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Sample records for mesoporous phenol-formaldehyde resins

  1. Formulation of lignin phenol formaldehyde resins as a wood adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the potential of reducing phenol with lignin in phenol formaldehyde resin formulation. The physical and chemical properties between lignin phenol formaldehyde resin (LPF) and commercial phenol formaldehyde resin (CPF) were compared. Phenol had been replaced by lignin [that was extracted from black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)] in synthesizing resin with a ratio lignin to phenol 1:1. The IR spectra showed that there were similarities in functional groups between LPF resin and CPF resin. The comparison of physical strength properties via tensile strength test between LPF resin and CPF resin showed that the newly formulated resin has higher bonding strength compared to commercial resin. Kinematics viscosity test showed that LPF resin has lower kinematics viscosity compared to CPF resin in 21 days storage time. SEM images for both resin showed similarities in the effect of resin penetration into woods vessel existed. (author)

  2. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

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    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  3. Thermal and mechanical behavior of modified phenol formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyamide is a modifier which introduces flexibility and toughness to phenolic foam by non reactive approach. Phenol formaldehyde resin was physically modified by the addition of polyamide in different percentages ranging from 0.05% to 0.2% which introduced toughness to modified resole. The resultant polymers were characterized by thermal and mechanical analysis using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Instron machine and Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). (author)

  4. Electron beam curable phenol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novolac type phenolic resins were synthesized and electron beam curing was carried out to the prepolymer obtained by the reaction of the phenolic resin and glycidyl meth acrylate in the presence of triethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. When the prepolymer and its mixtures with monomers were irradiated using electron beams at a dose rate of 3 Mrad/sec, the curing were completed at a dose 2.5 and 3 Mrad respectively. The effects of oxygen and that of hydroxyl group in the prepolymer on electron beam curing were also examined. (author)

  5. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  6. Study on binder system of CO2-cured phenol-formaldehyde resin used in phenol-formaldehyde resin used in foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Weihua; Li Yingmin; Qu Xueliang

    2008-01-01

    A new aqueous alkaline resol phenol-formaldehyde resin has been prepared from phenol and formaldehyde using NaOH as catalyst; the optimum synthetic process has been determined. With addition of some cross-linking agents, after passing carbon dioxide gas through the resin bonded sand, high as-gassed strength and 24 h strength are achieved. The bonding bridge of the resin bonded sand fracture has been analyzed by using SEM.

  7. A novel thermal degradation mechanism of phenol-formaldehyde type resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal degradation of phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFR) was studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TG) technique. The structural changes of thermal degradation of synthetical and commercial PFR were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared rays (FTIR) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the degradation of PFR can be divided into three stages. Additional cross-links are formed and small exposed groups of the cured resin are removed in the first stage. In the second stage, methylene bridges decompose into methyl groups then both phenol and cresol homolog appear. The degradation of phenol group occurs in the third stage. According to these results, a novel degradation mechanism of phenol-formaldehyde type resins is proposed: the mainly degradation process of PFR is the decomposition reaction of methylene bridges in this mechanism instead of auto-oxidation of the methylene bridges in the prevenient mechanism

  8. HPLC Characterization of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole Resin Used in Fabrication of Shuttle Booster Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed to rapidly fingerprint a phenol-formaldehyde resole resin similar to Durite(R) SC-1008. This resin is used in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composite materials from which Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster nozzles are manufactured. A knowledge of resin chemistry is essential to successful composite processing and performance. The results indicate that a high quality separation of over 35 peaks in 25 minutes were obtained using a 15 cm Phenomenex LUNA C8 bonded reverse phase column, a three-way water-acetonitrile-methanol nonlinear gradient, and LTV detection at 280 nm.

  9. Demonstration of contact sensitizers in resins and products based on phenol-formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, M; Persson, L; Trulsson, L; Zimerson, E

    1986-03-01

    12 phenol-formaldehyde resins were investigated with regard to the presence of 14 contact sensitizers by using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The allergens consisted of simple methylol phenols, dihydroxydiphenyl methanes, 4,4(1)-dihydroxy-(hydroxymethyl)-diphenyl methanes and 2,4(1)-dihydroxy-(hydroxymethyl)-diphenyl methanes. Four substances, 2,4-dimethylol phenol, 2,6-dimethylol phenol, 4,4(1)-dihydroxydiphenyl methane and 2,4(1)-dihydroxydiphenyl methane, were isolated from a resol resin and identified by mass-spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The highest concentrations (up to 15% w/w) of allergens were noted for methylol phenols in resol resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. The corresponding novolak resins showed a high content of dihydroxydiphenyl methanes. There was great variation in concentration of the sensitizers between the resins. None of these sensitizers were demonstrated in the resin based on paratertiary-butyl phenol. Products based on phenol-formaldehyde resins were also investigated for the presence of allergens. Uncured impregnated paper for laminate production and uncured mineral wool contained the same concentrations of the sensitizers as some of the resins studied. The curing process decreased the content of all the allergens investigated in all products, but the sensitizers did not disappear, and they may thus be present in finished products. PMID:3709159

  10. Study on the pyrolysis of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and modified PF resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiang, Haiyun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 210013 (China); Jiang, Nan [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-12-10

    The pyrolysis of pure phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) modified PF resin was investigated by using thermogravimetry (TG) and pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (PY-GC/MS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the micro-structural evolution. It was shown from the TG analysis that the char residues of pure PF resin were 62.9 and 60.5% after being pyrolyzed at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. The degradation and failure of the resin matrix were mainly resulted from the release of volatiles. The phenol and its methyl derivates took a large proportion in the amount of volatiles. In comparison with the pure PF resin, the char residues of B{sub 4}C modified PF resin were obviously higher, with the values of 71.9 and 68.4% at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. Due to the oxidation-reduction reactions between B{sub 4}C additive and oxygen-containing volatiles including CO and H{sub 2}O, partial carbon and oxygen elements in the volatiles remained in the resin matrix in the forms of amorphous carbon and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The results of SEM and FT-IR characterization demonstrated the occurrence of the modification, and the amorphous carbon existed in the form of reticular substance. In addition, the amount of the released phenol and its methyl derivates was also decreased drastically due to the formation of borate.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE LIGNINS FOR USE IN PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE AND EPOXY RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eddine El Mansouri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides polyurethanes and polyesters, phenolic and epoxy resins are the most prominent applications for technical lignins in thermosetting materials. To evaluate the potential application of lignin raw materials in phenol formaldehyde and epoxy resins, three types of alkaline lignins were characterized in terms of their structures and thermal properties. The lignin samples analyzed were kraft lignin (LIG-1, soda–rice straw lignin (LIG-2, and soda-wheat straw lignin (LIG-3. FTIR and 1H-NMR methods were used to determine their structure. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to determine the molecular weight distribution (MWD. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal stability of lignin samples. Results showed that kraft lignin (LIG-1 has moderate hydroxyl-group content, is rich in G-type units, and has good thermal stability. These properties make it more suitable for direct use in phenol formaldehyde resins, and it is therefore a good raw material for this purpose. The alkaline soda-rice straw lignin (LIG-2 with a high hydroxyl-group content and excellent thermal stability is most suited to preparing lignin-based epoxy resins.

  12. Fluorescent glutathione probe based on MnO2-phenol formaldehyde resin nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Wang, Dan; Guo, Yali; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Iqbal, Anam; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu; Yan, Dan; Guo, Huichen

    2016-03-15

    MnO2-phenol formaldehyde resin (MnO2-PFR) nanocomposite is successfully prepared by a simple chemical reduction process. The resultant MnO2-PFR nanocomposite is well characterized. The absorption band of non-fluorescent MnO2 nanosheets overlaps well with the fluorescence emission of PFR nanoparticles. The green fluorescence of PFR in this nanocomposite can be effectively quenched by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from PFR to MnO2. In the presence of glutathione (GSH), the fluorescence of PFR could be recovered due to MnO2 was reduced to Mn(2+) by GSH. The nanocomposite can be use for detecting glutathione in blood serum. PMID:26426853

  13. Effect of nanosilica on characteristics of carbonizates of phenol-formaldehyde resin - Fe(acac)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Bogatyrov, V. M.; Oranska, O. I.; Galaburda, M. V.; Polshin, E. V.; Urubkov, I. V.; Leboda, R.; Skubiszewska-Zi?ba, J.; Charmas, B.

    2013-01-01

    A series of carbon-iron-silica (CIS) composites (carbonizates) were prepared by carbonization of phenol-formaldehyde resin - Fe(III) acetylacetonate mixtures with addition of different amount of nanosilica A380 and compared with a composite prepared without silica (CFe composite). The characteristics of the composites differ because two type iron silicates were formed at a surface of silica nanoparticles and affected structure of carbon-iron phases. The textural characteristics of the CIS composites show a decrease in meso- and macroporosity and an increase in nanoporosity because new nanoparticles are formed in voids between silica nanoparticles. The CFe particles, including graphite-like structures, metallic iron nanoparticles and Fe3C, are larger than the CIS particles, which also include iron silicates, amorphous and crystalline silica. The presence of metallic ?-Fe nanoparticles can provide the magnetic properties of the composites.

  14. Study on preparation and properties of phenol-formaldehyde-chinese fir liquefaction copolymer resin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruihang, Lin; Jin, Sun; Chao, Yue; Xiaobo, Wang; Dengyu, Tu; Zhenzhong, Gao.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new zero-waste and zero-pollution composite adhesive labeled Chinese fir-based adhesive for exterior plywood was synthesized by blending alkaline Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) liquid with a small amount of phenol-formaldehyde (PF). The free phenol and free formaldehyde content of the Chine [...] se fir-based adhesive were sharply decreased compared to normal PF resin by more than 50%. The synthetic adhesive show with excellent water resistance and environmental friendliness, which had a 28h boil-dry-boil wet bonding strength of 1,73MPa according to standard JIS K6806-2003 and a formaldehyde emission of 0,045mg/L according to standard JIS A1460-2003. The structural properties and their thermal properties of cured adhesives were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The FT-IR analysis confirmed the expected chemical structure as the Chinese fir liquid reacted with formaldehyde and phenol which occurred at the wavenumbers of 1733, 1698, 1652cm-1 and 1077, 1048 cm-1. Although the DSC results indicated that the Chinese fir-based adhesive's curing need higher temperature than the control PF resin, the higher curing temperature hardly cripple the availability of Chinese fir-based resin in the plywood production.

  15. PEMBUATAN AYAKAN MOLEKULER BERBASIS KARBON UNTUK PEMISAHAN N2/O2 DARI PIROLISIS RESIN PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Prasetyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Proses pemisahan campuran gas dengan menggunakan carbon molecular sieve (CMS atau ayakan molekuler berbasis karbon merupakan teknologi proses pemisahan yang mulai banyak diterapkan di dalam industri kimia. Dalam penelitian ini, CMS untuk pemisahan N2 dari udara dibuat dari pirolisis bahan polimer sintetis yaitu resin phenol formaldehyde (PF. Prekursor yang berupa resin tersebut dipanaskan dalam retort pada suhu 400-950oC selama 0,5-3 jam yang disertai dengan pengaliran gas N2 ke dalam retort dengan laju 100 mL/jam. Dengan proses pirolisis, atom-atom non-karbon penyusun bahan polimer akan terurai dan menguap sehingga hanya menyisakan arang karbon dengan struktur kerangka atom karbon yang sesuai dengan struktur kerangka dasar rantai polimer. Kemudian karbon hasil prolisis tersebut dipanaskan lebih lanjut pada suhu 750-950oC sambil dialiri gas CO2 selama 1 jam. Pada kondisi ini karbon akan mengalami proses gasifikasi parsial sehingga terbentuk karbon dengan porositas tinggi. Melalui rekayasa proses polimerisasi dan karbonisasi dihasilkan material karbon berpori yang mayoritas porinya adalah mikropori dengan ukuran pori efektif < 2 nm yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai CMS yang dapat dipergunakan untuk memisahkan campuran gas N2-O2.  Pada penelitian ini dihasilkan CMS dengan selektifitas kinetis DN2/DO2 sekitar 3.

  16. Synthesis of carbon-encapsulated iron carbide/iron nanoparticles from phenolic-formaldehyde resin and ferric nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-encapsulated iron carbide/iron nanoparticles have been synthesized on a large scale by the heat treatment of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate. The effects of heating temperature on the morphologies and structures of carbonized products were investigated using transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements. The products with diameter distribution of 20-100 nm consisted mainly of spheroidal nanoparticles separated by hollow onion-like carbon nanoparticles.

  17. USE OF LIGNIN SEPARATED FROM BIO-OIL IN ORIENTED STRAND BOARD BINDER PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS

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    Badamkhand Sukhbaatar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass has been investigated as a renewable fuel and as a source of industrial chemicals. The lignin fraction of bio-oil produced from wood in our fast pyrolysis reactor was separated by using only water and methanol with a 25% yield based on bio-oil weight. This separation procedure appears to be of lower cost than the reported extraction procedure using ethyl acetate as solvent. The isolated pyrolytic lignin was smoothly incorporated into phenol-formaldehyde resins at 30%, 40%, and 50% phenol replacement levels, and the resultant resins were evaluated as oriented strand board core-layer binders. The evaluation results indicated that the pyrolytic lignin is effective for up to about 40% replacement of phenol in synthesizing wood adhesive type PF resins.

  18. Expansive failure reactions and their prevention in the encapsulation of phenol formaldehyde type ion exchange resins in cement based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewatit DN is a phenol formaldehyde based ion exchange resin used to remove radioactive caesium from liquid waste streams such as fuel cooling ponds and effluents. This paper presents the results of a study of the encapsulation of the bead form of the resin in cement with particular reference to the mechanisms of its interaction with the encapsulant. When incorporated in pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at loadings in excess of 15 wt % an unstable product results due to expansion of the systems and at higher waste loadings failure results after only a few days. Evidence from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy all indicate the cause of the expansive reaction to be the formation of crystals of calcium salts around and within the resin beads. Addition of BFS and sodium hydroxide prevent the formation of these salts by removal of calcium hydroxide from the system in other reactions. (author)

  19. Study on the structural evolution of modified phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive for the high-temperature bonding of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel adhesive for carbon materials composed of phenol-formaldehyde resin, boron carbide and fumed silica, was prepared. The adhesive property of graphite joints bonded by the above adhesive treated at high-temperatures was tested. Results showed that the adhesive was found to have outstanding high-temperature bonding properties for graphite. The adhesive structure was dense and uniform even after the graphite joints were heat-treated at 1500 deg. C. Bonding strength was 17.1 MPa. The evolution of adhesive structure was investigated. The results indicated that the addition of the secondary additive, fumed silica, improved the bonding performance greatly. Borosilicate phase with better stability was formed during the heat-treatment process, and the volume shrinkage was restrained effectively, which was responsible for the satisfactory high-temperature bonding performance of graphite

  20. Expansive failure reactions and their prevention in the encapsulation of phenol formaldehyde type ion exchange resins in cement based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewatit DN is a phenol formaldehyde based ion exchange resin used to remove radioactive caesium from liquid waste streams such as fuel cooling ponds and effluents. This paper presents the results of a study of the encapsulation of the bead form of the resin in cement with particular reference to the mechanisms of its interaction with the encapsulant. When incorporated in pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at loadings in excess of 15 wt% an unstable product results due to expansion of the system and at higher waste loadings failure results after only a few days. The resin beads swell on contact with the alkaline pH environment of the cement but this occurs too rapidly to be the cause of the expansive failure reaction. Increased production of ettringite can also be ruled out as the sulphate concentrations in the resin are too low. Blending the OPC with blast furnace slag (BFS) gives a satisfactory product up to 25 wt% loading and addition of sodium hydroxide to the mix water enables loading of up to 36 wt% to be employed. Evidence from differential scanning calorimetry. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy all indicate the cause of the expansive reaction to be the formation of crystals of calcium salts around and within the resin beads. Calcium hydroxide, calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate were observed. Addition of BFS and sodium hydroxide prevent the formation of these salts by removal of calcium hydroxide from the system in other reactions. (author)

  1. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  2. Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zi?ba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

    2014-09-12

    The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one. PMID:25092596

  3. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  4. Photonic patterns printed in chiral nematic mesoporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mostofa K; Bsoul, Anas; Walus, Konrad; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2015-03-27

    Chiral nematic mesoporous phenol-formaldehyde resins, which were prepared using cellulose nanocrystals as a template, can be used as a substrate to produce latent photonic images. These resins undergo swelling, which changes their reflected color. By writing on the films with chemical inks, the density of methylol groups in the resin changes, subsequently affecting their degree of swelling and, consequently, their color. Writing on the films gives latent images that are revealed only upon swelling of the films. Using inkjet printing, it is possible to make higher resolution photonic patterns both as text and images that can be visualized by swelling and erased by drying. This novel approach to printing photonic patterns in resin films may be applied to anti-counterfeit tags, signage, and decorative applications. PMID:25682748

  5. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  6. Production of plywood panels from Pinus taeda using veneers of differing densities and phenol-formaldehyde resin with high and low molecular weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Ines Bolzon de Muniz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the bonding quality of plywood panels from Pinus taeda using low and high molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin and veneers from three different density classes. The experiment consisted of six treatments, each of which produced three panels (replicates. Tests were conducted to evaluate glue line strength to shear stress after two boiling cycles and after 24 hours of cold water immersion. Also determined was the percentage of defects in wood samples. Results indicated that the density classes being assessed differed statistically. However, no significant difference was found between panels produced with high and panels produced with low molecular weight resin as to the mean values of glue line strength, whether subjecting them to two boiling cycles or after 24 hours of cold water immersion. Interactions between different density classes and adhesive formulations were found not significant either. Low molecular weight resin (BPM and panels produced with higher density veneers were found to have better behavior, regarding both bonding strength and percentage of defects. It was concluded that the bonding quality of plywood panels from Pinus taeda was satisfactory after using different densities of veneer and also high and low molecular weight phenolic resins. All treatments were found to comply with minimum requirements established in European standard EN 314-1/1993, which addresses bonding quality of plywood panels.

  7. Novel halogen-free flame retardant thermoset from a hybrid hexakis (methoxymethyl melamine/phosphorus-containing epoxy resin cured with phenol formaldehyde novolac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the curing behaviours, thermal properties and flame-resistance of a novel halogen-free epoxy hybrid thermoset, prepared by the curing reaction of hexakis (methoxymethyl melamine (HMMM, a phosphorouscontaining epoxy resin (EPN-D with 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO group and phenol formaldehyde novolac (n-PF. The resultant thermosets showed high glass-transition temperatures (Tg, 123–147°C as determined by thermal mechanical analysis (TMA, excellent thermal stability with high 5 wt% decomposition temperatures (Td,5% ??308°C and high char yields (Yc ??39.4 wt% from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. All the cured EPND/ HMMM/n-PF hybrid resins achieved the UL 94 V-0 grade with high limited oxygen indices (LOI > 45.7. It is found that phosphorous and nitrogen elements in the cured EPN-D/HMMM/n-PF hybrid resins had a positive synergistic effect on the improvement of the flame retardancy.

  8. Adsorption characteristics of molecular sieving carbons produced from coal and phenol-formaldehyde resin modified with various organic substances. Kakushu yukibutsu de kaishitsushita sekitan, fenoru jushi kara seizoshita bunshi furui tanso (MSC) no kyuchaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Domoto, T.; Hashimoto, K.

    1993-11-10

    The adsorptive separation process using the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) which utilizes differences between adsorption amount and adsorption rate has recently attracted attention in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The separation efficiency of PSA mainly depends on the characteristics of adsorbents such as zeolite and molecular sieving carbon (MSC) put in the equipment. The authors have previously proposed a method of preparing MSC different from conventional manufacturing methods, by mixing various organic substances such as pitch and anthracene with coal, and hardening with a phenol-formaldehyde resin before carbonizing, or by carbonizing a phenol-formaldehyde resin to which a small amount of organic substances. In this study, the applicability of MSC produced by the method to the operation of gas separation has been examined. Three separations of propylene-propane, carbon dioxide-methane, and 1-butene-isoprene, has been studied. 16 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Multilayer Hydrophilic Poly(phenol-formaldehyde resin)-Coated Magnetic Graphene for Boronic Acid Immobilization as a Novel Matrix for Glycoproteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2015-07-29

    Capturing glycopeptides selectively and efficiently from mixed biological samples has always been critical for comprehensive and in-depth glycoproteomics analysis, but the lack of materials with superior capture capacity and high specificity still makes it a challenge. In this work, we introduce a way first to synthesize a novel boronic-acid-functionalized magnetic graphene@phenolic-formaldehyde resin multilayer composites via a facile process. The as-prepared composites gathered excellent characters of large specific surface area and strong magnetic responsiveness of magnetic graphene, biocompatibility of resin, and enhanced affinity properties of boronic acid. Furthermore, the functional graphene composites were shown to have low detection limit (1 fmol) and good selectivity, even when the background nonglycopeptides has a concentration 100 fold higher. Additionally, enrichment efficiency of the composites was still retained after being used repeatedly (at least three times). Better yet, the practical applicability of this approach was evaluated by the enrichment of human serum with a low sample volume of 1 ?L. All the results have illustrated that the magG@PF@APB has a great potential in glycoproteome analysis of complex biological samples. PMID:26161682

  10. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Chandra Bajia; Pawan Swarnkar; Sudesh Kumar,; Birbal Bajia

    2007-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin has been achieved by using conventional as well as microwave irradiation. Resin samples were tested for their physical and chemical properties. The structures of the resins have been supported by their spectral analysis.

  11. Evidencia de la biodegradación de resinas fenólicas con hongos ligninolíticos por microscopía electrónica de barrido / Scanning electronic microscopy evidence of phenol-formaldehyde resins biodegradation with ligninolitic fungi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela Ibeth, PONCE ANDRADE; Rafael, VÁZQUEZ DUHALT; Refugio, RODRÍGUEZ VÁZQUEZ; Iliana Ernestina, MEDINA RAMÍREZ; Juan Antonio, LOZANO ÁLVAREZ; Juan, JÁUREGUI RINCÓN.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Los polímeros sintéticos están generando problemas ambientales debido a que generalmente son resistentes a la degradación, sin embargo, investigaciones recientes se han enfocado en métodos biológicos para tratar estos residuos y el desarrollo de plásticos degradables. Los plásticos están clasificado [...] s en dos grandes tipos: termoplásticos y termoestables. Las resinas fenólicas están incluidas dentro de los termoestables, las cuales no pueden ser fundidas por lo tanto no son susceptibles al reciclado y causan un problema ambiental. A través de los estudios acerca de los hongos ligninolíticos se ha determinado que estos organismos producen enzimas extracelulares con alta inespecificidad química e intensa actividad oxidante, lo que les otorga una considerable capacidad para degradar diferentes compuestos orgánicos con estructura similar a la lignina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar, utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido que los hongos ligninolíticos tienen la capacidad de degradar las resinas fenólicas. Los resultados demostraron que los hongos Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium y Sporotrichum pulverulentum pueden degradar las resinas fenólicas. Abstract in english Synthetic polymers are growing environmental concern because they are generally nondegradable and recent research has been focused on the biological treatment of plastic wastes and the development of biodegradable plastics. Plastics are classified into two broad types: thermoplastics and thermosetti [...] ng plastics. Phenol-formaldehyde resins (PF resins) are included in the thermosetting plastic category. They are products that once formed cannot be soften, therefore the process for recycling cannot be applied and they cause an environmental problem. Through intensive study of white-rot fungi it has been determined that these organisms produce extracellular enzymes with very low substrate specificity and intense oxidative activity. This makes them suitable for degradation of many different compounds notably organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. The object of this work was to demonstrate, using scanning electron microscopy, that ligninolitic fungi have the capacity to degrade PF resins. The results showed that the fungi Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Sporotrichum pulverulentum can degrade the PF resins.

