 and T2, arising from P1 and P2 promoters, respectively. Both the promoters belonged to C group of mycobacterial promoters, which do not possess consensus to any known canonical sigma factor recognition sequences. The levels of T2, but not of T1, were found to be low under the different stress conditions studied. The data documents modulation of ndk transcripts in mycobacteria.

  2. The contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate impairs mycobacterial control and inhibits cytokine secretion in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, Léanie; Du Plessis, Nelita; Allie, Nasiema; Jacobs, Muazzam; Kidd, Martin; van Helden, Paul D; Walzl, Gerhard; Ronacher, Katharina

    2013-04-01

    The contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), with progestin as the single active compound, possesses selective glucocorticoid activity and can alter the expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes. We therefore propose that pharmacological doses of DMPA used for endocrine therapy could have significant immune modulatory effects and impact on susceptibility to, as well as clinical manifestation and outcome of, infectious diseases. We investigated the effect of contraceptive doses of DMPA in two different murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis models. Multiplex bead array analysis revealed that DMPA altered serum cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in C57BL/6 mice and gamma interferon (IFN-?) in BALB/c mice. DMPA also suppressed antigen-specific production of TNF-?, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-6 and induced the production of IP-10 in C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice, DMPA altered the antigen-specific secretion of IFN-?, IL-17, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, we show that C57BL/6 mice treated with doses of DMPA, which result in serum concentrations similar to those observed in contraceptive users, have a significantly higher bacterial load in their lungs. Our data show for the first time that DMPA impacts tuberculosis (TB) disease severity in a mouse model and that the effects of this contraceptive are not confined to infections of the genital tract. This could have major implications for the contraceptive policies not only in developing countries like South Africa but also worldwide. PMID:23381991

  3. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-? and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using ?2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-? > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-? responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  4. Gene Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene libraries and the selection of bacteria colonies that contain the specific gene of interest are described.

  5. Gamma interferon responses induced by a panel of recombinant and purified mycobacterial antigens in healthy, non-mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated Malawian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Gillian F; Weir, Rosemary E; Chaguluka, Steven D; Warndorff, David; Crampin, Amelia C; Mwaungulu, Lorren; Sichali, Lifted; Floyd, Sian; Bliss, Lyn; Jarman, Elizabeth; Donovan, Linda; Andersen, Peter; Britton, Warwick; Hewinson, Glyn; Huygen, Kris; Paulsen, Jens; Singh, Mahavir; Prestidge, Ross; Fine, Paul E M; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African population have been exposed and sensitized, we tested T-cell recognition of recombinant and purified antigens from M. tuberculosis (38 kDa, MPT64, and ESAT-6), M. bovis (MPB70), M. bovis BCG (Ag85), and M. leprae (65 kDa, 35 kDa, and 18 kDa) in >600 non-M. bovis BCG-vaccinated young adults in the Karonga District of northern Malawi. IFN-gamma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in day 6 supernatants of diluted whole-blood cultures. The recombinant M. leprae 35-kDa and 18-kDa and purified native M. bovis BCG Ag85 antigens induced the highest percentages of responders, though both leprosy and bovine tuberculosis are now rare in this population. The M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6 and MPT64 and the M. bovis antigen MPB70 induced the lowest percentages of responders. One of the subjects subsequently developed extrapulmonary tuberculosis; this individual had a 15-mm-diameter reaction to the Mantoux test and responded to M. tuberculosis PPD, Ag85, MPT64, and ESAT-6 but not to any of the leprosy antigens. We conclude that in this rural African population, exposure to M. tuberculosis or M. bovis is much less frequent than exposure to environmental mycobacteria such as M. avium, which have antigens homologous to the M. leprae 35-kDa and 18-kDa antigens. M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 showed the strongest association with the size of the Mantoux skin test induration, suggesting that among the three M. tuberculosis antigens tested it provided the best indication of exposure to, or infection with, M. tuberculosis. PMID:12853392

  6. Expression of the Mycobacterium bovis P36 gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis and the baculovirus/insect cell system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bigi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated different systems for the expression of mycobacterial antigen P36 secreted by Mycobacterium bovis. P36 was detected by Western blot using a specific antiserum. The P36 gene was initially expressed in E. coli, under the control of the T7 promoter, but severe proteolysis prevented its purification. We then tried to express P36 in M. smegmatis and insect cells. For M. smegmatis, we used three different plasmid vectors differing in copy number and in the presence of a promoter for expression of heterologous proteins. P36 was detected in the cell extract and culture supernatant in both expression systems and was recognized by sera from M. bovis-infected cattle. To compare the expression level and compartmentalization, the MPB70 antigen was also expressed. The highest production was reached in insect cell supernatants. In conclusion, M. smegmatis and especially the baculovirus expression system are good choices for the production of proteins from pathogenic mycobacteria for the development of mycobacterial vaccines and diagnostic reagents.

  7. Expression of the Mycobacterium bovis P36 gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis and the baculovirus/insect cell system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Bigi; O., Taboga; M.I., Romano; A., Alito; J.C., Fisanotti; A.A., Cataldi.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated different systems for the expression of mycobacterial antigen P36 secreted by Mycobacterium bovis. P36 was detected by Western blot using a specific antiserum. The P36 gene was initially expressed in E. coli, under the control of the T7 promoter, but severe proteoly [...] sis prevented its purification. We then tried to express P36 in M. smegmatis and insect cells. For M. smegmatis, we used three different plasmid vectors differing in copy number and in the presence of a promoter for expression of heterologous proteins. P36 was detected in the cell extract and culture supernatant in both expression systems and was recognized by sera from M. bovis-infected cattle. To compare the expression level and compartmentalization, the MPB70 antigen was also expressed. The highest production was reached in insect cell supernatants. In conclusion, M. smegmatis and especially the baculovirus expression system are good choices for the production of proteins from pathogenic mycobacteria for the development of mycobacterial vaccines and diagnostic reagents.

  8. Mucosal Immunity in Mycobacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tja?rnlund, Anna

    2007-01-01

    More than a century after the identification of the tubercle bacillus and the first attempts at vaccination, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of the world’s most serious infectious diseases. TB, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is typically a disease of the lung, which serves both as port of entry and as the major site of disease manifestation. The currently used vaccine, BCG, is administered parenterally and induces a systemic immune response. However, it fails to pro...

  9. Infecciones micobacterianas en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en Cali, Colombia / Mycobacterial infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Cali, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María del Pilar, Crespo; Raúl, Heli Corral; Alberto, Alzate; Gabriel, Carrasquilla; Nory, Sánchez.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la prevalencia de las infecciones por micobacterias en una muestra de 155 individuos infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) tratados en el Instituto de los Seguros Sociales (ISS) de Cali, Colombia. Se les realizó la prueba de la tuberculina (PPD 2UT RT23) y se inve [...] stigó activamente la presencia de micobacterias mediante microscopia directa y cultivo de sangre, orina, heces y aspirado gástrico; cuando así lo indicó el cuadro clínico, también se examinaron y cultivaron muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo, médula ósea y esputo. La ausencia de reactividad a la tuberculina fue significativamente más frecuente en los pacientes que en los controles (91,3%, frente a 57,4%. ji² = 33; P = 0). La prevalencia de la tuberculosis fue de 6,5%, en comparación con 0,04% en los afiliados al ISS VIH-negativos (intervalo de confianza binomial exacto de 95%: 0,0313 a 0,1154%). Las micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT), presentes en 43 pacientes, fueron significativamente más frecuentes que Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27,7% frente a 6,5%. ji² = 24,78; P = 0,000 001), pero solo fueron causa de enfermedad en algunos casos. Las especies más frecuentes fueron las del complejo M. avium-intracellulare. M. avium-intracellulare y M. fortuitum tuvieron una prevalencia total de 7,1% y fueron las MNT de mayor prevalencia como causantes de enfermedad en estos pacientes (4,5%); además fueron responsables de tres casos de infección diseminada. La enfermedad clínica por M. tuberculosis o MNT y la anergia completa a la tuberculina se asociaron al estadio IV de la infección por VIH y a los recuentos de linfocitos CD4 Abstract in english The prevalence of mycobacterial infections was determined in a sample of 155 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were treated in the Social Security Institute (SSI) of Cali, Colombia. A tuberculin test (2 TU PPD RT23) was used, and the presence of mycobacteria was checke [...] d through direct microscopy and culturing blood, urine, feces, and gastric aspirate. When clinically indicated, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, bone marrow, and sputum were also examined and cultivated. The absence of reactivity to tuberculin was significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls (91.3%, compared to 57.4%; chi² = 33, P = 0). The prevalence of tuberculosis was 6.5%, in comparison with 0.04% among a group of HIV-negative ISS members (exact binomial 95% confidence interval: 0.0313% to 0.1154%). Non- tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), present in 43 patients, were significantly more frequent than Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.7%, versus 6.5%; chi² = 24.78, P = 0.000 001), but they caused illness only in some cases. The most common species were those of the M. avium-intracellulare complex. M. avium-intracellulare and M. fortuitum had a total prevalence of 7.1% and were the most-prevalent NTM that caused disease in these patients (4.5%); they were also responsible for three cases of disseminated infection. Clinical disease caused by M. tuberculosis or NTM and complete tuberculin anergy were associated with stage-IV HIV infection and with CD4 lymphocyte counts

  10. É possível uma vacina gênica auxiliar no controle da tuberculose? / Could a DNA vaccine be useful in the control of tuberculosis?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Maciel, Rodrigues Júnior; Karla de Melo, Lima; Arlete Aparecida Martins Coelho, Castelo; Vânia Luiza Deperon Bonato, Martins; Sandra Aparecida dos, Santos; Lucia Helena, Faccioli; Célio Lopes, Silva.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vacinas de DNA, ainda em fase de experimentação e testes clínicos, podem se tornar uma importante ferramenta de combate a doenças infecciosas para as quais, até hoje, não existe prevenção segura e eficaz, como a tuberculose. Nos últimos anos vários estudos têm sido dedicados ao desenvolvimento de va [...] cinas de DNA que codificam proteínas de micobactérias, entre as quais destacam-se as que codificam o antígeno 85 (Ag 85) e a proteína de choque térmico de 65 kDa (hsp65). Estes dois antígenos foram os mais estudados apresentando resultados bastante satisfatórios em ensaios pré-clínicos e com grande volume de dados registrados na literatura. Além de proteger contra infecção experimental por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulenta, a vacina DNA-hsp65 também apresenta atividade terapêutica, ou seja, é capaz de curar os animais previamente infectados, inclusive aqueles com bacilos resistentes a múltiplas drogas. Esta vacina, hoje em avaliação clínica no Brasil também para o tratamento de câncer, é capaz de induzir a produção de citocinas de padrão Th1 tal como IFN- interferon-gama, associadas ao controle da doença. Além disso, a vacina de DNA-hsp65 é capaz de estimular clones de células CD8 citotóxicos e CD4 que podem ser caracterizados como células de memória sendo responsáveis por conferir imunidade duradoura contra a infecção. Quando utilizada na terapia da infecção, a vacina de DNA-hsp65 faz com que haja uma mudança no padrão de resposta imune, induzindo a secreção de citocinas de padrão Th1 criando um ambiente favorável à erradicação do bacilo. Os resultados demonstram ainda que a via de administração e a formulação na qual a vacina é administrada exerce fundamental influência no padrão e duração da resposta imune desencadeada. O conjunto de resultados hoje disponíveis mostra que uma vacina de DNA contra a tuberculose contribuirá de maneira significativa no controle desta doença. Abstract in english The DNA vaccines currently under pre-clinical and clinical development may prove to be important tools in combating infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, for which no safe and effective form of prevention has yet been developed. In recent years, several studies have aimed to develop a DNA vacci [...] ne encoding mycobacterial proteins such as antigen 85 (Ag85) and the 65-kDa mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp65). The latter is protective against virulent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including multidrug-resistant strains). The hsp65 DNA vaccine, currently under clinical evaluation in Brazil for cancer therapy, is able to induce the secretion of Th1 cytokines, such as gamma-interferon, associated with disease control. Furthermore, this vaccine stimulates cytotoxic CD8 and CD4 T-cell clones that can be characterized as memory cells, which are responsible for effective and long-lasting immunity against tuberculosis. When used as a therapeutic agent in inoculated mice, the hsp65 DNA vaccine promotes changes in the immunity profile, triggering the secretion of Th1 cytokines and establishing a favorable environment for the elimination of bacilli. The results also demonstrate that the route of administration, as well as the formulation in which the vaccine is administered, fundamentally influence the pattern and duration of the immune response induced. Taking all currently available data into account, we can conclude that a DNA vaccine against tuberculosis could contribute significantly to the control of the disease.

  11. É possível uma vacina gênica auxiliar no controle da tuberculose? Could a DNA vaccine be useful in the control of tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maciel Rodrigues Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacinas de DNA, ainda em fase de experimentação e testes clínicos, podem se tornar uma importante ferramenta de combate a doenças infecciosas para as quais, até hoje, não existe prevenção segura e eficaz, como a tuberculose. Nos últimos anos vários estudos têm sido dedicados ao desenvolvimento de vacinas de DNA que codificam proteínas de micobactérias, entre as quais destacam-se as que codificam o antígeno 85 (Ag 85 e a proteína de choque térmico de 65 kDa (hsp65. Estes dois antígenos foram os mais estudados apresentando resultados bastante satisfatórios em ensaios pré-clínicos e com grande volume de dados registrados na literatura. Além de proteger contra infecção experimental por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulenta, a vacina DNA-hsp65 também apresenta atividade terapêutica, ou seja, é capaz de curar os animais previamente infectados, inclusive aqueles com bacilos resistentes a múltiplas drogas. Esta vacina, hoje em avaliação clínica no Brasil também para o tratamento de câncer, é capaz de induzir a produção de citocinas de padrão Th1 tal como IFN- interferon-gama, associadas ao controle da doença. Além disso, a vacina de DNA-hsp65 é capaz de estimular clones de células CD8 citotóxicos e CD4 que podem ser caracterizados como células de memória sendo responsáveis por conferir imunidade duradoura contra a infecção. Quando utilizada na terapia da infecção, a vacina de DNA-hsp65 faz com que haja uma mudança no padrão de resposta imune, induzindo a secreção de citocinas de padrão Th1 criando um ambiente favorável à erradicação do bacilo. Os resultados demonstram ainda que a via de administração e a formulação na qual a vacina é administrada exerce fundamental influência no padrão e duração da resposta imune desencadeada. O conjunto de resultados hoje disponíveis mostra que uma vacina de DNA contra a tuberculose contribuirá de maneira significativa no controle desta doença.The DNA vaccines currently under pre-clinical and clinical development may prove to be important tools in combating infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, for which no safe and effective form of prevention has yet been developed. In recent years, several studies have aimed to develop a DNA vaccine encoding mycobacterial proteins such as antigen 85 (Ag85 and the 65-kDa mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp65. The latter is protective against virulent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including multidrug-resistant strains. The hsp65 DNA vaccine, currently under clinical evaluation in Brazil for cancer therapy, is able to induce the secretion of Th1 cytokines, such as gamma-interferon, associated with disease control. Furthermore, this vaccine stimulates cytotoxic CD8 and CD4 T-cell clones that can be characterized as memory cells, which are responsible for effective and long-lasting immunity against tuberculosis. When used as a therapeutic agent in inoculated mice, the hsp65 DNA vaccine promotes changes in the immunity profile, triggering the secretion of Th1 cytokines and establishing a favorable environment for the elimination of bacilli. The results also demonstrate that the route of administration, as well as the formulation in which the vaccine is administered, fundamentally influence the pattern and duration of the immune response induced. Taking all currently available data into account, we can conclude that a DNA vaccine against tuberculosis could contribute significantly to the control of the disease.

  12. [Mycobacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium in allogenic bone marrow transplant recipient with concomittant bronchiolitis obliterans as a manifestation of graft versus host disease - case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraczewska, Agnieszka; Kempisty, Anna; Ku?, Jan; Bartosiewicz, Ma?gorzata

    2008-01-01

    Patients after organ transplantations are at risk for mycobacteriosis development. Frequency of the mycobacterial infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is not as high as one could expect. It ranges from 0.4 to 4.9%. We present a case of a female patient after allogenic BMT as a treatment of chronic myelogenous leucaemia, with bronchiolitis obliterans as a symptom of graft versus host disease (GvHD), treated with corticosteroids and infected with Mycobacterium avium. She was admitted to the hospital with dyspnoea, cough with large amount of sputum production and subfebrile status. She had partial respiratory insufficiency and obturative disturbances of respiration (FEV(1) 0.67 l i.e. 22% of normal) with decline of VC (2.23 l i.e. 64% of normal). The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed multifocal infiltrations and bronchiectases in the upper and middle pulmonary fields, which were absent in the previous HRCT taken 3 years earlier. In the bronchial secretion acid-fast bacilli were found by smear and culture. The isolate was classified as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The patient was treated with clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, isoniazide (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin, but M. avium was still present in the sputum after 3 months. Treatment was continued in her parent hospital, where after a few months her sputum became negative for M. avium. But she died over a year later from progressive respiratory insufficiency in the course of bronchiolitis obliterans. The patient was in the group of high risk for mycobacterial infection development and the course of her illness was typical. We decided however to present the case as the topic seems to be quite neglected in the literature. PMID:18464226

  13. Processing and presentation of a mycobacterial antigen 85B epitope by murine macrophages is dependent on the phagosomal acquisition of vacuolar proton ATPase and in situ activation of cathepsin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Christopher R; Moulton, Rachel A; Armitige, Lisa Y; Bidani, Akhil; Snuggs, Mark; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Hunter, Robert L; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2006-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37Rv) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine inhibit phagosome maturation in macrophages and their effect on processing, and presentation of a secreted Ag85 complex B protein, Ag85B, by mouse macrophages was analyzed. Macrophages were infected with GFP-expressing mycobacterial strains and analyzed for in situ localization of vacuolar proton ATPase (v-ATPase) and cathepsin D (Cat D) using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. H37Rv and BCG phagosomes excluded the v-ATPase and maintained neutral pH while the attenuated H37Ra strain acquired v-ATPase and acidified. Mycobacterial phagosomes acquired Cat D, although strains BCG and H37Rv phagosomes contained the inactive 46-kDa form, whereas H37Ra phagosomes had the active 30-kDa form. Infected macrophages were overlaid with a T cell hybridoma specific for an Ag85B epitope complexed with MHC class II. Coincident with active Cat D, H37Ra-infected macrophages presented the epitope to T cells inducing IL-2, whereas H37Rv- and BCG-infected macrophages were less efficient in IL-2 induction. Bafilomycin inhibited the induction of macrophage-induced IL-2 from T cells indicating that v-ATPase was essential for macrophage processing of Ag85B. Furthermore, the small interfering RNA interference of Cat D synthesis resulted in a marked decrease in the levels of macrophage-induced IL-2. Thus, a v-ATPase-dependent phagosomal activation of Cat D was required for the generation of an Ag85B epitope by macrophages. Reduced processing of Ag85B by H37Rv- and BCG-infected macrophages suggests that phagosome maturation arrest interferes with the efficient processing of Ags in macrophages. Because Ag85B is immunodominant, this state may lead to a decreased ability of the wild-type as well as the BCG vaccine to induce protective immunity. PMID:16920965

  14. Peptide nucleic acid probe detection of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes associated with drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, L E; Li, Z; Nguyen, N Y; Van Houten, K A; Brennan, M J; Langone, J J; Morris, S L

    2002-03-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious public health problem. Many of the specific gene mutations that cause drug resistance in M. tuberculosis are point mutations. We are developing a PCR-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based ELISA as a diagnostic method to recognize point mutations in genes associated with isoniazid and rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis. Specific point mutation-containing sequences and wild-type sequences of cloned mycobacterial genes were PCR-amplified, denatured, and hybridized with PNA probes bound to microplate wells. Using 15-base PNA probes, we established the hybridization temperatures (50 degrees C-55 degrees C) and other experimental conditions suitable for detecting clinically relevant point mutations in the katG and rpoB genes. Hybridization of PCR-amplified sequences that contained these point mutations with complementary mutation-specific PNAs resulted in significant increases in ELISA response compared with hybridization using wild-type-specific PNAs. Conversely, PCR-amplified wild-type sequences hybridized much more efficiently with wild-type PNAs than with the mutation-specific PNAs. Using the M. tuberculosis cloned genes and PCR-PNA-ELISA format developed here, M. tuberculosis sequences containing point mutations associated with drug resistance can be identified in less than 24 h. PMID:11926172

  15. Gene Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrai, Carmelo; Castro, Ine?s Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defin...

  16. Gene Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This animation shows the three gene coding regions. This is the fourth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Cloning. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Modification.)

  17. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  18. Identification of an Emerging Pathogen, Mycobacterium massiliense, by rpoB Sequencing of Clinical Isolates Collected in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Simmon, Keith E.; Pounder, June I.; Greene, John N.; Walsh, Frank; Anderson, Clint M.; Cohen, Samuel; Petti, Cathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium massiliense is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that is indistinguishable from Mycobacterium chelonae/M. abscessus by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sequenced rpoB, sodA, and hsp65 genes from isolates previously identified as being M. chelonae/M. abscessus and identified M. massiliense from isolates from two patients with invasive disease representing the first reported cases in the United States.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in TNF genes and tuberculosis in North Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary tuberculosis, the most common clinical form of mycobacterial diseases, is a granulomatous disease of the lungs caused by Mycobaterium tuberculosis. A number of genes have been identified in studies of diverse origins to be important in tuberculosis. Of these, both tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and lymphotoxin ? (LT-? play important immunoregulatory roles. Methods To investigate the association of TNF polymorphisms with tuberculosis in the Asian Indians, we genotyped five potentially functional promoter polymorphisms in the TNFA gene and a LTA_NcoI polymorphism (+252 position of the LTA gene in a clinically well-defined cohort of North-Indian patients with tuberculosis (N = 185 and their regional controls (N = 155. Serum TNF-? (sTNF-? levels were measured and correlated with genotypes and haplotypes. Results The comparison of the allele frequencies for the various loci investigated revealed no significant differences between the tuberculosis patients and controls. Also, when the patients were sub-grouped into minimal, moderately advanced and far advanced disease on the basis of chest radiographs, TST and the presence/absence of cavitary lesions, none of the polymorphisms showed a significant association with any of the patient sub-groups. Although a significant difference was observed in the serum TNF-? levels in the patients and the controls, none of the investigated polymorphisms were found to affect the sTNF-? levels. Interestingly, it was observed that patients with minimal severity were associated with lower log sTNF-? levels when compared to the patients with moderately advanced and far advanced severity. However, none of these differences were found to be statistically significant. Furthermore, when haplotypes were analyzed, no significant difference was observed. Conclusions Thus, our findings exclude the TNF genes as major risk factor for tuberculosis in the North Indians.

  20. lspA gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-transcribes with Rv1540 and induced by surface and acidic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rakesh; Rathor, Nisha; Garima, Kushal; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Singh, Pooja; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula

    2015-04-10

    Lipoprotein signal peptidase, lspA (Rv1539), is the only known gene in mycobacterial genome for cleaving the signal sequence from prolipoprotein to form mature lipoprotein. It has been implicated in maintaining the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The regulation of lspA had not been studied so far. Here, we identify a novel operon lspA-Rv1540 in M. tuberculosis. We detected co-transcription of the open reading frames of lspA-Rv1540 in in-vitro as well as in ex-vivo conditions. Analysis of the sequence upstream to lspA revealed a strong promoter activity that was shown to be induced significantly by surface stress and acidic environment. PMID:25644771

  1. Perspective on sequence evolution of microsatellite locus (CCGn in Rv0050 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ruiliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycobacterial genome is inclined to polymerase slippage and a high mutation rate in microsatellite regions due to high GC content and absence of a mismatch repair system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying microsatellite variation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mutation events in the hyper-variable trinucleotide microsatellite locus MML0050 located in the Rv0050 gene of W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in order to gain insight into the genomic structure and activity of repeated regions. Results Size analysis indicated the presence of five alleles that differed in length by three base pairs. Moreover, nucleotide gains occurred more frequently than loses in this trinucleotide microsatellite. Mutation frequency was not completely related with the total length, though the relative frequency in the longest allele was remarkably higher than that in the shortest. Sequence analysis was able to detect seven alleles and revealed that point mutations enhanced the level of locus variation. Introduction of an interruptive motif correlated with the total allele length and genetic lineage, rather than the length of the longest stretch of perfect repeats. Finally, the level of locus variation was drastically different between the two genetic lineages. Conclusion The Rv0050 locus encodes the bifunctional penicillin-binding protein ponA1 and is essential to mycobacterial survival. Our investigations of this particularly dynamic genomic region provide insights into the overall mode of microsatellite evolution. Specifically, replication slippage was implicated in the mutational process of this microsatellite and a sequence-based genetic analysis was necessary to determine that point mutation events acted to maintain microsatellite size integrity while providing genomic diversity.

  2. Ulcera lingual como signo único de infección recurrente por micobacteria en un paciente con VIH/SIDA / Lingual ulcer as the only sign of recurrent mycobacterial infection in an HIV/AIDS-infected patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Velia, Ramírez Amador; Gabriela, Anaya Saavedra; Imelda, González Ramírez; Juan Luis, Mosqueda Gómez; Lilly, Esquivel Pedraza; Edgardo, Reyes Gutiérrez; Juan, Sierra Madero.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un paciente con VIH/SIDA en el que se identificó una infección por micobacteria en la mucosa bucal, probablemente tuberculosis, en un centro de referencia para VIH/SIDA de la Ciudad de México. El propósito del presente informe es describir los hallazgos clínicos e histológicos en un paci [...] ente con VIH/SIDA, quien después de haber sido tratado exitosamente para tuberculosis ganglionar 4 años antes, presentó una úlcera lingual como único signo que sugirió recurrencia de infección por micobacteria, probablemente tuberculosis. Hombre de 39 años de edad, atendido desde 1991 en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", por el diagnóstico de infección con VIH. En 1999, el paciente presentó tuberculosis ganglionar, recibiendo tratamiento antifímico con involución de las adenopatías y desaparición de los síntomas sistémicos. En mayo del 2003 acudió a consulta por presentar una úlcera superficial en lengua, dolorosa, de 4 meses de evolución, de 0.7 cm. de diámetro, bien circunscrita, crateriforme, con bordes ligeramente elevados, irregulares e indurados. El estudio histopatológico mostró inflamación granulomatosa crónica con células gigantes multinucleadas sugestivas de infección por micobacteria, lo cual hizo pensar en recurrencia de tuberculosis, por lo que se indicó rifampicina, pirazinamida, etambutol y estreptomicina. En junio del 2003 el paciente inició TARAA, que incluyó dos ITRAN y un ITRNN. La lesión lingual evolucionó favorablemente, con cicatrización parcial a la primera semana y remisión total a los 45 días del inicio del tratamiento antifímico; a los 7 meses de seguimiento permanece sin lesión. El presente caso tiene la particularidad de que la úlcera lingual fue la única manifestación de infección por micobacteria, sugestiva de tuberculosis, en un paciente con VIH/SIDA, que pudo ocurrir como resultado de la recurrencia del episodio previo de TB ganglionar. Abstract in english The report describes an HIV/AIDS patient seen at a referral center in Mexico City, in whom a mycobacterial infection in the oral mucosa, probably tuberculosis (TB) was identified. The purpose is to describe the clinical and histological findings in an HIV-infected patient, who after being treated su [...] ccessfully for tuberculous lymphangitis 4 years ago, presented with a lingual ulcer as the only suggestive sign of recurrence of mycobacterial infection, probably M. tuberculosis. A 39-year-old man seen inthe HIV clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" in Mexico City since 1991 for HIV infection. In 1999 the patient developed tuberculous lymphangitis; he was managed with a 4-drug regimen for 12 months, with improvement of local and systemic symptoms. In May of 2003, the patient presented a painful superficial lingual ulcer, 0.7 cm in diameter, well circumscribed, crateriform with slightly elevated, irregular and indurated borders, of 4 months duration. The histopathological examination showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with giant multinucleated cells, suggestive of mycobacterial infection, and recurrence of TB was considered. Rifampin, isoniazide, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin were administered. The lingual lesion improved with partial healing at the first week and total remission at 45 days after the beginning of the antituberculous treatment. In June, 2003, the patient began highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that included two NRTIs and one NNRTI. At 7 months of follow-up, the patient remains free of lingual lesions. The particularity of the present case is that the lingual ulcer was the only sign of infection by mycobacteria, suggestive of TB, in an HIV/AIDS patient that probably represented a recurrence of a previous episode.

  3. Enfermedades micobacterianas diseminadas en pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Evaluación de los hemocultivos por método rápido Disseminated mycobacterial infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. Evaluation of blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coitinho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mil cuarenta hemocultivos correspondientes a 451 enfermos uruguayos con SIDA y diagnóstico clínico de micobacteriosis diseminada fueron evaluados entre 1999 y 2003. Las muestras fueron procesadas en el Centro de Referencia Nacional para Micobacterias (Montevideo, Uruguay, utilizando el sistema de hemocultivos automatizado para micobacterias MB - BacT (BioMérieux. Se detectaron 45 muestras positivas (4,3% correspondientes a 26 enfermos (promedio 2,3 muestras por paciente. En 10/26 casos se identificó M. avium complex (MAC y en 13/26 el germen aislado fue M. tuberculosis. El tiempo medio de incubación fue de 12,4 días (intervalo 6-19 días para MAC y de 22,6 días (intervalo 7-35 días para M. tuberculosis. El hemocultivo ha demostrado ser la mejor muestra para la confirmación bacteriológica de las enfermedades micobacterianas diseminadas cuando se estudian por lo menos 2 muestras por paciente. La frecuencia de aislamientos de M. tuberculosis y MAC aislados en pacientes con SIDA en Uruguay, corresponde a la de un país con una moderada prevalencia de tuberculosis.One thousand-forty blood cultures corresponding to 451 Uruguayan patients with AIDS and clinic diagnosis of disseminated mycobacterial infection were evaluated between 1999 and 2003. Samples were processed in the NationalReferenceCenter for Mycobacteria (Montevideo, Uruguay, using the automated blood culture system for mycobacteria MB -BacT (BioMérieux. Forty-five positive samples were detected (4.3% corresponding to 26 patients with AIDS (average 2.3 samples per patient. In 10/26 patients M. avium complex (MAC was identified and in 13/26 the isolated germ was M. tuberculosis. The average time of incubation was of 12.4 days (range 6-19 days for MAC and of 22.6 days (range 7-35 days for M. tuberculosis. Blood culture has demonstrated to be the best sample for the bacteriological confirmation of the disseminated mycobacterial infections when at least 2 samples by patient are studied. The frequency of isolates of M. tuberculosis and MAC in AIDS patients is according with a moderate prevalence of tuberculosis in Uruguay.

  4. Gene Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A basic depiction of the steps in gene cloning. This is the third of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to DNA and DNA Extraction. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Regions.)

  5. Gene Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)

  6. Trichoderma genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  7. Clinical and laboratory features of Mycobacterium porcinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Richard J; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wilson, Rebecca W; Mann, Linda; Hall, Leslie; Zhang, Yansheng; Jost, Kenneth C; Brown, June M; Kabani, Amin; Schinsky, Mark F; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Crist, Christopher J; Roberts, Glenn D; Blacklock, Zeta; Tsukamura, Michio; Silcox, Vella; Turenne, Christine

    2004-12-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown Mycobacterium porcinum, recovered from cases of lymphadenitis in swine, to have complete 16S rDNA sequence identity and >70% DNA-DNA homology with human isolates within the M. fortuitum third biovariant complex. We identified 67 clinical and two environmental isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant sorbitol-negative group, of which 48 (70%) had the same PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profile as the hsp65 gene of M. porcinum (ATCC 33776(T)) and were studied in more detail. Most U.S. patient isolates were from Texas (44%), Florida (19%), or other southern coastal states (15%). Clinical infections included wound infections (62%), central catheter infections and/or bacteremia (16%), and possible pneumonitis (18%). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (1,463 bp) showed 100% identity with M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T). Sequencing of 441 bp of the hsp65 gene showed four sequevars that differed by 2 to 3 bp from the porcine strains. Clinical isolates were positive for arylsulfatase activity at 3 days, nitrate, iron uptake, D-mannitol, i-myo-inositol, and catalase at 68 degrees C. They were negative for L-rhamnose and D-glucitol (sorbitol). Clinical isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid and susceptible or intermediate to cefoxitin, clarithromycin, imipenem, and amikacin. M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T) gave similar results except for being nitrate negative. These studies showed almost complete phenotypic and molecular identity between clinical isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant D-sorbitol-negative group and porcine strains of M. porcinum and confirmed that they belong to the same species. Identification of M. porcinum presently requires hsp65 gene PRA or 16S rRNA or hsp65 gene sequencing. PMID:15583300

  8. A second endolysin gene is fully embedded in-frame with the lysA gene of mycobacteriophage Ms6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalão, Maria João; Milho, Catarina; Gil, Filipa; Moniz-Pereira, José; Pimentel, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteriophages are dsDNA viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts. The mycobacteriophage Ms6 accomplishes lysis by producing two cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, Lysin A (LysA) that possesses a central peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) super-family conserved domain with the amidase catalytic site, that cleaves the amide bond between the N-acetylmuramic acid and L-alanine residues in the oligopeptide crosslinking chains of the peptidoglycan and Lysin B (LysB) a mycolylarabinogalactan esterase that hydrolyzes the mycolic acids from the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex. Examination of the endolysin (lysA) DNA sequence revealed the existence of an embedded gene (lysA(241)) encoded in the same reading frame and preceded by a consensus ribosome-binding site. In the present work we show that, even though lysA is essential for Ms6 viability, phage mutants that express only the longer (Lysin(384)) or the shorter (Lysin(241)) endolysin are viable, but defective in the normal timing, progression and completion of host cell lysis. In addition, both endolysins have peptidoglycan hydrolase activity and demonstrated broad growth inhibition activity against various gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria. PMID:21694774

  9. Characterization of the first report of Mycobacterium timonense infecting an HIV patient in an Ecuadorian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Ortega-Paredes, D; Mora, M; Espinel, N; Parra, H; Febres, L; Zurita-Salinas, C

    2014-12-01

    Mycobacterium timonense is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) described in southern France in 2009, and to our knowledge, not reported again as a human pathogen in indexed literature. The aim of this work was to characterize the first clinical isolate of M. timonense in Ecuador. Time of growth, biochemical tests, thin layer growth test, PCR-RFLP analysis of the hsp65 gene and MALDI-TOF spectra analysis were not able to identify the species. The species identification was achieved through sequencing of rrs, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The results highlight the necessity to set up a sequencing method to identify emerging NTM in Ecuadorian clinical facilities. PMID:24813256

  10. Key Hub and Bottleneck Genes Differentiate the Macrophage Response to Virulent and Attenuated Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick, Kate E.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Taraktsoglou, Maria; Browne, John A.; Conlon, Kevin M.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Hokamp, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tuberculosis in cattle. Following infection, the pathogen resides and persists inside host macrophages by subverting host immune responses via a diverse range of mechanisms. Here, a high-density bovine microarray platform was used to examine the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome response to M. bovis infection relative to infection with the attenuated vaccine strain, M. bovis Bacille Calmette–Guérin. Differentially expressed genes were identified (adjusted P-value ?0.01) and interaction networks generated across an infection time course of 2, 6, and 24?h. The largest number of biological interactions was observed in the 24-h network, which exhibited scale-free network properties. The 24-h network featured a small number of key hub and bottleneck gene nodes, including IKBKE, MYC, NFKB1, and EGR1 that differentiated the macrophage response to virulent and attenuated M. bovis strains, possibly via the modulation of host cell death mechanisms. These hub and bottleneck genes represent possible targets for immuno-modulation of host macrophages by virulent mycobacterial species that enable their survival within a hostile environment. PMID:25324841

  11. Development of a Real-Time qPCR Method for Detection and Enumeration of Mycobacterium spp. in Surface Water ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Radomski, Nicolas; Lucas, Franc?oise S.; Moilleron, Re?gis; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Haenn, Sophie; Moulin, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR method was developed for the detection and enumeration of Mycobacterium spp. from environmental samples and was compared to two other methods already described. The results showed that our method, targeting 16S rRNA, was more specific than the two previously published real-time quantitative PCR methods targeting another 16S rRNA locus and the hsp65 gene (100% versus 44% and 91%, respectively).

  12. An Outbreak of Keratitis Caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Junior, Doraldo Nassar; Freitas, Denise; Ho?fling-lima, Ana Luisa; Miyashiro, Kozue; Alberto, Fernando Lopes; Lea?o, Sylvia Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    From 8 October to 12 November 2003, 36 patients underwent surgical correction of myopia in a São Paulo, Brazil, clinic. Five patients had clinical signs of infectious keratitis, and a Mycobacterium species with previously unreported patterns determined by PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was isolated from corneal scrapings from four of these patients. Subsequent evaluation by phenotypic...

  13. Gene Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-08

    This interactive activity adapted from the University of Nebraska's Library of Crop Technologies details the steps involved in producing clones of genes that can then be used to transform the characteristics of an organism.

  14. Use of sequence microdivergence in mycobacterial ortholog to analyze contributions of the water-activating loop histidine of Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase in reactant binding and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung), a DNA repair enzyme, pioneers uracil excision repair pathway. Structural determinations and mutational analyses of the Ung class of proteins have greatly facilitated our understanding of the mechanism of uracil excision from DNA. More recently, a hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular mechanical analysis revealed that while the histidine (H67 in EcoUng) of the GQDPYH motif (? loop) in the active site pocket is important in positioning the reactants, it makes an unfavorable energetic contribution (penalty) in achieving the transition state intermediate. Mutational analysis of this histidine is unavailable from any of the Ung class of proteins. A complication in demonstrating negative role of a residue, especially when located within the active site pocket, is that the mutants with enhanced activity are rarely obtained. Interestingly, unlike the most Ung proteins, the H67 equivalent in the ? loop in mycobacterial Ung is represented by P67. Exploiting this natural diversity to maintain structural integrity of the active site, we transplanted an H67P mutation in EcoUng. Uracil inhibition assays and binding of a proteinaceous inhibitor, Ugi (a transition state substrate mimic), with the mutant (H67P) revealed that its active site pocket was not perturbed. The catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) of the mutant was similar to that of the wild type Ung. However, the mutant showed increased Km and Vmax. Togethesub>m and Vmax. Together with the data from a double mutation H67P/G68T, these observations provide the first biochemical evidence for the proposed diverse roles of H67 in catalysis by Ung

  15. Characteristics of inpatients with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in a highly complex hospital in Colombia / Caracterización de pacientes hospitalizados con infecciones causadas por micobacterias no tuberculosas, en un hospital de alta complejidad en Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franco Eduardo, Montúfar; Camilo A., Madrid; María C., Montufar; Carolina, Aguilar; Carolina, Saldarriaga; Miguel A., Mesa; Alicia, Quiroga; Carlos E., Builes; John J., Zuleta; Olga L., Molina.