  12. Investigation of the volatility of toxic elements on the base of phenol-formaldehyde resin in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volatility of some elements being determined in biological and environmental samples by NAA (neutron activation analysis) in case of their binding with phenolformaldehyde resin (PFR) is studied. Since the temperature is assumed to influence the volatility of elements stronger than radiation during irradiation of samples in nuclear pile the losses of Se, As, Sb, and Hg form samples on the basis of PFR after their heating at 100-300 deg C have been investigated. It is shown that the losses of Sb and As up to 300 deg C, Se up to 250 deg C, and Hg up to 150 deg C from PFR - based samples do not occur

  13. Structure-function investigations of modified phenol-formaldehyde and resorcinol-formaldehyde ion-exchange resins that are selective for cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange material for removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. The chemical stability of the R-F resin is a primary issue under the typical process conditions encountered for cesium removal, especially during the acid elution step. Part of our examination into this issue has been directed toward preparation of resins that contain fluorine to examine the effect on chemical stability of resorcinol and phenol based resins and to explore the effect of structural modification of the polymer on its cesium selectivity. Polymer modifiers included 2-, 3-, and 4-fluorophenol as well as 2,5-, 3,4-, and 3,5-difluorophenol. The resins were characterized using spectroscopic techniques (IR, 13C CP-MAS NMR) and by determination of cesium-specific distribution coefficients (Kd's)

  14. Structure and distribution of cross-links in boron-modified phenol-formaldehyde resins designed for soft magnetic composites: a multiple-quantum 11B-11B MAS NMR correlation spectroscopy study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobera, Libor; Czernek, Ji?í; Stre?ková, M.; Urbanová, Martina; Abbrent, Sabina; Brus, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 14 (2015), s. 4874-4881. ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14010 Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : phenol-formaldehyde polymers * boron crosslinks * soft magnetic composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.800, year: 2014

  15. Phenol-formaldehyde oligomers application for coatings production ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Anzhela Manvelovna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The description developed by the authors of structures and technologies production safety coatings based on glass fiber and paper, modified phenol-formaldehyde oligomers, which are possessed high physicochemical properties, durability and chemical durability, is presented.????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????-????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????.

  16. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7220 Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde...chemical substance identified generically as polymer of substituted phenol,...

  17. NMR study of the phenol-formaldehyde-water-methanol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative evaluation of the system phenol-formaldehyde-water-methanol was carried out using the method of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The investigated region of the molar ratios phenol formaldehyde methanol varied within the range 1:29:9.6 to 1:0.2:0.07 and the spectra obtained were compared with the spectrum of water-methanol solution of formaldehyde. The system showed two groups of lines. Four simple singlets of linear polymers of the type C6H5O(CH2O)sub(n)H appeared in the region 5.20 to 5.35 delta whereas in the region 4.7 to 5.4 delta as many as eleven signals of the polymers HO(CH2O)sub(n)H and CH3O(CH2O)sub(n)H could be detected. Another three signals of polymers of the type C6H5O(CH2O)sub(n)CH3 appeared in the region 4.8 to 5.0 delta from the molar ratio phenol formaldehyde 1:2.2. (author)

  18. Production of plywood panels from Pinus taeda using veneers of differing densities and phenol-formaldehyde resin with high and low molecular weights / Produção de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda com lâminas de diferentes densidades e resina fenol-formaldeído com alto e baixo peso molecular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela Ines Bolzon de, Muniz; Setsuo, Iwakiri; Lívia Cássia, Viana; Mário, Andrade; Cristiane, Weber; Vanessa Coelho, Almeida.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da colagem de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda, produzidos com resina fenol-formaldeido de alto e baixo peso molecular, e lâminas de três diferentes classes de densidades. O experimento foi organizado em seis tratamentos, e para cada tratamento fora [...] m produzidos três painéis (repetições). Os ensaios de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento foram realizados após dois ciclos de fervura e após 24 horas de imersão em água fria. Determinou-se, também, a porcentagem de falhas na madeira. Os resultados indicaram que as classes de densidade são estatisticamente diferentes entre si. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os valores médios de resistência da linha de cola dos painéis produzidos com resina de alto e baixo peso molecular, tanto para os painéis submetidos aos dois ciclos de fervura, quanto para os submetidos ao ensaio após 24 horas em água fria. A interação entre as classes de densidade das lâminas e as formulações do adesivo, igualmente, não foi significativa. A resina de baixo peso molecular (BPM) e os compensados produzidos com as lâminas de maior densidade apresentou melhor comportamento, tanto para resistência quanto para a porcentagem de falha na madeira. Conclui-se que a qualidade de colagem dos painéis compensados de Pinus taeda produzidos com lâminas de densidades diferentes e com resinas fenólicas de alto e baixo peso molecular foi satisfatória. Todos os tratamentos atendem às exigências mínimas da norma européia EN 314-1/1993, que trata da qualidade da colagem de painéis compensados. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the bonding quality of plywood panels from Pinus taeda using low and high molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin and veneers from three different density classes. The experiment consisted of six treatments, each of which produced three panels (replicates). Tests were [...] conducted to evaluate glue line strength to shear stress after two boiling cycles and after 24 hours of cold water immersion. Also determined was the percentage of defects in wood samples. Results indicated that the density classes being assessed differed statistically. However, no significant difference was found between panels produced with high and panels produced with low molecular weight resin as to the mean values of glue line strength, whether subjecting them to two boiling cycles or after 24 hours of cold water immersion. Interactions between different density classes and adhesive formulations were found not significant either. Low molecular weight resin (BPM) and panels produced with higher density veneers were found to have better behavior, regarding both bonding strength and percentage of defects. It was concluded that the bonding quality of plywood panels from Pinus taeda was satisfactory after using different densities of veneer and also high and low molecular weight phenolic resins. All treatments were found to comply with minimum requirements established in European standard EN 314-1/1993, which addresses bonding quality of plywood panels.

  19. Hierarchical activated mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbons for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Zhou, Min; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Jingui; Guan, Shiyou

    2014-10-01

    A series of hierarchical activated mesoporous carbons (AMCs) were prepared by the activation of highly ordered, body-centered cubic mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbon with KOH. The effect of the KOH/carbon-weight ratio on the textural properties and capacitive performance of the AMCs was investigated in detail. An AMC prepared with a KOH/carbon-weight ratio of 6:1 possessed the largest specific surface area (1118?m(2) g(-1)), with retention of the ordered mesoporous structure, and exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 260?F?g(-1) at a current density of 0.1?A?g(-1) in 1?M H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte. This material also showed excellent rate capability (163?F?g(-1) retained at 20?A?g(-1)) and good long-term electrochemical stability. This superior capacitive performance could be attributed to a large specific surface area and an optimized micro-mesopore structure, which not only increased the effective specific surface area for charge storage but also provided a favorable pathway for efficient ion transport. PMID:25100552

  20. Radiation-chemical hardening of phenol-formaldehyde oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-chemical hardening of phenol formaldehyde oligomers of the resol type has been studied in the presence of furfural and diallylphthalate diluents. The samples have been hardened on an electron accelerator at an electron energy of 1.0-1.1 MeV and a dose rate of 2-3 Mrad/s. The kinetics of hardening has been studied on the yield of gel fraction within the range of absorbed doses from 7 to 400 Mrad. Radiation-chemical hardening of the studied compositions is activated with sensitizers, namely, amines, metal chlorides, and heterocyclic derivatives of metals. Furfural and diallylphthalate compositions are suitable for forming glass-fibre plastic items by the wet method and coatings under the action of ionizing radiations

  1. Thermal Properties of Capparis Decidua (ker) Fiber Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurement of effective thermal conductivity (?), effective thermal diffusivity (?) and specific heat of Ker fiber reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites have been studied by transient plane source (TPS) technique. The samples of different weight percentage typically (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) have been taken. It is found that values of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of the composites decrease, as compared to pure phenol formaldehyde, as the fraction of fiber loading increases. Experimental data is fitted on Y. Agari model. Values of thermal conductivity of composites are calculated with two models (Rayleigh, Maxwell and Meredith-Tobias model). Good agreement between theoretical and experimental result has been found.

  2. 21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...employed in fiber finishing: BHT. Butyl (or isobutyl) palmitate or stearate. 2,5-Di-tert -butyl hydroquinone for use only in lubricant...h), and (i) of this section. Phenol-formaldehyde resins. Polyvinyl...

  3. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ordered mesoporous anion-exchange inorganic/organic hybrid resins for radionuclide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordered mesoporous anion-exchange hybrid resin materials were prepared by hydrolysis synthesis using the micellar template approach. The prepared samples were characterized via infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The uptakes of anionic thorium nitrate complexes by the new resins in 8 N nitric acid solutions were determined. The thorium loading capacity of the hybrid mesoporous silica functionalized with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-tri-n-butylammonium is greater than that of the hybrid mesoporous silica functionalized with N-trimethoxylsilypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium. The mesoporous hybrid anion-exchange resins were shown to be much more selective than a popular organic commercial anion-exchange resin

  5. Effects of copper nitrate addition on the pore property and lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous carbon nanosheets from phenolic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Hierarchical porous carbon nanosheets (HPCS) were prepared by using thermoplastic phenolic formaldehyde resin as the carbon source and copper nitrate as the template precursor. The effects of Cu(NO3)2 loading content on the pore property and electrochemical performance of HPCS as anode material for lithium ion batteries were investigated. It was found that, with the addition of Cu(NO3)2, both the specific surface area and mesopore percentage increase. Correspondingly, the electrochemical performances of HPCS electrodes in terms of the specific capacity and rate performance improve for lithium ion batteries. The reasons were deduced and discussed from the view point of different pore size, especially the function of mesopores

  6. Peculiarities of coalescence during extraction of scandium by phenol formaldehyde oligomer from sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of coalescence in extraction system of 0.5 M solution of phenol formaldehyde oligomer in toluene - aqueous scandium sulfuric acid solutions are detected and studied. Condition under the which scandium is extracted in organic phase completely within 30 second are established. Extraction and reextraction of scandium in the cases of different duration of phase contact are investigated. Reproducible regularities of changes of light scattering of extracts and pH values of raffinates in different conditions are revealed. Empirical equation describing coalescence for one of the considered case is presented

  7. Synthesis of sulphonated mesoporous phenolic resins and their application in esterification and asymmetric aldol reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous phenolic resins were functionalized with sulphonic acid groups by four different types of sulphonation procedures: (i) direct sulphonation on the aromatic ring, (ii) alkyl sulphonation of the aromatic ring, and functionalizations of the phenolic hydroxyl surface by using an aryl silane, 2-(4-chlorosulphonylphenyl)ethyl trichlorosilane (iii) or a propyl silane, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (iv). The highest acidity loadings were obtained through direct sulphonation with fuming sulphuric acid (1.90 mmol H+ g?1) or chlorosulphonic acid (1.31 mmol H+ g?1) and these materials showed the highest conversion (97+ %) in Fischer esterification of acetic acid with propanol. However, the alkyl sulphonic groups, obtained through sulphonation procedure (ii) showed the highest stability in terms of maintenance of their acidity after use in consecutive catalytic runs or leaching treatments. This was demonstrated both through evaluation of the regenerated catalysts in a consecutive esterification run and during a leaching resistance test in aqueous medium. Moreover, the developed sulphonated mesoporous phenolic resins are presented as novel support for the non-covalent immobilization of an L-phenylalanine derived chiral diamine organocatalyst for asymmetric aldol reactions. The immobilization is established by an acid–base interaction between the sulphonic acid group and the amine function. The acidity and in particular the electronic withdrawing environment of the sulphonic acid groups influence enormously the catalytic performance of the non-covalent immobilized chiral diamine catalyst (aromatic > aliphatic). - Highlights: ? Different types of sulphonation procedures for mesoporous phenolic resins. ? Influence of acidity and electronic withdrawing environment. ? Novel support for non-covalent immobilization of chiral diamine catalyst. ? Catalytic performance in esterification and asymmetric aldol condensation. ? Demonstration of leaching resistance in aqueous medium

  8. Synthesis of sulphonated mesoporous phenolic resins and their application in esterification and asymmetric aldol reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylaert, Ilke [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis (COMOC), Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verberckmoes, An, E-mail: an.verberckmoes@hogent.be [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis (COMOC), Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Associated Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College Ghent, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Spileers, Jeremy [Associated Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College Ghent, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Demuynck, Anneleen; Peng, Li; De Clippel, Filip; Sels, Bert [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis (COK), Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Der Voort, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.vandervoort@ugent.be [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis (COMOC), Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Mesoporous phenolic resins were functionalized with sulphonic acid groups by four different types of sulphonation procedures: (i) direct sulphonation on the aromatic ring, (ii) alkyl sulphonation of the aromatic ring, and functionalizations of the phenolic hydroxyl surface by using an aryl silane, 2-(4-chlorosulphonylphenyl)ethyl trichlorosilane (iii) or a propyl silane, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (iv). The highest acidity loadings were obtained through direct sulphonation with fuming sulphuric acid (1.90 mmol H{sup +} g{sup ?1}) or chlorosulphonic acid (1.31 mmol H{sup +} g{sup ?1}) and these materials showed the highest conversion (97+ %) in Fischer esterification of acetic acid with propanol. However, the alkyl sulphonic groups, obtained through sulphonation procedure (ii) showed the highest stability in terms of maintenance of their acidity after use in consecutive catalytic runs or leaching treatments. This was demonstrated both through evaluation of the regenerated catalysts in a consecutive esterification run and during a leaching resistance test in aqueous medium. Moreover, the developed sulphonated mesoporous phenolic resins are presented as novel support for the non-covalent immobilization of an L-phenylalanine derived chiral diamine organocatalyst for asymmetric aldol reactions. The immobilization is established by an acid–base interaction between the sulphonic acid group and the amine function. The acidity and in particular the electronic withdrawing environment of the sulphonic acid groups influence enormously the catalytic performance of the non-covalent immobilized chiral diamine catalyst (aromatic > aliphatic). - Highlights: ? Different types of sulphonation procedures for mesoporous phenolic resins. ? Influence of acidity and electronic withdrawing environment. ? Novel support for non-covalent immobilization of chiral diamine catalyst. ? Catalytic performance in esterification and asymmetric aldol condensation. ? Demonstration of leaching resistance in aqueous medium.

  9. Stabilizing diamond surface conductivity by phenol-formaldehyde and acrylate resins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Kozak, Halyna; Kromka, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 517, ?. 13 (2009), s. 3738-3741. ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * surface conductivity * polymer * passivation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2009

  10. Relation between Mechanical Properties and Pyrolysis Temperature of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Gas Separation Membranes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika; Svítilová, Jaroslava; Chlup, Zden?k; ?erný, Martin; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Suchý, Tomáš; Machovi?, Vladimír; Sucharda, Zbyn?k; Žaloudková, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 1 (2012), s. 40-49. ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : glassy carbon * membranes * mechanical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_40.pdf

  11. Influence of nitrogen-containing phenol-formaldehyde oligomer on sorptive properties of macroporous polymer impregnated with tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of scandium(3), zirconium(4), niobium(5), molybdenum(6), cadmium(2), indium(3), tellurium(4) and uranium(6) between HCl aqueous solutions and macroporous polymer sorbent impregnated by a mixture of nitrogen-containing phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomer (Yarrezin B) and tributylphosphate is studied. It is ascertained that increase in distribution factors of the complexes extracted by the impregnated sorbent compared to solvent extraction stems from the absence of extractant association in the sorbent phase

  12. Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lv

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using ?-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated using GOTMS as coupling agents and E-SBA-15/PF (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites extracted using ethanol as solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results demonstrated that the GOTMS were successfully grafted onto the surface of SBA-15, and chemical bonds between PF and SBA-15-GOTMS were formed after in situ polymerization. In addition, it is found that the in situ polymerization method has great effects on the textural parameters of SBA-15. The results also showed that the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the PF nanocomposites were obviously enhanced as compared with the pure PF at silica contents between 1–3 wt%, due to the uniform dispersion of the modified SBA-15 in the matrix.

  13. Challenges in Fabrication of Mesoporous Carbon Films with Ordered Cylindrical Pores via Phenolic Oligomer Self-Assembly with Triblock Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Lingyan; Feng, Dan; Fredin, Nathaniel J.; Yager, Kevin G.; Jones, Ronald L.; Wu, Quanyan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Vogt, Bryan D. (On Semi); (AZU); (NIST); (Fudan)

    2010-06-22

    Mesoporous phenol formaldehyde (PF) polymer resin and carbon films are prepared by a solution self-assembly of PF oligomers with amphiphilic triblock copolymers. After thermopolymerization of the PF to cross-link the network, the films show an ordered morphology as determined by X-ray diffraction and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Our results show that the amphiphilic triblock copolymer template greatly influences the stability of the final porous mesostructures. The pyrolysis of the two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal films with p6mm symmetry templated by Pluronic F127 yields a disordered porous structure following the template removal. Conversely, films templated by Pluronic P123 can exhibit well-ordered cylindrical pores after the template removal, but the solution composition range to yield ordered cylindrical mesopores is significantly reduced (nearly 70%) for thin films in comparison to bulk powders. We propose two dominant difficulties in fabricating well-ordered cylindrical mesopores in films: first, the stress from contraction during the pyrolysis can lead to a collapse of the mesostructure if the wall thickness is insufficient, and second, the surface wetting behavior in thin films leads to a small compositional range.

  14. Mesoporous carbon adsorbents from melamine-formaldehyde resin using nanocasting technique for CO2 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Chitrakshi; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous carbon adsorbents, having high nitrogen content, were synthesized via nanocasting technique with melamine-formaldehyde resin as precursor and mesoporous silica as template. A series of adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbonization temperature from 400 to 700°C. Adsorbents were characterized thoroughly by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental (CHN) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Boehm titration. Carbonization temperature controlled the properties of the synthesized adsorbents ranging from surface area to their nitrogen content, which play major role in their application as adsorbents for CO2 capture. The nanostructure of these materials was confirmed by XRD and TEM. Their nitrogen content decreased with an increase in carbonization temperature while other properties like surface area, pore volume, thermal stability and surface basicity increased with the carbonization temperature. These materials were evaluated for CO2 adsorption by fixed-bed column adsorption experiments. Adsorbent synthesized at 700°C was found to have the highest surface area and surface basicity along with maximum CO2 adsorption capacity among the synthesized adsorbents. Breakthrough time and CO2 equilibrium adsorption capacity were investigated from the breakthrough curves and were found to decrease with increase in adsorption temperature. Adsorption process for carbon adsorbent-CO2 system was found to be reversible with stable adsorption capacity over four consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. From three isotherm models used to analyze the equilibrium data, Temkin isotherm model presented a nearly perfect fit implying the heterogeneous adsorbent surface. PMID:26040750

  15. Proton conductivity of naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde resin-doped mesoporous niobium and tantalum oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Jonathan P; Romer, Frederik; Trudeau, Michel L; Dias, Marcos L; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Antonelli, David M

    2015-01-01

    Proton conductivity in a series of mesoporous niobium and tantalum metal oxide (mX2 O5 ) composites of naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde resin (NSF) that are resistant to moisture loss at temperatures greater than 50 °C is reported. The investigation focuses on the effect to proton conductivity by changing pore size and metal in the mesostructure of the mX2 O5 system and thus, a series of mX2 O5 -NSF composites were synthesized with C6 , C12 , and C18 templates. These were characterized by XRD, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning TEM and then studied using impedance spectroscopy to establish proton conductivity values at various temperatures ranging from 25 to 150 °C. The most promising sample displayed a conductivity of 21.96 mS cm(-1) at 100 °C, surpassing the literature value for Nafion 117 (ca. 8 mS cm(-1) ). (1) H and (13) C solid state NMR studies the mX2 O5 -NSF composites demonstrate that the oligomeric nature of the NSF is preserved while in contact with the mX2 O5 surface, thus facilitating conductivity. PMID:25209169

  16. Nitrogen-containing mesoporous carbons prepared from melamine formaldehyde resins with CaCl2 as a template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu'an; Yang, Feng; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Jianyi

    2011-11-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins were synthesized with encapsulated CaCl(2) as a template. Carbonization at high temperatures led to the formation of carbon materials containing N atoms. Washing with de-ionized water removed encapsulated CaCl(2), resulting in the formation of mesopores (3-30 nm) with the high surface areas (770-1300 m(2)/g). The template can be recycled and the method is simple and cost effective as compared to the hard template techniques. The mesoporous carbons containing nitrogen (NMC) thus prepared exhibited the amphipathic surfaces (both hydrophilic and lipophilic) and adsorbed great amount of water and benzene. In addition, the incorporated N atoms exhibited quite strong basicity for the adsorption of great amount of SO(2). PMID:21840533

  17. Studies on Glass Reinforced Epoxy Resin Using Vulkadur- A as Crosslinking Agent both in Presence and Absence of Carbon Black and other Non black Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Ghosh

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin can be reinforced with glass (fabric form in presence of Vulkadur-A, a phenol formaldehyde resin containing a hardening agent. Overall enhancement in mechanical properties has been found stocks cured with Vulkadur-A containing 2.5 parts of carbon black as filler.

  18. Investigation of utilization of process of polyethylene waste of low density for creation of competitive materials with application of phenol formaldehyde oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The possibility of the utilization of low density polyethylene wastes by means of their modification with phenol formaldehyde oligomers (Ph FO) and PhFO with the thiourathenes has been investigation. Theology properties of the investigated systems showed that the obtained compositions can be able to be processed by the ordinary methods such as extrusion and casting

  19. Phenolic resins a century of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Pilato, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Leo Hendrik Baekeland and his development of phenol formal- hyde resins are recognized as the cornerstone of the Plastics Industry in the early twentieth century, and phenolic resins continue to ?ourish after a century of robust growth. On July 13, 1907, Baekeland ?led his "heat and pressure" patent related to the processing of phenol formaldehyde resins and identi?ed their unique utility in a plethora of applications. The year 2010 marks the Centennial Year of the prod- tion of phenolic resins by Leo Baekeland. In 1910, Baekeland formed Bakelite GmbH and launched the manufacture

  20. USE OF LIGNIN SEPARATED FROM BIO-OIL IN ORIENTED STRAND BOARD BINDER PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Badamkhand Sukhbaatar; Philip H. Steele; Moon G. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass has been investigated as a renewable fuel and as a source of industrial chemicals. The lignin fraction of bio-oil produced from wood in our fast pyrolysis reactor was separated by using only water and methanol with a 25% yield based on bio-oil weight. This separation procedure appears to be of lower cost than the reported extraction procedure using ethyl acetate as solvent. The isolated pyrolytic lignin was smoothly incorporated into phenol-for...