    2014-12-30

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Las infecciones por micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) se describen en los últimos años con mayor frecuencia, especialmente en pacientes con inmunosupresión y en pacientes tratados por procedimientos estéticos. Las MNT incluyen especies del género Mycobacterium , diferentes del comple [...] jo Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Mycobacterium leprae . Objetivo: Describir las características demográficas y clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados con infecciones por MNT. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Resultados: De 187 pacientes con infección por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo, 17 (9,1%) tuvieron infección por MNT. Edad promedio de 38,4 ± 19,2 años. El 58,82% fueron hombres. Las principales comorbilidades fueron VIH/sida (41,17%), diabetes mellitus (23,53%), enfermedad renal crónica (17,64%), terapia inmunosupresora (17,64%) y neoplasias (17,64%). En los coinfectados con VIH el recuento de CD4 fue Abstract in english Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections has been described more frequently in recent years, especially in immunosuppression conditions and after cosmetic surgical procedures. The NTM include species of the genus Mycobacterium , other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycob [...] acterium leprae. Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of Colombian in-patientswith NTM infections. Methodology: A retrospective descriptive study. Results: In 187 patients with culture- confirmed mycobacterial infection, 17 (9,1%) had NTM.The mean age was 38,4 ± 19,2 and 58,82% were men. Major comorbidities were: HIV/AIDS(41,1%), diabetes mellitus (23,5%), chronic renal disease (17,6%), immunosuppressive therapy(17,6%) and neoplasms (17,6%). In patients co-infected with HIV, CD4 count was

  16. Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro / Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Ana Grazia, Marsico; Gisele Betzler de Oliveira, Vieira; Luciana Fonseca, Sobral; Philip Noel, Suffys; Leila de Souza, Fonseca.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2001 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Durante o período do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de sítios estéreis de 14 pacientes, a maior [...] ia HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificação fenotípica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, análise por enzimas de restrição por PCR do gene hsp65). RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores proporções. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de PRA, um método relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas características fenotípicas pode fornecer a identificação correta de MNT na rotina de laboratórios clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites o [...] f 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  17. Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves Senna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2001 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Durante o período do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de sítios estéreis de 14 pacientes, a maioria HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificação fenotípica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, análise por enzimas de restrição por PCR do gene hsp65. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores proporções. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de PRA, um método relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas características fenotípicas pode fornecer a identificação correta de MNT na rotina de laboratórios clínicos.OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites of 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA. RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  18. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  19. Deep stromal mycobacterial keratitis: viable bacteria after six months of treatment: case report and literature review / Ceratite estromal profunda por micobactéria: bactéria viável após seis meses de tratamento: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Filipe Accioly de, Gusmão; Lênio, Alvarenga; Luciene, Barbosa; Jorge, Sampaio; Sylvia Cardoso, Leão; Ana Luisa, Hofling-Lima; Denise de, Freitas.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do caso é descrever a presença de micobactérias viáveis em pacientes com ceratite, 6 meses após tratamento intensivo. A identificação de espécies, foi efetuada usando método PRA (polymerase chain reaction seguida pela restriction endonuclease analysis). Clonalidade foi avaliada pelos méto [...] dos RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) e ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus - polymerase chain reaction). Paciente refere trauma com corpo estranho metálico há 3 semanas. A cultura da córnea revelou Mycobacterium abscessus. Após 6 meses de tratamento tópico e sistêmico, paciente apresentava-se sem inflamação, sendo considerado clinicamente curado. Realizou-se então, uma ceratoplastia penetrante com intuitos ópticos. A cultura da córnea transplantada revelou micobactérias de mesma origem clonal. O achado mais interessante neste relato, foi a positividade da cultura da córnea transplantada após 6 meses de intenso tratamento específico. Ao nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro caso relatado na literatura mostrando essa possibilidade em tratamento de ceratites por micobactérias. Assim, os pacientes com ceratite por Mycobacterium abscessus podem apresentar bactérias viáveis após longo tempo de tratamento específico e precisam ser seguidos cuidadosamente por um longo período de tempo. Abstract in english To report the presence of viable mycobacteria in a patient with keratitis treated for 6 months. Species identification was performed using the PRA method (polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease analysis). Clonality was evaluated with RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) [...] and ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus - polymerase chain reaction) methods. The patient reported trauma due to a metallic foreign body 3 weeks prior to presentation. Initial corneal scraping cultures revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. After 6 months of topical and systemic treatment the patient presented with no active inflammation and was considered clinically cured. An optic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Culture of the excised cornea revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. Both isolates had the same clonal origin. The most interesting finding of this case report was the positive culture of the excised cornea after 6 months of intensive specific topical therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature showing this possibility in the treatment of Mycobacterial keratitis. Thus, Mycobacterium abscessus may present viable bacteria after long-term treatment and should be followed carefully for a long period of time after tapering the medication.

  20. Deep stromal mycobacterial keratitis: viable bacteria after six months of treatment: case report and literature review Ceratite estromal profunda por micobactéria: bactéria viável após seis meses de tratamento: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Accioly de Gusmão

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To report the presence of viable mycobacteria in a patient with keratitis treated for 6 months. Species identification was performed using the PRA method (polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Clonality was evaluated with RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus - polymerase chain reaction methods. The patient reported trauma due to a metallic foreign body 3 weeks prior to presentation. Initial corneal scraping cultures revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. After 6 months of topical and systemic treatment the patient presented with no active inflammation and was considered clinically cured. An optic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Culture of the excised cornea revealed Mycobacterium abscessus. Both isolates had the same clonal origin. The most interesting finding of this case report was the positive culture of the excised cornea after 6 months of intensive specific topical therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature showing this possibility in the treatment of Mycobacterial keratitis. Thus, Mycobacterium abscessus may present viable bacteria after long-term treatment and should be followed carefully for a long period of time after tapering the medication.O objetivo do caso é descrever a presença de micobactérias viáveis em pacientes com ceratite, 6 meses após tratamento intensivo. A identificação de espécies, foi efetuada usando método PRA (polymerase chain reaction seguida pela restriction endonuclease analysis. Clonalidade foi avaliada pelos métodos RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA e ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus - polymerase chain reaction. Paciente refere trauma com corpo estranho metálico há 3 semanas. A cultura da córnea revelou Mycobacterium abscessus. Após 6 meses de tratamento tópico e sistêmico, paciente apresentava-se sem inflamação, sendo considerado clinicamente curado. Realizou-se então, uma ceratoplastia penetrante com intuitos ópticos. A cultura da córnea transplantada revelou micobactérias de mesma origem clonal. O achado mais interessante neste relato, foi a positividade da cultura da córnea transplantada após 6 meses de intenso tratamento específico. Ao nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro caso relatado na literatura mostrando essa possibilidade em tratamento de ceratites por micobactérias. Assim, os pacientes com ceratite por Mycobacterium abscessus podem apresentar bactérias viáveis após longo tempo de tratamento específico e precisam ser seguidos cuidadosamente por um longo período de tempo.

  1. STRESS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS: MAY HSP60 BE THE MOLECULAR LINK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Lipari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In last decades, incidence of cardiovascular diseases is increased. Among them, atherosclerosis is one of the most commons. It is a disorder of in- flammation and innate immunity following lipid accumulation. From a bio- logic perspective, the process of adhesion and transmigration of immune cells (monocytes and macrophages across the endothelium is a crucial step for atherogenesis and mature plaque rupture. Moreover, there is a relationship between inflammation, infection, autoimmunity and athero- sclerosis. Inflammation has received increasing attention in recent years as a cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Autoimmune diseases are characterized by enhanced atherosclerosis. Humoral immune responses to mycobacterial Hsp65, as well as to human Hsp60 and oxLDL, have been established in a number of human autoimmune diseases and are considered to be significantly associated also with atherosclerosis.

  2. Gene Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Colvard

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

  3. Genes and Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Plans For Your Patients Donate Genes and Psoriasis Genes hold the key to understanding how the ... Are some genes linked to specific kinds of psoriasis? At the University of Utah, Drs. Gerald Krueger ...

  4. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chou Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major nontuberculousmycobacterium (NTM species and the outcome of their treatment insouthern Taiwan (a high-prevalence area for mycobacterium tuberculosis[MTB].Methods: The study was a retrospective review of patients with NTM pulmonary diseaseat the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2004 to 2005.The variables recorded and analyzed included demographics, particularly ageand gender; primary clinical presentations; chest radiographic findings; riskfactors; medication and outcome of treatment.Results: The study included 67 patients with NTM pulmonary disease. The averageage was 66.6 14.5 years and they were predominantly male (70.1%. Ofthese patients, 88.1% had pre-existing lung disease, with chronic obstructivepulmonary disease (61.2% and TB (58.2% as the main underlying lung diseases.Rapid-growth species (M. abscessus, 44.8% and M. fortuitum, 23.9%were the most commonly isolated species. Of the forty patients that weretreated and followed up for at least one year, 31 had a favorable outcome(mean duration of therapy, 8.46 2.96 months.Conclusions: The predominant species in southern Taiwan differ from those in other countriesas well as in northern Taiwan, with rapid-growth species predominatingin southern Taiwan.

  5. Detection of Mycobacterial DNA in Andean Mummies

    OpenAIRE

    Konomi, Nami; Lebwohl, Eve; Mowbray, Ken; Tattersall, Ian; Zhang, David

    2002-01-01

    The identification of genetic material from pathogenic organisms in ancient tissues provides a powerful tool for the study of certain infectious diseases in historic populations. We have obtained tissue samples from the genital areas of 12 mummies in the American Museum of Natural History collection in New York, N.Y. The mummies were excavated in the Andes Mountain region of South America, and radiocarbon dating estimates that the mummies date from a.d. 140 to 1200. DNAs were successfully ext...

  6. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2007-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the en...

  7. Mycobacterial Ecology of the Rio Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Christopher S.; Ireland, Jamie M.; Lozano, Eduardo; Alvarez, Maria E.; Primm, Todd P.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize the environmental conditions which contribute to the presence and proliferation of environmental mycobacteria in a major freshwater river. Over 20 different species of environmental mycobacteria were isolated, including the pathogenic M. avium and M. kansasii. Species of the rapidly growing M. fortuitum complex were the most commonly isolated mycobacteria, and one-third of all isolates were not identified at the species level, even by 16S sequencing. PC...

  8. Treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    In controlled clinical trials, several regimens have proven effective in treating tuberculosis. The drugs must be given in combination to avoid the emergence of resistant organisms. The simplest regimen is based on the administration of isoniazid and rifampin for 9 months. Ethambutol or streptomycin generally is added for an initial 2-8 weeks. Good results also have been reported using twice weekly administration of the isoniazid and rifampin after an initial 1 month of daily treatment. Relapse rates of less than 3% have been reported with these regimens. A table shows the recommended doses for the drugs. If neither isoniazid nor rifampin can be used, the patient needs to be given at least 2 and preferably 3 drugs to which his organisms are known to be susceptible. Additionally, these drugs must be administered for at least 18 months. Several circumstances are associated with a higher rate of drug resistant organisms and call for susceptibility studies: tuberculosis among individuals known to have a higher prevalence of drug resistance such as Asians or Hispanics; previous treatment; persistence of culture-positive sputum after 3 months of therapy; and exposure to drug resistant tuberculosis. The recommendations for the treatment regimen need to be changed in several special situations, including: infection with mycobacteria other than "M. tuberculosis;" tuberculosis in children; disease in organ systems other than the lungs; and the presence of certain patient characteristics, concurrent diseases, or the development of adverse drug reactions. Much scientific data supports the value of isoniazid (INH) in the prevention of tuberculosis. Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended for several groups, listed in order of priority: household members and other close associates of potentially infectious tuberculosis cases; newly infected persons; persons with significant reactions to tuberculin skin test and abnormal chest roentgenograms; persons with significant reactions to tuberculin skin tests who are in special clinical situations; and tuberculin skin test reactors under age 35 with none of the other risk factors. Prior to administration of INH preventive therapy, it is important to: exclude bacteriologically positive or progressive tuberculous disease; question for a history of prior INH administration to exclude those who have had a adequate course of the drug; check for contraindications to the administration of INH for preventive therapy; and identify patients for whom preventive therapy is not contraindicated but in whom special precautions are indicated. Other drugs might be effective for preventive therapy, but as yet there are currently no data available documenting the efficacy of any drug other than INH. PMID:6859666

  9. Preferential mycobacterial adsorption of radionuclides in filiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of Group IIA/IIIB cation adsorption by non-proliferative suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis in acidic medium show regular trends in percent adsorption and specific uptake of both ion types in the 90Sr/90Y filiation for carrier concentrations in the range 50-2000 ?M. In comparative measurements with the 47Ca/47Sc filiation, the corresponding adsorption of Sc3+ is consistently higher than that of Y3+, and both ions are preferentially adsorbed with respect to the divalent species Sr2+ and Ca2+. Ion separation efficiency in the Ca/Sc pair is more pronounced at lower concentrations and appears highest in the 100 ?M carrier region. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Ruptured mycobacterial aneurysm of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuy, SreyRam; Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan S; Baraniewski, Henryk; Lee, Cheong J

    2013-12-01

    Mycotic aneurysms resulting from intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment are exceptionally rare. We report on the case of a 73-year-old man who underwent intravesical therapy of BCG for bladder carcinoma and developed a right neck mass. A carotid pseudoaneurysm within a fibrotic mass was noted on surgical exploration. Radical resection was performed followed by a polytetrafluoroethylene interposition graft. Final pathology revealed necrotizing granulomas and multinucleated giant cells concerning for tuberculoma. Intravesicular BCG immunotherapy is an accepted treatment for patients with urothelial carcinoma. Carotid aneurysms are exceptionally rare in this setting and should prompt evaluation for systemic tuberculoid dissemination. PMID:24345739

  11. Plasmid instability when the hsp60 gene promoter is used to express the protective non-toxic fragment B of the diphtheria toxin in recombinant BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilzamar V. Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic modification of the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG to deliver a protective Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigen in vivo could be a safer and less costly alternative to the new and more expensive DTP vaccines available today, in particular to third world-countries. The stability of expression of heterologous antigens in BCG, however, is a major challenge to the use of live recombinant bacteria in vaccine development and appears to be dependent to a certain extent, on a genetic compatibility between the expression cassette within the plasmid construct and the mycobacterium host. In the quest for the best recombinant BCG transformant to express the dtb gene of C. diphtheriae we generated two new rBCG strains by transforming the Moreau substrain of BCG with the mycobacterial expression vectors pUS973 and pUS977, each one carrying a different promoter to drive the expression of the target antigen. After transformation recombinant BCG clones were selected on Middlebrook 7H10 kanamycin Agar plates, expanded in Middlebrook 7H9 kanamycin Broth and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the weak PAN promoter from M. paratuberculosis stably expressed the dtb gene. Conversely, rBCGs transformed with the construct carrying the strong mycobacterium hsp60 promoter were unstable and consequently unfit for the expression of the C. diphtheriae gene.

  12. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131rimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

  13. Absence of a functional erm gene in isolates of Mycobacterium immunogenum and the Mycobacterium mucogenicum group, based on in vitro clarithromycin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Hanson, Kimberly; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Nash, Kevin A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Parodi, Nicholas; Smith, Terry; Gee, Martha; Strong, Anita; Barker, Adam; Cohen, Samuel; Muir, Haleina; Slechta, E Susan; Wallace, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Macrolide resistance has been linked to the presence of a functional erythromycin ribosomal methylase (erm) gene in most species of pathogenic rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). For these Mycobacterium isolates, extended incubation in clarithromycin is necessary to determine macrolide susceptibility. In contrast, the absence of a detectable erm gene in isolates of M. chelonae, M. senegalense, and M. peregrinum and a nonfunctional erm gene in M. abscessus subsp. massiliense and 15% to 20% of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates renders these species intrinsically macrolide susceptible. Not all RGM species have been screened for the presence of an erm gene, including the Mycobacterium mucogenicum group (M. mucogenicum, M. phocaicum, and M. aubagnense) and Mycobacterium immunogenum. A total of 356 isolates of these two pathogenic RGM taxa from two reference laboratories (A.R.U.P. Reference Laboratories and the Mycobacteria/Nocardia Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler) underwent clarithromycin susceptibility testing with readings at 3 to 5 days and 14 days. Only 13 of the 356 isolates had resistant clarithromycin MICs at initial extended MIC readings, and repeat values on all available isolates were ?2 ?g/ml. These studies suggest that these two additional RGM groups do not harbor functional erm genes and, like M. chelonae, do not require extended clarithromycin susceptibility testing. We propose to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute that isolates belonging to these above-mentioned six rapidly growing mycobacterial groups based on molecular identification with no known functional erm genes undergo only 3 to 5 days of susceptibility testing (to exclude mutational resistance). PMID:25568437

  14. Principles of gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammen Biju

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics and future percepts and the technical and ethical issues of using gene therapy.

  15. Co-immunization with DNA vaccines expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and mycobacterial secreted proteins enhances T-cell immunity, but not protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath, At; Hanke, T.; Briscoe, H.; Britton, Wj

    1999-01-01

    The development of more effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recent vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis-secreted proteins, MPT64 (23 000 MW) and Ag85B (30 000 MW) as candidate antigens, we previously prepared DNA vaccines and demonstrated their ability to stimulate T-cell responses and confer protecti...

  16. Horizontal gene transfers as metagenomic gene duplications.

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, Michele

    2012-01-01

    While it is well accepted that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in the evolution and the diversification of prokaryotic genomes, many questions remain open regarding its functional mechanisms of action and its interplay with the extant genome. This study addresses the relationship between proteome innovation by horizontal gene transfer and genome content in Proteobacteria. We characterize the transferred genes, focusing on the protein domain compositions and their relationship...

  17. Gene-gene cooperativity in small networks

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    We show how to construct a reduced description of interacting genes in noisy, small regulatory networks using coupled binary spin variables. Treating both the protein number and gene expression state variables stochastically and on equal footing, we propose a mapping that connects the molecular level description of networks to the binary representation. We construct a phase diagram indicating when genes can be considered to be independent and when the coupling between them cannot be neglected...

  18. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. PMID:15157120

  19. Use of the MGB Eclipse System and SmartCycler PCR for Differentiation of Mycobacterium chelonae and M. abscessus

    OpenAIRE

    Cloud, Joann L.; Hoggan, Karen; Belousov, Evgeniy; Cohen, Samuel; Brown-elliott, Barbara A.; Mann, Linda; Wilson, Rebecca; Aldous, Wade; Wallace, Richard J.; Woods, Gail L.

    2005-01-01

    Although accurate in the identification of Mycobacterium species, partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing does not distinguish Mycobacterium chelonae from M. abscessus. Thus, we designed a SmartCycler PCR assay targeting the 16S-to-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with use of MGB Eclipse probes to distinguish each species. Comparison with PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of a 441-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene resulted in 100% correlation with 25 isolates of M. chelonae and 25 isolates of ...

  20. Mycobacterium bovis ornithine carbamoyltransferase, MB1684, induces proinflammatory cytokine gene expression by activating NF-?B in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Xiangmei; Lu, Yun; Peng, Yun; Lin, Zhu; Lin, Jingjun; Yang, Lifeng; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhao, Deming

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the etiological factor of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), posing a significant problem to domestic cattle. The bacterium is also zoonotic, affecting human health worldwide. Macrophage evasion of the bacterium involves mycobacterial molecules such as MB1684 (ornithine carbamoyltransferase). In this study, we confirmed a concentration-dependent decrease in proliferation of Ana-1 macrophages when treated with rMB1684 when compared with mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative of tuberculosis (MbPPD) or phosphate buffer solution incubation groups. We examined the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) upon exposure to MB1684, and its role in MB1684-induced upregulation of interferon (IFN)-? and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-?) in Ana-1 macrophages. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IFN-? were significantly high in MB1684-treated Ana-1 macrophages. The treatment led to an increase in NF-?B activation and a high expression of the just mentioned proinflammatory cytokines. NF-?B inhibition significantly abrogated MB1684-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, which suggests that MB1684-induced activation of NF-?B in turn stimulates gene expression of IFN-? and proinflammatory cytokines in Ana-1 macrophages. The experiment was repeated in bone marrow macrophages, a more in-vivo-like model system, and similar results validated our conclusion. Further, we identified the possibility of the application of MB1684 antigen for the detection of BTB in cattle serum. PMID:24568683

  1. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positionalhes to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  2. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same family, some affected members may have dystopia canthorum (an unusually wide nasal bridge due to ... others with the same mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a ...

  3. Genes underlying altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Graham J.; Hurd, Peter L.; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of ‘genes underlying altruism’, under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-sys...