  1. Hydrogen Bonding-Mediated Microphase Separation during the Formation of Mesoporous Novolac-Type Phenolic Resin Templated by the Triblock Copolymer, PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Chu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After blending the triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO with novolac-type phenolic resin, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the ether groups of the PEO block were stronger hydrogen bond acceptors for the OH groups of phenolic resin than were the ether groups of the PPO block. Thermal curing with hexamethylenetetramine as the curing agent resulted in the triblock copolymer being incorporated into the phenolic resin, forming a nanostructure through a mechanism involving reaction-induced microphase separation. Mild pyrolysis conditions led to the removal of the PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO triblock copolymer and formation of mesoporous phenolic resin. This approach provided a variety of composition-dependent nanostructures, including disordered wormlike, body-centered-cubic spherical and disorder micelles. The regular mesoporous novolac-type phenolic resin was formed only at a phenolic content of 40–60 wt %, the result of an intriguing balance of hydrogen bonding interactions among the phenolic resin and the PEO and PPO segments of the triblock copolymer.

  2. Effects of phenol-formaldehyde / isocyanate hybrid adhesives on properties of oriented strand lumber (OSL from rubberwood waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart Preechatiwong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project was to study the effects of hybrid adhesives of Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF and Polymeric Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate (MDI on the properties of Oriented Strand Lumber (OSL to determine the optimal ratio of both adhesives. The results showed that OSL formed by pure adhesive or hybrid adhesives (3 blends: 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 had properties that pass the CSA O437.1 standards, such as (1 modulus of rupture, (2 modulus of elasticity, and (3 internal bond strength. However, the thickness swelling and bond durability of OSL formed by pure MDI failed to pass the standards, while those formed by pure PF or hybrid adhesives passed. Among the three blends of adhesives, the blend 75:25 (PF: MDI gave the best properties while ratio of 50:50 gave the worst properties, especially internal bond strength due to the phase separation of both adhesives. In addition, the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in the "edgewise" direction were higher than those in the "flatwise" direction. In the edgewise direction, load is transferred in the direction of width of strand that is large while in the flatwise direction, load is transferred in the direction of thickness of strand which is small.

  3. Efficient removal of aniline by a water-compatible microporous and mesoporous hyper-cross-linked resin and XAD-4 resin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guqing; Long, Liping

    2012-06-01

    A novel water-compatible microporous and mesoporous hyper-cross-linked resin modified with phenolic hydroxyl group (named as GQ-03) was synthesized to remove aniline in aqueous solution as compared with XAD-4. The maximum adsorption capacity of GQ-03 emerged at the molecular state for both aniline and p-cresol while the pH dependency trend of aniline adsorbed onto XAD-4 was accordant with the dissociation curve of aniline. The ionic strength influenced the adsorption obviously. The pseudo-first-order rate equation could describe the adsorption process of aniline onto GQ-03 in two stages while this equation could characterize the entire adsorption process of XAD-4. The adsorption isotherms could be correlated to the Freundlich model, higher KF and n values for GQ-03 than XAD-4. The breakthrough capacity and the total adsorption capacity of GQ-03 and XAD-4 was up to 47.2 mg mL-1 and 28.3 mg mL-1, 271.7 mg mL-1 and 115.6 mg mL-1, respectively. The size matching between the pore diameter of GQ-03 and the molecular size of aniline, and hydrogen bonding between GQ-03 and aniline resulted in the larger adsorption capacity.

  4. Activation neutron detector consisting of a hardened mixture of neutron activation materials with a polycondensation resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation neutron detector presents a formed and hardened mixture whose material is a conglomerate of powder of element and a solid solution of salts of the elements that can be activated in a polymer mixture. Phenol formaldehyde resol and phenol benzaldehyde novolak resin are suitable amongst others as polymer mixture. Integral neutron fluxes of 1020 neutrons/cm2 are measurable. Many examples are given for the elements and salts to be activated. (DG)

  5. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of {sup 137}Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed.

  6. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of 137Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed

  7. Formaldehyde resins in building materials. December 1973-October 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for December 1973-October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning regulations, standards, safety, and applications of formaldehyde-resin compositions in the building industry. Urea formaldehyde is emphasized; however, phenol formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde are also considered for such applications as thermal insulation, bonding agents, and composite construction materials. Ramifications of state and federal legislation, substitute materials, and toxicology studies are included. (This updated bibliography contains 376 citations, 46 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Microporosity development in phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons for enhancing CO2 adsorption at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Fahrenholz, Weronika; Ludwinowicz, Jowita; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-01-01

    Soft-templating method was used to prepare mesoporous carbons. The synthesis in the presence of hydrochloric and citric acids involved resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The as-synthesized samples underwent carbonization in flowing nitrogen at various temperatures; namely 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. Two routes were used to develop microporosity in the mesoporous carbons studied. The first one involved introduction of tetraethyl orthosilicate to the reaction system. After silica dissolution with NaOH, an increase in microporosity was observed. The second method, chemical activation with KOH at 700 °C, was explored as an alternative approach to create microporosity. It is noteworthy that the TEOS addition not only led to the development of microporosity but also to some improvement of mesoporosity. The post-synthesis KOH activation resulted in more significant increase in the microporosity as compared to the samples obtained by TEOS-assisted synthesis. The mesopore volume was somewhat lower for activated carbons as compared to that in mesoporous carbons. Both methods resulted in micro-mesoporous carbons with good adsorption properties; for instance, in the case of carbons prepared in the presence of TEOS, the best sample exhibited BET surface area of 1463 m2/g and the total pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g. For the KOH activated carbons the best adsorption parameters were as follows: the specific surface area = 1906 m2/g, and the total pore volume = 0.98 cm3/g. Both procedures used for microporosity development afforded carbons with good adsorption properties that can be useful for applications such as CO2 adsorption, air and water purification.

  9. Urea/phenol/melamine formaldehyde polymeric resins. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning characteristics, safe use regulations and standards, and applications of formaldehyde polymeric resins. Modelling, test procedures, and test results for identifying the hazards of formaldehyde resin system emissions are presented. Methods of preparation and modification of formaldehyde foams for use in the building industry are included. Corrosion of formaldehyde polymeric foam thermal insulation, crosslinking and catalysis of phenol-formaldehyde polymer concrete, and disposal of urea-formaldehyde waste are considered. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S/cm was measured for the composite without carbon nanotubes and the conductivity value improved by over an order of magnitude to 1 S/cm with the addition of 0.5 wt.% CNTs. Triggered by dispersion issues, the agglomeration of MWNTs during the drying process prevented each nanotube from being loaded over a maximum interfacial area. In order to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes within the carbon-silica network, electrospinning was explored as a method to improve the alignment of the carbon nanotubes. The electrospun fibers produced with the highest concentration of MWNTs at 1.0 wt.% produced the largest surface area and electrical conductivity values of 333.36 m2/g and 2.09 S/cm, respectively. Capacitance measurements were calculated to examine if improved conductivity results in higher capacitance values. The best capacitance performance was 148 F/g from a carbon-based mesoporous composite with 0.5 wt. % MWNTs in an aqueous electrolyte with a 2.0 mV/s scan rate. An 80% increase in capacitance occurs with the addition of 0.5 wt. % MWNTs. This is in the range of capacitance values produced by hierarchically ordered mesoporous-microporous carbons, reported at 180 F/g. Fibrous carbon tubes assembled from hydrofluoric acid etched perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bridged silsesquioxane (PDBS) were capable of hydrogen adsorption on the order of 1.3-2.5 wt. % at 77K. Lastly chemically activated phenol-formaldehyde resins produced microporous carbon with 1500 m3/g surface areas and pore sizes ranging from 0.3-0.5 nm, which has potential for asymmetric super-capacitor electrodes. Judicious control over the composition and pore structure of carbon-based nanocomposites can lead to improved performance of various alternative energy materials.

  11. Urea/phenol/melamine formaldehyde polymeric resins. January 1970-February 1990 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning characteristics, safe use regulations and standards, and applications of formaldehyde polymeric resins. Modelling, test procedures, and test results for identifying the hazards of formaldehyde resin system emissions are presented. Methods of preparation and modification of formaldehyde foams for use in the building industry are included. Corrosion of formaldehyde polymeric foam thermal insulation, crosslinking and catalysis of phenol-formaldehyde polymer concrete, and urea-formaldehyde waste disposal are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 238 citations, 17 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  13. Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of 137Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a 60Co source to a total absorbed dose of 109 R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of 137Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (Kds). Structural information was also obtained by 13C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in Kd

  14. Weather ability studies of phenolic resin coated woods and glass fiber reinforced laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenolic resins have made a major breakthrough in the field of high technology in 80's. These are now active participants of high tech' areas ranging from electronics, computers, communication, outer space, aerospace, advanced materials, bio materials and technology. A phenol - formaldehyde (1:1.5) resin having resin content of 70% synthesized in the laboratory has been applied for wood coating and reinforcing glass fiber. The weatherability and solvent resistance of these items have been studied and results discussed keeping in view the envisaged application for structural materials and chemical equipment. The toxic materials released during contact with solvents for chemical applications and during degradation general have been monitored. The results are discussed with reference to environmental pollution due to these resins and their composites under different conditions. (authors)

  15. Moisture insensitive adsorption of ammonia on resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Ania, Conchi; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2016-03-15

    Phenolic-formaldehyde resins aged at 85, 90 and 95°C were used as ammonia adsorbents at dynamic conditions in dry and moist air. To avoid pressure drops 10% bentonite was added as a binder. The initial and hybrid materials (before and after ammonia adsorption) were extensively characterized from the point of view of their porosity and surface chemistry. The results showed that the addition of the binder had various effects on materials' properties depending on the chemistry of their surface groups. When the phenolic acidic groups were predominant, the largest increase in surface acidity upon the addition of the binder was found. It was linked to the exfoliation of bentonite by polar moieties of the resins, which made acidic groups from aluminosilicate layers available for ammonia adsorption. On this sample, a relatively high amount of ammonia was strongly adsorbed in dry conditions. Insensitivity to moisture is a significant asset of ammonia adsorbents. PMID:26651066

  16. Qualidade de compensados fabricados com adesivos à base de Tanino-Formaldeído de Pinus oocarpa e Fenol-Formaldeído / Quality of plywood manufactured with Tannin-formaldehyde from Pinus oocarpa plus Phenol-Formaldehyde-based adhesive

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Couto da, Silva; Michel Cardoso, Vieira; Gisely de Lima, Oliveira; Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; Nayara Dorigon, Rodrigues; Roberto Carlos Costa, Lelis; Setsuo, Iwakiri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade de compensados fabricados com adesivos à base de taninos da casca de Pinus oocarpa e Fenol-Formaldeído (FF). O plano experimental foi composto de quatro tratamentos: Tanino-Formaldeído (TF); Fenol-Formaldeído (FF); FF + 10%TF (90:10), e FF + 20% TF [...] (80:20). Os painéis foram avaliados nos seguintes aspectos: resistência à flexão estática (MOR); ensaio de cisalhamento na linha de cola; densidade e recuperação em espessura (RE); inchamento mais recuperação em espessura (IR), e absorção em água (AA). Os resultados mostraram que é possível substituir o adesivo FF por tanino em até 20% sem alterar os valores de MOR paralelo e perpendicular à grã das lâminas externas dos compensados. Para obtenção de maior estabilidade dimensional dos compensados fabricados com adesivo à base de tanino, torna-se necessária a adição de parafina. Os resultados mostraram também que não houve diferença significativa nos valores de resistência ao cisalhamento dos compensados para os diferentes tratamentos. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality of plywood panels manufactured with tannin-based adhesives extracted from the bark of Pinus oocarpa and Phenol-Formaldehyde. The experimental plan was composed of four treatments: Tannin-formaldehyde (TF), Phenol-formaldehyde (FF), FF + 10%TF (90:10) [...] and FF + 20%TF (80:20). The quality of plywood panels was evaluated by the static bending (MOR), bonding line shear test of the adhesive, and dimensional stability: thickness swelling, recovery of thickness and water absorption. Results showed that it is possible to substitute Phenol-Formaldehyde adhesive by tannin up to 20% without changing MOR parallel and MOR perpendicular to the grain of the the panels. In order to obtain higher values of physical properties of plywood made with tannin from bark of Pinus oocarpa, it is necessary to add paraffin. Results showed that there was no significant difference in values of shear strength for the different treatments.

  17. Modeling the Effects of Velocity, Spin, Frictional Coefficient, and Impact Angle on Deflection Angle in Near-elastic Collisions of Phenolic Resin Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Crown, S C

    2004-01-01

    A simple model is outlined to describe the collision of cast phenol-formaldehyde resin spheres such as the balls used in the parlor game of pocket billiards, based in part on the famous analysis of elastic collisions developed by Heinrich Hertz over 100 years ago. The analysis treats the normal and tangential components of the initial sphere's velocity independently as it collides with a stationary identical second sphere. The collective effects of these and other parameters on the trajectory of the second sphere are provided in the conclusions.

  18. Use of gold and silver standards based on phenol-formalde-hyde resin in assay-activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using standards on phenol-formaldehyde resin base for assaying-activation analysis of geological specimens for gold and silver has bee the advantage of uniformly distributing Au and Ag in spesimens and possible preparing tablets of practically any form or size. The validity and accuracy of these standards have been studied for the cases of short irradiation. Conventional point standards were used as reference standards. The experiments carried out have shown that tablet resol standards are suitable for a mass assaying-activation analysis for gold and silver at practically any concentrations

  19. Large-scale synthesis of onion-like carbon nanoparticles by carbonization of phenolic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onion-like carbon nanoparticles have been synthesized on a large scale by carbonization of phenolic-formaldehyde resin at 1000 oC with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN). The effects of FN loading content on the yield, morphology and structure of carbonized products were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the onion-like carbon nanoparticles, which had a narrow size distribution ranging from 30 to 50 nm, were composed mainly of quasi-spherically concentric shells of well-aligned graphene layers with interlayer spacing of 0.336 nm. Based on the results of the investigation, the formation mechanism of onion-like carbon nanoparticles was also discussed

  20. Lignocellulosic composites from brazilian giant bamboo (Guadua magna) Part 1: Properties of resin bonded particleboards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa M, Arruda; Cláudio H. S, Del Menezzi; Divino E, Teixeira; Priscila C, de Araújo.

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated the utilization of the recently identified Brazilian giant bamboo, Guadua magna (Londoño & Filg.) to manufacture medium density particleboard. Four board types were tested: two of them exclusively with particles of bamboo and two in a mixture of bamboo with Pinus taeda wood [...] particles. The target density of the panels was 0.65 g/cm³ for all treatments. The particleboards were bonded using 8% content of urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins, based on dry weight mat. Mechanical, physical and nondestructive properties of the panels were assessed. The particleboards produced with PF showed better dimensional stability than UF particleboards. The addition of wood particles improved the mechanical properties of E M, fM and IB. The flexural properties of the panels (E M, fM) could be modeled using either E Md or density and the models fitted presented high predictability (>66%).

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin

  3. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded by nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified pf resins against subterranean termites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wei, Gao; Guanben, Du.

    Full Text Available Nano CuO and alkane surfactant modified phenol Formaldehyde (PF) resins were applied to manufacture plywood, and physical and mechanical properties, such as shear strength, tensile property, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), as well as termite resistance were evaluated. The resu [...] lt showed that the combination of nano CuO and alkane surfactantplayed different effect on tensile strength, and especially on shear strength as evaluated at different test conditions. But it was confirmed to improve the water resistance of treated plywood specimens. The introduction of nano CuO and surfactant did not influence the flexural properties significantly by statistically. The result of termite tests indicated that the weight loss decreases gradually from 31,12% to less than 10,37%, and the mortality increases from 32,61% to higher than 86,35%. And the AWPA rating also rises from 4 (very severe attack) to 7 (moderate attack).

  4. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded by nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified pf resins against subterranean termites

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wei, Gao; Guanben, Du.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano CuO and alkane surfactant modified phenol Formaldehyde (PF) resins were applied to manufacture plywood, and physical and mechanical properties, such as shear strength, tensile property, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), as well as termite resistance were evaluated. The resu [...] lt showed that the combination of nano CuO and alkane surfactantplayed different effect on tensile strength, and especially on shear strength as evaluated at different test conditions. But it was confirmed to improve the water resistance of treated plywood specimens. The introduction of nano CuO and surfactant did not influence the flexural properties significantly by statistically. The result of termite tests indicated that the weight loss decreases gradually from 31,12% to less than 10,37%, and the mortality increases from 32,61% to higher than 86,35%. And the AWPA rating also rises from 4 (very severe attack) to 7 (moderate attack).

  5. Magnetic motive, ordered mesoporous carbons with partially graphitized framework and controllable surface wettability: preparation, characterization and their selective adsorption of organic pollutants in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Chen; Kong, Weiping; Qi, Chenze

    2016-02-01

    Magnetically active, ordered and stable mesoporous carbons with partially graphitized networks and controllable surface wettability (PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800) have been synthesized through direct carbonization of Fe or Ni functionalized, and ordered mesoporous polymers at 800°C, which could be synthesized from self assembly of resol (phenol/formaldehyde) with block copolymer template (P123) in presence of Fe3+ or Ni2+, and hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800 possess ordered and uniform mesopores, large BET surface areas, good stabilities, controllable surface wettability and partially graphitized framework. The above structural characteristics result in their enhanced selective adsorption property and good reusability for organic pollutants such as RhB, p-nitrophenol and n-heptane in water, which could be easily regenerated through separation under constant magnetic fields and washing with ethanol solvent. The unique magnetically active and adsorptive property found in PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800 will be very important for them to be used as efficient absorbents for removal of various organic pollutants in water.

  6. Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

    2005-07-01

    Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

  7. Multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor Shang-Yi; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Pruski, Marek; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides bifunctional silica mesoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles ("MSN"), having pores modified with diarylammonium triflate and perfluoroaryl moieties, that are useful for the acid-catalyzed esterification of organic acids with organic alcohols.

  8. Enhancing the Properties of Low Density Hardwood Dyera costulata Through Impregnation with Phenolic Resin Admixed with Formaldehyde Scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Paridah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formaldehyde emission, properties and decay durability of Dyera constulata wood, impregnated with low molecular weight phenol formaldehyde (LmwPF resin mixed with urea were investigated. The air-dry wood was impregnated with 20-40% LmwPF (Mw 600 mixed separately with urea (30% based on solid PF, partially cured at 60C for 30 min and subsequently heated at 150C for 60-120 min. The treatments had successfully reduced the formaldehyde emission (FE of the impreg and the degrees of reduction depend on curing time. Statistical analyses showed that the concentration of resin affected the density, stiffness, water absorption and thickness swelling, while the curing time affected the density, polymer loading, water absorption and thickness swelling. Impreg product had higher MOR, MOE and dimensional stability compared to the untreated wood. The treatments rendered the impreg product with approximately 20% in anti-swelling efficiency and had also changed the wood into highly resistant to fungal decay.

  9. Hypercrosslinked phenolic polymers with well-developed mesoporous frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Jiang, Xueguang; Chai, Song-Hai; Lu, Hanfeng; Nelson, Kimberly; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other arene-based polymers with robust frameworks. PMID:25683637

  10. Hypercrosslinked Phenolic Polymers with Well Developed Mesoporous Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshui [ORNL; Qiao, Zhenan [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Jiang, Xueguang [ORNL; Chai, Songhai [ORNL; Lu, Hanfeng [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other aromatic-based polymers with robust frameworks.

  11. Novel bio-based thermoset resins based on epoxidized vegetable oils for structural adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Shivshankar

    Conventional engineered wood composites are bonded for the most part through formaldehyde-based structural adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and resorcinol formaldehyde (RF). Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen; the occupational exposure and emission after manufacturing of these binders is raising more and more concern. With increasing emphasis on environmental issues, there is clear incentive to replace these hazardous conventional formaldehyde-based binders with cco-friendly resins having similar properties but derived from renewable sources, bearing in mind the economics of the structural wood composite industry. In this thesis, the curing reaction of bio-derived epoxy thermosets with inexpensive, low-toxicity precursors, including polyimines and amino acids was investigated. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were successfully crosslinked with both branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and triethylenetetramine (fETA). Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) was crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI), having different molecular weights. Curing conditions were optimized through solvent uptake and soluble fraction analysis. Finally, the mechanical properties of the optimized compositions of rigid bioepoxies were evaluated using dynamic mechanical rheological testing (DMRT). While not as stiff as conventional materials, optimized materials have sufficient room temperature moduli to show promise for coatings and as binders in engineered wood products.

  12. Composite material based on an ablative phenolic resin and carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMKO DIMESKI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a technological procedure for the production of a molding compound based on short carbon fibers and an ablative phenol–formaldehyde resin for high temperature application was optimized. The starting raw materials were characterized and molding compounds with different fiber/matrix ratios and different fiber lengths were obtained. From the different laboratory samples, molded parts were made by thermocompression. The basic mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were determined. From the obtained results, the optimal fiber/matrix ratio was determined for a production of molding compound for high temperature application. The molding process of the composite material was optimized and all the parameters for good mechanical properties and high thermal stability of the composite were obtained. Optimization of the composite molding process was performed by the application of a numerical method for a planned experiment, i.e., a full three-factorial experimental design with variance of all three parameters (fiber length, temperature and time of the press cycle on two levels. The obtained mechanical properties (flexural strength: 247 MPa, modulus: 27.6 GPa, impact resistance: 110 (for test moldings 10 mm´10 mm and 91 kJ/m2 (for test moldings 15 mm´15 mm justified the application of this composite material in the automotive, leisure, military and other industries where high temperature resistance and high mechanical strength is required.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Inorganic Silver and Palladium Nanostructures within Hexagonal Cylindrical Channels of Mesoporous Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jheng-Guang Li; Cheng-Ying Tsai; Shiao-Wei Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prepared a mesoporous carbon with hexagonally packed mesopores through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA)—with the diblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide-b-?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) as the template (EO114CL84), phenolic resin as the carbon precursor, hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as the curing agent, and star octakis-PEO-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PEO–POSS) as the structure modifier—and subsequent carbonization. We then took the cylindrical m...

  14. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    of different catalytic applications. Primarily the zeolites were modified regarding the porosity and the introduction of metals to the framework. The obtained materials were used as solid acid catalysts, as an inert matrix for stabilising metal nanoparticles and as an anchoring material for molecular...... the micropores. Furthermore, preliminary work was done using mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites as support material for anchoring molecular CoMo6 species for the application as potential bi-functional catalyst in simultaneous hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) and hydrocracking. HDS activity tests revealed that the...... metal oxide species. Nanosized and mesoporous zeolites were prepared to investigate the effect of inter- or intracrystalline mesopores on the catalytic lifetime in the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH). It was found that the mesoporous zeolite with intracrystalline mesopores displayed the...

  15. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    originates almost exclusively from the support material. The methods for introducing mesopores into zeolite materials are discussed and categorized. In general, mesopores can be templated in zeolite materials by use of solid templating, supramolecular templating, or indirect templating. In this......, in supramolecular templating, the zeolite crystal is in direct contact with a supramolecular assembly of organized surfactants, which is removed to generate the mesopores. On the other hand, in the indirect templating method, the interface is between the zeolite crystal and solvent molecules, or...