  4. What Is a Gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of its cells. For instance, a fruit fly cell only has four chromosomes! How Do Genes Work? Each gene has a special job to do. The DNA in a gene spells out specific instructions—much like in a cookbook recipe — ...

  5. Gene expression in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalkanci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the four presentations made at the Special Interest Group (SIG meeting titled Gene Expression in Fungi held during IMC9 in Edinburgh. This overview is independent from other articles published or that will be published by each speaker. In the SIG meeting, basic principles of in vivo animal models for virulence studies were discussed. Infection associated genes of Candida albicans and fungal adaptation to the host was summarized. Azole susceptibility was evaluated as a combined result of several changes in expression of pertinent genes. Gene transfer in fungi, resulting in fungal evolution and gene adaptation to environmental factors, was reported.

  6. Functional Analyses of Mycobacterial Lipoprotein Diacylglyceryl Transferase and Comparative Secretome Analysis of a Mycobacterial lgt Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Tschumi, Andreas; Grau, Thomas; Albrecht, Dirk; Rezwan, Mandana; Antelmann, Haike; Sander, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Preprolipopoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is the gating enzyme of lipoprotein biosynthesis, and it attaches a lipid structure to the N-terminal part of preprolipoproteins. Using Lgt from Escherichia coli in a BLASTp search, we identified the corresponding Lgt homologue in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and two homologous (MSMEG_3222 and MSMEG_5408) Lgt in Mycobacterium smegmatis. M. tuberculosis lgt was shown to be essential, but an M. smegmatis ?MSMEG_3222 mutant could be generated. ...

  7. Retrieval with gene queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Padmini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Results Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline. For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. Conclusion We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents.

  8. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential.Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life.

  9. Cancer gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovi? Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy can be defined as transfer of nucleic acids into tumor or normal cells with aim to eradicate or reduce tumor mass by direct killing of cells, immunomodulation or correction of genetic errors, and reversion of malignant status. Initially started with lots of optimism and enthusiasm, cancer gene therapy has shown limited success in treatment of patients. This review highlights current limitations and almost endless possibilities of cancer gene therapy. The major difficulty in advancing gene therapy technology from the bench to the clinical practice is problem with gene delivery vehicles (so called vectors needed to ferry genetic material into a cell. Despite few reports of therapeutic responses in some patients, there is still no proof of clinical efficacy of most cancer gene therapy approaches, primarily due to very low transduction and expression efficacy in vivo of available vectors. An "ideal" gene therapy vector should be administrated through a noninvasive route and should be targeted not only to primary tumor mass but also to disseminated tumor cells and micrometastases; it should also carry therapeutic gene with tumor-restricted, time-regulated, and sustained expression. Current strategies for combating the cancer with gene therapy can be divided into four basic concepts: (1 replacement of missing tumor suppressor gene and/or blocking of oncogenes or pro-inflammatory genes, (2 suicide gene strategies, (3 induction of immune-mediated destruction, and (4 inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The advance in the clinical benefit of gene therapy will probably be first achieved with combining it with standard cancer treatment: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy.

  10. Diversity of Environmental Mycobacterium Isolates from Hemodialysis Water as Shown by a Multigene Sequencing Approach? †

    OpenAIRE

    Gomila, Margarita; Ramirez, Antonio; Lalucat, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Here we used a multigene sequencing approach for the identification and molecular typing of environmental mycobacteria of the fast-growing subgroup. Strains were isolated from hemodialysis water and clinical samples. Eleven type strains of related species of the genus were also included in this study. To gain further insight into the diversity of the environmental mycobacteria, we analyzed several housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ITS1, gyrB, hsp65, recA, rpoB, and sodA). No individual phylogenet...

  11. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Thu, Do Dang Anh; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Loc, Pham Phu; Ha, Dang Thi Minh; Merson, Laura; Thinh, Tran Thi Van; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition. PMID:24197880

  12. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Thu, Do Dang Anh; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Loc, Pham Phu; Ha, Dang Thi Minh; Merson, Laura; Thinh, Tran Thi Van; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition. PMID:24197880

  13. More genes in vertebrates?

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Pw

    2003-01-01

    With the acquisition of complete genome sequences from several animals, there is renewed interest in the pattern of genome evolution on our own lineage. One key question is whether gene number increased during chordate or vertebrate evolution. It is argued here that comparing the total number of genes between a fly, a nematode and human is not appropriate to address this question. Extensive gene loss after duplication is one complication; another is the problem of comparing taxa that are phyl...

  14. DNA, Genes and Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Fomby

    2007-11-07

    Today you will learn about the parts of DNA and what DNA, genes and chromosomes are. Today you will learn what DNA, genes and chromosomes are and the parts of the DNA molecule. Look at all of the websites, take whatever notes you need to. At the end of the assignment, be able to describle DNA, the parts of DNA, genes and chromosomes. Covers Biology Core Curriculum, ...

  15. Gene Positioning and Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Egecioglu, Defne; Brickner, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Within the nucleus, the genome is spatially organized. Individual chromosomes are non-randomly positioned with respect to each other and with respect to nuclear landmarks [1,2]. Furthermore, the position of individual genes can reflect their expression. Here we discuss two well-characterized examples of gene relocalization associated with transcriptional activation: 1) developmentally regulated genes that move from the nuclear periphery to transcription factories in the nucleoplasm upon induc...

  16. Mammalian suppressor genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, P.A.; Capecchi, M.R.; Raj Bhandary, U.L.; Laski, F.A.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of suppressing a nonsense codon in a gene for production of a protein of interest in mammalian cells, the method comprising: (a) preparing an oligonucleotide primer comprising a region complementary to the nonsense codon; (b) preparing a DNA template for production of a tRNA molecule; (c) forming a suppressor gene from the template and primer by site specific mutagenesis; and (d) transforming the suppressor gene into a mammalian cell, whereby the nonsense codon will be suppressed.

  17. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence...

  18. Genes, Economics, and Happiness *

    OpenAIRE

    Neve, Jan-emmanuel; Fowler, James H.; Frey, Bruno S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on happiness has produced valuable insights into the sources of subjective well-being. A major finding from this literature is that people exhibit a 'baseline' happiness that shows persistent strength over time, and twin studies have shown that genes play a significant role in explaining the variance of baseline happiness between individuals. However, these studies have not identified which genes might be involved. This article presents evidence of a specific gene that predicts subje...

  19. Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing chromogenic species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; McNabb, A.; Deshayes, C.; Reyrat, J.-M.; Brown-Elliott, B. A.; Wallace, R., Jr.; Trott, K.A.; Parker, J.M.; Lifland, B.; Osterhout, G.; Kaattari, I.; Reece, K.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    A group of slowly growing photochromogenic mycobacteria was isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing results were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium. Biochemical reactions, growth characteristics and mycolic acid profiles (HPLC) resembled those of Mycobacterium shottsii, a non-pigmented mycobacterium also isolated during the same epizootic. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, the gene encoding the exported repeated protein (erp) and the gene encoding the 65 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp65) and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene demonstrated that this group of isolates is unique. Insertion sequences associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans, IS2404 and IS2606, were detected by PCR. These isolates could be differentiated from other slowly growing pigmented mycobacteria by their inability to grow at 37 ??C, production of niacin and urease, absence of nitrate reductase, negative Tween 80 hydrolysis and resistance to isoniazid (1 ??g ml-1), p-nitrobenzoic acid, thiacetazone and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. On the basis of this polyphasic study, it is proposed that these isolates represent a novel species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov. The type strain, L15T, has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC BAA-883T and the National Collection of Type Cultures (UK) as NCTC 13318T. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  20. Gene Positioning and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Defne; Brickner, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Within the nucleus, the genome is spatially organized. Individual chromosomes are non-randomly positioned with respect to each other and with respect to nuclear landmarks [1,2]. Furthermore, the position of individual genes can reflect their expression. Here we discuss two well-characterized examples of gene relocalization associated with transcriptional activation: 1) developmentally regulated genes that move from the nuclear periphery to transcription factories in the nucleoplasm upon induction and 2) genes that are targeted from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear periphery, through interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), upon activation. Finally, we speculate as to the mechanistic and functional commonalities of these phenomena. PMID:21292462

  1. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, {sup 33}P of {sup 35}P, of which degradation energy is less that {sup 32}P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.)

  2. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, 33P of 35P, of which degradation energy is less that 32P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.) materials. (M.N.)

  3. Gene delivery methods in cardiac gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Tilemann, Lisa; Fish, Kenneth; Hajjar, Roger J

    2011-10-01

    Gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure is emerging as a multidisciplinary field demonstrating advances with respect to identifying key signaling pathways, modernized vector creation and delivery technologies. Although these discoveries offer significant progress, selecting optimal methods for the vector delivery remains a key component for efficient cardiac gene therapy to validate the targets in rodent models and to test clinically relevant ones in pre-clinical models. Although the goals of higher transduction efficiency and cardiac specificity can be achieved with several delivery methods, the invasiveness and patient safety remain unclear for clinical application. In this review, we discuss various features of the currently available vector delivery methods for cardiac gene therapy. PMID:21954037

  4. Micobacterias en muestras de autopsias. / Mycobacteria in autopsy samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MF, Correa de Adjounian; C, Hernández; O, Alveárez; S, González Rico; R, Pedroza; G, Céspedes; B, Rodríguez; M, Gómez.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron bacteriológicamente 83 muestras provenientes de autopsias (34 de tejido pulmonar, 25 de tejido ganglionar y 24 leptomeninges) correspondientes a 34 pacientes fallecidos y con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis y/o VIH. En el 10,8% (9/83) hubo crecimiento de micobacterias: cuatro de M. tu [...] berculosis y cinco micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT): un (1) M. gordonae, un (1) M. vaccae y tres que no pudieron ser identificadas bioquímicamente. Seis de estos aislados fueron estudiados por PCR, mediante amplificación de la secuencia IS6110. Se reconfirmaron como micobacterias del complejo tuberculoso (MCT) tres aislados (50%). En los tres aislados restantes, correspondientes a MNT, no se obtuvo amplificación de la secuencia IS6110. Sin embargo, utilizando la amplificación seguida de un análisis de polimorfismo de restricción (PRA) de un segmento del gen hsp65, éstos pudieron ser identificados como M. porcinum, M. vaccae y M. gordonae tipo II. Abstract in english Eighty three samples coming from autopsies (34 of lung tissue, 25 of ganglion tissue and 24 of leptomeninges) corresponding to 34 deceased patients with clinic suspicious of tuberculosis and/or HIV, were bacteriologically studied. In 10,8% (9/83) were mycobacterial growth: four M. tuberculosis and f [...] ive non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM): one (1) M. gordonae, one (1) M. vaccae and three that could not be identified biochemically. Six of these isolated were studied by PCR amplification of the IS6110 sequence. Three isolates (50%) were reconfirmed as mycobacteria belonging to the tuberculous complex (MTC). In the three remaining isolates, corresponding to NTM, IS6110 amplification was not obtained. However using amplification followed by polymorphism restriction analysis (PRA) of hsp65 gen segment, they were identified as M. porcinum, M. vaccae and M. gordonae type II.

  5. Identification of Mycobacterium Species by Multiple-Fluorescence PCR–Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis of the 16S rRNA Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Gillman, Lawrence M.; Gunton, James; Turenne, Christine Y.; Wolfe, Joyce; Kabani, Amin M.

    2001-01-01

    Identification of mycobacteria to the species level by growth-based methodologies is a process that has been fraught with difficulties due to the long generation times of mycobacteria. There is an increasing incidence of unusual nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, especially in patients with concomitant immunocompromised states, which has led to the discovery of new mycobacterial species and the recognition of the pathogenicity of organisms that were once considered nonpathogens. Therefo...

  6. A forest-based approach to identifying gene and gene–gene interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Ching-ti; Zhang, Meizhuo; Zhang, Heping

    2007-01-01

    Multiple genes, gene-by-gene interactions, and gene-by-environment interactions are believed to underlie most complex diseases. However, such interactions are difficult to identify. Although there have been recent successes in identifying genetic variants for complex diseases, it still remains difficult to identify gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a forest-based approach and a concept of variable importance. The proposed approach is demo...

  7. Library Generation by Gene Shuffling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Adam J.; Ellefson, Jaredw; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes the process of gene shuffling (also known as sexual PCR). Gene shuffling is a facile method for the generation of sequence libraries containing the information from a family of related genes. Essentially, related genes are fragmented by DNase I digestion and reassembled by primerless PCR. The resulting chimeric genes can then be screened or selected for a desired function.

  8. Gene amplification and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papas, T.S.; Vande Woude, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters. Some of the chapter heads are: Structural and Functional Motifs of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Src Protein, Activation of ras Oncogenes by Chemical Carcinogens, Structure and Function of p21 ras Proteins, Serum-Free Selection of Onc Genes, and Viral myc Genes and their Cellular Homologs.

  9. Making a Gene Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    This animation shows how to make a colony of new DNA in order to locate a specific gene of interest. This is the third of four animations detailing the gene cloning process. To begin at the beginning, choose Making a Recombinant Plasmid. (The animation prior to this one is Bacteria Transformation. The animation just after this one is Screening a DNA Library.)

  10. Protein-coding housekeeping gene Rv2461c can be used as an amplification target in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dairong; Zhao, Jianing; Nie, Xiaoping; Wan, Tao; Xu, Wenchun; Zhao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The study is to explore the potential of the conserved Rv2461c gene as a biomarker for Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. The conservation of the hypothetical genes was evaluated in this study using multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The conservation of Rv2461c coding gene was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction using six reference strains of M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), 156 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 25 species of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), and 10 non-mycobacterial species. A total of 126 clinical sputum specimens were collected from patients with respiratory symptoms, including 79 specimens from suspected TB patients, and 47 specimens from patients with respiratory diseases other than TB. Genomic DNAs were extracted and subject to polymerase chain reaction for nucleic acid amplification test. In addition, we successfully developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP assay were evaluated for the detection of M. tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of the clpP sequences revealed that the Mycobacterium strains were split into two major clusters: i) MTC; ii) NTM strains and M. leprae. During the evaluation of the conservation of Rv2461c coding gene, all MTC strains yielded positive results, and no false-positive results were observed in NTM or other bacterial species. LAMP analysis showed high sensitivity and specificity (84.8% and 95.7%, respectively) for the detection of M. tuberculosis from sputum. Our result indicated that Rv2461c coding gene was an efficient and promising alternative nucleic acid amplification test target for the detection of M. tuberculosis. PMID:25674236

  11. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator

    OpenAIRE

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73 000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a ...

  12. Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ NATIONAL ATAXIA FOUNDATION FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT... Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia This fact sheet provides ... onset. For which of the hereditary ataxias is gene testing available? Discovery of specific ataxia genes makes ...

  13. Gene expression tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vanessa M; Ossadtchi, Alex; Khan, Arshad H; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M; Smith, Desmond J

    2002-02-28

    Gene expression tomography, or GET, is a new method to increase the speed of three-dimensional (3-D) gene expression analysis in the brain. The name is evocative of the method's dual foundations in high-throughput gene expression analysis and computerized tomographic image reconstruction, familiar from techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computerized tomography (CT). In GET, brain slices are taken using a cryostat in conjunction with axial rotation about independent axes to create a series of "views" of the brain. Gene expression information obtained from the axially rotated views can then be used to recreate 3-D gene expression patterns. GET was used to successfully reconstruct images of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the mouse brain, using both RNase protection and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR). A Monte-Carlo analysis confirmed the good quality of the GET image reconstruction. By speeding acquisition of gene expression patterns, GET may help improve our understanding of the genomics of the brain in both health and disease. PMID:11875194

  14. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucimari, Bizari; Ana Elizabete, Silva; Eloiza H., Tajara.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM) and homogeneously staining regions (HSR), both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development [...] due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  15. Mycobacterium fragae sp. nov., a non-chromogenic species isolated from human respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Ferreira, Nicole Victor; da Silva, Mariza Villas Boas; Redner, Paulo; Campelo, Creusa Lima; Vale, Sheila Ferreira; Barroso, Elizabeth Clara; Medeiros, Reginalda Ferreira de Melo; Montes, Fátima Cristina Onofre Fandinho; Galvão, Teca Calcagno; Tortoli, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Three isolates of a slow-growing, non-chromogenic mycobacterium were grown from three sputum samples of a patient from the north-eastern Ceará state in Brazil. Identification at species level could not be obtained with PCR restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene. In order to characterize the isolates we carried out phenotypic and genotypic tests. We sequenced the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene and obtained partial sequences of the hsp65 (encoding the hypervariable region of the 65 kDa heat-shock protein) and rpoB (encoding the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase) genes. The three isolates turned out to be identical and most closely related to the species Mycobacterium celatum and Mycobacterium kyorinense. The results, however, showed significant differences between these species and the isolates studied, which led us to consider them members of a novel species for which we propose the name Mycobacterium fragae. The type strain is HF8705(T) ( = Fiocruz-INCQS/CMRVS P4051(T) = DSM 45731(T)). PMID:23264503

  16. EVOLUTION WITHOUT GENES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABYT IBRAIMOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays genes are claimed to explain almost everything that is somehow or another connected withmanifestations of the biological life on the Earth, including evolution. It is now clear, however, that major incongruities existand that there is only a weak relationship between biological complexity and the number of protein coding genes. Thegenome can be divided into two main sections, the coding (genes and non coding portions. Non coding DNAs have beenconsidered as non-functional DNA by many authors. And to determine which of them is the most important in evolutionbased on the input of genes and non coding DNAs into the origin of the basic forms of life and its diversity. Information aboutnon coding DNAs as the main evolving component of the genome is presented. It is supposed that evolution has notstopped on DNA, which is transcribed into RNA which in turn is translated into proteins

  17. Características clínicas, factores de riesgo y perfil de susceptibilidad de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo, en un hospital universitario de alta complejidad en Medellín (Colombia) / Clinical features, risk factors and susceptibility profile of mycobacterial infections documented by culture in a university hospital of high complexity in Medellin (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franco E, Montufar Andrade; Carolina, Aguilar Londoño; Carolina, Saldarriaga Acevedo; Alicia, Quiroga Echeverri; Carlos E, Builes Montaño; Miguel A, Mesa Navas; Olga L, Molina Upegüi; John J, Zuleta Tobón.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Tuberculosis (TBC) es aún una entidad de alta prevalencia y mortalidad en el mundo. La resistencia ascendente a fármacos es un problema de salud pública. Además se describen con mayor frecuencia infecciones por micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) en áreas de alta prevalencia de TBC. Ob [...] jetivos: Determinar características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de las infecciones por micobacterias documentadas por cultivo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, en pacientes hospitalizados. Resultados: De 187 pacientes, en 90,9% se identificó complejo M. tuberculosis y en 9,1% MNT; 64% fueron hombres. Edad promedio 40 años (rango 1-88 años). Las principales co-morbilidades fueron infección por VIH/SIDA (23,5%), uso de corticoesteroides (13,3%) y enfermedad renal crónica (9,6%). Las formas clínicas fueron pulmonares (56,6%), extra-pulmonares (23,9%) y diseminadas (19,2%). El compromiso extra-pulmonar más frecuente fue ganglionar (7,4%) y gastrointestinal (7%). En M. tuberculosis 10,6% fueron multidrogoresistentes (MDR) y 2,12% con resistencia extendida (XDR). Mycobacterium avium y M. abscessus fueron las MNT más frecuentes. La mortalidad general fue 10%. Conclusiones: Inmuno-supresión es el principal factor de riesgo para enfermedad extrapulmonar y/o diseminada y la resistencia a fármacos en pacientes hospitalizados con TBC es llamativa, con mayor incidencia de MDR y XDR. Las infecciones por MNT no son infrecuentes en nuestro medio. Abstract in english Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains an entity of high prevalence and mortality worldwide. The rising drug resistance is a public health problem. Besides, non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections are described with increasing frequency in areas of high prevalence of TB. Objectives: To dete [...] rmine epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of mycobacterial infections documented by culture. Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive study in hospitalized patients. Results: M. tuberculosis complex was identified in 90,9% of 187 patients; 9,1% had NTM, 64% were male and the mean age was 40 years (range 1-88 years). The main co-morbidities were HIV / AIDS (23.5%), use of corticosteroids (13.3%) and chronic kidney disease (9.6%). Clinical forms were pulmonary (56.6%), extra-pulmonary (23.9%) and disseminated (19.2 The most common extra-pulmonary compromise was nodal (7.4%) and gastrointestinal (7%). 10.6% of M. tuberculosis were multi-drugresistant (MDR) and 2.12% had extended drug resistance (XDR). Mycobacterium avium andM. abscessus were the most frequent NTM. Overall mortality was 10%. Conclusions: In our study immune suppression is the main risk factor for extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. Resistance, MDR and XDR is higher in inpatients with TB. MNT infections are not uncommon in our country.