  16. Morphology control in mesoporous carbon films using solvent vapor annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhe; Xue, Jiachen; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2013-03-12

    Ordered mesoporous (2-50 nm) carbon films were fabricated using cooperative self-assembly of a phenolic resin oligomer with a novel block copolymer template (poly(styrene-block-N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecylamine p-styrenesulfonate), (PS-b-PSS-DMODA)) synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Due to the high Tg of the PS segment and the strong interactions between the phenolic resin and the PSS-DMODA, the segmental rearrangement is kinetically hindered relative to the cross-linking rate of the phenolic resin, which inhibits long-range ordering and yields a poorly ordered mesoporous carbon with a broad pore size distribution. However, relatively short exposure (2 h) to controlled vapor pressures of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) yields significant improvements in the long-range ordering and narrows the pore size distribution. The average pore size increases as the solvent vapor pressure during annealing increases, but an upper limit of p/p0 = 0.85 exists above which the films dewet rapidly during solvent vapor annealing. This approach can be extended using mesityl oxide, which has similar solvent qualities to MEK, but is not easily removed by ambient air drying after solvent annealing. This residual solvent can impact the morphology that develops during cross-linking of the films. These results illustrate the ability to fine-tune the mesostructure of ordered mesoporous carbon films through simple changes in the processing without any compositional changes in the initial cast film. PMID:23394515

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Inorganic Silver and Palladium Nanostructures within Hexagonal Cylindrical Channels of Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jheng-Guang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we prepared a mesoporous carbon with hexagonally packed mesopores through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA—with the diblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide-b-?-caprolactone (PEO-b-PCL as the template (EO114CL84, phenolic resin as the carbon precursor, hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA as the curing agent, and star octakis-PEO-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PEO–POSS as the structure modifier—and subsequent carbonization. We then took the cylindrical mesoporous carbon as a loading matrix, with AgNO3 and Pd(NO32 as metal precursors, to fabricate Ag nanowire/mesoporous carbon and Pd nanoparticle/mesoporous carbon nanocomposites, respectively, through an incipient wetness impregnation method and subsequent reduction under H2. We used transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, N2 isotherm sorption experiment, Raman spectroscopy, and power X-ray diffraction to investigate the textural properties of these nanometal/carbon nanocomposites. Most notably, the Raman spectra of the cylindrical mesoporous carbon, Ag/mesoporous carbon, and Pd/mesoporous carbon revealed interesting phenomena in terms of the ratios of the intensities of the D and G bands (ID/IG, the absolute scattering intensities, and the positions of the D bands.

  18. Analysis of the Compounds from the BTEX Group, Emitted During Thermal Decomposition of Alkyd Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubecki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of the given binding agent for the moulding sands preparation depends on the one hand on the estimation of technological properties of the sand and the mould made of it and the obtained casting quality and on the other hand on the assessment of this sand influence on the natural and working environment. Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin (phenol-formaldehyde, urea, furfuryl, urea–furfuryl, alkyd under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH can be formed and released.The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditionsof formation compounds from the BTEX group. An emission of these components constitutes one of the basic criteria of the harmfulnessassessment of binders applied for moulding and core sands. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 5000C – 13000C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. Within investigations the minimal amount of adsorbent necessary for the adsorption of compounds released during the decomposition of the resin sample of a mass app. 15 mg was selected. Also the minimal amount of solvent needed for the desorption of compounds adsorbed in the column with adsorbent was found. The temperature range, in which the maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene and xylenes are released from the resin, was defined. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of compounds from the BTEX group were performed by means of the gas chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS.

  19. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S+I- surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  20. Surface-functionalized mesoporous carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng; Gorka, Joanna; Mayes, Richard T.

    2016-02-02

    A functionalized mesoporous carbon composition comprising a mesoporous carbon scaffold having mesopores in which polyvinyl polymer grafts are covalently attached, wherein said mesopores have a size of at least 2 nm and up to 50 nm. Also described is a method for producing the functionalized mesoporous composition, wherein a reaction medium comprising a precursor mesoporous carbon, vinyl monomer, initiator, and solvent is subjected to sonication of sufficient power to result in grafting and polymerization of the vinyl monomer into mesopores of the precursor mesoporous carbon. Also described are methods for using the functionalized mesoporous carbon, particularly in extracting metal ions from metal-containing solutions.

  1. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The application of templating methods to produce zeolite materials with hierarchical bi- or trimodal pore size distributions is reviewed with emphasis on mesoporous materials. Hierarchical zeolite materials are categorized into three distinctly different types of materials: hierarchical zeolite crystals, nanosized zeolite crystals, and supported zeolite crystals. For the pure zeolite materials in the first two categories, the additional meso- or macroporosity can be classified as being either intracrystalline or intercrystalline, whereas for supported zeolite materials, the additional porosity originates almost exclusively from the support material. The methods for introducing mesopores into zeolite materials are discussed and categorized. In general, mesopores can be templated in zeolite materials by use of solid templating, supramolecular templating, or indirect templating. In this categorization of templating methods, the nature of the interface between the zeolite crystal and the mesopore exactly when themesopore starts to form is emphasized. In solid templating, the zeolite crystal is in intimate contact with a solid material that is being removed to produce the mesoporosity. Similarly, in supramolecular templating, the zeolite crystal is in direct contact with a supramolecular assembly of organized surfactants, which is removed to generate the mesopores. On the other hand, in the indirect templating method, the interface is between the zeolite crystal and solvent molecules, or possibly a gas phase. It is shown that the available templating approaches are quite versatile, and accordingly, it is possible to produce a very wide range of hierarchical zeolite materials. The resulting zeolite materials, featuring noncrystallographic mesopores in addition to the crystallographic micropores, exhibit significantly enhanced diffusional properties in comparison with purely microporous zeolite materials. These enhanced mass transport properties have been shown in several cases to result in significantly improved catalytic properties in a range of important reactions.

  2. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity but quite similar polymerization contraction. MOD cavities (n=30) were prepared in extracted premolars, restored and then subjected to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. Marginal quality of the restorati...

  3. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  4. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    The application of templating methods to produce zeolite materials with hierarchical bi- or trimodal pore size distributions is reviewed with emphasis on mesoporous materials. Hierarchical zeolite materials are categorized into three distinctly different types of materials: hierarchical zeolite crystals, nanosized zeolite crystals, and supported zeolite crystals. For the pure zeolite materials in the first two categories, the additional meso- or macroporosity can be classified as being either in...

  5. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  6. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjholt, Karen Thrane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of molecular sieves known as zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicates characterised by pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. In this work zeolites were modified for the use and understanding of different catalytic applications. Primarily the zeolites were modified regarding the porosity and the introduction of metals to the framework. The obtained materials were used as solid acid catalysts, as an inert matrix for stabilising metal nanoparticles and as an anchoring material for molecular metal oxide species. Nanosized and mesoporous zeolites were prepared to investigate the effect of inter- or intracrystalline mesopores on the catalytic lifetime in the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH). It was found that the mesoporous zeolite with intracrystalline mesopores displayed the significantly longest catalytic lifetime compared to the nanosized zeolites and the conventional counterpart. Even though the introduction of mesopores improved the catalytic lifetime in the MTH reaction it was concluded that the normal benefits from desilication, e.g. mesoporosity and repairing of defects, became masked by the generation of extra-framework aluminum and that the catalytic lifetime was severely dependent on the amount of extra-framework aluminum. Conventional and mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites were prepared together with the Ga-MFI zeotype analogues to investigate the differences in activity, selectivity and mode of deactivation. The differences in selectivity were primarily ascribed to the difference in the lower acidity of the individual active sites of the Ga-MFI zeotypes compared to the zeolites. In general, the Ga-MFI zeotypes deactivated faster than the ZSM-5 zeolites. Further investigations of the mode of deactivation revealed that the zeolites deactivated due to coke formation and that the Ga-MFI zeotypes deactivated due to loss of the catalytically active Brønsted acid sites caused by hydrolysis of Ga-O bonds leading to formation of inactive extra-framework gallium. Zeolites can not only be used as solid acid catalysts but can also be used as a size-selective matrix. It was shown that it is possible to encapsulate 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles by silicalite-1 or ZSM-5 zeolite crystals thereby forming a sintering-stable and substrate size-selective oxidation catalyst. After carrying out calcination experiments, both in situ and ex situ indicated that the gold nanoparticles embedded in the crystals were highly stable towards sintering. The catalytic tests proved that the embedded gold nanoparticles were active in selective aldehyde oxidation and were only accessible through the micropores. Furthermore, preliminary work was done using mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites as support material for anchoring molecular CoMo6 species for the application as potential bi-functional catalyst in simultaneous hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) and hydrocracking. HDS activity tests revealed that the anchoring improved the activity compared to an impregnated counterpart.

  7. Monodispersed mesoporous silica spheres with various mesopore symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuhisa; Katz, Michael B; Pan, Xiaoqing; Tatsuda, Narihito

    2014-03-15

    Monodispersed mesoporous silica spheres (MMSS) with different mesopore symmetries, such as hexagonal, cubic, or the mixture of hexagonal/cubic, are synthesized changing synthesis conditions. It seems that the direction of mesopores is retained through the particle in MMSS with cubic symmetry. In the case of hexagonal/cubic mixed symmetry, cubic structure is observed at the center of the particle, while hexagonal structure is observed near the surface. It is assumed that cubic structure forms at early stage of the particle growth and hexagonal symmetry forms at the later stage, leading to the formation of cubic core/hexagonal shell structure. PMID:24461818

  8. Mesoporous materials for antihydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael; Galarneau, Anne; Di Renzo, Francesco; Quasso, Fiorenza

    2013-05-01

    Antimatter is barely known by the chemist community and this article has the vocation to explain how antimatter, in particular antihydrogen, can be obtained, as well as to show how mesoporous materials could be used as a further improvement for the production of antimatter at very low temperatures (below 1 K). The first experiments with mesoporous materials highlighted in this review show very promising and exciting results. Mesoporous materials such as mesoporous silicon, mesoporous material films, pellets of MCM-41 and silica aerogel show remarkable features for antihydrogen formation. Yet, the characteristics for the best future mesoporous materials (e.g. pore sizes, pore connectivity, shape, surface chemistry) remain to be clearly identified. For now among the best candidates are pellets of MCM-41 and aerogel with pore sizes between 10 and 30 nm, possessing hydrophobic patches on their surface to avoid ice formation at low temperature. From a fundamental standpoint, antimatter experiments could help to shed light on open issues, such as the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our universe and the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. To this purpose, basic studies on antimatter are necessary and a convenient production of antimatter is required. It is exactly where mesoporous materials could be very useful. PMID:23250616

  9. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Ng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  10. Mesoporous poly(melamine-formaldehyde) solid sorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Xuan; Zhang, Yugen; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-07-01

    Feed the pore: A highly mesoporous melamine-formaldehyde resin is synthesized through a simple, one-step polycondensation reaction by using inexpensive and abundant common industrial chemicals. The material is demonstrated to have a high surface area and a well-defined pore structure. Its high density of CO2 binding pockets with low CO2 binding energy facilitates rapid and reversible CO2 sorption. PMID:23757327

  11. Peptide modified mesoporous silica nanocontainers†

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Fabiola; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Kros, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Here we report a new peptide modified mesoporous silica nanocontainer (PMSN) as a novel controlled release system. The peptides are part of a stimuli responsive nanovalve and ensure an efficient cellular uptake.

  12. Engineered monodisperse mesoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R.S.; Small, J.H.; Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.; Jamison, G.M.

    1997-08-01

    Porous materials technology has developed products with a wide variety of pore sizes ranging from 1 angstrom to 100`s of microns and beyond. Beyond 15{angstrom} it becomes difficult to obtain well ordered, monodisperse pores. In this report the authors describe efforts in making novel porous material having monodisperse, controllable pore sizes spanning the mesoporous range (20--500 {angstrom}). They set forth to achieve this by using unique properties associated with block copolymers--two linear homopolymers attached at their ends. Block copolymers phase separate into monodisperse mesophases. They desired to selectively remove one of the phases and leave the other behind, giving the uniform monodisperse pores. To try to achieve this the authors used ring-opening metathesis polymerization to make the block copolymers. They synthesized a wide variety of monomers and surveyed their polymers by TGA, with the idea that one phase could be made thermally labile while the other phase would be thermally stable. In the precipitated and sol-gel processed materials, they determined by porosimetry measurements that micropores, mesopores, and macropores were created. In the film processed sample there was not much porosity present. They moved to a new system that required much lower thermal treatments to thermally remove over 90% of the labile phase. Film casting followed by thermal treatment and solvent extraction produced the desired monodisperse materials (based solely on SEM results). Modeling using Density Functional Theory was also incorporated into this project. The modeling was able to predict accurately the domain size and spacing vs. molecular weight for a model system, as well as accurate interfacial thicknesses.

  13. Hydrophilic and mesoporous SiO2-TiO2-SO3H system for fuel cell membrane applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The composite films containing SiO2-TiO2-SO3H resin additives, with strong water retention capabilities, showed superior proton conductivity, even at 120 oC and 25% RH, as well as a slightly improved current density at 30% RH and 70 oC, when compared to costly Nafion film. Display Omitted Research highlights: ? The hydrophilic and mesoporous SiO2-TiO2-SO3H resins have a potential to be used as alternative membrane source materials in PEFCs. ? The sulfonation for hydrophilicity is conducted via simple chelating chemistry between catecholic groups and surface Ti ions. ? The proton conductivity of SiO2-TiO2-SO3H composite films is superior to the commercial Nafion film. - Abstract: Hydrophilic and mesoporous sulfonated SiO2-TiO2-SO3H systems as new additives for fuel cell electrolyte membranes are directly synthesized by the binary sol-gel reaction of TEOS-TiCl4 and consecutive sulfonation with a hydrophilic generator, dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt. The sulfonation approach makes use of the simple chelating chemistry between the catecholic groups (dihydroxy benzene) and surface Ti ions of the inorganic ordered mesoporous SBA-15 structure. The system is successfully employed in fuel cell membrane applications with a composite Nafion membrane mixed with a mesoporous hydrophilic resin additive, and reveals an obvious enhancement of the proton conductivity at low humidity and elevated temperatures. This improvement was attributed to the excellent water retention capability of the hydrophilic mesoporous resin.

  14. Asphaltene-resin association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirota, E.; Peczak, P. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Houston, TX (United States). Corporate Strategic Research

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the association of resins with asphaltenes within the context of asphaltenes-as-colloidal-aggregates being peptized by surfactant-like resin species. Both solubility and phase behaviour data was presented along with scattering results to clarify questions regarding meaning of association. Questions regarding the size of resin-peptized asphaltene aggregates, clustering, phase separation and co-precipitation were discussed. The study showed that pentane resins must form a continuum, as one can continuously slide the definition of resins and asphaltenes just by choice of solvent and solvent mixtures. This paper explained this behaviour by considering the local composition in a solution of complex molecules.

  15. Resin type neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain poison rack materials which are firm as structural materials and having high boron carbide content by using resin materials reinforced by admixing single glass fibers. Constitution: Boron carbide and or gadolinium oxide is added to a resin material selected from the group consisting of polyamide bismaleimide resin, epoxy resin, phenol resin and lipoxy resin reinforced by admixing 1 to 5 % by weight of single glass fibers within a range from 1 to 50 % by weight of the neutron absorber (poison material) based on the resin material. Rack structural materials having heat resistance, radiation resistance and durability together can thus be obtained. Accordingly, it is possible to adsorb neutrons, reduct the interval between spent fuel racks and increase the storage amount of the pit. (Takahashi, M.)

  16. Resin type neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Shigeo; Noguchi, Shigeru; Najima, Kenji

    1987-01-16

    Purpose: To obtain poison rack materials which are firm as structural materials and having high boron carbide content by using resin materials reinforced by admixing single glass fibers. Constitution: Boron carbide and or gadolinium oxide is added to a resin material selected from the group consisting of polyamide bismaleimide resin, epoxy resin, phenol resin and lipoxy resin reinforced by admixing 1 to 5% by weight of single glass fibers within a range from 1 to 50% by weight of the neutron absorber (poison material) based on the resin material. Rack structural materials having heat resistance, radiation resistance and durability together can thus be obtained. Accordingly, it is possible to adsorb neutrons, reduct the interval between spent fuel racks and increase the storage amount of the pit. (Takahashi, M.).

  17. Interactions of Plutonium and Lanthanides with Ordered Mesoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi

    Ordered mesoporous materials are porous solids with a regular, patterned structure composed of pores between 2 and 50 nm wide. Such materials have attracted much attention in the past twenty years because the chemistry of their synthesis allows control of their unique physicochemical properties, which can be tuned for a variety of applications. Generally, ordered mesoporous materials have very high specific surface areas and pore volumes, and offer unique structures that are neither crystalline nor amorphous. The large tunable interface provided by ordered mesoporous solids may be advantageous in applications involving sequestration, separation, or detection of actinides and lanthanides in solution. However, the fundamental chemical interactions of actinides and lanthanides must be understood before applications can be implemented. This dissertation focuses primarily on the fundamental interactions of plutonium with organically modified mesoporous silica, as well as several different porous carbon materials, both untreated and chemically oxidized. A method for functionalizing mesoporous silica by self assembly and molecular grafting of functional organosilane ligands was optimized for the 2D-hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica known as SBA-15 (Santa Barbara amorphous silica). Four different organically-modified silica materials were synthesized and characterized with several techniques. To confirm that covalent bonds were formed between the silane anchor of the ligand and the silica substrate, functionalized silica samples were analyzed with 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was used in combination with 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to verify the molecular structures of the ligands after they were synthesized and grafted to the silica. The densities of the functional silane ligands on the silica surface were estimated using thermogravimetric analysis. Batch sorption experiments were conducted with solutions of Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Eu(III), Ce(III), and Zr(IV). The acetamide phosphonate functionalized silica called Ac-Phos-SBA-15 required more extensive synthesis than the other three functionalized silica materials. Development of functionalized mesoporous silica extractants for actinides is contingent on their synthesis and hydrolytic stability, and these two aspects of the Ac-Phos-SBA-15 material are discussed. This material showed the highest binding affinity for all of the target ions, and the sorption and desorption of Pu(VI) to Ac-Phos-SBA-15 was extensively investigated. Ordered mesoporous carbons are attractive as sorbents because of their extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes, and could be suitable substrates for the development of actinide sensors based on their electrochemical properties. Three different mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized by collaborators to test their application as radionuclide sorbent materials. The first is called CMK (carbons mesostructured by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), and was synthesized using a hard silica template with 3D-bicontinuous ordered mesostructure. Highly ordered body-centered cubic mesoporous carbon was synthesized by self-assembly of a phenol resin around a soft polymer template, and this material is known as FDU-16 (Fudan University). Etching of the silica portion of mesoporous carbon-silica composites created the 2D-hexagonal mesoporous carbon called C-CS (carbon from carbon-silica nanocomposites) with a bimodal pore size distribution. The as-synthesized nanocast mesoporous carbon in this work is called UN CMK, and the same material after oxidation treatment with nitric acid is called OX CMK. A portion of both FDU-16-type and C-CS-type ordered mesoporous carbons were oxidized with acidic ammonium persulfate, which created the oxidized carbon materials called FDU-16-COOH and C-CS-COOH, respectively. The mesoporous carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to view their particle sizes and morphologies. Their porosities and structures on the meso-scale were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The identity and density of functional groups on the different carbon surfaces were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and determination of the point-of-zero-charge with the powder addition technique. The porous carbon materials studied present a wide range of particle morphologies, mesostructures, surface areas, pore volumes, and surface chemistries. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Studies of mesoporous inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushalani, Deepa

    Studies in synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica have been performed. In particular, four aspects have been studied. Primarily, a new synthetic route to enlarge the porosity of mesoporous silica materials has been developed. The synthetic strategy involves aging the syntheses mixture in the mother liquor and depending on the aging time, a gradual increase in pore sizes is observed from 40 to 65 A. The growth process involves restructuring of the mesopores under mild aqueous conditions without changing the length of the alkyl chain of the surfactant or addition of auxiliary hydrocarbon molecules. The pore-enlarged products retain the crystal morphology of the starting materials and appreciable solubilization of the structure is not observed during the aging process. Templating behavior of cetylpyridinium chloride in the synthesis of mesoporous silica has also been evaluated. Noticeable improvement in the quality of the resulting product is observed through PXRD, TEM, and adsorption analyses. Synthesis of mesoporous silica is also demonstrated using templating behavior of a mixture of two surfactants: cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl). As the CPCl :CTACl molar ratio is decreased, a gradual increase in the d100-spacing is observed starting at ca. 41 A and in sub-angstrom increments reaching to that of ca. 43 A. A model is presented that simultaneously accounts for the higher degree of structural order of the mesoporous silica templated with CPCl and the ability to fine tune d-spacings on a sub-angstrom length scale using CPCl/CTACl mixtures. In addition, a novel non-aqueous route to formation of lamellar and hexagonal phase of mesoporous silica has been developed. Ethylene glycol is employed as a solvent and as a chelating agent. The chelate effect results in stable glycosilicate(IV) complexes which are necessary for the syntheses and the framework thermal stability of the products has been found to increase via chemical vapor deposition of disilane. This synthetic route has been extended to the synthesis of a novel mesostructured titanium oxide and mixed mesostructured titanium/silicon oxides. The mesoporous mixed titanium/silicon oxides are envisaged to have diverse applications in catalysis, large molecule adsorption and separation science, and the synthetic route developed provides the potential for synthesis of other mesoporous mixed metal oxides over a wide range of compositions.

  19. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  20. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  1. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  2. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concern...

  3. Determination of mercury by flow injection solid phase extraction coupled with on-line hydride generation ETAAS using as solid phase extractant a new functionalized mesoporous silica

    OpenAIRE

    López Guerrero, María del Mar; Siles Cordero, María Teresa; Vereda Alonso, Elisa Isabel; García de Torres, Amparo; Cano Pavón, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A chelating resin, [1,5 bis(di-2-pyridyl) methylene thiocarbohydrazide] bonded to mesoporous silica (DPTH-ms), has been used as a novel solid phase extractant. This resin has some advantages compared to most of other chelating adsorbents. Therefore, the aim is to develop a reliable method for determination of the aforementioned element from natural water samples by the on-line column preconcentration/HG-ETAAS using the resin DPTH-ms. With all experimental variables optimized, a linear cal...

  4. Influência da composição da resina tanino-uréia-formaldeído nas propriedades físicas e macânicas de chapas aglomeradas Influence of the composition of tannin-urea-formaldehyde resins in the in the physical and mechanicals properties of particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Na fabricação de aglomerados à base de madeira são utilizados adesivos sintéticos como melamina-formaldeído (MF, fenol-formaldeído (FF, uréia-formaldeído (UF, entre outros. Devido ao alto custo desses adesivos, pesquisas que visam a introdução de alterações nas suas formulações são importantes para a redução de custos no sistema produtivo. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência da adição de diferentes níveis de tanino de Acacia mearnsii em uma resina comercial à base de uréia-formaldeído nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas de chapas aglomeradas. As chapas aglomeradas foram confeccionadas com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla. Foram avaliadas quatro composições de adesivo: T1 - 100% de resina UF (testemunha; (T2 90% de resina UF + 10% de tanino 50%; (T3 85% de resina UF + 15% de tanino 50% e (T4 70% de resina UF + 30% de tanino 50%. Através dos ensaios, conclui-se que é possível adicionar tanino à resina uréia-formaldeído sem com isso prejudicar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas das chapas.In the production of the wood base particleboards, synthetic adhesives are used as melamina-formaldehyde (MF, phenol-formaldehyde (FF, urea-formaldehyde (UF, among others. Due to the high cost of these adhesives, researches that a seek the introduction of alterations in their formulations are important for the reduction of costs in the productive system. This work had as objective verify the influence of the several levels of Acacia mearnsii tannin in a commercial resin of urea-formaldehyde an the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboard. The particleboard was produced with Eucalyptus urophylla wood. They were four treatments: T1 - 100% of resin UF (control; (T2 90% of the resin UF + 10% of the tannin 50%; (T3 85% of the resin UF + 15% of the tannin 50% and (T4 70% of the resin UF + 30% of the tannin 50%. The results showed that it is possible to add tannin to the resin urea-formaldehyde without to alter the physical and mechanical properties of the boards.