  18. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  19. Gene and Genome Parameters of Mammalian Liver Circadian Genes (LCGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Gang; Zhu, Jiang; He, Fuhong; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system controls various physiology processes and behavior responses by regulating thousands of circadian genes with rhythmic expressions. In this study, we redefined circadian-regulated genes based on published results in the mouse liver and compared them with other gene groups defined relative to circadian regulations, especially the non-circadian-regulated genes expressed in liver at multiple molecular levels from gene position to protein expression based on integrat...

  20. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database URL: www.genecards.org. PMID:20689021

  1. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ... by a "bad" gene. Continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: ...

  2. Novel Functions of (p)ppGpp and Cyclic di-GMP in Mycobacterial Physiology Revealed by Phenotype Microarray Analysis of Wild-Type and Isogenic Strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kuldeepkumar Ramnaresh; Kasetty, Sanjay; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial second messengers (p)ppGpp and bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulate important functions, such as transcription, virulence, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing. In mycobacteria, they regulate long-term survival during starvation, pathogenicity, and dormancy. Recently, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain lacking (p)ppGpp was shown to be sensitive to multiple classes of antibiotics and defective in biofilm formation. We were interested to find out whether Mycobacterium smegmatis strains lacking the gene for either (p)ppGpp synthesis (?relMsm) or c-di-GMP synthesis (?dcpA) would display similar phenotypes. We used phenotype microarray technology to compare the growth of the wild-type and the knockout strains in the presence of several antibiotics. Surprisingly, the ?relMsm and ?dcpA strains showed enhanced survival in the presence of many antibiotics, but they were defective in biofilm formation. These strains also displayed altered surface properties, like impaired sliding motility, rough colony morphology, and increased aggregation in liquid cultures. Biofilm formation and surface properties are associated with the presence of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell walls of M. smegmatis. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of various cell wall fractions revealed that the levels of GPLs and polar lipids were reduced in the knockout strains. As a result, the cell walls of the knockout strains were significantly more hydrophobic than those of the wild type and the complemented strains. We hypothesize that reduced levels of GPLs and polar lipids may contribute to the antibiotic resistance shown by the knockout strains. Altogether, our data suggest that (p)ppGpp and c-di-GMP may be involved in the metabolism of glycopeptidolipids and polar lipids in M. smegmatis. PMID:25636840

  3. Gene therapy for ocular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Melissa M.; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-chao

    2010-01-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene ther...

  4. Polymorphism in the First Intron of Interferon-Gamma Gene (+874T/A in Patients with BCG Adenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parvaneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Cytokines and specially interferon-gamma (IFN-g are largely responsible for the regulation of the protective im­mune response against mycobacterial infections. Several studies have clarified the importance of common variants of IFN-g gene regarding the susceptibility to tuberculosis. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine that is used to prevent se­vere forms of tuberculosis could produce local and systemic side effects. In this study we hypothesized that the IFN-g (+874T/A polymorphism was associated with development of BCG adenitis."nMethods: Thirty patients with BCG adenitis (18 males and 12 females and 30 age and sex-matched healthy children, vacci­nated with BCG during the first two days of life were chosen. All the patients and controls were of Iranian Fars origin and the study was conducted from 2005 to 2007. DNA samples were obtained from 30 patients with BCG adenitis and 30 age and sex matched healthy vaccinees. Polymorphism at +874 was identified using allele specific polymerase chain reac­tion. Allele and genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using the ?2 test and odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated."nResults: The minor allele (T frequency was significantly lower in patients with BCG adenitis compared to controls (35% vs. 55%, P= 0.02, OR= 0.441, 95% CI= 0.211-0.919. The Armitage trend test revealed a gradually increasing protection from the AA genotype through AT to TT (common odds ratio= 0.49; P= 0.037."nConclusion: Our data suggest that in an Iranian population, the IFN-g (+874T/A polymorphism is associated with develop­ment of BCG adenitis in the vaccinees.

  5. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rondonia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleoni Alves Mendes de, Lima; Harrison Magdinier, Gomes; Maranibia Aparecida Cardoso, Oelemann; Jesus Pais, Ramos; Paulo Cezar, Caldas; Carlos Eduardo Dias, Campos; Marcia Aparecida da Silva, Pereira; Fatima Fandinho Onofre, Montes; Maria do Socorro Calixto de, Oliveira; Philip Noel, Suffys; Maria Manuela da Fonseca, Moura.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The main cause of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We aimed to evaluate the contribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to pulmonary disease in patients from the state of Rondônia using respiratory samples and epidemiological data from TB cases. M [...] ycobacterium isolates were identified using a combination of conventional tests, polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene and hsp65 gene sequencing. Among the 1,812 cases suspected of having pulmonary TB, 444 yielded bacterial cultures, including 369 cases positive for MTB and 75 cases positive for NTM. Within the latter group, 14 species were identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium gilvum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium asiaticum, Mycobacterium tusciae, Mycobacterium porcinum, Mycobacterium novocastrense, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium holsaticum and 13 isolates could not be identified at the species level. The majority of NTM cases were observed in Porto Velho and the relative frequency of NTM compared with MTB was highest in Ji-Paraná. In approximately half of the TB subjects with NTM, a second sample containing NTM was obtained, confirming this as the disease-causing agent. The most frequently observed NTM species were M. abscessus and M. avium and because the former species is resistant to many antibiotics and displays unsatisfactory cure rates, the implementation of rapid identification of mycobacterium species is of considerable importance.

  6. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rondônia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Cleoni Alves Mendes; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Oelemann, Maraníbia Aparecida Cardoso; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Caldas, Paulo Cezar; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Pereira, Márcia Aparecida da Silva; Montes, Fátima Fandinho Onofre; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Calixto; Suffys, Philip Noel; Moura, Maria Manuela da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The main cause of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We aimed to evaluate the contribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to pulmonary disease in patients from the state of Rondônia using respiratory samples and epidemiological data from TB cases. Mycobacterium isolates were identified using a combination of conventional tests, polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene and hsp65 gene sequencing. Among the 1,812 cases suspected of having pulmonary TB, 444 yielded bacterial cultures, including 369 cases positive for MTB and 75 cases positive for NTM. Within the latter group, 14 species were identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium gilvum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium asiaticum, Mycobacterium tusciae, Mycobacterium porcinum, Mycobacterium novocastrense, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium holsaticum and 13 isolates could not be identified at the species level. The majority of NTM cases were observed in Porto Velho and the relative frequency of NTM compared with MTB was highest in Ji-Paraná. In approximately half of the TB subjects with NTM, a second sample containing NTM was obtained, confirming this as the disease-causing agent. The most frequently observed NTM species were M. abscessus and M. avium and because the former species is resistant to many antibiotics and displays unsatisfactory cure rates, the implementation of rapid identification of mycobacterium species is of considerable importance. PMID:23827995

  7. Discrimination of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex by polymerase chain reaction / Identificação molecular de membros do complexo Mycobacterium avium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Palma, Sircili; Eliana, Roxo; Sylvia Cardoso, Leão.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A identificação bioquímica de micobactérias não permite a discriminação das espécies do complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC). Este estudo mostrou que a amplificação por PCR de DT1 e DT6, duas sequências de cópia única identificadas no genoma de M. avium sorotipo 2, da sequência de inserção IS1245, enc [...] ontrada consistentemente em cepas de M. avium e de um fragmento do gene da proteína de choque térmico hsp65, seguida da análise do polimorfismo de restrição, são testes rápidos e acurados para a diferenciação das espécies M. avium, M. intracellulare e M. scrofulaceum. Abstract in english Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species cannot be discriminated by the usual methods of biochemical identification of mycobacteria. This study showed that amplification by PCR of DT1 and DT6, two single copy sequences identified in the genome of M. avium serotype 2, the insertion sequence IS1245, [...] found to be consistently present in M. avium strains and the heat-shock protein gene hsp65, followed by restriction polymorphism analysis, are rapid and accurate tests for the differentiation of the species M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.

  8. Discrimination of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex by polymerase chain reaction Identificação molecular de membros do complexo Mycobacterium avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Palma Sircili

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC species cannot be discriminated by the usual methods of biochemical identification of mycobacteria. This study showed that amplification by PCR of DT1 and DT6, two single copy sequences identified in the genome of M. avium serotype 2, the insertion sequence IS1245, found to be consistently present in M. avium strains and the heat-shock protein gene hsp65, followed by restriction polymorphism analysis, are rapid and accurate tests for the differentiation of the species M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.A identificação bioquímica de micobactérias não permite a discriminação das espécies do complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC. Este estudo mostrou que a amplificação por PCR de DT1 e DT6, duas sequências de cópia única identificadas no genoma de M. avium sorotipo 2, da sequência de inserção IS1245, encontrada consistentemente em cepas de M. avium e de um fragmento do gene da proteína de choque térmico hsp65, seguida da análise do polimorfismo de restrição, são testes rápidos e acurados para a diferenciação das espécies M. avium, M. intracellulare e M. scrofulaceum.

  9. IBM Research: Blue Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the home page of an IBM research and development project that is designing a supercomputer, called Blue Gene/L, capable of 200 trillion floating point operations per second. According to the Web site, this specification "is larger than the total computing power of the top 500 supercomputers in the world today." Working in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, IBM expects the project to be completed by 2005. There are a few publications and presentations given about the status of the project and its uses. There is also a fact sheet and several industry links about protein folding, which is the main application of Blue Gene/L.

  10. [Gene therapy in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Braat, E A M; van Mierlo, M M K B; Hospers, G A P; Wagemaker, G; Bangma, C H; Kaptein, L C M

    2007-09-01

    Extensive research is ongoing worldwide on the clinical utility of gene therapy, particularly for the treatment of cancer and genetic disorders. Two gene therapy products have already been approved recently in China. Clinical experience with gene therapy has also been accumulating in the Netherlands: over 200 Dutch patients have now been treated in clinical trials. Published results indicate that gene therapy is generally safe. Gene therapy appears to be effective for some genetic disorders, such as severe combined immune deficiency and haemophilia B. The efficacy of gene therapy, particularly in the treatment of cancer, appears to be limited up till now. PMID:17953170

  11. The infinitely many genes model with horizontal gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Baumdicker, Franz; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genome of bacterial species is much more flexible than that of eukaryotes. Moreover, the distributed genome hypothesis for bacteria states that the total number of genes present in a bacterial population is greater than the genome of every single individual. The pangenome, i.e. the set of all genes of a bacterial species (or a sample), comprises the core genes which are present in all living individuals, and accessory genes, which are carried only by some individuals. In...

  12. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis (GSA has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information with accession number GSE6085.

  13. Gene therapy in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthra Satagopan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than a year since ophthalmologists and scientists under Dr. Robin Ali?s team at the Moorsfield Eye Hospital and the Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, successfully treated patients with a severely blinding disease, Leber?s congenital amaurosis (LCA using gene therapy. This success does not look to be transient, and this achievement in gene replacement therapy clinical trial for LCA has instilled hope in numerous families with patients suffering from this and similar retinal degenerative diseases, for whom restoration of lost vision has remained a distant dream so far. The encouragement that this success has given is expected to also lead to start of clinical trials for other blinding ocular diseases for which gene therapy experiments at the laboratory and animal levels have been successful. This article reviews the various studies that have led to the understanding of gene therapy outcomes in human ocular diseases and attempts to provide a brief sketch of successful clinical trials.

  14. The Gene Guessing Game

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Ian

    2000-01-01

    A recent flurry of publications and media attention has revived interest in the question of how many genes exist in the human genome. Here, I review the estimates and use genomic sequence data from human chromosomes 21 and 22 to establish my own prediction.

  15. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN Nocardia spp. AND Mycobacterium spp.: CRITICAL ASPECTS FOR BACTERIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS / Diferenciação de Nocardia spp. e Mycobacterium spp.: aspectos críticos para o diagnóstico bacteriológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edna Cleide Mendes, Muricy; Romilda Aparecida, Lemes; Sidney, Bombarda; Lucilaine, Ferrazoli; Erica, Chimara.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas metodologias têm sido desenvolvidas para a identificação de Nocardia spp. mas o diagnóstico inicial ainda necessita de método rápido e preciso, principalmente devido à similaridade com o gênero Mycobacterium, clínica e bacteriologicamente. O crescimento em meio de Löwenstein Jensen (LJ), a pre [...] sença de bacilos corados pela coloração de Ziehl Neelsen e colônias com características diferentes podem ser fatores de confusão entre nocardias e micobactérias. Este estudo descreve a ocorrência de Nocardia spp. em laboratório de referência em micobacteriologia, observando-se as principais dificuldades em diferenciar Nocardia spp. e Mycobacterium spp., correlacionando isolados com casos de nocardiose. Os registros laboratoriais dos anos 2008 a 2012 foram analisados e os isolados identificados como Nocardia sp. ou como bacilos não álcool - ácido resistentes (NBAAR) foram selecionados. Os dados epidemiológicos e bacteriológicos foram analisados. Trinta e três isolados identificados como Nocardia sp. e 22 como NBAAR foram selecionados para este estudo, perfazendo 0,12% do total de isolados identificados no período estudado. A identificação presuntiva foi baseada na morfologia macroscópica e microscópica, resistência à lisozima e perfis de restrição pelo método PRA-hsp65. Nocardia spp. pode crescer em meios de isolamento para micobactérias (LJ e BBL MGIT™) e microscopia de morfologia e as colônias são muito semelhantes a algumas espécies de micobactérias. Dezessete pacientes (54,8%) foram notificados e tratados para tuberculose, mas apresentaram sinais e sintomas para nocardiose. Concluimos que a ocorrência de Nocardia sp. no período estudado foi de 0,12%. Os isolados com características de bacilos filamentosos, formadores de hifas aéreas, com colônias que podem ter pigmento, rugosas e que não possuem padrão de digestão para BstEII no método PRA-hsp65 são sugestivos de Nocardia spp. Para um laboratório de rotina de Micobactérias, um fluxo de identificação presuntiva para Nocardia spp. é essencial para permitir que esses isolados sejam identificados com técnicas mais precisas, para que seja oferecido o tratamento adequado e qualidade de vida aos pacientes. Abstract in english New methodologies were developed for the identification of Nocardia but the initial diagnosis still requires a fast and accurate method, mainly due to the similarity to Mycobacterium, both clinical and bacteriologically. Growth on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium, presence of acid-fast bacilli through [...] Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and colony morphology can be confusing aspects between Nocardia and Mycobacterium. This study describes the occurrence of Nocardia spp. in a mycobacterial-reference laboratory, observing the main difficulties in differentiating Nocardia spp. from Mycobacterium spp., and correlating isolates with nocardiosis cases. Laboratory records for the period between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed, and the isolates identified as Nocardia sp. or as non-acid-fast filamentous bacilli were selected. Epidemiological and bacteriological data were analyzed as well. Thirty-three isolates identified as Nocardia sp. and 22 as non-acid-fast bacilli were selected for this study, and represented 0.12% of isolates during the study period. The presumptive identification was based on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, resistance to lysozyme and restriction profiles using the PRA-hsp65 method. Nocardia spp. can grow on media for mycobacteria isolation (LJ and BBL MGIT™) and microscopy and colony morphology are very similar to some mycobacteria species. Seventeen patients (54.8%) were reported and treated for tuberculosis, but presented signs and symptoms of nocardiosis. It was concluded that the occurrence of Nocardia sp. during the study period was 0.12%. Isolates with characteristics of filamentous bacilli, forming aerial hyphae, with colonies that may be pigmented, rough and without the BstEII digestion pattern in PRA-hsp65 method are suggestive of Nocardia spp. For a myc

  16. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are desirable for variety ideotypes. (author)

  17. Nanoparticles for Retinal Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Conley, Shannon M.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is becoming a well-established field. Viral gene therapies for the treatment of Leber’s congentinal amaurosis (LCA) are in clinical trials, and many other gene therapy approaches are being rapidly developed for application to diverse ophthalmic pathologies. Of late, development of non-viral gene therapies has been an area of intense focus and one technology, polymer-compacted DNA nanoparticles, is especially promising. However, development of pharmaceutically and clinica...

  18. Finding Communities of Related Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Dennis; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2002-01-01

    We present an automated method of identifying communities of functionally related genes from the biomedical literature. These communities encapsulate human gene and protein interactions and identify groups of genes that are complementary in their function. We use graphs to represent the network of gene cooccurrences in articles mentioning particular keywords, and find that these graphs consist of one giant connected component and many small ones. In addition, the vertex degr...

  19. The Human Gene Mutation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Gene Mutation Database from the Institute of Medical Genetics at Cardiff provides practical information for researchers, physicians, and genetic counselors. The database is currently undergoing some reorganization, but information can be searched by "disease, gene name, or gene symbol." Search results are well organized and easy to navigate, linking directly to results from external Web databases without requiring that the user perform additional searches. Frequent users may also appreciate the listing of genes recently added to the database.

  20. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene

  1. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  2. Globin genes on the move

    OpenAIRE

    Hardison, Ross C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data published in BMC Biology from the globin gene clusters in platypus, together with data from other species, show that ?-globin genes transposed from one chromosomal location to another. This resolves some controversies about vertebrate globin gene evolution but ignites new ones.

  3. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  4. Optimal gene partition into operons correlates with gene functional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Mayo, Avi; Ronen, Michal; Alon, Uri

    2006-09-01

    Gene arrangement into operons varies between bacterial species. Genes in a given system can be on one operon in some organisms and on several operons in other organisms. Existing theories explain why genes that work together should be on the same operon, since this allows for advantageous lateral gene transfer and accurate stoichiometry. But what causes the frequent separation into multiple operons of co-regulated genes that act together in a pathway? Here we suggest that separation is due to benefits made possible by differential regulation of each operon. We present a simple mathematical model for the optimal distribution of genes into operons based on a balance of the cost of operons and the benefit of regulation that provides 'just-when-needed' temporal order. The analysis predicts that genes are arranged such that genes on the same operon do not skip functional steps in the pathway. This prediction is supported by genomic data from 137 bacterial genomes. Our work suggests that gene arrangement is not only the result of random historical drift, genome re-arrangement and gene transfer, but has elements that are solutions of an evolutionary optimization problem. Thus gene functional order may be inferred by analyzing the operon structure across different genomes.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated gene-gene interaction network for rheumatoid arthritis candidate genes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Chien-Hsun; Cong Lei; Xie Jun; Qiao Bo; Lo Shaw-Hwa; Zheng Tian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, MIM 180300) is a chronic and complex autoimmune disease. Using the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) data set provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16), we used the genotype-trait distortion (GTD) scores and proposed analysis procedures to capture the gene-gene interaction effects of multiple susceptibility gene regions on RA. In this paper, we focused on 27 RA candidate gene regions (531 SNPs) based on a literature search. Statis...

  6. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates in the State of São Paulo between 1995-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Chimara

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium kansasii is the most common cause of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infection and classical identification of this pathogen needs a time consuming phenotypic tests. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism analysis (PRA of the gene enconding for the 65kDa heat shock (hsp65 protein offers an easy, rapid, and inexpensive procedure to identify and subtype M. kansasii isolates. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had mycobacteria identified on the basis of phenotypic tests by means of a review of database at Mycobacteria Laboratory of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz in the period 1995-1998. A total of 9381 clinical isolates were analyzed of which 7777 (82.9% were identified as M. tuberculosis complex and 1604 (17.1% as nontuberculous mycobacteria. Of the 296 M. kansasii isolates, 189 (63.8% isolates obtained from 119 patients were viable and were analyzed by PRA-hsp65. Hundred eight two (98.9% were classified as M. kansasii type I. Two isolates were classified as type II and III and five isolates were characterized as other Mycobacterium species. Clinical isolates of M. kansasii in the state of São Paulo was almost exclusively subtype I regardless of HIV status.

  7. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates in the State of São Paulo between 1995-1998

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erica, Chimara; Carmen Maria Saraiva, Giampaglia; Maria Conceição, Martins; Maria Alice da Silva, Telles; Suely Yoko Mizuka, Ueki; Lucilaine, Ferrazoli.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mycobacterium kansasii is the most common cause of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infection and classical identification of this pathogen needs a time consuming phenotypic tests. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the gene enconding for the 65 [...] kDa heat shock (hsp65) protein offers an easy, rapid, and inexpensive procedure to identify and subtype M. kansasii isolates. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had mycobacteria identified on the basis of phenotypic tests by means of a review of database at Mycobacteria Laboratory of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz in the period 1995-1998. A total of 9381 clinical isolates were analyzed of which 7777 (82.9%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex and 1604 (17.1%) as nontuberculous mycobacteria. Of the 296 M. kansasii isolates, 189 (63.8%) isolates obtained from 119 patients were viable and were analyzed by PRA-hsp65. Hundred eight two (98.9%) were classified as M. kansasii type I. Two isolates were classified as type II and III and five isolates were characterized as other Mycobacterium species. Clinical isolates of M. kansasii in the state of São Paulo was almost exclusively subtype I regardless of HIV status.

  8. Gene and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Farhud

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nCollection of multiple processes that increase the chronological age of an organism leading to death is defined as aging, and even though important, it is poorly understood. Recent research has shown that aging is due to biochemical and genetic changes, in interaction with environmental effects, including diet and nutrition. Most knowledge on aging is based on ge­netic model system, but its molecular mechanisms are still not very clear. Discoveries in molecular biology have made way to look for candidate genes influencing lifespan. Furthermore, new investigations have stressed on the roles of mitochondria as the major generators and direct targets of reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews some recent literature on genes and ag­ing in model system, then discusses the role of mitochondria and nutrients in human aging.

  9. Graphene based gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Thickness distribution of GO and GO-PEI; IR and TGA data; and confocal images of HeLa cells treated with bare EGFP pDNA and GO + pDNA. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00680g

  10. Genes, crianças e pediatras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda, Martins; Teresa, Oliveira; Anabela, Bandeira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease due to cystathionine-synthase deficiency, with the gene CBS being located in chromosome 21. In its typical presentation the eye, skeleton, central nervous system, and vascular system are all involved. The patient is normal at birth and in non-treated [...] patients tall stature and ectopia lentis may be the first symptoms, as in the case we present.

  11. Gene Porter Bridwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  12. PRRT2 gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Alice R.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Stamelou, Maria; Dale, Russell C.; Kurian, Manju A.; Schneider, Susanne A.; Wali, G.M.; Counihan, Tim; Schapira, Anthony H.; Spacey, Sian D.; Valente, Enza-Maria; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Teive, Hélio A.G.; Raskin, Salmo; Sander, Josemir W.; Lees, Andrew; Warner, Tom; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Hanna, Michael

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT2) gene was recently identified using exome sequencing as the cause of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with or without infantile convulsions (IC) (PKD/IC syndrome). Episodic neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy, migraine, and paroxysmal movement disorders, often coexist and are thought to have a shared channel-related etiology. To investigate further the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype of PRRT2 mutations, we analyzed this gene in 3 large series of episodic neurologic disorders with PKD/IC, episodic ataxia (EA), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). Methods: The PRRT2 gene was sequenced in 58 family probands/sporadic individuals with PKD/IC, 182 with EA, 128 with HM, and 475 UK and 96 Asian controls. Results: PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 28 out of 58 individuals with PKD/IC (48%), 1/182 individuals with EA, and 1/128 individuals with HM. A number of loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified; the most common mutation found was the p.R217Pfs*8 insertion. Males were more frequently affected than females (ratio 52:32). There was a high proportion of PRRT2 mutations found in families and sporadic cases with PKD associated with migraine or HM (10 out of 28). One family had EA with HM and another large family had typical HM alone. Conclusions: This work expands the phenotype of mutations in the PRRT2 gene to include the frequent occurrence of migraine and HM with PKD/IC, and the association of mutations with EA and HM and with familial HM alone. We have also extended the PRRT2 mutation type and frequency in PKD and other episodic neurologic disorders. PMID:23077024

  13. Prostacyclin receptor gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Elizebeth C.; Kinsella, B. Therese

    2009-01-01

    Prostacyclin plays a central role in haemostasis, inflammation and nociception. However, the factors regulating expression of the prostacyclin receptor (IP) gene in humans, or in other species, have not been identified. Herein it was sought to identify the key trans-acting factors and cis-acting elements regulating IP expression in the megakaryoblastic human erythroleukemia (HEL) 92.1.7 and the vascular endothelial EA.hy 926 cell lines. Using deletion and genetic reporter analyses, the esse...

  14. nanosheets for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  15. Gene finding in novel genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korf Ian

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational gene prediction continues to be an important problem, especially for genomes with little experimental data. Results I introduce the SNAP gene finder which has been designed to be easily adaptable to a variety of genomes. In novel genomes without an appropriate gene finder, I demonstrate that employing a foreign gene finder can produce highly inaccurate results, and that the most compatible parameters may not come from the nearest phylogenetic neighbor. I find that foreign gene finders are more usefully employed to bootstrap parameter estimation and that the resulting parameters can be highly accurate. Conclusion Since gene prediction is sensitive to species-specific parameters, every genome needs a dedicated gene finder.

  16. Progress in gene targeting and gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, M.M.; Erven, A. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we localized disease genes involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degeneration, close to the rhodopsin and peripherin genes on 3q and 6p. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in these genes in RP patients. Currently animal models for human retinopathies are being generated using gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Genomic clones for retinal genes including rhodopsin and peripherin have been obtained from a phage library carrying mouse DNA isogenic with the ES cell line (CC1.2). The peripherin clone has been sequenced to establish the genomic structure of the mouse gene. Targeting vectors for rhodopsin and peripherin including a neomycin cassette for positive selection and thymidine kinase genes enabling selection against random intergrants are under construction. Progress in vector construction will be presented. Simultaneously we are developing systems for delivery of gene therapies to retinal tissues utilizing replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5). Efficacy of infection subsequent to various methods of intraocular injection and with varying viral titers is being assayed using an adenovirus construct containing a CMV promoter LacZ fusion as reporter and the range of tissues infected and the level of duration of LacZ expression monitored. Viral constructs with the LacZ reporter gene under the control of retinal specific promoters such as rhodopsin and IRBP cloned into pXCJL.1 are under construction. An update on developments in photoreceptor cell-directed expression of virally delivered genes will be presented.

  17. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the ?nding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree re?ects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  18. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Hugh M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Conclusion Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  19. Relocating a gene for herbicide tolerance: A chloroplast gene is converted into a nuclear gene

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alice Y.; Bogorad, Lawrence; Montagu, Marc; Schell, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    The chloroplast gene psbA codes for the photosynthetic quinone-binding membrane protein QB, which is the target of the herbicide atrazine. This gene has been converted into a nuclear gene. The psbA gene from an atrazine-resistant biotype of Amaranthus hybridus has been modified by fusing its coding region to transcription-regulation and transit-peptide-encoding sequences of a bona fide nuclear gene. The constructs were introduced into the nuclear genome of tobacco by using the Agrobacterium t...

  20. Many Ribosomal Protein Genes Are Cancer Genes in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have generated several hundred lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio, each heterozygous for a recessive embryonic lethal mutation. Since many tumor suppressor genes are recessive lethals, we screened our colony for lines that display early mortality and/or gross evidence of tumors. We identified 12 lines with elevated cancer incidence. Fish from these lines develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and in some cases also other tumor types, with moderate to very high frequencies. Surprisingly, 11 of the 12 lines were each heterozygous for a mutation in a different ribosomal protein (RP gene, while one line was heterozygous for a mutation in a zebrafish paralog of the human and mouse tumor suppressor gene, neurofibromatosis type 2. Our findings suggest that many RP genes may act as haploinsufficient tumor suppressors in fish. Many RP genes might also be cancer genes in humans, where their role in tumorigenesis could easily have escaped detection up to now.

  1. Using the Gene Ontology Hierarchy when Predicting Gene Function

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafavi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The problem of multilabel classification when the labels are related through a hierarchical categorization scheme occurs in many application domains such as computational biology. For example, this problem arises naturally when trying to automatically assign gene function using a controlled vocabularies like Gene Ontology. However, most existing approaches for predicting gene functions solve independent classification problems to predict genes that are involved in a given function category, independently of the rest. Here, we propose two simple methods for incorporating information about the hierarchical nature of the categorization scheme. In the first method, we use information about a gene's previous annotation to set an initial prior on its label. In a second approach, we extend a graph-based semi-supervised learning algorithm for predicting gene function in a hierarchy. We show that we can efficiently solve this problem by solving a linear system of equations. We compare these approaches with a previous ...

  2. Aberrant gene expression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yong; Wang, Gang; Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Cai, James J

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating complex traits and conditions. PMID:25617623

  3. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    OpenAIRE

    Loyd, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expr...

  4. GENE MUTATIONS, GENETIC DISEASE AND PHARMACOGENETIC GENES DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell mutation is able to create genetic variance in a cell population and can induce cancer and tumor when gene mutations took place at repressor gene in controlling cell cycles such as p53 gene. Whereas germline cell mutation can cause genetic disease such as sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, thalassemia, parkinson’s as well as defect of biochemical pathway that influence drug-receptor interaction, which has negative effect and lead to hospitalized of patient. Most of reports ment...

  5. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenfelser Ruth; Clark Neil R; Ma'ayan Avi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), resea...

  6. Computation in gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, Asa; Siegelmann, Hava T

    2004-03-01

    Genetic regulatory networks have the complex task of controlling all aspects of life. Using a model of gene expression by piecewise linear differential equations we show that this process can be considered as a process of computation. This is demonstrated by showing that this model can simulate memory bounded Turing machines. The simulation is robust with respect to perturbations of the system, an important property for both analog computers and biological systems. Robustness is achieved using a condition that ensures that the model equations, that are generally chaotic, follow a predictable dynamics. PMID:15003055

  7. Mechanism of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Exclusion from Mycobacterial Phagosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Alexander S.; Vergne, Isabelle; Master, Sharon S.; Kyei, George B.; Chua, Jennifer; Deretic, Vojo

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is sensitive to nitric oxide generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Consequently, to ensure its survival in macrophages, M. tuberculosis inhibits iNOS recruitment to its phagosome by an unknown mechanism. Here we report the mechanism underlying this process, whereby mycobacteria affect the scaffolding protein EBP50, which normally binds to iNOS and links it to the actin cytoskeleton. Phagosomes harboring live mycobacteria showed reduced capacity to ret...

  8. Host response to nontuberculous mycobacterial infections of current clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M; Ordway, Diane J

    2014-09-01

    The nontuberculous mycobacteria are a large group of acid-fast bacteria that are very widely distributed in the environment. While Mycobacterium avium was once regarded as innocuous, its high frequency as a cause of disseminated disease in HIV-positive individuals illustrated its potential as a pathogen. Much more recently, there is growing evidence that the incidence of M. avium and related nontuberculous species is increasing in immunocompetent individuals. The same has been observed for M. abscessus infections, which are very difficult to treat; accordingly, this review focuses primarily on these two important pathogens. Like the host response to M. tuberculosis infections, the host response to these infections is of the TH1 type but there are some subtle and as-yet-unexplained differences. PMID:24914222

  9. An experimental model of mycobacterial infection under corneal flaps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.B.D., Adan; E.H., Sato; L.B., Sousa; R.S., Oliveira; S.C., Leão; D., Freitas.

    1015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a new experimental animal model of infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in keratomileusis, we conducted a double-blind prospective study on 24 adult male New Zealand rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was submitted to automatic lamellar keratotomy with the automatic corneal shaper [...] under general anesthesia. Eyes were immunosuppressed by a single local injection of methyl prednisolone. Twelve animals were inoculated into the keratomileusis interface with 1 µl of 10(6) heat-inactivated bacteria (heat-inactivated inoculum controls) and 12 with 1 µl of 10(6) live bacteria. Trimethoprim drops (0.1%, w/v) were used as prophylaxis for the surgical procedure every 4 h (50 µl, qid). Animals were examined by 2 observers under a slit lamp on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 16th, and 23rd postoperative days. Slit lamp photographs were taken to document clinical signs. Animals were sacrificed when corneal disease was detected and corneal samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Eleven of 12 experimental rabbits developed corneal disease, and M. chelonae could be isolated from nine rabbits. Eleven of the 12 controls receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum did not develop corneal disease. M. chelonae was not isolated from any of the control rabbits receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum, or from the healthy cornea of control rabbits. Corneal infection by M. chelonae was successfully induced in rabbits submitted to keratomileusis. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of M. chelonae infection following corneal flaps for refractive surgery to be described in the literature and can be used for the analysis of therapeutic responses.

  10. Bilateral nontuberculous mycobacterial middle ear infection: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ing Ping; Singh, Shashinder; Rajagopalan, Raman

    2014-09-01

    Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) middle ear infection is a rare cause of chronic bilateral intermittent otorrhea. We report a rare case of bilateral NTM middle ear infection in which a 55-year-old woman presented with intermittent otorrhea of 40 years' duration. The patient was treated medically with success. We conclude that NTM is a rare but probably under-recognized cause of chronic otitis media. A high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis to avoid prolonged morbidity. Treatment includes surgical clearance of infected tissue with appropriate antimycobacterial drugs, which are selected based on culture and sensitivity. PMID:25255345

  11. Anticytolytic screen identifies inhibitors of mycobacterial virulence protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybniker, Jan; Chen, Jeffrey M; Sala, Claudia; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Vocat, Anthony; Benjak, Andrej; Boy-Röttger, Stefanie; Zhang, Ming; Székely, Rita; Greff, Zoltán; Orfi, László; Szabadkai, István; Pató, János; Kéri, György; Cole, Stewart T

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires protein secretion systems like ESX-1 for intracellular survival and virulence. The major virulence determinant and ESX-1 substrate, EsxA, arrests phagosome maturation and lyses cell membranes, resulting in tissue damage and necrosis that promotes pathogen spread. To identify inhibitors of Mtb protein secretion, we developed a fibroblast survival assay exploiting this phenotype and selected molecules that protect host cells from Mtb-induced lysis without being bactericidal in vitro. Hit compounds blocked EsxA secretion and promoted phagosome maturation in macrophages, thus reducing bacterial loads. Target identification studies led to the discovery of BTP15, a benzothiophene inhibitor of the histidine kinase MprB that indirectly regulates ESX-1, and BBH7, a benzyloxybenzylidene-hydrazine compound. BBH7 affects Mtb metal-ion homeostasis and revealed zinc stress as an activating signal for EsxA secretion. This screening approach extends the target spectrum of small molecule libraries and will help tackle the mounting problem of antibiotic-resistant mycobacteria. PMID:25299337

  12. Myelofibrosis ameliorated after treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuya; Hattori, Keiichiro; Yamashita, Tomoko; Ueda, Mikako; Okada, Keigo; Ishida, Shinya; Sakai, Tomoko; Kasahara, Ichiro; Isogai, Susumu; Kumagai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of continuous fever, anemia, and immature myeloid cells in peripheral blood. Bone marrow biopsy revealed severe myelofibrosis (MF). We performed computed tomography and identified several swollen mediastinal lymph nodes and nodules in the right upper lung. Lymph node biopsy showed an infection with Mycobacterium intracellulare (M. intracellulare), a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). Antituberculosis drugs led to remission of the NTM infection. Bone marrow biopsy revealed marked improvement in MF and red blood cell infusion was not required after therapy. No prior cases of concomitant NTM with M. intracellulare and MF have been reported. This is thus the first reported case showing improvement of myelofibrosis after NTM treatment. This case report offers valuable insights into the pathology of MF. PMID:25745964

  13. New 5-Modified Pyrimidine Nucleoside Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrova, L. A.; Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Erokhin, V. V.; Smirnova, T. G.; Andreevskaia, S. N.; Chernousova, L. N.

    2010-01-01

    The WHO has declared tuberculosis (TB) a global health emergency. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover and develop new anti–TB drugs. Here we report on a new category of 5–substituted pyrimidine nucleosides as potent inhibitors of Myco–bacterium tuberculosis growth in vitro. A series of 2?–deoxy–, 3?–azido–2?,3?–dideoxy–, and 3?–amino–2?,3?–dideoxypyrimidine nucleoside analogues bearing lengthy flexible alkyloxymethyl substituents exh...

  14. Respiratory Review of 2014: Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Cheol Kyu; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health concern and the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB is increasing globally, new modalities for the detection of TB and drug resistant TB are needed to improve TB control. The Xpert MTB/RIF test can be a valuable new tool for early detection of TB and rifampicin resistance, with a high sensitivity and specificity. Late-generation fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, which are the principal drugs for the treatment of MDR-...

  15. Cytokines in mycobacterial infections: `in vitro` and `ex vivo` studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flad, H.D.; Gercken, J.; Huebner, L.; Schlueter, C.; Ernst, M. [Forschungsinstitut Borstel (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biologie und Medizin; Pryjma, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Different species of mycobacteria differ in their capacity to induce the production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) by human monocytes `in vitro`. Whereas `M. tuberculosis` is a potent inducer of TNF-{alpha}, `M. leprae` is much less potent. TNF-{alpha} production is found to be associated with the availability of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by activated monocytes, as superoxide enhancing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increases and catalase degrading H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreases TNF-{alpha} production. Furthermore, `M. kansasii` with high intrinsic catalase induce less TNF-{alpha} than mycobacteria with low intrinsic catalase. `In vitro` infection of monocytes with `M. tuberculosis` leads to an impairment of the antigen-presenting capacity, as determined by a reduction of antigen-induced T cell proliferation and interferon {gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) production. Of crucial importance in this impairment is the `M. tuberculosis`-induced down-modulation of MHC class II antigens. The role of TNF-{alpha} `in vivo` is reflected in patients with various forms of leprosy. In skin lesions of lepromatous leprosy patients TNF-{alpha}, interleukin 1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and IFN-{gamma} production are found to be rare, whereas these cytokines are well expressed in skin lesions of patients with tuberculoid leprosy. After multidrug chemotherapy an increase of local cytokine production is found. Taken together, these findings suggest that components of mycobacteria may interfere with local cell-mediated immune reactions `in vivo`. The molecular mechanisms involved in these local responses need to be defined. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  16. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Marja L.; Loos, Bruno G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in ...

  17. Chromatin Dynamics and Gene Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, R. Ileng; Thakar, Rajika; Spector, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian cell nucleus provides a landscape where genes are regulated through their organization and association with freely diffusing proteins and nuclear domains. In many cases, specific genes are highly dynamic, and the principles governing their movements and interchromosomal interactions are currently under intensive study. Recent investigations have implicated actin and myosin in chromatin dynamics and gene expression. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the dynamics of th...

  18. Gene function diversification upon duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Lui?s Manuel Baudouin

    2013-01-01

    A duplicação de genes é um processo molecular que facilita a evolução de novos genes com novas funções. Isto acontece porque a presença de uma segunda cópia relaxa a pressão selectiva sobre estes genes, permintindo que se acumulem mutações nestes. A pseudogenização de uma das cópias é o destino mais provável após um evento de duplicação, assumindo que a fixação dá-se através de selecção neutral (o que é normalmente assumido), mas outros resultados podem ocorrer: amb...