  5. Amine-functionalized mesoporous polymer as potential sorbent for nickel preconcentration from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Zaidi, Noushi; Ahmad, Hilal; Kumar, Suneel

    2015-05-01

    In this study, mesoporous glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-based chelating resin was synthesized and grafted with diethylenetriamine through epoxy ring-opening reaction. The synthesized resin was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and pore size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. The resin was used for the first time as an effective sorbent for the preconcentration of nickel in electroplating wastewater samples. The analytical variables like pH, flow rate for sorption/desorption, and eluate selection were systematically investigated and optimized. The uniform and monolayer sorption behavior of resin for nickel was proved by an evident fit of the equilibrium data to a Langmuir isotherm model. Under optimized conditions, the resin was observed to show a good sorption capacity of 20.25 mg g(-1) and >96% recovery of nickel even in the presence of a large number of competitive matrix ions. Its ability to extract trace amount of nickel was exhibited by low preconcentration limit (5.9 ?g L(-1)). The calibration curve was found to be linear (R(2)?=?0.998) in the concentration range of 6.0-400.0 ?g L(-1). Coefficient of variation of less than 5 for all the analysis indicated good reproducibility. The reliability was evaluated by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) and recovery experiments. The applicability of the resin for the systematic preconcentration of nickel is substantiated by the analysis of electroplating wastewater and river water samples. Graphical abstract ?. PMID:25561258

  6. Bimodal mesoporous silica with bottleneck pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, M J; Brühwiler, D

    2015-11-01

    Bimodal mesoporous silica consisting of two sets of well-defined mesopores is synthesized by a partial pseudomorphic transformation of an ordered mesoporous starting material (SBA-15 type). The introduction of a second set of smaller mesopores (MCM-41 type) establishes a pore system with bottlenecks that restricts the access to the core of the bimodal mesoporous silica particles. The particle size and shape of the starting material are retained, but micropores present in the starting material disappear during the transformation, leading to a true bimodal mesoporous product. A varying degree of transformation allows the adjustment of the pore volume contribution of the two mesopore domains. Information on the accessibility of the mesopores is obtained by the adsorption of fluorescence-labeled poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This information is correlated with nitrogen sorption data to provide insights regarding the spatial distribution of the two mesopore domains. The bimodal mesoporous materials are excellent model systems for the investigation of cavitation effects in nitrogen desorption isotherms. PMID:26399172

  7. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Xylene mixtures Butylbenzene Butyl phenol, Formaldehyde resin in Xylene Butyl toluene Cumene Cymene Decylbenzene...formate iso-Butyl isobutyrate n-Butyl propionate Calcium alkyl(C9)phenol sulfide, polyolefin...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2600 - Rubber articles intended for repeated use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01...in contact with foods of Types I, II...sulfonated. Phenol-formaldehyde resin. Pine tar...persulfate. Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Sodium...for use with dry food are so...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei

    Mesoporous materials are highly porous solids with pore sizes in the range of 20 to 500 A and a narrow pore size distribution. Creating a mesoporous morphology in transition metal oxides is expected to increase the kinetics of electrochemical photoelectrochemical processes due to the improved accessibility of electrolyte to electrode. The objective of the dissertation research is to prepare functional mesoporous materials based on transition metal oxides and to determine the effects of the mesoporous structure on the resulting charge transfer, electrochromism, and optical properties. In this dissertation, mesoporous tungsten oxide and niobium oxide were synthesized by incorporating tri-block copolymer surfactant templates into the sol-gel synthesis procedure. Both mesoporous materials have surface areas in the range of 130 m2/g with a narrow pore size distribution centered at ˜45A. Their electrochromic properties were characterized and found to be strongly influenced by the mesoporous morphology. Both mesoporous systems exhibit better electrochemical and optical reversibilities than the analogous sol-gel materials (without using surfactant) and the kinetics of bleaching is substantially faster. Coloration efficiencies for the mesoporous tungsten oxide and niobium oxide films are in the range of 16--37 cm 2/C and 12--16 cm2/C, respectively. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated using mesoporous niobium oxide as electrodes. Due to the higher surface area, the mesoporous electrodes have greater dye adsorption and electrolyte penetration compared to sol-gel electrodes, which leads to better electron injection, faster dye regeneration and thus, better cell performance. The mesoporous DSSC exhibits photocurrents of 2.9 mA and fill factors of 0.61. Open circuit voltages of the mesoporous DSSC are in the range of 0.6--0.83V.

  10. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation and continuous condensation of simple aryl molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoyan Zhang; Qiu Jin; Libo Dai; Siguo Yuan

    2011-07-01

    A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethylation of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these novel resins were characterized with BET, FT–IR and elementary analysis, respectively. The results showed that these novel adsorptive materials possessing abundant crosslinked networks had high specific surface areas (up to 1191.26 m2/g), large pore volumes (0.2–1.4 ml/g), narrow pore size distributions (mainly in the range of micropores and small mesopores).

  11. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  12. Ordered mesoporous silica materials with complicated structures

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2012-05-01

    Periodically ordered mesoporous silicas constitute one of the most important branches of porous materials that are extensively employed in various chemical engineering applications including adsorption, separation and catalysis. This short review gives an introduction to recently developed mesoporous silicas with emphasis on their complicated structures and synthesis mechanisms. In addition, two powerful techniques for solving complex mesoporous structures, electron crystallography and electron tomography, are compared to elucidate their respective strength and limitations. Some critical issues and challenges regarding the development of novel mesoporous structures as well as their applications are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-06-21

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine the specific organelle that mesoporous silica nanoparticles could approach via the identification of harvested proteins from exocytosis process. Based on the study of endo- and exocytosis behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials, we can design smarter drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy that can be effectively controlled. The destination, uptake efficiency and the cellular distribution of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials can be programmable. As a result, release mechanism and release rate of drug delivery systems can be a well-controlled process. The deep investigation of an endo- and exocytosis study of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials promotes the development of drug delivery applications.

  14. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyester resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%. (author)

  15. Hydrophilic and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H system for fuel cell membrane applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lan-Young [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chungnam National University, 220 Kung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Song-Yul [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@ee.tut.ac.j [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lee, Chang-Soo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, 220 Kung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Pyo, E-mail: dpkim@cnu.ac.k [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chungnam National University, 220 Kung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 220 Kung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    Graphical abstract: The composite films containing SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H resin additives, with strong water retention capabilities, showed superior proton conductivity, even at 120 {sup o}C and 25% RH, as well as a slightly improved current density at 30% RH and 70 {sup o}C, when compared to costly Nafion film. Display Omitted Research highlights: The hydrophilic and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H resins have a potential to be used as alternative membrane source materials in PEFCs. The sulfonation for hydrophilicity is conducted via simple chelating chemistry between catecholic groups and surface Ti ions. The proton conductivity of SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H composite films is superior to the commercial Nafion film. - Abstract: Hydrophilic and mesoporous sulfonated SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H systems as new additives for fuel cell electrolyte membranes are directly synthesized by the binary sol-gel reaction of TEOS-TiCl{sub 4} and consecutive sulfonation with a hydrophilic generator, dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt. The sulfonation approach makes use of the simple chelating chemistry between the catecholic groups (dihydroxy benzene) and surface Ti ions of the inorganic ordered mesoporous SBA-15 structure. The system is successfully employed in fuel cell membrane applications with a composite Nafion membrane mixed with a mesoporous hydrophilic resin additive, and reveals an obvious enhancement of the proton conductivity at low humidity and elevated temperatures. This improvement was attributed to the excellent water retention capability of the hydrophilic mesoporous resin.

  16. Thermally stable laminating resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  17. Cleanup of demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is being removed from demineralizers A and B (DA and DB) by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). It was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDSD feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consisted of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin was contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subjected the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH2BO3-H3BO3 solution (total boron= 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared with those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2, which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  18. General strategy for fabricating thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Huilin

    2014-12-03

    Recently, preparation of mesoporous fibers has attracted extensive attentions because of their unique and broad applications in photocatalysis, optoelectronics, and biomaterials. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and uniformity. Here, we report a general, simple and cost-effective strategy, namely, foaming-assisted electrospinning, for producing mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and enhanced specific surface areas. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 fibers exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than both the conventional solid counterparts and the commercially available P25. The abundant vapors released from the introduced foaming agents are responsible for the creation of pores with uniform spatial distribution in the spun precursor fibers. The present work represents a critically important step in advancing the electrospinning technique for generating mesoporous fibers in a facile and universal manner.

  19. Synthesis and catalytic applications of mesoporous metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanchang

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the synthesis of mesoporous titanium oxide and its derivatives, mesoporous aluminia, and porous zirconium oxide is described. Of these, mesoporous titania and alumina were examined as catalysts or catalyst supports in DeNOx and dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol. The Mesoporous molecular sieves were synthesized by a ligand-assisted templating method. Surfactant was removed by a combination of acid/base washing and calcination. Mesoporous alumina and titania indeed show promisin...

  20. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  1. Metallic mesoporous nanocomposites for electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Chen, Mingwei; Erlebacher, Jonah

    2004-06-01

    We describe the fabrication, characterization, and applications of ultrathin, free-standing mesoporous metal membranes uniformly decorated with catalytically active nanoparticles. Platinum-plated nanoporous gold leaf (Pt-NPG) made by confining a plating reaction to occur within the pores of dealloyed silver/gold leaf is 100 nm thick and contains an extremely high, uniform dispersion of 3 nm diameter catalytic particles. This nanostructured composite holds promise as a prototypical member of a new class of fuel cell electrodes, showing good electrocatalytic performance at low platinum loading (less than 0.05 mg cm-2), while also maintaining long-term stability against coarsening and aggregation of catalytic nanoparticles. PMID:15174851

  2. Preparation of Mesoporous Bimetallic Au-Pt with a Phase-Segregated Heterostructure Using Mesoporous Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Masaki; Kubara, Saori; Takai, Azusa; Takimoto, Daisuke; Enomoto, Shinpei; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Wataru; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2015-12-21

    Mesoporous bimetallic Au-Pt with a phase-segregated heterostructure has been prepared by using mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a template. Au nanoparticles were prepared as a seed metal within the mesopores, and subsequently Pt was deposited, sandwiching the Au seeds. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectral mapping showed that the framework of mesoporous bimetallic Au-Pt, prepared by removing the silica template with HF, was composed of Au nanoparticles joined with Pt nanowires. The Au/Pt ratio of the mesoporous bimetallic Au-Pt could be varied by controlling the number of Au deposition cycles. Pre-adsorbed CO (COad ) stripping voltammetry of the mesoporous bimetallic Au-Pt showed that the surfaces of the joined bimetallic structure were electrochemically active. This could be attributed to the open framework structure having a high ratio of exposed bimetallic mesopore surfaces. The described preparative approach, involving a mesoporous silica template and stepwise deposition within the mesopores, enables control of the nanostructure of the bimetallic material, which is greatly promising for the further development of synthetic methodologies for bimetallic structures. PMID:26586355

  3. Surfactant-Templated Mesoporous Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Baber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate two approaches to prepare mesoporous metal oxide nanowires by surfactant assembly and nanoconfinement via sol-gel or electrochemical deposition. For example, mesoporous Ta2O5 and zeolite nanowires are prepared by block copolymer Pluronic 123-templated sol-gel method, and mesoporous ZnO nanowires are prepared by electrodeposition in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS surfactant, in porous membranes. The morphologies of porous nanowires are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses.

  4. Preparation of irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite (meso-HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is successfully prepared from Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and NH4H2PO4 using surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reveal that the positive head of CTAB is assembled on the surface precipitated HA and much NH4+ is enclosed in precipitated HA before calcination. Field scanning electron microscope (FSEM) reveals that there exist many interconnected pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment exhibits a mesoporous material type IV curve, and pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch of the isotherms based on Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model shows that most pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton are sized at about 40 nm, but the pores are not uniform on the whole, owning to decomposition of the 'organic' CTAB templating structures and ammonium salt enclosed in the precipitated HA. The specific surface area of irregular meso-HA is calculated to be 37.6 m2/g according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Moreover, after polylactic acid/meso-HA (PLA/meso-HA) composites degraded 12 weeks in normal saline at 37 deg. C, the interconnected pores throughout the HA skeleton were enlarged and sized in micron degree, which resemble trabecular bone structure very much

  5. Petroleum resins for bitumens modification

    OpenAIRE

    Grynyshyn, Oleg; Bratychak, Michael; Krynytskiy, Volodymyr; Donchak, Volodymyr

    2008-01-01

    The process of tar and industrial petroleum resin "Piroplast-2" joint oxidation has been investigated. The experimental results of the main regularities researches of the obtaining process of petroleum resins with carboxyl groups based on the pyrocondensate C9 fraction of hydrocarbon feedstock pyrolysis have been shown. It has been established that synthesized petroleum resins may be used for the modification of petroleum bitumens. ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????...

  6. Ordered mesoporous carbon-titania composites and their enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-07-01

    A series of ordered mesoporous titania-carbon composites was synthesized by self-assembly of carbon and titania precursors in the presence of Pluronic F127 block copolymer as a template under acidic conditions. Resorcinol and formaldehyde were used as carbon precursors and titanium isopropoxide was employed as titania precursor. Pluronic F127 [poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer] was employed as a soft template. The controlled polymerization of phenolic resin precursors and condensation of titania precursor in hydrophilic domains of the block copolymer template followed by carbonization resulted in ordered mesoporous titania-carbon composites. These composites possessed uniform ordered cylindrical mesopores (7-8 nm) created by thermal decomposition of the soft template, crystalline titania particles (anatase phase, 7-8 nm) embedded in the carbon matrix, and high percentage of titania (up to 48%). N2 adsorption analysis showed that the aforementioned composites exhibited large surface area (close to reaching 600 m(2)/g) and enhanced photocatalytic activity toward photodegradation of rhodomine B due to the presence of titania nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the carbon mesostructure. PMID:25648111

  7. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (inventors)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  8. HIGH-PERFORMANCE CELLULOSE NANOFIBRIL COMPOSITE FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Qing,; Ronald Sabo,; Yiqiang Wu,; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibril/phenol formaldehyde (CNF/PF) composite films with high work of fracture were prepared by filtering a mixture of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized wood nanofibers and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde with resin contents ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, followed by hot pressing. The composites were characterized by tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and moisture/wate...

  9. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  10. Resins for condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensate polishing is, in principle, very simple and requires low TDS water, ie condensate, containing at most a few ppm of dissolved salts, gases and insoluble corrosion products, at near ambient temperatures, to be demineralised and filtered (at high linear and specific flow rates) to a quality acceptable as feedwater back to the boiler. In practice the process can be, and usually is, quite complex, and this complexity reflects the quality and quantity of treated water required, the nature of the components in the feedwater, the type and characteristics and condition of the resins employed, the design and operation of the engineering equipment (mixed beds) and the effect on treated water quality which interactions between the other variables can have. A brief review is given of the basic requirements expected from ion exchange resins used for condensate polishing together with mention of the many process features which affect the performance of the resins and influence the thinking of the resin manufacturers. Specifications are given for treated condensate in Magnox, AGR and PWR nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  11. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  12. Preparation and characterization of multifunctional magnetic mesoporous calcium silicate materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua Zhang, Yufang Zhu, Jie Li, Min Zhu, Cuilian Tao and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared multifunctional magnetic mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials using triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The effects of Fe substitution on the mesoporous structure, in vitro bioactivity, magnetic heating ability and drug delivery property of mesoporous CaSiO3 materials were investigated. Mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials had similar mesoporous channels (5–6 nm) with different Fe substitution. When 5 and 10% Fe were substituted for Ca in mesoporous CaSiO3 materials...

  13. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far...

  14. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far...

  15. Moderate Temperature Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2013-01-03

    Methods and composition for preparation of mesoporous carbon material are provided. For example, in certain aspects methods for carbonization and activation at selected temperature ranges are described. Furthermore, the invention provides products prepared therefrom.

  16. Tailored adsorption of enzymes onto mesoporous silicates.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Darragh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to synthesise mesoporous silicates, incorporate metal complexes on to the surface of the silicates post synthesis and utilise these materials for the immobilisation of histidine-tagged enzymes to form stable, reusable biocatalysts. Studies in the synthesis of a range of mesoporous silicates and subsequent postsynthetic metal-cyclam functionalisation are presented. The generation of nickel-cyclam functionalised MCM-41/89, SBA-15 and MCF was successful...

  17. Mesoporous zirconium phosphate from yeast biotemplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuying; He, Wen; Cui, Jingjie; Zhang, Xudong; Zhou, Weijia; Yan, Shunpu; Sun, Xianan; Han, Xiuxiu; Han, Shanshan; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2010-03-01

    Mesoporous zirconium phosphate has attracted increasing interest due to its extraordinary functionalities. In particular, great progress has been made in the synthesis of mesoporous zirconium phosphate using traditional approaches. However, synthesis of mesoporous zirconium phosphate using yeast as biotemplate has not been well studied so far. Here, we show that zirconium phosphate with a mesoporous structure has been synthesized under ambient conditions using yeast as biotemplate. The derived samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. A biotemplated mesoporous zirconium phosphate, possessing a specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, BET) of 217.64 m(2) g(-1), a narrow pore distribution centered at 2.7 nm, and pore volume of 0.24 cm(3) g(-1), was obtained. We discover that amide carboxyl groups of yeast play an important role in the chemical interaction between protein molecules and zirconium phosphate nanoparticles. Interestingly, an air electrode fabricated using mesoporous zirconium phosphate exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), compared to that of the electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) air electrode employed commercially, which has important applications in fuel cell technologies. PMID:20031146

  18. Mesoporous Carbon Produced from Tri-constituent Mesoporous Carbon-silica Composite for Water Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yanjie

    2012-05-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposites with interpenetrating carbon and silica networks were synthesized by the evaporation-induced tri-constituent co- assembly approach. The removal of silica by concentrated NaOH solution produced mesoporous carbons, which contained not only the primary large pores, but also the secondary mesopores in the carbon walls. The thus synthesized mesoporous carbon was further activated by using ZnCl2. The activated mesoporous carbon showed an improved surface area and pore volume. The synthesized mesoporous carbon was tested for diuron removal from water and the results showed that the carbon gave a fast diuron adsorption kinetics and a high diuron removal capacity, which was attributable to the primary mesopore channels being the highway for mass transfer, which led to short diffusion path length and easy accessibility of the interpenetrated secondary mesopores. The optimal adsorption capacity of the porous carbon was determined to be 390 mg/g, the highest values ever reported for diuron adsorption on carbon-based materials.

  19. Mesoporous zeolite single crystals for catalytic hydrocarbon conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I.; Christensen, C.H.; Hasselriis, Peter; Kustova, Marina; Nielsen, Michael Brorson; Dahl, Søren; Johannsen, K.; Christensen, Claus H.

    Recently, mesoporous zeolite single crystals were discovered. They constitute a novel family of materials that features a combined micropore and mesopore architecture within each individual crystal. Here, we briefly summarize recent catalytic results from cracking and isomerization of alkalies, a...

  20. Resin composite restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, N; Hickel, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

  1. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  2. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  3. Preparation and properties of mesoporous silica/bismaleimide/diallylbisphenol composites with improved thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New composites with improved thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties were developed, which consist of 2,2'-diallylbisphenol A (DBA/4,4'-bismaleimidodiphenylmethane (BDM resin and a new kind of organic/inorganic mesoporous silica (MPSA. Typical properties (curing behavior and mechanism, thermal stability, mechanical and dielectric properties of the composites were systematically investigated, and their origins were discussed. Results show that MPSA/DBA/BDM composites have similar curing temperature as DBA/BDM resin does; however, they have different curing mechanisms, and thus different crosslinked networks. The content of MPSA has close relation with the integrated performance of cured composites. Compared with cured DBA/BDM resin, composites with suitable content of MPSA show obviously improved flexural strength and modulus as well as impact strength; in addition, all composites not only have lower dielectric constant and similar frequency dependence, more interestingly, they also exhibit better stability of frequency on dielectric loss. For thermal stability, the addition of MPSA to DBA/BDM resin significantly decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion, and improves the char yield at high temperature with a slightly reduced glass transition temperature. All these differences in macro-properties are attributed to the different crosslinked networks between MPSA/DBA/BDM composites and DBA/BDM resin.

  4. Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Sharma, Ms. Ketki [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

  5. Mesoporous carbon for capacitive deionization of saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouris, C; Mayes, R; Kiggans, J; Sharma, K; Yiacoumi, S; DePaoli, D; Dai, S

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration. PMID:22032802

  6. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mörtz, Charlotte; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Veien, Niels Kren; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Bo Lasthein; Danielsen, Anne Grethe Miller; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Axel Ove; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation a...

  7. Influence of synthesis conditions and mesoporous structures on the gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byunghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, ChonAn, Korea; Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Park, Chulhwan [Kwangwoon University; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Loading gold on mesoporous materials via different methods has been actively attempted in the literature, but the knowledge about the influences of synthesis details and different mesoporous structures on the size and thermal stability of gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous hosts is still limited. In this study, Au/HMS, Au/MCM-41, Au/MCM-48, Au/SBA-15, and Au/SBA-16 samples were prepared by modifying a variety of mesoporous silicas by amine ligands followed by loading HAuCl4 and calcination. The influences of different amine ligands ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane versus N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine), solvents (water versus ethanol), calcination temperatures (200 or 550 C), and mesoporous structures on the size of supported gold nanoparticles were systematically investigated employing nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, while big and irregular gold particles situate on MCM-48 with bicontinuous three-dimensional pore structure and relatively small pore size (2.4 nm) upon calcination at 550 C, homogeneous and small gold nanoparticles maintain inside SBA-15 with one-dimensional pore structure and relatively big pore size (6.8 nm). Apparently, the pore structure and pore size of mesoporous silica hosts play a key role in determining the size and thermal stability of the supported gold nanoparticles. Our results may provide some useful clues for the rational design of supported metal catalysts by choosing suitable mesoporous hosts.

  8. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  9. Templated mesoporous carbons for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertes, A.B.; Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-C.S.I.C., Oviedo (Spain); Lota, G.; Frackowiak, E. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry

    2005-05-05

    Mesoporous carbons prepared by an inverse replica technique have been used as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Such well-sized carbons were prepared from mesostructured SBA-16 silica materials that served as templates whereas polyfurfuryl alcohol was the carbon precursor. Two highly mesoporous carbons characterized by 3 and 8 nm average pore diameter were tested in various electrolytic solutions (acidic, alkaline and aprotic). It can be concluded that templated mesoporous carbons with tailored pore size distribution are very promising materials to be used as electrodes in supercapacitors. The design of their pore size allows suiting the dimensions of electrolyte ions and efficient charging of the electrical double layer is achieved especially at high current load. Definitively better capacitance performance has been found for carbon with 3 nm pores range, however, cycling performance depends not only on the pore size. (Author)

  10. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of substituted phenol... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7220 Polymer of substituted phenol... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of substituted...