  19. Compositional Gradients in Gramineae Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Gane Ka-shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin; Tan, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Passey, Douglas A.; Yu, Jun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5?-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage. The magnitudes of these gradients are large enough to hinder the annotation of the rice genome and to confound the detection of protein homologies across the monocot–eudicot divide.

  20. Gene therapy in ocular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Vijay; Tripathi Parul

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is a novel form of drug delivery that enlists the synthetic machinery of the patient?s cells to produce a therapeutic agent. Genes may be delivered into cells in vitro or in vivo utilising viral or non-viral vectors. Recent technical advances have led to the demonstration of the molecular basis of various ocular diseases. Ocular disorders with the greatest potential for benefit of gene therapy include hereditary diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, tumours such as retino...

  1. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Si-xue; Xia, Zhong-sheng; Zhong, Ying-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC...

  2. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed

    OpenAIRE

    Venters, Bryan J.; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined thirty years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: 1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes, 2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific ...

  3. Defining genes: a computational framework

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Peter F.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Forst, Christian V.; Krakauer, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The precise elucidation of the gene concept has become the subject of intense discussion in light of results from several, large high-throughput surveys of transcriptomes and proteomes. In previous work, we proposed an approach for constructing gene concepts that combines genomic heritability with elements of function. Here, we introduce a definition of the gene within a computational framework of cellular interactions. The definition seeks to satisfy the practical requirements imposed by ann...

  4. Genes and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?sy, Julita; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy originating from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell. It ranks among the commonest cancers in childhood and is characterized by excessive proliferation and differentiation block. The process of leukemogenesis is governed by genetic changes at both the cytogenetic and molecular level. According to numerous analyses, a large spectrum of mutations and rearrangements underlying the disease affect essential cellular transduction pathways, genes ensuring proper course of hematopoiesis, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and apoptosis regulators. Common lesions include translocations to T cell receptor (TCR) loci in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), mutations of transcription factors regulating B-lineage development and cell maturation in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) (PAX5, TCF3, EBF1, etc.), aberrational disruption of genes coding for transcription factors and coactivators in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (e.g. CBF) or BCR-ABL1 fusion and activation of multiple kinases in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). These alterations severely impair cell function. Broadening knowledge of the genetic background gives an insight into the pathobiology of a disease and allows for a better understanding of it. An appropriate investigation of genomic events yields diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Broadening knowledge of the pathogenesis of leukemia seems to be a promising contribution to precise stratification of patients, reducing the toxicity and adverse effects caused by medical intervention, treatment personalization and introduction of targeted therapy accessible to a wide range of patients. PMID:25748621

  5. Mapping of repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome mapping of repair genes involved in U.V. sensitivity is reported. Twenty-three of 25 hybrid cells were resistant to U.V. light. Survival curves of 2 U.V.-resistant cell strains, which possessed mouse chromosomes and human chromosome No.7 - 16, were similar to those of wild strain (L5178Y). On the other hand, survival curves of U.V.-sensitive hybrid cells was analogous to those of Q31. There was a definitive difference in the frequency of inducible chromosome aberrations between U.V. resistant and sensitive mouse-human hybrid cells. U.V.-resistant cell strains possessed the ability of excision repair. Analysis of karyotype in hybrid cells showed that the difference in U.V. sensitivity is dependent upon whether or not human chromosome No.13 is present. Synteny test on esterase D-determining locus confirmed that there is an agreement between the presence of chromosome No.13 and the presence of human esterase D activity. These results led to a conclusion that human genes which compensate recessive character of U.V.-sensitive mutant strain, Q31, with mouse-human hybrid cells are located on the locus of chromosome No.13. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. One gene, many phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available "Phenotype" is the visible or quantifiable effect of the expression of a gene, whereas the specific genetic constitution responsible for a phenotype is called "genotype". It was hoped that phenotype could be accurately predicted if the genotype could be characterized. But, the relationship between the genotype and phenotype is not straightforward. Similar genetic lesions can have entirely different phenotypes. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of diseases. The extent to which it will be possible to relate findings at the DNA level to the clinical phenotype is difficult to delineate on many occasions. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying genotype-phenotype discrepancies is important as it will influence the use of DNA-based tests in the diagnosis, therapy and counseling of individuals affected with genetic disorders. This issue is pertinent to almost every aspect of medical practice and research in this post-genome era. In this article, we have tried to summarize those factors which are responsible for varied manifestations of lesion(s in a single gene.

  7. A genetic ensemble approach for gene-gene interaction identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joshua WK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now become clear that gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions are ubiquitous and fundamental mechanisms for the development of complex diseases. Though a considerable effort has been put into developing statistical models and algorithmic strategies for identifying such interactions, the accurate identification of those genetic interactions has been proven to be very challenging. Methods In this paper, we propose a new approach for identifying such gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying complex diseases. This is a hybrid algorithm and it combines genetic algorithm (GA and an ensemble of classifiers (called genetic ensemble. Using this approach, the original problem of SNP interaction identification is converted into a data mining problem of combinatorial feature selection. By collecting various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP subsets as well as environmental factors generated in multiple GA runs, patterns of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be extracted using a simple combinatorial ranking method. Also considered in this study is the idea of combining identification results obtained from multiple algorithms. A novel formula based on pairwise double fault is designed to quantify the degree of complementarity. Conclusions Our simulation study demonstrates that the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm has comparable identification power to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and is slightly better than Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA, which are the two most popular methods for gene-gene interaction identification. More importantly, the identification results generated by using our genetic ensemble algorithm are highly complementary to those obtained by PIA and MDR. Experimental results from our simulation studies and real world data application also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm, as well as the potential benefits of combining identification results from different algorithms.

  8. GENE MUTATIONS, GENETIC DISEASE AND PHARMACOGENETIC GENES DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell mutation is able to create genetic variance in a cell population and can induce cancer and tumor when gene mutations took place at repressor gene in controlling cell cycles such as p53 gene. Whereas germline cell mutation can cause genetic disease such as sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, thalassemia, parkinson’s as well as defect of biochemical pathway that influence drug-receptor interaction, which has negative effect and lead to hospitalized of patient. Most of reports mentioned that point mutation such as a single base of nucleotide substitution (purine replaced by purine or transversion (purine replaced by pyrimidine or vice versa that affected genetic disease as well as adverse drug reaction that involved genetic factors. Mutation that occurred in germline cell would be inherited to the progeny, and these mutated genes can spread in a population through fertilization process. Mutation that occur in coding frame of DNA region which of their expression are responsible for synthesis of specific products could be rise of genetic disease, because the lost of gene function. Similarly, mutation that take place for CYP450 gene family which related to drug metabolism included pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic gene function could affect drug biosynthesis and degradation. Abnormality of drug metabolism that results in pharmacogenetic effect which is indicated by adverse drug reaction to individual that severe metabolite defect. On the future, therapy of genetic disease as well as abnormal of drug metabolism can be directed into gene therapy techniques with using stem cell engineering.

  9. Purification, characterization, gene sequence, and significance of a bacterioferritin from Mycobacterium leprae

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The study of tissue-derived Mycobacterium leprae provides insights to the immunopathology of leprosy and helps identify broad molecular features necessary for mycobacterial parasitism. A major membrane protein (MMP-II) of in vivo-derived M. leprae previously recognized (Hunter, S.W., B. Rivoire, V. Mehra, B.R. Bloom, and P.J. Brennan. 1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265:14065) was purified from extracts of the organism and partial amino acid sequence obtained. This information allowed recognition, withi...

  10. Erg gene: a human gene related to the ets oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated a cDNA clone representing the complete coding sequence of a human gene named erg, related to the ets oncogene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA (4.6 kilobases long) revealed that this gene encodes a 363-residue protein whose predicted amino acid sequence showed a homology of ? 40% and 70% to two domains corresponding to the 5' and 3' regions of v-ets oncogene, respectively. A 3.2- to 3.6-kilobase and ? 5-kilobase transcript of the erg gene, which differ in size from those of the previously described Hu-ets 1 and Hu-ets 2 genes, were observed in different cells. These results suggest that the erg gene is a member of the ets oncogen family

  11. Gene duplication and gene conversion in class II MHC genes of New Zealand robins (Petroicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary C; Lambert, David M

    2004-06-01

    In contrast to mammals, the evolution of MHC genes in birds appears to be characterized by high rates of gene duplication and concerted evolution. To further our understanding of the evolution of passerine MHC genes, we have isolated class II B sequences from two species of New Zealand robins, the South Island robin (Petroica australis australis), and the endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi). Using an RT-PCR based approach we isolated four transcribed class II B MHC sequences from the black robin, and eight sequences from the South Island robin. RFLP analysis indicated that all class II B loci were contained within a single linkage group. Analysis of 3'-untranslated region sequences enabled putative orthologous loci to be identified in the two species, and indicated that multiple rounds of gene duplication have occurred within the MHC of New Zealand robins. The orthologous relationships are not retained within the coding region of the gene, instead the sequences group within species. A number of putative gene conversion events were identified across the length of our sequences that may account for this. Exon 2 sequences are highly diverse and appear to have diverged under balancing selection. It is also possible that gene conversion involving short stretches of sequence within exon 2 adds to this diversity. Our study is the first report of putative orthologous MHC loci in passerines, and provides further evidence for the importance of gene duplication and gene conversion in the evolution of the passerine MHC. PMID:15138734

  12. Genes, crianças e pediatras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Correia; Marta, Rios; Paula, Ferreira; Esmeralda, Martins; Anabela, Bandeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A male newborn, presenting hipotonia and posterior parietal bossing, developed, in the first 12 hours of life, refusal to feed and hypoglycaemia. A cranial ultrasound, skull X-ray and CT scan revealed an occipital and parietal fracture with an underlying haematoma and extensive extracranial soft-tis [...] sue swelling. He was submitted to surgical drainage. After 24 hours: new intracerebral bleeding. At the age of two-months he presented abnormal skin and sparse kinky hair. Serum copper and caeruloplasmin levels were below the normal range. Molecular diagnosis of Menkes disease was made by the identification of a new mutation in ATP7A gene.

  13. See the Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Through this concluding lesson and its associated activity, students experience one valuable and often overlooked skill of successful scientists and engineers—communicating your work and ideas. They explore the importance of scientific communication, including the basic, essential elements of communicating new information to the public and pitfalls to avoid. In the associated activity, student groups create posters depicting their solutions to the unit's challenge question—accurate, efficient methods for detecting cancer-causing genes using optical biosensors—which includes providing a specific example with relevant equations. Students are also individually assessed on their understanding of refraction via a short quiz. This lesson and its associated activity conclude the unit and serve as the culminating Go Public phase of the Legacy Cycle, providing unit review and summative assessment.

  14. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Michael Toft VBN,

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The present invention also relates to a method for determining whether an individual has an increased risk of contracting a cardiac disorder, a method for diagnosing a cardiac disorder, method for treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder, method for identifying a compound, capable of enhancing the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes.

  15. GENES IN SPORT AND DOPING

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Pokrywka; Pawe? Kaliszewski; Edyta Majorczyk; Agnieszka Zembro?-?acny

    2013-01-01

    Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes’ g...

  16. The Meaning of Gene Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Takumi; Meaburn, Karen J.; Misteli, Tom

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that genomes are organized nonrandomly in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes. But what is the functional relevance of this nonrandomness? In this Essay, we explore the biological meaning of spatial gene positioning by examining the functional link between the activity of a gene and its radial position in the nucleus.

  17. Translational selection on SHH genes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammadreza, Hajjari; Behnaz, Saffar; Atefeh, Khoshnevisan.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Codon usage bias has been observed in various organisms. In this study, the correlation between SHH genes expression in some tissues and codon usage features was analyzed by bioinformatics. We found that translational selection may act on compositional features of this set of genes. [...

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE ON GENE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil P.M., Chaudhari P.D., Megha Sahu and Duragkar N.J.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy can be broadly defined as the transfer of genetic material to cure a disease or at least to improve the clinical status of a patient. One of the basic concepts of gene therapy is to transform viruses into genetic shuttles, which will deliver the gene of interest into the target cells. Based on the nature of the viral genome, these gene therapy vectors can be divided into RNA and DNA viral vectors. The majority of RNA virus-based vectors have been derived from simple retroviruses like murine leukemia virus. A major shortcoming of these vectors is that they are not able to transducer nondividing cells. This problem may be overcome by the use of novel retroviral vectors derived from lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The most commonly used DNA virus vectors are based on adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses. An example of gene-knockout mediated gene therapy is the knockout of the human CCR5 gene in T-cells in order to control HIV infection[1] Although the available vector systems are able to deliver genes in vivo into cells, the ideal delivery vehicle has not been found. Thus, the present viral vectors should be used only with great caution in human beings and further progress in vector development is necessary.

  19. Regulation of autoimmune arthritis by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene Y; Chi, Howard H; Bouziane, Mohammed; Gaur, Amitabh; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2008-04-01

    The pathogenesis of T cell-mediated diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has typically been explained in the context of the Th1-Th2 paradigm: the initiation/propagation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and downregulation by Th2 cytokines. However, in our study based on the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of RA, we observed that Lewis (LEW) (RT.1(l)) rats at the recovery phase of AA showed the highest level of IFN-gamma in recall response to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65), whereas AA-resistant Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) (RT.1(l)) rats secreted high levels of IFN-gamma much earlier following disease induction. However, no significant secretion of IL-10 or TGF-beta was observed in either strain. Furthermore, pre-treatment of LEW rats with a peptide of self (rat) hsp65 (R465), which induced T cells secreting predominantly IFN-gamma, afforded protection against AA and decreased IL-17 expression by the arthritogenic epitope-restimulated T cells. These results provide a novel perspective on the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. PMID:18276192

  20. Regulation of autoimmune arthritis by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene Y.; Chi, Howard H.; Bouziane, Mohammed; Gaur, Amitabh; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of T cell-mediated diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has typically been explained in the context of the Th1-Th2 paradigm: the initiation/propagation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and downregulation by Th2 cytokines. However, in our study based on the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of RA, we observed that Lewis (LEW) (RT.1l) rats at the recovery phase of AA showed the highest level of IFN-? in recall response to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65), whereas AA-resistant Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) (RT.1l) rats secreted high levels of IFN-? much earlier following disease induction. However, no significant secretion of IL-10 or TGF-? was observed in either strain. Furthermore, pre-treatment of LEW rats with a peptide of self (rat) hsp65 (R465), which induced T cells secreting predominantly IFN-?, afforded protection against AA and decreased IL-17 expression by the arthritogenic epitope-restimulated T cells. These results provide a novel perspective on the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. PMID:18276192

  1. Outbreaks due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii in southern Brazil: persistence of a single clone from 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Luciana de S; Baethgen, Ludmila F; Ribeiro, Marta O; Cardoso, Cássia M; de Paris, Fernanda; De David, Simone M M; da Silva, Marlei G; Duarte, Rafael S; Barth, Afonso L

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been increasingly reported worldwide, including in Brazil. Among the RGM, the Mycobacterium abscessus complex is the most pathogenic and related to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile of RGM isolates involved in new postsurgical infection outbreaks in Brazil since 2007. Of the 109 cases reported in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2007 and 2011, 43 (39?%) had confirmed mycobacterial growth in culture. Clinical isolates were obtained from biopsy specimens or abscess aspirates. PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern identified the isolates as M. abscessus type 2, and partial rpoB sequencing confirmed the identification as M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and resistant to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin and tobramycin. Most isolates (72?%) were fully susceptible to cefoxitin but six isolates (14?%) were fully resistant to clarithromycin. The latter differed from the susceptibility profiles of the previously described BRA100 clone from other Brazilian regions. Nevertheless, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to a single BRA100 clone. In conclusion, our study reports the persistence of an emergent single and highly resistant clone of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii for several years even after national implementation of infection control measures. PMID:25038135

  2. [Transcriptional control of ciliary genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Jennifer; Jerber, Julie; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-11-01

    Cilia are found in many eukaryotic species and share a common microtubule architecture that can nonetheless show very diverse features within one animal. The genesis of cilia and their diversity require the expression of different specific genes. At least two classes of transcription factors are involved in ciliogenesis: the RFX family, essential for the assembly of most cilia and the FOXJ1 transcription factors that are key regulators of motile cilia assembly. These two different families of transcription factors have both specific and common target genes and they can also cooperate for the formation of cilia. In collaboration with cell type specific factors, they also contribute to the specialisation of cilia. As a consequence, the identification of RFX and FOXJ1 target genes has emerged as an efficient strategy to identify novel ciliary genes, and in particular genes potentially implicated in ciliopathies. PMID:25388578

  3. GeneNet: a database on structure and functional organisation of gene networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ananko, E. A.; Podkolodny, N. L.; Stepanenko, I. L.; Ignatieva, E. V.; Podkolodnaya, O. A.; Kolchanov, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The GeneNet database is designed for accumulation of information on gene networks. Original technology applied in GeneNet enables description of not only a gene network structure and functional relationships between components, but also metabolic and signal transduction pathways. Specialised software, GeneNet Viewer, automatically displays the graphical diagram of gene networks described in the database. Current release 3.0 of GeneNet database contains descriptions of 25 gene networks, 945 pr...

  4. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Loyd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expression between IPF and normal lung tissue, and has identified a wide range of candidate genes, including those known to encode for proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and degradation, growth factors and chemokines. Recently, familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts have been examined in an attempt to detect specific genetic mutations associated with IPF. To date, these studies have identified families in which IPF is associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C, or with mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase. Although rare and clearly not responsible for the disease in all individuals, the nature of these mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential for gene expression profiling in helping to advance the current understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gene expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying this method to 16,172 patient-derived tumor samples, we replicated many loci with aberrant copy numbers and identified recurrently disrupted genes in genomically unstable cancers.

  6. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

  7. Gene transfer: anything goes in plant mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Richards Thomas A; Archibald John M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parasitic plants and their hosts have proven remarkably adept at exchanging fragments of mitochondrial DNA. Two recent studies provide important mechanistic insights into the pattern, process and consequences of horizontal gene transfer, demonstrating that genes can be transferred in large chunks and that gene conversion between foreign and native genes leads to intragenic mosaicism. A model involving duplicative horizontal gene transfer and differential gene conversion is proposed a...

  8. Incidence of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, differentiated by multiplex PCR, in clinical specimens of a large general hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane Picoli Alves, Bensi; Patricia Costa, Panunto; Marcelo de Carvalho, Ramos.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates in the routine setting of a large general hospital using an "in-house" multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and to establish a paradigm for the definitive identification of my [...] cobacteria isolated using semi-automated equipment. METHODS: Established tests, including polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis, PNB, and NAP inhibition tests as the gold standard, showed 100% agreement with an IS6110/hsp65 multiplex polymerase chain reaction when used to identify stock strains (n = 117). RESULTS: In a subsequent study, 8,790 clinical specimens producing 476 isolates were evaluated with multiplex PCR and also showed 100% agreement in identification using PRA-polymerase chain reaction as the gold standard. The application of this technique to routine analysis was demonstrated in this study. A method was established with the initial application of multiplex PCR for all positive liquid cultures and the subsequent identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria by polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis. In total, 77% of isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and 23% were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Several non-tuberculous mycobacterial species were identified, primarily M. avium, but other potentially pathogenic species were also frequently observed, including M. fortuitum, M. abscessus, and M. kansasii. The expeditious communication of these data to the clinical staff was fundamental for the diagnosis of clinical cases. Even in settings where tuberculosis is of major importance, the incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection is substantial.