  11. Molecular sieve behaviour of carbon aerogels and xerogels prepared from phloroglucinol-phenol-formaldehyde polymerization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirglová, Hana; Pérez-Cadenas, A. F.; Hódar, F. J. M.

    Biarritz : SARL VACANCES SUD TERRES BASQUES, 2009, ID 153. [Carbon 09. Biarritz (FR), 14.06.2009-19.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polymerization * molecular sieves * carbon aerogels Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Synthesis and Properties of Phloroglucinol-Phenol-Formaldehyde Carbon Aerogels and Xerogels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirglová, Hana; Pérez-Cadenas, A. F.; Maldonado-Hódar, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 25, ?. 4 (2009), s. 2461-2466. ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : organic aerogels * immersion calorimetry * activated carbon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  13. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  14. Location of laccase in ordered mesoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral, Álvaro [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, Edificio I - D, Mariano Esquillor, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Gascón, Victoria; Blanco, Rosa M.; Márquez-Álvarez, Carlos; Díaz, Isabel, E-mail: idiaz@icp.csic.es [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, c/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    The functionalization with amine groups was developed on the SBA-15, and its effect in the laccase immobilization was compared with that of a Periodic Mesoporous Aminosilica. A method to encapsulate the laccase in situ has now been developed. In this work, spherical aberration (C{sub s}) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with high angle annular dark field detector and electron energy loss spectroscopy were applied to identify the exact location of the enzyme in the matrix formed by the ordered mesoporous solids.

  15. Mesoporous Silica and Composite Nanostructures for Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlebtsov B.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We discus methods for fabrication of silica and composite nanoparticles, which can be used in various biomedical applications. The most promising types of such nanostructures are hollow silica nanosheres, silica coated plasmon-resonant nanoparticles (gold nanorods and gold-silver nanocages and nanorattles. Mesoporous silica shell can be doped by desirable targeting molecules. Here we present the results of formation of nanocomposites composed of gold nanorods and double-layer silica shell. The secondary mesoporous silica shell is doped with a photosensitizer (hematoporphyrine in our case. We demonstate some of promising theranostics applications of these nanocomposites for bioimaging and in vivo therapy of tumors.

  16. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  17. Nanocasted synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides and mixed oxides from mesoporous cubic (Ia3d) vinylsilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangang; Wang, Yanqin; Liu, Xiaohui; Guo, Yun; Guo, Yanglong; Lu, Guanzhong; Schüth, Ferdi

    2008-11-01

    Mesoporous metal oxides and mixed oxides, such as NiO, CeO2, Cr2O3, Fe203, Mn2O3, NiFe2O4 and Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O2 (x=0.8 and 0.6) have been synthesized by nanocasting from mesoporous cubic (la3d) vinyl-functionalized silica (vinylsilica). Their structural properties were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2-sorption and Raman spectra. Thus-prepared mesoporous materials possess a high BET surface area (110-190 m2g(-1)), high pore volume (0.25-0.40 cm3g(-1)) and relatively ordered structures. The catalytic properties of Cr2O3 were tested in the oxidation of toluene. The mesoporous Cr2O3 exhibits unusually high catalytic activity in the complete oxidation of toluene as compared with commercial Cr2O3. PMID:19198284

  18. Unidirectional self-assembly of soft templated mesoporous carbons by zone annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiachen; Singh, Gurpreet; Qiang, Zhe; Karim, Alamgir; Vogt, Bryan D.

    2013-08-01

    Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing.Surfactant or block copolymer-templated mesoporous films have been extensively explored, but achieving mesostructure coherence and unidirectional orientation over macroscopic dimensions has remained quite challenging for these self-assembled systems. Here, we extend the concepts associated with zone refinement of crystalline materials to soft templated mesoporous carbon films based on the cooperative assembly of commercial non-ionic surfactants (block copolymers) and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) to provide macroscopic alignment of both cubic (FDU-16) and hexagonal (FDU-15) mesostructures. The average orientation of these mesophases is determined from rotation grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. For FDU-15 templated by Pluronic P123, the orientation factor for the zone-annealed film is 0.98 based on the average of the second Legendre polynomial, but this orientation deteriorates significantly during carbonization. Notably, a thermal stabilization step following zone annealing preserves the orientation of the mesostructure during carbonization. The orientation factor for an isotropic cubic structure (FDU-16 templated by Pluronic F127) is only 0.48 (based on the 111 reflection with incident angle 0.15°) for the same zone annealing protocol, but this illustrates the versatility of zone annealing to different mesostructures. Unexpectedly, zone annealing of FDU-15 templated by Pluronic F127 leads to stabilization of the mesostructure through carbonization, whereas this structure collapses fully during carbonization even after extended oven annealing; despite no clear macroscopic orientation of the cylindrical mesostructure from zone annealing. Thermal zone annealing provides a simple methodology to produce highly ordered and macroscopically oriented stable mesoporous carbon films, but the efficacy is strongly tied to the mobility of the template during the zone annealing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GISAXS profiles for the FDU-15-F127 at ? = 0° and ? = 90° is included along with 2D GISAXS data for all azimuthal data associated with FDU-15-P123 to illustrate th

  19. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2, manganese dioxide (MnO2, nickel oxides (NiO and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4, and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  20. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics industry is one of the world’s fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  1. Preparation and characterization of multifunctional magnetic mesoporous calcium silicate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Yufang; Li, Jie; Zhu, Min; Tao, Cuilian; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2013-10-01

    We have prepared multifunctional magnetic mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials using triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The effects of Fe substitution on the mesoporous structure, in vitro bioactivity, magnetic heating ability and drug delivery property of mesoporous CaSiO3 materials were investigated. Mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials had similar mesoporous channels (5-6 nm) with different Fe substitution. When 5 and 10% Fe were substituted for Ca in mesoporous CaSiO3 materials, mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials still showed good apatite-formation ability and had no cytotoxic effect on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells evaluated by the elution cell culture assay. On the other hand, mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials could generate heat to raise the temperature of the surrounding environment in an alternating magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic property. When we use gentamicin (GS) as a model drug, mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials release GS in a sustained manner. Therefore, magnetic mesoporous Fe-CaSiO3 materials would be a promising multifunctional platform with bone regeneration, local drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia.

  2. Preparation and characterization of multifunctional magnetic mesoporous calcium silicate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared multifunctional magnetic mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials using triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The effects of Fe substitution on the mesoporous structure, in vitro bioactivity, magnetic heating ability and drug delivery property of mesoporous CaSiO3 materials were investigated. Mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials had similar mesoporous channels (5–6 nm) with different Fe substitution. When 5 and 10% Fe were substituted for Ca in mesoporous CaSiO3 materials, mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials still showed good apatite-formation ability and had no cytotoxic effect on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells evaluated by the elution cell culture assay. On the other hand, mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials could generate heat to raise the temperature of the surrounding environment in an alternating magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic property. When we use gentamicin (GS) as a model drug, mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials release GS in a sustained manner. Therefore, magnetic mesoporous Fe–CaSiO3 materials would be a promising multifunctional platform with bone regeneration, local drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. (paper)

  3. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  4. Large-scale roll-to-roll fabrication of ordered mesoporous materials using resol-assisted cooperative assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhe; Guo, Yuanhao; Liu, Hao; Cheng, Stephen Z D; Cakmak, Miko; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2015-02-25

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing enables the rapid fabrication of large-area sheets of cooperatively assembled materials for production of mesoporous materials. Evaporation induced self-assembly of a nonionic surfactant (Pluronic F127) with sol-gel precursors and phenolic resin oligomers (resol) produce highly ordered mesostructures for a variety of chemistries including silica, titania, and tin oxide. The cast thick (>200 ?m) film can be easily delaminated from the carrier substrate (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) after cross-linking the resol to produce meter-long self-assembled sheets. The surface areas of these mesoporous materials range from 240 m(2)/g to >1650 m(2)/g with these areas for each material comparing favorably with prior reports in the literature. These R2R methods provide a facile route to the scalable production of kilograms of a wide variety of ordered mesoporous materials that have shown potential for a wide variety of applications with small-batch syntheses. PMID:25635350

  5. Resin polymerization problems--are they caused by resin curing lights, resin formulations, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R P; Palmer, T M; Ploeger, B J; Yost, M P

    1999-01-01

    Negative effects of rapid, high-intensity resin curing have been predicted for both argon lasers and plasma-arc curing lights. To address these questions, six different resin restorative materials were cured with 14 different resin curing lights representing differences in intensities ranging from 400 mW/cm2 to 1,900 mW/cm2; delivery modes using constant, ramped, and stepped methods; cure times ranging from 1 second to 40 seconds; and spot sizes of 6.7 mm to 10.9 mm. Two lasers, five plasma-arc lights, and seven halogen lights were used. Shrinkage, modulus, heat generation, strain, and physical changes on the teeth and resins during strain testing were documented. Results showed effects associated with lights were not statistically significant, but resin formulation was highly significant. Microfill resins had the least shrinkage and the lowest modulus. An autocure resin had shrinkage and modulus as high as or higher than the light-cured hybrid resins. Lasers and plasma-arc lights produced the highest heat increases on the surface (up to 21 degrees C) and within the resin restorations (up to 14 degrees C), and the halogen lights produced the most heat within the pulp chamber (up to 2 degrees C). Strain within the tooth was least with Heliomolar and greatest with Z100 Restorative and BISFIL II autocure resin. Clinical effects of strain relief were evident as white lines at the tooth-resin interface and cracks in enamel adjacent to the margins. This work implicates resin formulation, rather than light type or curing mode, as the important factor in polymerization problems. Lower light intensity and use of ramped and stepped curing modes did not provide significant lowering of shrinkage, modulus, or strain, and did not prevent enamel cracking adjacent to margins and formation of "white line" defects at the margins. Until materials with lower shrinkage and modulus are available, use of low-viscosity surface sealants as a final step in resin placement is suggested to seal defects. PMID:11908396

  6. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mörtz, Charlotte; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Veien, Niels Kren; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Bo Lasthein; Danielsen, Anne; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Axel Ove; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-01-01

    . Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  7. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  8. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  9. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Santos, Ribeiro; Cassilda Maria Lopes, Tavares; Miguel, Figueiredo; António Joaquim Mendes, Ferreira; António Augusto, Fernandes.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of t [...] ests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  10. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2005-01-01

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source. With this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al simil...

  11. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Supports for Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcar, Hynek; Cejka, Jirí

    Mesoporous molecular sieves represent a new family of inorganic oxides with regular nanostructure, large surface areas, large void volumes, and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores. These materials offer new possibilities for designing highly active and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization. Siliceous sieves MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, and organized mesoporous alumina (OMA) were used as supports for preparation of new molybdenum and rhenium oxide catalysts, as well as for heterogenization of well-defined homogeneous catalysts.

  12. Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Membranes for CO2 Separation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Ju Kim; Hee-Chul Yang; Dong-Yong Chung; In-Hwan Yang; Yun Jung Choi; Jei-kwon Moon

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica molecular sieves are emerging candidates for a number of potential applications involving adsorption and molecular transport due to their large surface areas, high pore volumes, and tunable pore sizes. Recently, several research groups have investigated the potential of functionalized mesoporous silica molecular sieves as advanced materials in separation devices, such as membranes. In particular, mesoporous silica with a two- or three-dimensional pore structure is one of the...

  13. Mesoporous zeolite and zeotype single crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Kustova, Marina; Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Zhu, Kake; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new mesoporous zeolite and zeotype materials made available by combining new and improved procedures for directly introducing carbon into reaction mixtures with the fluoride route for conventional zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels adsorbed on carbon matrices which were subsequently removed by combustion. The procedures presented here resulted in mesoporous zeolite and z...

  14. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  15. Concrete rehabilitation using epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de

    2010-01-01

    The use of polymeric materials in civil construction makes possible original bonding processes because they have good adhesion. In this paper the bond between fresh/hardened concrete was made using epoxy resins in aqueous solution. Also the incorporation of one filler in the epoxy resins was analyzed. This study had two phases. n the first were conducted two shear tests - slant and direct. In the second phase were produced concrete with different strength classes by varying the ratio W/C - 0....

  16. Phenolic resin-based porous carbons for adsorption and energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P.

    The main objective of this dissertation research is to develop phenolic resin based carbon materials for range of applications by soft-templating and Stober-like synthesis strategies. Applications Studied in this dissertation are adsorption of CO2, bio-molecular and heavy metal ions, and energy storage devices. Based on that, our goal is to design carbon materials with desired pore structure, high surface area, graphitic domains, incorporated metal nanoparticles, and specific organic groups and heteroatoms. In this dissertation the organic-organic self-assembly of phenolic resins and triblock copolymers under acidic conditions will be used to obtain mesoporous carbons/carbon composites and Stober-like synthesis involving phenolic resins under basic condition will be used to prepare polymer/carbon particles and their composites. The structure of this dissertation consists of an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) discussing the general synthesis of carbon materials, particularly the soft-templating strategy and Stober-like carbon synthesis. Also, Chapter 1 includes a brief outline of applications namely adsorption of CO2, biomolecule and heavy metal ions, and supercapacitors. Chapter 2 discusses the techniques used for characterization of the carbon materials studied. This chapter starts with nitrogen adsorption analysis, which is used to measure the specific surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore sizes, and pore width. In addition to nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and CHNS elemental analysis (EA) are mentioned too. Chapter 3 is focused on carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. There are different types of porous solid materials such as silicate, MOFs, carbons, and zeolites studied for CO2 adsorption. However, the carbon based materials are considered to be the best candidates for CO 2 adsorption to the industrial point of view. So far, carbons with high surface area and nitrogen content have been vastly studied. Also, there are several reports showing the importance of pore size towards CO2 adsorption at ambient conditions. In the case of nitrogen containing carbons, it was shown that the incorporation of nitrogen into carbon matrix is a challenging task. In chapter 3, we discussed how to improve the surface area and pore size distribution of phenolic resin-based carbons to obtain optimum CO 2 adsorption capacities at ambient conditions. The chemical and physical activation of polymer/carbon particles is used to generate necessary physical properties of the final carbons, which display unprecedented CO2 adsorption capacities at ambient conditions. Moreover, the modified Stober-like methods are used for the synthesis of nitrogen containing carbon particles. These facile synthesis methods afford highly porous nitrogen containing carbons with comparatively high CO2 adsorption capacities at ambient conditions. Chapter 4 begins with synthesis of ultra large mesoporous carbons using (ethylene oxide)38 (butylene oxide)46 (ethylene oxide) 38 triblock copolymer as a soft template and phenolic resins as the carbon precursors. Even though, there are many reports dealing with the synthesis of mesoporous silica with large pores for bio-molucular adsorption their high cost discourage them to use in industrial applications. However, cheap mesoporous carbons with large pores (>15 nm) are potential materials for bio-molecular adsorption on large scale. The first part of chapter 4 is demonstrates the synthesis of mesoporous carbons with ultra large pores for bio-molecular adsorption. Lysozyme was selected as a model biomolecule for adsorption processes. The second part of Chapter 4 is focused on functionalized polymer spheres for heavy metal ions adsorption. It is shown that the synthesis of functionalized polymer spheres can be achieved by using modified Stober method; the reacting spheres show very high Cu2+ ion adsorption capacities. Next, Chapter 5 is devoted to carbon materials for superca

  17. Metal ion adsorption using polyamine-functionalized mesoporous materials prepared from bromopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous silicas carrying di-, tri-, or penta-amine functional groups were prepared by prior functionalization of a mesoporous silica with bromopropyl-functional groups followed by nucleophilic displacement of the bromine atoms by ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, or tetraethylenepentamine, respectively. A synthetic method was developed that gave a starting material with very high surface coverage by the 3-brompropyl groups. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the capabilities of the prepared adsorbents for the removal of copper, zinc, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. The metal adsorption capacities for these metals were determined as a function of the polyamine group used and the total nitrogen content. The tendency to chemisorb divalent metal ions was found to follow the order: Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. It was found that the ethylenediamine derivative unexpectedly exhibited the highest capacities. The metal sorption by the ethylenediamine functionalized silica was found to follow first order kinetics with rate constants for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ uptake of 0.028, 0.019, and 0.014 min-1, respectively. The substituted mesoporous silicas showed high resistance to leaching of the grafted polyamine groups. Copper ions that were adsorbed at the surface of the mesoporous silicas can be recovered by washing with an aqueous solution of 1.0 M HNO3. The activities of the recovered mesoporous silicas were between 80 and 90% of the original materials.

  18. Catalyst-free synthesis of transparent, mesoporous diamond monoliths from periodic mesoporous carbon CMK-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States); Mohanty, Paritosh [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Coombs, Neil [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Fei, Yingwei [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States); Mao, Ho-kwang [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States); Landskrom, Kai [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2010-07-19

    We report on the synthesis of optically transparent, mesoporous, monolithic diamond from periodic mesoporous carbon CMK-8 at a pressure of 21 GPa. The phase transformation is already complete at a mild synthesis temperature of 1,300 °C without the need of a catalyst. Surprisingly, the diamond is obtained as a mesoporous material despite the extreme pressure. X-ray diffraction, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Z-contrast experiments suggest that the mesoporous diamond is composed of interconnected diamond nanocrystals having diameters around 5–10 nm. The Brunauer Emmett Teller surface area was determined to be 33 m2 g-1 according Kr sorption data. The mesostructure is diminished yet still detectable when the diamond is produced from CMK-8 at 1,600 °C and 21 GPa. The temperature dependence of the porosity indicates that the mesoporous diamond exists metastable and withstands transformation into a dense form at a significant rate due to its high kinetic inertness at the mild synthesis temperature. The findings point toward ultrahard porous materials with potential as mechanically highly stable membranes.

  19. Preparation of superhydrophilic mesoporous SiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a simple sol-gel/spin-coating method, mesoporous SiO2 thin films were prepared on glass slides. All of the prepared thin films were colorless and transparent as original glass substrates. XRD and TEM measurements revealed that the prepared SiO2 thin films coated 3-12 times possess hexagonal mesoporous structure. The mesoporous SiO2 thin films performed the superhydrophilicity and antifogging property in the absence of UV light irradiation. The results suggested that the appropriate film thickness and mesoporous structures can improve the surface superhydrophilic behavior of SiO2 thin films.

  20. Preparation of superhydrophilic mesoporous SiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiyi; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chaohai

    2012-03-01

    Using a simple sol-gel/spin-coating method, mesoporous SiO2 thin films were prepared on glass slides. All of the prepared thin films were colorless and transparent as original glass substrates. XRD and TEM measurements revealed that the prepared SiO2 thin films coated 3-12 times possess hexagonal mesoporous structure. The mesoporous SiO2 thin films performed the superhydrophilicity and antifogging property in the absence of UV light irradiation. The results suggested that the appropriate film thickness and mesoporous structures can improve the surface superhydrophilic behavior of SiO2 thin films.

  1. Aerosol-generated mesoporous silicon oxycarbide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol-generated mesoporous organosilica submicronic spheres have been converted into porous silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) glasses by pyrolysis at 1000 grad C in an inert atmosphere. Spherical mesoporous particles obtained from acidic solutions of 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl) ethane and Pluronic F127 structuring agent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, and multi nuclear solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR. These particles were then pyrolyzed at 1000 grad C and transformed into a SiCO phase as evidenced by 29Si MAS NMR, while TEM shows preserved mesoporosity, unfortunately difficult to access owing to the presence of an outer layer of dense silica. (authors)

  2. Curing of phenylethynl terminated resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The curing of two phenylethynyl terminated composite resins was investigated under thermal and γ-irradiation conditions. The resins, PETI5A and DFB/BPF have been specially developed by NASA for high temperature aerospace applications, and as such have been synthesised with a high degree of aromaticity and hence lack of aliphatic protons. The thermal curing occurs via the thermal decomposition of the resin to form radicals which initiate the addition polymerisation which proceeds through the ethynyl units. The decomposition processes at the cure temperature of 360 deg C lead to the formation of a very dark coloured resin. The radiation cured resin was significantly lighter in colour, indicating less degradation of the resin. In order to reduce the degree of thermal decomposition during polymerisation, γ- radiation induced cure was attempted at 300 deg C. The loss of ethynyl bonds was monitored for both the thermal and radiation induced curing with FT-Raman Spectroscopy and the formation of a polymer network was observed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The maximum Glass Transition Temperatures (Tg) for the resins was found to be 245 ± 2 deg C for DFB/BPF in 60 minutes and 360 ± 2 deg C for PETI5A in 100 minutes for thermal cure at 360 deg C. Similar values were observed after γ-irradiation to doses of approximately 40 kGy for DFB/BPF and 80 kGy for PETI5A when irradiated at 300 deg C. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) shows us that the thermal decomposition process is 100 times less apparent at 300 deg C than at 360 deg C

  3. Stimuli-Responsive Shapeshifting Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Sai, Hiroaki; Spoth, Katherine A; Tan, Kwan Wee; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Zwanziger, Josef; Gruner, Sol M; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2016-01-13

    Stimuli-responsive materials have attracted great interest in catalysis, sensing, and drug delivery applications and are typically constituted by soft components. We present a one-pot synthetic method for a type of inorganic silica-based shape change material that is responsive to water vapor exposure. After the wetting treatment, the cross-sectional shape of aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with hexagonal pore lattice changed from hexagonal to six-angle-star, accompanied by the loss of periodic mesostructural order. Nitrogen sorption measurements suggested that the wetting treatment induced a shrinkage of mesopores resulting in a broad size distribution and decreased mesopore volume. Solid-state (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of samples after wetting treatment displayed a higher degree of silica condensation, indicating that the shape change was associated with the formation of more siloxane bonds within the silica matrix. On the basis of material characterization results, a mechanism for the observed anisotropic shrinkage is suggested based on a buckling deformation induced by capillary forces in the presence of a threshold amount of water vapor available beyond a humidity of about 50%. The work presented here may open a path toward novel stimuli-responsive materials based on inorganic components. PMID:26669906

  4. Mesoporous metal catalysts formed by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeferhans, Jana; Pazos Perez, Nicolas; Andreeva, Daria [Physikalische Chemie II, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We study the ultrasound-driven formation of mesoporous metal sponges. The collapse of acoustic cavitations leads to very high temperatures and pressures on very short scales. Therefore, structures may be formed and quenched far from equilibrium. Mechanism of metal modification by ultrasound is complex and involves a variety of aspects. We propose that modification of metal particles and formation of mesoporous inner structures can be achieved due to thermal etching of metals by ultrasound stimulated high speed jets of liquid. Simultaneously, oxidation of metal surfaces by free radicals produced in water during cavitation stabilizes developed metal structures. Duration and intensity of the ultrasonication treatment is able to control the structure and morphology of metal sponges. We expect that this approach to the formation of nanoscale composite sponges is universal and opens perspective for a whole new class of catalytic materials that can be prepared in a one-step process. The developed method makes it possible to control the sponge morphology and can be used for formation of modern types of catalysts. For example, the sonication technique allows to combine the fabrication of mesoporous support and distribution of metal (Cu, Pd, Au, Pt etc.) nanoparticles in its pores into a single step.

  5. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Shelke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as a concrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc. Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitated from the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica contained in RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The results showed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size. Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usually contains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon already present in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  6. Immobilization of Methyltrioxorhenium on Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stekrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented report focuses on an in-depth detailed characterization of immobilized methyltrioxorhenium (MTO, giving catalysts with a wide spectra of utilization. The range of mesoporous materials with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratios, namely mesoporous alumina (MA, aluminosilicates type Siral (with Al content 60%–90% and MCM-41, were used as supports for immobilization of MTO. The tested support materials (aluminous/siliceous exhibited high surface area, well-defined regular structure and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores, and therefore represent excellent supports for the active components. Some of the supports were modified by zinc chloride in order to obtain catalysts with higher activities for instance in metathesis reactions. The immobilization of MTO was optimized using these supports and it was successful using all supports. The success of the immobilization of MTO and the properties of the prepared heterogeneous catalysts were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, physical adsorption of N2, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR using pyridine as a probe molecule and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the immobilized MTO on the tested supports was demonstrated on metathesis reactions of various substrates.

  7. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  8. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...peat, perlite, phenol formaldehyde, plastic particles...polystyrene, polyethylene, phenol formaldehyde, or ureaformaldehyde: ...polystyrene, polyethylene, phenol formaldehyde, ureaformaldehyde; ...Convention of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture...

  9. Protection of Organic Matter from Enzyme Degradation by Mineral Mesopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Chorover, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Mineral mesopores (2-50 nm diameter) may sequester organic matter (natural and pollutant) and protect it from microbial and fungal enzymatic degradation in soils and sediments. Synthetic mesoporous alumina and silica minerals with uniform pore sizes and shapes were used to test the role of mesopores in protecting organic matter from enzymatic degradation. A model humic compound, L-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), was sorbed to the internal surfaces of mesoporous alumina (8.2 nm diameter pores) and mesoporous silica (3.4 nm diameter pores) as well as to the external surfaces of nonporous alumina and silica analogues. A fungal derived enzyme, laccase, was added to these sorbate-sorbent pairs in aqueous solution and activity was monitored by oxygen consumption. Though enzyme activity was suppressed in both cases by mineral-enzyme interaction (enzyme inhibition likely due to adsorption of the enzyme), both the rate and total extent of enzyme-mediated degradation of mesopore-sorbed L-DOPA was 3-40 times lower than that of the externally-sorbed analogue. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the viability of the proposed mesopore protection mechanism for the sequestration and preservation of sedimentary organic matter and organic contaminants. Mesopore adsorption/desorption phenomena may also help explain the slow degradation of organic contaminants in soil and sediment and may prove useful as delivery vehicles for organic compounds to agricultural, medical or environmental systems.

  10. Mesoporous zeolite and zeotype single crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Kustova, Marina

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new mesoporous zeolite and zeotype materials made available by combining new and improved procedures for directly introducing carbon into reaction mixtures with the fluoride route for conventional zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels adsorbed on carbon matrices which were subsequently removed by combustion. The procedures presented here resulted in mesoporous zeolite and zeotypes materials with MFI, MEL, BEA, AFI and CHA framework structures. All samples were characterized by XRPD, SEM, TEM and N-2 physisorption measurements. For the zeolite materials it A as found that mesoporous MFI and MEL structured single crystals could indeed be crystallized from fluoride media using an improved carbon-templating approach. More importantly, it was found that mesoporous BEA-type single crystals could be crystallized from fluoride media by a newly developed procedure presented here. Thus, we here present the only known route to mesoporous BEA-type single crystals, since crystallization of this framework structure from basic media is known to give only nanosized crystals as opposed to mesoporous single crystals. For the zeotype materials it was found that highly crystalline mesoporous materials of AFI and CHA structure types could be synthesized using a newly developed procedure. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized synthesis of mesoporous shells on zeolite crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2010-12-30

    A simple and generalized synthetic approach is developed for creating mesoporous shells on zeolite crystals. This method allows for the tailoring of thickness, pore size, and composition of the mesoporous shell, and can be applied to zeolites of various structures, compositions, and crystal sizes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Aqueous colloidal mesoporous nanoparticles with ethenylene-bridged silsesquioxane frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Chihiro; Yamada, Hironori; Wakabayashi, Ryutaro; Aoyama, Yuko; Hirosawa, Shota; Arai, Satoshi; Takeoka, Shinji; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Aqueous colloidal mesoporous nanoparticles with ethenylene-bridged silsesquioxane frameworks with a uniform diameter of ?20 nm were prepared from bis(triethoxysilyl)ethenylene in a basic aqueous solution containing cationic surfactants. The nanoparticles, which had higher hydrolysis resistance under aqueous conditions, showed lower hemolytic activity toward bovine red blood cells than colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles. PMID:21539358

  13. OIL PALM TRUNK POLYMER COMPOSITE: MORPHOLOGY, WATER ABSORPTION, AND THICKNESS SWELLING BEHAVIOURS

    OpenAIRE

    C. K. Abdullah,; M. Jawaid,; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Zaidon,; A. Hadiyane

    2012-01-01

    In this research, impregnated oil palm trunks (OPT) and polymer composites were prepared from a combination of dried oil palm trunks with phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in different resin percentages using an impregnation method. Time of impregnation was a parameter used to control the percentage of resin content in the oil palm trunks. These studies investigated the effect of resin content and types of resin on the physical properties of impregnated OPT. Water abso...

  14. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarian Vernimmen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials.

  15. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii

    2005-01-01

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source. With this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All samples are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption measurements. The obtained zeolites combine the high crystallinity and the characteristic micropores of zeolites with an intracrystalline mesopore system having mesopore volumes varying between 0.37-0.40 cm(3)/g.

  16. Crystals in crystals : Nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion. As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals.

  17. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered mesoporous silica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Bhaumik; S Samanta; N K Mal

    2005-11-01

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by powder XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS, N2 adsorption, FT-IR and UV–visible spectroscopies. Characterization data indicated well-dispersed isolated nanoclusters of (Fe2O3)$_{n}$, within the internal surface of 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica structure. No occluded Fe/Fe2O3 crystallites were observed at the external surface of the mesoporous silica nanocomposites. Inorganic mesoporous host, such as hydrophilic silica in the pore walls, directs a physical constraint necessary to prevent the creation of large Fe2O3 agglomerates and enables the formation of nanosized Fe2O3 particles inside the mesopore.

  18. Biodegradation-tunable mesoporous silica nanorods for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Bum; Joo, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyunryung; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2015-05-01

    Mesoporous silica in the forms of micro- or nanoparticles showed great potentials in the field of controlled drug delivery. However, for precision control of drug release from mesoporous silica-based delivery systems, it is critical to control the rate of biodegradation. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate a simple and robust method to fabricate "biodegradation-tunable" mesoporous silica nanorods based on capillary wetting of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with an aqueous alkoxide precursor solution. The porosity and nanostructure of silica nanorods were conveniently controlled by adjusting the water/alkoxide molar ratio of precursor solutions, heat-treatment temperature, and Na addition. The porosity and biodegradation kinetics of the fabricated mesoporous nanorods were analyzed using N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, TGA, DTA, and XRD. Finally, the performance of the mesoporous silica nanorods as drug delivery carrier was demonstrated with initial burst and subsequent "zero-order" release of anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin. PMID:25746247

  19. Selectivity of ion exchangers in extracting cesium and rubidium from alkaline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkovnikova, L. A.; Kargov, S. I.; Gavlina, O. T.; Ivanov, V. A.; Al'tshuler, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the ion exchange selectivity of phenol-type sorbents based on phenol formaldehyde resins, products of condensation of diatomic phenols with formaldehyde, and crosslinked polymer based on C-phenyl[4]resorcinarene resin, for cesium and rubidium ions. It is shown that phenol formaldehyde sorbents are the ones most selective. The interaction of alkali metal cations with the anion of calix[4]arene is investigated via quantum-chemical modeling. It is shown that the selectivity toward cesium and rubidium ions in ion exchangers of the phenolic type is not due to specific interactions of ions with phenolic groups.

  20. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel; Pedersen, Maiken K; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The bulk-filling of deep, wide dental cavities is faster and easier than traditional incremental restoration. However, the extent of cure at the bottom of the restoration should be carefully examined in combination with the polymerization contraction and gap formation that occur during the...... restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1580 Polycarbonate resins. Polycarbonate... with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Polycarbonate resins are polyesters produced by: (1)...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of...

  5. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

  6. The development of chiral nematic mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joel A; Giese, Michael; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2014-04-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are obtained from the sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of bulk cellulose. The nanocrystals have diameters of ~5-15 nm and lengths of ~100-300 nm (depending on the cellulose source and hydrolysis conditions). This lightweight material has mostly been investigated to reinforce composites and polymers because it has remarkable strength that rivals carbon nanotubes. But CNCs have an additional, less explored property: they organize into a chiral nematic (historically referred to as cholesteric) liquid crystal in water. When dried into a thin solid film, the CNCs retain the helicoidal chiral nematic order and assemble into a layered structure where the CNCs have aligned orientation within each layer, and their orientation rotates through the stack with a characteristic pitch (repeating distance). The cholesteric ordering can act as a 1-D photonic structure, selectively reflecting circularly polarized light that has a wavelength nearly matching the pitch. During CNC self-assembly, it is possible to add sol-gel precursors, such as Si(OMe)4, that undergo hydrolysis and condensation as the solvent evaporates, leading to a chiral nematic silica/CNC composite material. Calcination of the material in air destroys the cellulose template, leaving a high surface area mesoporous silica film that has pore diameters of ~3-10 nm. Importantly, the silica is brilliantly iridescent because the pores in its interior replicate the chiral nematic structure. These films may be useful as optical filters, reflectors, and membranes. In this Account, we describe our recent research into mesoporous films with chiral nematic order. Taking advantage of the chiral nematic order and nanoscale of the CNC templates, new functional materials can be prepared. For example, heating the silica/CNC composites under an inert atmosphere followed by removal of the silica leaves highly ordered, mesoporous carbon films that can be used as supercapacitor electrodes. The composition of the mesoporous films can be varied by using assorted organosilica precursors. After removal of the cellulose by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, highly porous, iridescent organosilica films are obtained. These materials are flexible and offer the ability to tune the chemical and mechanical properties through variation of the organic spacer. Chiral nematic mesoporous silica and organosilica materials, obtainable as centimeter-scale freestanding films, are interesting hosts for nanomaterials. When noble metal nanoparticles are incorporated into the pores, they show strong circular dichroism signals associated with their surface plasmon resonances that arise from dipolar coupling of the particles within the chiral nematic host. Fluorescent conjugated polymers show induced circular dichroism spectra when encapsulated in the chiral nematic host. The porosity, film structure, and optical properties of these materials could enable their use in sensors. We describe the development of chiral nematic mesoporous silica and organosilica, demonstrate different avenues of host-guest chemistry, and identify future directions that exploit the unique combination of properties present in these materials. The examples covered in this Account demonstrate that there is a rich diversity of composite materials accessible using CNC templating. PMID:24694253

  7. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  8. Radiation crosslinked vinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blended composition comprising a vinyl chloride resin and a specific epoxy compound derived from a conjugated diene homopolymer and/or copolymer can advantageously be crosslinked by means of an ionizing radiation. Said epoxy compound is bonded with an ethylenically unsaturated organic acid having a double bond adjacent the carboxyl group to a part of the epoxy group of the epoxy compound

  9. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Carlo M., E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Corpino, Riccardo, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it; Chiriu, Daniele, E-mail: cm.carbonaro@dsf.unica.it [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, Campus of Monserrato, s.p. no 8, km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Cannas, Carla [Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Cagliari, Campus of Monserrato, s.p. no 8, km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  10. Oil absorption in mesoporous silica particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radislav Filipovi?

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica particles were prepared from highly basic sodium silicate solutions, having different silica modulus and SiO2 concentrations, by adding sulphuric acid at different temperatures. Pore structure of prepared silica particles (aggregates is strongly influenced by processing conditions and easy controllable in broad range of the specific surface area, pore size, pore volume and size distribution. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between volume of absorbed oil and processing parameters used in preparation of silica aggregates. Thus, oil absorption is higher in the samples prepared from sodium silicate solution with higher SiO2 concentration and at higher synthesis temperature.

  11. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory

  12. Ordered mesoporous silica-based inorganic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles and nanowires grown in ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS). Summarizing work performed over the last 4 years, this article highlights the material properties of the final nanocomposite in the context of the synthesis methodology employed. While certain metal-OMS systems (e.g. gold in MCM-41) have been extensively studied this article highlights that there is a rich set of chemistries that have yet to be explored. The article concludes with some thoughts on future developments and challenges in this area. - Graphical abstract: HAADF TEM image of gold nanoparticles in amine-functionalized MCM-41 (from Ref. [22])

  13. Mesoporous zeolite and zeotype single crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Kustova, Marina; Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Zhu, Kake; Christensen, Claus H.

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new mesoporous zeolite and zeotype materials made available by combining new and improved procedures for directly introducing carbon into reaction mixtures with the fluoride route for conventional zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous materi...... opposed to mesoporous single crystals. For the zeotype materials it was found that highly crystalline mesoporous materials of AFI and CHA structure types could be synthesized using a newly developed procedure. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of new mesoporous zeolite and zeotype materials made available by combining new and improved procedures for directly introducing carbon into reaction mixtures with the fluoride route for conventional zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous...... materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels adsorbed on carbon matrices which were subsequently removed by combustion. The procedures presented here resulted in mesoporous zeolite and zeotypes materials with MFI, MEL, BEA, AFI and CHA framework structures. All samples were...

  14. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft=ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties. - Graphical abstract: Loading (A) and release profiles (B) of aspirin in N-BMMs and N-MCM-41 indicated that BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that MCM-41. Highlights: ? Bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) and MCM-41 modified with amino group via post-treatment procedure. ? Loading and release profiles of aspirin in modified BMMs and MCM-41. ? Modified BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that modified MCM-41.

  15. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m3 (6,000 ft3) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  16. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  17. Recovery of platinum, tin and indium from spent catalysts in chloride medium using strong basic anion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Roberta Santos; Silva, Cristiano Nunes da [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, room A509, 21941-909, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Afonso, Julio Carlos, E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, room A509, 21941-909, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Department of Chemistry and Nuclear Materials, Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, 21941-906, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Ramos Brazil (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Platinum, tin and indium recoveries from spent reforming catalysts. {yields} Adsorption of metal chlorocomplexes on strongly basic anion-exchange resins. {yields} Sequential desorption via elution with reducing (Pt, Sn) or complexing (In) agents. {yields} The elements were recovered in very high yields. {yields} The anion-exchange resins can be reused. - Abstract: This work describes a route for platinum recovery from spent commercial Pt and PtSnIn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts using strong basic mesoporous and macroporous anion exchange resins (Cl{sup -} form). The catalysts were leached with aqua regia (75 {sup o}C, 20-25 min). Platinum adsorption was influenced by the presence of other metals which form chlorocomplexes (tin, indium) and also base metals (aluminum). However, it was possible to overcome this fact by a sequential desorption procedure. Aluminum was selectively removed from the resins by elution with 3 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Platinum was desorbed passing 1 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} (pH 9). Tin was removed by elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} ascorbic acid. Indium was removed using 0.1 mol L{sup -1} EDTA as eluent. Desorption efficiency exceeded 99% for all metals. Metals were recovered in high yields (>98 wt%).

  18. Recovery of platinum, tin and indium from spent catalysts in chloride medium using strong basic anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Platinum, tin and indium recoveries from spent reforming catalysts. → Adsorption of metal chlorocomplexes on strongly basic anion-exchange resins. → Sequential desorption via elution with reducing (Pt, Sn) or complexing (In) agents. → The elements were recovered in very high yields. → The anion-exchange resins can be reused. - Abstract: This work describes a route for platinum recovery from spent commercial Pt and PtSnIn/Al2O3 catalysts using strong basic mesoporous and macroporous anion exchange resins (Cl- form). The catalysts were leached with aqua regia (75 oC, 20-25 min). Platinum adsorption was influenced by the presence of other metals which form chlorocomplexes (tin, indium) and also base metals (aluminum). However, it was possible to overcome this fact by a sequential desorption procedure. Aluminum was selectively removed from the resins by elution with 3 mol L-1 HCl. Platinum was desorbed passing 1 mol L-1 Na2S2O3 (pH 9). Tin was removed by elution with 0.1 mol L-1 ascorbic acid. Indium was removed using 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA as eluent. Desorption efficiency exceeded 99% for all metals. Metals were recovered in high yields (>98 wt%).

  19. Smart Mesoporous Nanomaterials for Antitumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martínez-Carmona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanomaterials for the treatment of solid tumours is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community. Among them, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs exhibit unique features that make them suitable nanocarriers to host, transport and protect drug molecules until the target is reached. It is possible to incorporate different targeting ligands to the outermost surface of MSNs to selectively drive the drugs to the tumour tissues. To prevent the premature release of the cargo entrapped in the mesopores, it is feasible to cap the pore entrances using stimuli-responsive nanogates. Therefore, upon exposure to internal (pH, enzymes, glutathione, etc. or external (temperature, light, magnetic field, etc. stimuli, the pore opening takes place and the release of the entrapped cargo occurs. These smart MSNs are capable of selectively reaching and accumulating at the target tissue and releasing the entrapped drug in a specific and controlled fashion, constituting a promising alternative to conventional chemotherapy, which is typically associated with undesired side effects. In this review, we overview the recent advances reported by the scientific community in developing MSNs for antitumor therapy. We highlight the possibility to design multifunctional nanosystems using different therapeutic approaches aimed at increasing the efficacy of the antitumor treatment.

  20. Silylation and metalation of periodic mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschner, Thomas Christian

    2011-07-01

    Surface functionalization via silylation or SOMC (Surface Organometallic Chemistry) is a prosperous field for producing organic-inorganic hybrid materials. These concepts are proven by numerous applications in various topical areas like catalysis, chromatography, adsorption processes, as well as gas sensing and storage. The combination of a thermally stable high surface area inorganic host and a reactive surface chemistry which allows the control of dispersion of the surface species and fine tuning of the properties of the subsequent hybrid material is an endeavour especially in heterogeneous catalysis. The subgroup of cage-like PMS (Periodic Mesoporous Silica) materials comprising of SBA-1, SBA-2, SBA-6, SBA-I6 or KIT-5 are currently attractive candidates for designing size and shape selective catalysts. (Silyl)amides enjoy great popularity in (surface) organometallic chemistry because most of the metals of the periodic table form stable complexes with these ligands. Chapter A gives a brief summary of microporous and mesoporous materials in general and introduces compendiously possible surface modifications with special emphasis on silylation. In addition an overview of metal (silyl)amides[et]porous and metal (silyl)amides[et]nonporous support is presented. Chapter C deals with the summary of the main results placing emphasis on: distinct reactivity of various silylation reagents; distinct reactivity of metal (silyl)amides of the elements Mg, Ti, and Fe; o occurrence of any size effects; feasibility of consecutive intrapore chemistry. (Author)

  1. Morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbons for high capacity lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Joerg David

    2011-06-07

    The focus of this thesis concerns the morphology control of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials. Ordered mesoporous carbons with diverse morphologies, that are thin films, fibers - embedded in anodic alumina membranes and free-standing - or spherical nanoparticles, have been successfully prepared by soft-templating procedures. The mechanisms of structure formation and processing were investigated with in-situ SAXS measurements and their application in high capacity lithium-sulfur batteries was successfully tested in cooperation with Guang He and Linda Nazar from the University of Waterloo in Canada. The Li-S batteries receive increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density which is 3 to 5 times higher than from lithium-ion batteries. For this type of battery the specific pore volume is crucial for the content of the active component (sulfur) in the cathode and therefore correlates with the capacity and gravimetric energy density of the battery. At first, mesoporous thin films with 2D-hexagonal structure were obtained through organic-organic self-assembly of a preformed oligomeric resol precursor and the triblock copolymer template Pluronic P123. The formation of a condensed-wall material through thermopolymerization of the precursor oligomers resulted in mesostructured phenolic resin films. Subsequent decomposition of the surfactant and partial carbonization were achieved through thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. The films were crack-free with tunable homogenous thicknesses, and showed either 2D-hexagonal or lamellar mesostructure. An additional, yet unknown 3D-mesostructure was also found. In the second part, cubic and circular hexagonal mesoporous carbon phases in the confined environment of tubular anodic alumina membrane (AAM) pores were obtained by self-assembly of the mentioned resol precursor and the triblock copolymer templates Pluronic F127 or P123, respectively. Casting and solvent-evaporation were also followed by thermopolymerization, thermal decomposition of the surfactant and carbonization through thermal treatment at temperatures up to 1000 C in an inert atmosphere. For both structures the AAM pores were completely filled and no shrinkage was observed, due to strong adhesion of the carbon wall material to the AAM pore walls. As a consequence of this restricted shrinkage effect, the mesophase system stayed almost constant even after thermal treatment at 1000 C, and pore sizes of up to 20 nm were obtained. In the third part, the aforementioned mesoporous films and embedded fibers in AAMs were further investigated concerning structure formation and carbonization in an in-situ SAXS study. The in-situ measurements revealed that for both systems the structure formation occurs during the thermopolymerization step. Therefore the process of structure formation differs significantly from the known evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) and may rather be viewed as thermally-induced self-assembly. As a result, the structural evolution strongly depends on the chosen temperature, which controls both the rate of the mesostructure formation and the spatial dimensions of the resulting mesophase. In the fourth part the syntheses recipes for AAMs were applied on a presynthesized silica template for synthesis of freestanding mesoporous carbon nanofibers. The syntheses start with casting of carbon nanofibers with a silica precursor solution leading to a porous silica template after calcination with tubular pores mimicking the initial carbon nanofibers. A synthesis concept using triconstituent coassembly of resol, tetraethylorthosilicate as additional silica precursor and Pluronic F127 was applied here. The silica from the additional precursor was found to be beneficial, due to reduced shrinkage and created additional porosity after etching it. Those OMC nanofibers therefore exhibited a very large surface area and a high pore volume of 2486 m{sup 2}/g and 2.06 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. Due to their extremely high porosity values, those fibers were successfully applied as sulfur host and electrode material in lithium-sulfur batteries. The fifth and last part focuses on the synthesis of spherical mesoporous carbon nanoparticles. Therefore the triconstituent coassembly was applied on a silica template with spherical pores, which was derived from the opal structure of colloidal crystals made from 400 nm PMMA spheres. The spherical ordered mesoporous carbon nanoparticles feature extremely high inner porosity of 2.32 cm{sup 3}/g and 2445 m{sup 2}/g, respectively They were successfully applied as cathode material in Li-S batteries, where they showed high reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh/g and good cycle efficiency. The final product consists of spherical mesoporous carbon particles with a diameter of around 300 nm and 2D-hexagonal porosity. The particles could be completely separated by sonification to form stable colloidal suspensions. This could be the base for further applications such drug delivery.

  2. Comparison of marginal adaptation between a monoincremental resin with sonic activation and a conventional resin.

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Villa; Rosemarie Meier; Patricio Ruiz; Diego Halabí

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine differences in marginal adaptation between a conventional composite resin and a monoincremental resin with sonic activation. Materials and methods: 32 composite resin discs of 2.5mm in diameter and 2mm thick were fabricated in a propylene matrix and distributed in 2 groups of 16 samples each. Groups 1 FiltekTMZ350XT resin; Group 2 SonicFillTM resin with sonic activation. The gap generated between the resin and the matrix as a result of the polymerization shrinkage was analyz...