  9. Cloning the chicken leptin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouis, M; Chen, J W; Daviaud, C; Dupont, J; Derouet, M; Simon, J

    1998-02-27

    Chicken is characterized by a relative insulin resistance and a physiological hyperglycemia (2g/L) and is also subjected to fattening. Fat deposits in chicken, as in mammals, are regulated by environmental and genetic factors. In mammals, leptin, an adipose cell-specific secreted protein has been characterized that is encoded by ob gene. Leptin regulates satiety through hypothalamic specific receptors, energy balance, energy efficiency and contributes to adaptation to starvation. The leptin gene has been characterized in various mammalian species, and the cloning and sequencing of the chicken leptin gene (ob gene) are reported. Using RT-PCR and primers flanking the coding region of the leptin gene selected from known mammalian sequences, we have successfully amplified a 600-bp fragment from chicken liver and adipose tissue total ARNs. The amplified fragment exhibits a similar size to that of the coding region of the mammalian leptin gene. The sequences of the coding region of chicken liver and adipose tissue are identical and presented 97%, 96% and 83% similarity to the mouse, rat and human sequences, respectively. Finally, this is the first report showing that leptin gene expression in chicken is not exclusively localized in adipose tissue but is also expressed in liver. The expression of leptin in liver may be associated with a key role of this organ in avian species in controlling lipogenesis. PMID:9524275

  10. Gene therapy for haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Claire; Carmo, Marlene; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) describes a severe and often fatal immunodysregulatory disorder caused primarily by the uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. A number of genetic defects mainly involving defective granule exocytosis and effector cell cytotoxicity have been identified and well characterised at the molecular and cellular level. These conditions have limited therapeutic options and given the predominant restriction of the causative gene to the haematopoietic system, they have become attractive targets for haematopoietic cell gene therapy. Pre clinical studies in murine models of HLH due to perforin deficiency have shown correction of the disease phenotype as a result of autologous haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene transfer using lentiviral vectors. In a murine model of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1), HSC gene transfer is able to correct the immunological manifestations of the disease. These encouraging murine studies have led to further work to develop clinically applicable strategies. An alternative approach is to correct defective T cells as this approach is safer than HSC gene therapy and may allow early control of the HLH through the engraftment of functional gene modified effector T cells. Both strategies are now in development and a gene therapy option for certain genetic forms of HLH may soon enter clinical trials. PMID:25245087

  11. A Hierarchical Gene-Set Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Tzung-Pei Hong; Min-Thai Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, gene sets, instead of individual genes, are used in the genetic process to speed up convergence. A gene-set mutation operator is proposed, which can make several neighboring genes to simultaneously mutate. A gene-set crossover operator is also designed to choose the crossover points at the boundary of gene sets. The proposed gene-set mutation and crossover operators will cause a larger diversity than the conventional ones. A hierarchical gene-set genetic algorithm is then propo...

  12. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular composition of the Vaa proteins. The proteins constituted a conserved N-terminal part followed by a varying number of interchangeable cassettes encoding approximately 110 amino acids with conserved sequences boxes flanking the cassettes. The interchangeable cassettes showed a high mutual homology and a conserved leucine zipper motif. The smallest product contained only one cassette and the largest five. Additionally, two types of stop mutations caused by substitutions resulting in the expression of truncated Vaa proteins were observed. Our results expand the known potential of the Vaa system in generating antigen variation.

  13. Genes to Cognition Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor, NY has created this fantastic website to explore neuroscience, and it is focused on cognitive disorders, cognitive processes, and research approaches. There are many activities on the site, and each is broken down into six categories of analysis, "Genes", "Biochemicals", "Cells", "Brain Anatomy", "Cognition", and "Environment". Thus, clicking on "Bipolar Disorder" under the "Disorders" tab at the top of the page, will take the visitor to a "subway line" at the top of the page. There are several "stops" on the line, and each allows the visitor to learn about the key areas of bipolar disorder research. Scrolling over the stops opens up a small window with a blurb about the content to view. The blurb also shows whether the content is a video, an application, animation, etc. Visitors wishing to see all the research available, should click on the network map, which is the screen behind the smaller "subway line" page. The "Teacher Feature", under the "Targeted Content" tab, and next to the small model of the brain, offers lessons on such topics as autism, memory, and ethical decision-making. "Teacher Pages," "Student Worksheets", and "Test Items" are offered in PDF form.

  14. Environment, genes, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, J.

    1996-03-01

    In January, comedian George Burns turned 100 years old. In recent appearances in the media, he still seems sharp as a tack, and is still seen smoking his trademark cigars. Others of us, however, were never very funny, and would die of cancer at age 60 if we continuously smoked cigars or cigarettes. Burns presents a common but perplexing paradox; some people are able to tolerate at least moderate exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke with little adverse affect, while others develop cancer, emphysema, or heart disease. New studies support the idea that there is an interaction between genes and the environment, and that this interaction may be an important determinant of cancer risk. To understand such risks, it is essential to look at both an individual`s genetic makeup and environmental exposures. Such studies require the collaboration of molecular epidemiologists and molecular biologists. At the NIEHS, Jack A. Taylor, a lead clinical investigator in the Epidemiology Branch, and Douglas A. Bell, an investigator with the Genetic Risk Group of the Laboratory of Biochemical Risk Analysis, have worked together and with other scientists to uncover new information in this area.

  15. Selecting genes by test statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dechang; Liu, Zhenqiu; Ma, Xiaobin; Hua, Dong

    2005-06-30

    Gene selection is an important issue in analyzing multiclass microarray data. Among many proposed selection methods, the traditional ANOVA F test statistic has been employed to identify informative genes for both class prediction (classification) and discovery problems. However, the F test statistic assumes an equal variance. This assumption may not be realistic for gene expression data. This paper explores other alternative test statistics which can handle heterogeneity of the variances. We study five such test statistics, which include Brown-Forsythe test statistic and Welch test statistic. Their performance is evaluated and compared with that of F statistic over different classification methods applied to publicly available microarray datasets. PMID:16046818

  16. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage. The magnitudes of these gradients are large enough to hinder the annotation of the rice genome and to confound the detection of protein homologies across the monocot-eudicot divide. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jun

  17. Homologous Gene Replacement in Physarum

    OpenAIRE

    Burland, T. G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD?1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD?1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD(+) with ardD?...

  18. Selecting Genes by Test Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dechang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene selection is an important issue in analyzing multiclass microarray data. Among many proposed selection methods, the traditional ANOVA F test statistic has been employed to identify informative genes for both class prediction (classification and discovery problems. However, the F test statistic assumes an equal variance. This assumption may not be realistic for gene expression data. This paper explores other alternative test statistics which can handle heterogeneity of the variances. We study five such test statistics, which include Brown-Forsythe test statistic and Welch test statistic. Their performance is evaluated and compared with that of F statistic over different classification methods applied to publicly available microarray datasets.

  19. Aphids acquired symbiotic genes via lateral gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Nakabachi Atsushi; Nikoh Naruo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (?-Proteobacteria). Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential for bacterial life. From the bacteriocyte of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we previously identified two clusters of expressed sequence tags that display similarity only to bacterial genes. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that they are encoded in the aphid...

  20. Structures of two molluscan hemocyanin genes: Significance for gene evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Bernhard; Altenhein, Benjamin; Markl, Ju?rgen; Vincent, Alexandra; Olden, Erin; Holde, Kensal E.; Miller, Karen I.

    2001-01-01

    We present here the description of genes coding for molluscan hemocyanins. Two distantly related mollusks, Haliotis tuberculata and Octopus dofleini, were studied. The typical architecture of a molluscan hemocyanin subunit, which is a string of seven or eight globular functional units (FUs, designated a to h, about 50 kDa each), is reflected by the gene organization: a series of eight structurally related coding regions in Haliotis, corresponding to FU-a to FU-h, with sev...

  1. Diferenciação de micobactérias por PCR multiplex / Differentiation of micobacteria by multiplex PCR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diogo da Rocha, Poroca; Andrea Santos, Lima; Juliana Falcão de Araújo, Lima; Heidi Lacerda Alves da, Cruz; Rosana de Albuquerque, Montenegro; Fábio Lopes de, Melo; Haiana Charifker, Schindler; Lílian Maria Lapa, Montenegro.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho visou à otimização de um método baseado na reação em cadeia da polimerase multiplex - para diferenciação de micobactérias de interesse para a saúde pública. A PCR Multiplex baseou-se na amplificação simultânea do genehsp65, presente em todo gênero Mycobacterium, do gene dnaJ, presente ape [...] nas em Mycobacterium tuberculosis e Mycobacterium avium e da sequência de inserção IS6110 presente no complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, gerando amplicons de 165pb, 365pb e 541pb, respectivamente. O limite de detecção foi de 1fg para o alvo hsp65, 100pg para o dnaJ e 0,1fg para o IS6110. A PCR multiplex detectou até 100pg de DNA de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O sistema demonstrou ser específico e sensível na detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium e Mycobacterium smegmatis. Os resultados obtidos utilizando cepas de referência demonstraram que a PCR multiplex pode ser uma ferramenta rápida, sensível e específica na diferenciação de micobactérias. Abstract in english This study aimed to optimize a method based on the polymerase chain reaction - multiplex PCR - for differentiation of mycobacteria species of interest for public health. The multiplex PCR was based on simultaneous amplification of the hsp65 gene, which is present in all species of the Mycobacterium [...] genus, the dnaJ gene, which is present only in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium and the IS6110 insertion sequence, which is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, generating amplicons of 165 bp, 365 bp and 541 bp, respectively. The detection limit was 1 fg for the hsp65 target, 100 pg for dnaJ and 0.1 fg for IS6110. The multiplex PCR detected down to 100 pg of DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The system was shown to be specific and sensitive for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The results obtained using reference strains of mycobacteria showed that multiplex PCR may be a fast, sensitive and specific tool for differentiation of mycobacteria.

  2. Microarray analysis of genes and gene functions in disc degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANG, YANCHUN; WANG, SHAOKUN; LIU, YING; WANG, XUYUN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in human degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs), and to perform functional analysis on these DEGs. The gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE34095)and included six human IVD samples: three degenerative and three non-degenerative. The DEGs between the normal and disease samples were identified using R packages. The online software WebGestalt was used to perform the functional analysis of the DEGs, followed by Osprey software to search for interactions between the DEGs. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was utilized to annotate the DEGs in the interaction network and then the DEGs were uploaded to the Connectivity Map database to search for small molecules. In addition, the active binding sites for the hub genes in the network were obtained, based on the Universal Protein database. By comparing the gene expression profiles of the non-degenerative and degenerative IVDs, the DEGs between the samples were identified. The DEGs were significantly associated with transforming growth factor ? and the extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was identified as the hub gene of the interaction network of DEGs. In addition, MMP2 was found to be upregulated in degenerative IVDs. The screened small molecules and the active binding sites of MMP2 may facilitate the development of methods to inhibit overexpression of MMP2. PMID:24396401

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated gene-gene interaction network for rheumatoid arthritis candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Cong, Lei; Xie, Jun; Qiao, Bo; Lo, Shaw-Hwa; Zheng, Tian

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, MIM 180300) is a chronic and complex autoimmune disease. Using the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) data set provided in Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16), we used the genotype-trait distortion (GTD) scores and proposed analysis procedures to capture the gene-gene interaction effects of multiple susceptibility gene regions on RA. In this paper, we focused on 27 RA candidate gene regions (531 SNPs) based on a literature search. Statistical significance was evaluated using 1000 permutations. HLADRB1 was found to have strong marginal association with RA. We identified 14 significant interactions (p < 0.01), which were aggregated into an association network among 12 selected candidate genes PADI4, FCGR3, TNFRSF1B, ITGAV, BTLA, SLC22A4, IL3, VEGF, TNF, NFKBIL1, TRAF1-C5, and MIF. Based on our and other contributors' findings during the GAW16 conference, we further studied 24 candidate regions with 336 SNPs. We found 23 significant interactions (p-value < 0.01), nine interactions in addition to our initial findings, and the association network was extended to include candidate genes HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, CTLA4, and IL6. As we will discuss in this paper, the reported possible interactions between genes may suggest potential biological activities of RA. PMID:20018070

  4. Gene discovery in Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Burgos Nelia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the most relevant vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone of South America. Since its genome has not yet been studied, sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs is one of the most powerful tools for efficiently identifying large numbers of expressed genes in this insect vector. Results In this work, we generated 826 ESTs, resulting in an increase of 47% in the number of ESTs available for T. infestans. These ESTs were assembled in 471 unique sequences, 151 of which represent 136 new genes for the Reduviidae family. Conclusions Among the putative new genes for the Reduviidae family, we identified and described an interesting subset of genes involved in development and reproduction, which constitute potential targets for insecticide development.

  5. Finding Communities of Related Genes

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, D; Wilkinson, Dennis; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2002-01-01

    We present an automated method of identifying communities of functionally related genes from the biomedical literature. These communities encapsulate human gene and protein interactions and identify groups of genes that are complementary in their function. We use graphs to represent the network of gene cooccurrences in articles mentioning particular keywords, and find that these graphs consist of one giant connected component and many small ones. In addition, the vertex degree distribution of the graphs follows a power law, whose exponent we determine. We then use an algorithm based on betweenness centrality to identify community structures within the giant component. The different structures are then aggregated into a final list of communities, whose members are weighted according to how strongly they belong to them. Our method is efficient enough to be applicable to the entire Medline database, and yet the information it extracts is significantly detailed, applicable to a particular problem, and interesting...

  6. Gene therapy in ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vijay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a novel form of drug delivery that enlists the synthetic machinery of the patient?s cells to produce a therapeutic agent. Genes may be delivered into cells in vitro or in vivo utilising viral or non-viral vectors. Recent technical advances have led to the demonstration of the molecular basis of various ocular diseases. Ocular disorders with the greatest potential for benefit of gene therapy include hereditary diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, tumours such as retinoblastoma or melanoma, and acquired proliferative and neovascular retinal disorders. Gene transfer into ocular tissues has been demonstrated with growing functional success and may develop into a new therapeutic tool for clinical ophthalmology in future.

  7. Simulating Evolution by Gene Duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Tomoko

    1987-01-01

    By considering the recent finding that unequal crossing over and other molecular interactions are contributing to the evolution of multigene families, a model of the origin of repetitive genes was studied by Monte Carlo simulations. Starting from a single gene copy, how genetic systems evolve was examined under unequal crossing over, random drift and natural selection. Both beneficial and deteriorating mutations were incorporated, and the latter were assumed to occur ten times more frequently...

  8. Chimeric genes in acute leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus-soekarman, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the genetic analysis of two types of acute leukemia characterized by translocations will be described. Both translocations generate chimeric genes which are specific for these subtypes of leukemia. The non-random changes that occur at the molecular level can be used in addition to karyotyping to diagnose the presence of tumor cells. The linkage of specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9) to a consistent rearrangement involving the ~-gene on chro...

  9. Selection for the ?-Thalassemia Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    Extremely high incidences of single and double deletions of ?-globin genes are known among Asian populations. To study possible mechanisms for the maintenance of such deletions, mathematical analyses have been conducted. It has been shown that a stable polymorphism can be achieved easily through heterozygote advantage using deterministic models. The results strongly suggest that high incidences of single and double deletion of ?-globin genes among Asian populations are maintained by some ty...

  10. Gene therapy in clinical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Selkirk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success, it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Interest in this therapeutic modality is based on the potential for treatment and cure of some of the most malignant and devastating diseases affecting humans. Over the next decade, the relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and st...

  11. Nutrition for the selfish gene

    OpenAIRE

    Ostan, I.; Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.; Tijskens, L. M. M.

    2009-01-01

    In ethology, the science of animal behaviour, the so-called “central theorem” states that organisms are expected to behave in a way that benefits their own “inclusive fitness.” Critics of this theorem claim that there is a dichotomy or even a contradiction in each organism, involving the tendency of genes for successful multiplication and the tendency of the body for healthy longevity, and that organisms prefer to satisfy the needs of genes for multiplication even to the point of dama...

  12. [The relationship between mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene and the human counterpart gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ping; Zhang, Si-zhong; Xia, Qing-jie

    2002-07-01

    The cloning of human fertilization antigen 1 gene(FA1) ,the supposed counterpart gene of mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene (FA1),was performed using the PCR and PCR products cloned sequencing methods. The result shows that there might be two mistakes in the mouse FA1 gene open reading frame (ORF),and human OTK27 gene and mouse FA1 gene might be homogeneous genes in the two species. PMID:16135423

  13. Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for lateral gene transfer within and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Andrew J; Andersson Jan O

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replacement phenomenon in the four gene families encoding different classes of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), to evaluate and compare the patterns and rates of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Results We extend the taxon sampling of gdh genes with ...

  14. GeneMANIA: Fast gene network construction and function prediction for Cytoscape

    OpenAIRE

    Montojo, Jason; Zuberi, Khalid; Rodriguez, Harold; Bader, Gary D.; Morris, Quaid

    2014-01-01

    The GeneMANIA Cytoscape app enables users to construct a composite gene-gene functional interaction network from a gene list. The resulting network includes the genes most related to the original list, and functional annotations from Gene Ontology. The edges are annotated with details about the publication or data source the interactions were derived from. The app leverages GeneMANIA’s database of 1800+ networks, containing over 500 million interactions spanning 8 organisms: A. thaliana,...

  15. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  16. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja L. Laine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (R-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP.

  17. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Genes, Environments, and Behavior 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-04-25

    In this lesson students will study how genetic research on behavior is conducted. Genes, Environment, and Behavior 2 is the second of two lessons about the field called behavioral genetics, in which scientists study the reciprocating influences of genes and environments on behavior, particularly human behavior. Genes, Environment and Behavior 2 introduces students to the various approaches scientists use to explore the interaction of genetic and environmental forces which shape behavior.An important objective of these lessons is to help students overcome the common public misperception that genes can have a direct relationship with behavior; for example, that there may be a "gene for criminality" or a "gene for religiosity." Another common misperception that can be dispelled through these lessons is that the development of an organism is determined solely by genetic factors; this is called genetic determinism. Possibly the most important value of these lessons, therefore, is that they can help students understand why such beliefs are false.These chapters are character-based and have relatively easy context. Provided are quizzes that that are administered after the short readings. These quizzes foster a discussion on each topic in behavior and genetics. Students will also perform a scavenger hunt on a scientific research article for phrases that reference research methods including: family studies, molecular studies, and brain imaging studies.

  19. Book Review: Plant Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Rose (University of California Davis; Molecular and Cellular Biology REV)

    2007-05-22

    Whereas many important biological discoveries have been made using plants, subsequent progress in some areas of plant research has fallen behind that in other organisms for which funding and in vitro assays are more readily available. Gene expression is one such field in which importance continues to grow because many potential plant biotechnology–based solutions to global problems depend on regulating the expression of specific genes. Previous limitations to exploring gene expression in plants have been partially mitigated by recent advances in genomics, genetics, and transformation techniques. The book Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants: The Role of Transcript Structure and Processing, edited by Carole L. Bassett, summarizes our current understanding of plant gene expression, with an emphasis on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. The topics covered in six chapters include differences in messenger RNA (mRNA) structure caused by variations in transcription start and polyadenylation sites, alternative splicing, regulation by small RNAs, and mRNA transport and degradation. The chapters vary in depth, quality, and the degree to which the emphasis is placed on plants rather than eukaryotes in general. However, this slim volume is a useful review of gene expression in plants. The question of whether or not all differences in mRNA structure have functional importance remains open.

  20. Use of gene replacement transformation to elucidate gene function in the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, M E; Geever, R F; Asch, D K

    1992-04-01

    Gene replacement by transformation, employing selective genetic recombination techniques, has been used to delete or disrupt the qa-x, qa-y and qa-1S genes of the qa gene cluster of Neurospora crassa. The growth characteristics of the strain carrying the deletion of the qa-y gene support earlier evidence that this gene encodes a quinic acid permease. The strain containing the deletion of the qa-1S gene (delta qa-1S) was examined with respect to quinic acid induction and carbon catabolite repression. The delta qa-1S strain exhibits constitutive expression of the qa genes supporting earlier evidence that the qa-1S gene codes for a repressor. Several of the qa genes continued to be expressed at high levels even in the presence of glucose in the delta qa-1S strain, which indicates that transcription of these genes is not being affected directly by a repressor molecule in the presence of glucose. PMID:1533844