  3. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the...... of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  4. Core/shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with radially oriented wide mesopores

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Ž. Kneževi?

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles, containing magnetic iron-oxide (maghemite) core and mesoporous shell with radial porous structure, were prepared by dispersing magnetite nanoparticles and adding tetraethylorthosilicate to a basic aqueous solution containing structure-templating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and a pore-swelling mesithylene. The material is characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, nitrogen sorption and powder X-ray di?raction. Distinctive features of the prepared material are its high s...

  5. Reinforcement of Denture Base Resins

    OpenAIRE

    T Nejatiant; J Van Noortr

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: PMMA has been the most popular denture base material because of its advantages including good aesthetics, accurate fit, stability in the oral environment, easy laboratory and clinical manipulation and inexpensive equipments since the 1930’s. However, its fracture resistance is not satisfactory. Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the fracture resistance of denture bases made of PMMA by assessing the effect of resin type, packing and processing variables on biaxial flexural ...

  6. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos; Tavares Cassilda Maria Lopes; Figueiredo Miguel; Ferreira António Joaquim Mendes; Fernandes António Augusto

    2003-01-01

    In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodolog...

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  8. Thermally stable crystalline mesoporous metal oxides with substantially uniform pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Ulrich; Orilall, Mahendra Christopher; Lee, Jinwoo; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2015-01-27

    Highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites, as precursors to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, are coated with a layer of amorphous carbon. Using a `one-pot` method, highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites are converted to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, having highly crystalline mesopore walls, without causing the concomitant collapse of the mesostructure. The `one-pot` method uses block copolymers with an sp or sp 2 hybridized carbon containing hydrophobic block as structure directing agents which converts to a sturdy, amorphous carbon material under appropriate heating conditions, providing an in-situ rigid support which maintains the pores of the oxides intact while crystallizing at temperatures as high as 1000 deg C. A highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composite can be heated to produce a thermally stable mesoporous metal oxide consisting of a single polymorph.

  9. BITEMPLATE SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICAS WITH THIOUREA GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Gona

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas with the thiourea functional group ?Si(CH23NHC(SNHC2H5 have been synthesized by monotemplate and bitemplate route (bitemplate is cetylpyridinium chloride as micelle-forming surfactant and monoethanolamide of saturated n-aliphatic acid as non-micelle-forming surfactant. The infl uence of a number of factors on mesoporous silicas structure has been studied: alkoxysilanes and surfactants concentration, and as well as the nature of medium in hydrothermal treatment of mesophases. The optimum conditions under which functionalized mesoporous silicas have possessing highly ordered hexagonal structure have been found. The surface area of mesoporous silicas synthesized using optimum bitemplate solubilization composition reaches 1055-1350 m2/g and sorption volume and pore diameter are 0.75-0.95 cm3/g and 2.5-2.9 nm respectively.

  10. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard, E-mail: richard.ares@usherbrooke.ca [Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Korinek, Andreas [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  11. Adsorption and Diffusion of Xylene Isomers on Mesoporous Beta Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Aixia Song; Jinghong Ma; Duo Xu; Ruifeng Li

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and detailed analysis of adsorption and diffusion properties of xylene isomers over Beta zeolites with different mesoporosity was conducted. Adsorption isotherms of xylene isomers over microporous and mesoporous Beta zeolites through gravimetric methods were applied to investigate the impact of mesopores inside Beta zeolites on the adsorption properties of xylene isomers in the pressure range of lower 20 mbar. It is seen that the adsorption isotherms of three xylene isomers over ...

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, DAN; Zeng, Chao; Tang, Haolin; Zheng, Dong; Li, Rong; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Lei, Jiahen; Xiao, Liang; Qu, Deyang

    2014-01-01

    A highly ordered mesoporous carbon (HOMC) has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. Active carbon impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon (HOMC) ...

  13. Mesoporous carbons as low temperature fuel cell platinum catalyst supports

    OpenAIRE

    GHIOTTI, Giovanna; MANZOLI, Maela

    2008-01-01

    Platinum catalysts supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) are described. The mesoporous carbon support, CMK3 type, was synthesised as an inverse replica of a SBA-15 silica template. The platinum catalysts (i.e. Pt 20 wt% and Pt 10 wt%, respectively), obtained through a conventional wet impregnation method, have been investigated to determine their structural characteristics and electrochemical behaviour. The electro-catalytic performance towards the oxygen reduc...

  14. Mesoporous zeolite single crystals for catalytic hydrocarbon conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I.; Christensen, C.H.; Hasselriis, Peter; Kustova, Marina; Nielsen, Michael Brorson; Dahl, Søren; Johannsen, K.; Christensen, Claus H.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, mesoporous zeolite single crystals were discovered. They constitute a novel family of materials that features a combined micropore and mesopore architecture within each individual crystal. Here, we briefly summarize recent catalytic results from cracking and isomerization of alkalies, alkylation of aromatics and present new results on isomerization of aromatics. Specifically, the shape-selective isomerization of meta-xylenc into para-xylene and ortho-xylene is studied. In all these rea...

  15. Synthesis of self-assembled photosensitive molecules in mesoporous silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Itaru; Zhou, H.-S.

    1997-02-01

    Self-assembled functional molecules in mesoporous materials are synthesized directly either by co-assembly of dye-bound surfactant of ferrocenyl TMA with silicate or Pc (phthalocyanine) molecules doped in the C16TMA micelles with oxides framework such as V2O5, MoO3, WO3 and SiO2. The process provides well-organized molecular doped mesoporous structure by direct and simple procedure.

  16. Solar hydrogen and solar electricity using mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Luther

    The development of cost-effective materials for effective utilization of solar energy is a major challenge for solving the energy problems that face the world. This thesis work relates to the development of mesoporous materials for solar energy applications in the areas of photocatalytic water splitting and the generation of electricity. Mesoporous materials were employed throughout the studies because of their favorable physico-chemical properties such as high surface areas and large porosities. The first project was related to the use of a cubic periodic mesoporous material, MCM-48. The studies showed that chromium loading directly affected the phase of mesoporous silica formed. Furthermore, within the cubic MCM-48 structure, the loading of polychromate species determined the concentration of solar hydrogen produced. In an effort to determine the potential of mesoporous materials, titanium dioxide was prepared using the Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) synthetic method. The aging period directly determined the amount of various phases of titanium dioxide. This method was extended for the preparation of cobalt doped titanium dioxide for solar simulated hydrogen evolution. In another study, metal doped systems were synthesized using the EISA procedure and rhodamine B (RhB) dye sensitized and metal doped titania mesoporous materials were evaluated for visible light hydrogen evolution. The final study employed various mesoporous titanium dioxide materials for N719 dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) materials for photovoltaic applications. The materials were extensively characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, chemisorption, photoluminescence (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, photoelectrochemical measurements were completed using current-voltage (I-V) curves, external quantum efficiency (EQE) curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and transient spectroscopy. The thesis work presented provides a better understanding of the role of mesoporous materials for solar hydrogen and solar electricity production.

  17. Perspectives of micro/mesoporous composites in catalysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ejka, Ji?í; Mintova, S.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 4 (2007), s. 457-509. ISSN 0161-4940 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/05/0197; GA ?R GA104/05/0192; GA AV ?R 1QS400400560; GA AV ?R 1ET400400413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : micro/mesoporous composite * zeolites * mesoporous molecular sieves * synthesis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.333, year: 2007

  18. Characterization and adsorptive application of ordered mesoporous silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockmann, Rico [Wilhelm Ostwald Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Leipzig, 2 Linnestrasse, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kalies, Grit [Wilhelm Ostwald Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Leipzig, 2 Linnestrasse, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: kalies@uni-leipzig.de

    2007-04-30

    The adsorption behaviour of the n-octane/ethanol binary liquid mixture has been studied on ordered mesoporous silica materials. Adsorption excesses on SBA-15, SBA-16 and MCM-48 solids are measured and described by mathematical functions. The experimental adsorption excess isotherms are presented and discussed. The mesoporous silicas used for liquid-adsorption experiments are characterized by nitrogen adsorption before and after liquid adsorption by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by the sample controlled thermal analysis (SCTA)

  19. BITEMPLATE SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICAS WITH THIOUREA GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Gona; N. V. Stolyarchuk; Zub, Yu L.; N. A. Yaroshenko

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas with the thiourea functional group ?Si(CH2)3NHC(S)NHC2H5 have been synthesized by monotemplate and bitemplate route (bitemplate is cetylpyridinium chloride as micelle-forming surfactant and monoethanolamide of saturated n-aliphatic acid as non-micelle-forming surfactant). The infl uence of a number of factors on mesoporous silicas structure has been studied: alkoxysilanes and surfactants concentration, and as well as the nature of medium in hydrothermal treatment of mesopha...

  20. Reinforcement of Denture Base Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nejatiant

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: PMMA has been the most popular denture base material because of its advantages including good aesthetics, accurate fit, stability in the oral environment, easy laboratory and clinical manipulation and inexpensive equipments since the 1930’s. However, its fracture resistance is not satisfactory. Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the fracture resistance of denture bases made of PMMA by assessing the effect of resin type, packing and processing variables on biaxial flexural strength (BFS. Materials & methods: 930 discs, 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were prepared with the following variables: a. Veined (V and Plain (P PMMA. b. 5 different powder/liquid ratios by volume (1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 3.5:1. c. Conventional (C and Injection packing methods (I. d. Dry heat (D Water bath (W; and e. different curing times. The discs were trimmed and stored in 37°C tap water for 50 hours before carrying out BFS test, according to BS EN ISO 1567: 2001. BFS test was carried out using a tensile-testing machine (Lloyd LRX, Lloyd instruments Ltd (Figure.1 b, with a x-head speed of 1mm/min. ONE-WAY ANOVA analysis and TUKEY’S comparison were carried out (MINITAB. The temperature within the curing baths and inside of curing resin was evaluated by using a thermocouple. Results: BFS of Powder/liquid ratio of 1.5:1 is significantly lower than the other four ratios. Among the last four ratios, 2.5:1 was the strongest one although the difference was not significant. BFS of the plain type of PMMA is significantly higher than the veined type.• BFS of conventionally packed PMMA discs was greater than the injectional packed ones and the difference is significant. Water bath cured resin showed a significant higher BFS compared with dry heat curing. • Changing the curing time in the dry heat bath from 7h @ 75º C and 2hrs @ 95º C to 5hrs @ 75º C and 3hrs @ 95º C and then 2hrs @ 95º C improves BFS of PMMA. In the water bath the trend is identical although the difference is not significant. Analysis of the temperature climb and hold within the curing bathes showed a consistent performance with the water bath irrespective the number of the flasks being cured. Meanwhile, the dry heat bath showed very inconsistent results. Conclusion: 1. Type of resin, packing procedure and processing variables can have major effect on BFS of PMMA. 2. Using plain resin, conventional packing, water bath curing with two hours at 95 ºC are recommended conditions.

  1. Progress on the Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica-based Nanotheranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Jian-Lin, CHEN Yu, CHEN Hang-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mesoporous nano-biomaterials have broad application potentials in molecular imaging, targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and non-invasive surgical therapy, etc., which are of great significance in the early diagnosis and efficient therapy of serious diseases such as cancer. This article reviews the most recent research advances and outlooks future development trends of mesoporous nanotheranostics based on clinical requirements, the principle of nano-synthetic chemistry and the design strategy of multifunctional mesoporous nano-biomaterials, by combining the recent achievements of our group. By integrating various functions into mesoporous silica nanoparticles to endow them with special capabilities, the mesoporous nanotheranostics could act as the contrast agents for clinical molecular imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescent imaging and the combinations of various imaging modalities, as well as the carriers for the encapsulation and delivery of drugs for the therapy of diseases (chemotherapy, gene therapy, photodynamic therapy and non-invasive surgical therapy. With the development of bio-nanotechnology and nano-synthetic chemistry, mesoporous nanotheranostics are expected to satisfy the clinical requirements following the systematic investigation of their biological effects and bio-safety, and finally find their applications in clinical practices to benefit human beings.

  2. Ultrasound-driven design of new mesoporous metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeferhans, Jana; Pazos Perez, Nicolas; Andreeva, Daria [Physikalische Chemie II, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Skorb, Ekaterina [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kolloid- und Grenzflaechenforschung, Golm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous metal nanocomposites were formed by a ''green chemistry'' method with ultrasound irradiation. The sonication technique combines the fabrication of a mesoporous support consisting of metallic particles (Al, Mg) several tens of micrometers in size and the subsequent incorporation of metal (Ag, Au, Pt etc.) nanoparticles into its pores. Next to filling the mesoporous support with particles we are also able to form mesoporous alloys e.g. AlNi or CoAlFe. The resulting material is analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method. Surface areas up to 200 m{sup 2}/g with a narrow pore size distribution around 3 nm can be achieved. The mesoporous structures are analyzed by confocal light microscopy after coloring the particles with dye. We explain the formation of the mesoporous inner structures by the following mechanism: Thermal etching and recrystallization of metals by ultrasound-stimulated high-speed jets of liquid form the porous structure that is stabilized by surface oxidation through free radicals generated during cavitation. We expect this approach to be universal and opening perspectives for a whole new class of catalytic materials that can be prepared in a fairly easy and cost effective way.

  3. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  4. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Nagem Filho; Haline Drumond Nagem; Paulo Afonso Silveira Francisconi; Eduardo Batista Franco; Rafael Francisco de Lia Mondelli; Kennedy Queiroz Coutinho

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  5. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  6. CALORIFIC APPRECIATION OF SOME RESINOUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel LUNGULEASA; Tatiana DOBREV; Adriana FOTIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show some results about using the resinous species as fuels. Some calorific features to characterize the biomass resulting from resinous trees are considered, namely the net and gross calorific value, burning speed, calorific density and combustion speed. The moisture content of biomass is identified as the main factor of calorific influence. All results come to confirm the ability of resinous biomass to be used as fuel. As resulted from the experiments, the bio...

  7. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  8. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh K Gupta; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies h...

  9. Electrosynthesis of Epoxy Resins via Superoxide Anion

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Mathur; Meeta Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy resins are a class of reactive pre polymers and polymers which contain epoxide groups. Inspite of their high costs the epoxy resins find many important applications. The resins are used in both molding and laminating technique for making glass fiber-reinforced articles which are having better mechanical strength chemical resistance and electrical insulating properties. They also use in casting, potting encapsulating and embedment in the electrical and tooling industries. The general imp...

  10. (129)Xe NMR of Mesoporous Silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Asink, R.A.; Kneller, J.M.; Pietrass, T.

    1999-04-23

    The porosities of three mesoporous silica materials were characterized with {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy. The materials were synthesized by a sol-gel process with r = 0, 25, and 70% methanol by weight in an aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solution. Temperature dependent chemical shifts and spin lattice relaxation times reveal that xenon does not penetrate the pores of the largely disordered (r= 70%) silica. For both r = 0 and 25%, temperature dependent resonances corresponding to physisorbed xenon were observed. An additional resonance for the r = 25% sample was attributed to xenon between the disordered cylindrical pores. 2D NMR exchange experiments corroborate the spin lattice relaxation data which show that xenon is in rapid exchange between the adsorbed and the gas phase.

  11. Solid superacid catalysts based on mesoporous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Kim, A.Y.; Wang, L.Q.; Li, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Solid acid catalysts are sought to replace homogeneous mineral acids for many industrially important reactions. Homogeneous acids present both environmental and operational problems. Novel solid acid catalysts, sulfated zirconia and supported tungstophosphoric acid, have been prepared based on mesioporous supports. The advantages of mesoporous supports include high surface area, adjustable pore size, narrow pore size distribution, and large pore volume. These characteristics allow the design and preparation of novel catalysts with improved shape selectivity and thermal stability. Synthesized catalysts were characterized by gas adsorption, TEM, DTA/TGA, XRD, solid state NMR, FTIR, and temperature programmed desorption. Activity and selectivity were tested for alkylation and isomerization reactions. Effects of pore size on acid strength and distribution, reaction kinetics, product selectivity, and coking were investigated.

  12. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu+4 to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO3)6-2. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO3. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  13. Flexible heat resistant neutron shielding resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M., E-mail: morioka.atsuhiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-machi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Anayama, Yoshimasa [Neo-Tech R and D, 6-6-1, Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0061 (Japan); Okuno, Koichi, E-mail: okunok@hazama.co.jp [Hazama Technical Research Institute, 515-1 Karima, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0822 (Japan); Sakurai, Shinji, E-mail: sakurai.shinji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-machi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kaminaga, Atsushi, E-mail: kaminaga.atsushi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-machi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    A flexible heat resistant neutron shielding material has been developed, which consists of polymer resin with 1 wt% boron. The neutron shielding performance of the developed resin, examined by the {sup 252}Cf neutron source, is almost the same as that of the polyethylene. The outgas of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO and CO{sub 2} from the resin have been measured at {approx}250 deg. C environment. The resin will be applied around the port of the vacuum vessel as an additional shielding material and reduce the neutron streaming from a superconducting tokamak device such as JT-60SA.

  14. Flexible heat resistant neutron shielding resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M.; Anayama, Yoshimasa; Okuno, Koichi; Sakurai, Shinji; Kaminaga, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A flexible heat resistant neutron shielding material has been developed, which consists of polymer resin with 1 wt% boron. The neutron shielding performance of the developed resin, examined by the 252Cf neutron source, is almost the same as that of the polyethylene. The outgas of H 2, H 2O, CO and CO 2 from the resin have been measured at ˜250 °C environment. The resin will be applied around the port of the vacuum vessel as an additional shielding material and reduce the neutron streaming from a superconducting tokamak device such as JT-60SA.

  15. Flexible heat resistant neutron shielding resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible heat resistant neutron shielding material has been developed, which consists of polymer resin with 1 wt% boron. The neutron shielding performance of the developed resin, examined by the 252Cf neutron source, is almost the same as that of the polyethylene. The outgas of H2, H2O, CO and CO2 from the resin have been measured at ?250 deg. C environment. The resin will be applied around the port of the vacuum vessel as an additional shielding material and reduce the neutron streaming from a superconducting tokamak device such as JT-60SA.

  16. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  17. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and...

  18. Enhanced retention of aqueous transition metals in mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Bargar, J.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    Mesoporosity (2-50 nm diameter pores) is abundant within grain coatings and primary silicate minerals in natural environments. Mesopores often contribute significantly to total specific surface area and act as gateways for the transport of subsurface solutes, including nutrients and contaminants, between mineral surfaces and ambient fluids. However, the physiochemical mechanisms of sorption and transport within mesopores cannot be assumed to be the same as for macropores (>50 nm), because of confinement-induced changes in water properties, the structure of electrical double layers, solvation shells and dehydration rates of aquo ions, and the charge and reactive site densities of mineral surfaces. Despite the ubiquity of confined spaces in natural and industrial porous media, few studies have examined the molecular-scale mechanisms and geochemical reactions controlling meso-confinement phenomena in environmentally relevant materials. We conducted batch Zn sorption experiments using synthetic, controlled pore-size (i.e., 7.5-300 nm), metal-oxide beads as model geologic substrates. Comparison of Zn adsorbed onto macroporous and mesoporous silica beads indicates Zn adsorption capacity is increased in mesopores when normalized to surface area. In the presence of a background electrolyte (i.e., NaCl), Zn sorption capacity to macroporous silica is reduced; however, no significant difference in Zn sorption capacity on mesoporous silica was observed between the presence and absence of a background electrolyte. The effect of competing cations is indirect evidence that mesopores promote inner-sphere complexation and reduce outer-sphere complexation. EXAFS characterization of adsorbed zinc to macroporous silica matches that reported for low Zn coverages on silica (Roberts et al., JCIS, 2003), whereas a different spectrum is observed for the mesoporous case. Shell-by-shell fitting indicates that Zn is dominantly in octahedral coordination in macropores, as opposed to tetrahedral coordination in mesopores. The difference in Zn coordination may be the result of complexation at different surface sites and/or the precipitation of a zinc silicate in mesopores. Confinement effects within mesopores represent an emerging frontier in aqueous geochemistry, and the pursuit of a mechanistic understanding will contribute to more accurate models of reactive transport in porous media.

  19. Gyroidal mesoporous multifunctional nanocomposites via atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jörg G.; Scherer, Maik R. J.; Steiner, Ullrich; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate the preparation of rationally designed, multifunctional, monolithic and periodically ordered mesoporous core-shell nanocomposites with tunable structural characteristics. Three-dimensionally (3D) co-continuous gyroidal mesoporous polymer monoliths are fabricated from a solution-based triblock terpolymer-resol co-assembly and used as the functional templates for the fabrication of free-standing core-shell carbon-titania composites using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition depth into the torturous gyroidal nanonetwork is investigated as a function of ALD conditions and the resulting composites are submitted to different thermal treatments. Results suggest that ALD can homogenously coat mesoporous templates with well defined pore sizes below 50 nm and thicknesses above 10 ?m. Structural tunability like titania shell thickness and pore size control is demonstrated. The ordered nanocomposites exhibit triple functionality; a 3D continuous conductive carbon core that is coated with a crystalline titania shell that in turn is in contact with a 3D continuous mesopore network in a compact monolithic architecture. This materials design is of interest for applications including energy conversion and storage. Gyroidal mesoporous titania monoliths can be obtained through simultaneous titania crystallization and template removal in air.We demonstrate the preparation of rationally designed, multifunctional, monolithic and periodically ordered mesoporous core-shell nanocomposites with tunable structural characteristics. Three-dimensionally (3D) co-continuous gyroidal mesoporous polymer monoliths are fabricated from a solution-based triblock terpolymer-resol co-assembly and used as the functional templates for the fabrication of free-standing core-shell carbon-titania composites using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The deposition depth into the torturous gyroidal nanonetwork is investigated as a function of ALD conditions and the resulting composites are submitted to different thermal treatments. Results suggest that ALD can homogenously coat mesoporous templates with well defined pore sizes below 50 nm and thicknesses above 10 ?m. Structural tunability like titania shell thickness and pore size control is demonstrated. The ordered nanocomposites exhibit triple functionality; a 3D continuous conductive carbon core that is coated with a crystalline titania shell that in turn is in contact with a 3D continuous mesopore network in a compact monolithic architecture. This materials design is of interest for applications including energy conversion and storage. Gyroidal mesoporous titania monoliths can be obtained through simultaneous titania crystallization and template removal in air. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photographs of flexible templates and the Beneq ALD reactor indicating the different sample positioning. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01948b

  20. Study of Novel Oligomeric Azo Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel J. R.; Kiran Nimavat; Kartik Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Diazotization of p-anisidine and coupling with 3-amino-phenol-Formaldehyde (APF) resin give oligomaric azo dye TAPF, based on 3-amino-phenol-Formaldehyde (APF) polymer. The TAPF was then treated with 5-chloro methyl-8-quinolinol hydrochloride in the presence of a THF in alkaline medium (pH 9-10) at room temperature for 7 hrs. The resultant oligomaric ligand designated as azo polyphenol-formaldehyde-5-chloromethyl-8-quinolinol (AAPFQ) was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral studie...

  1. Recent progress in mesoporous titania materials: adjusting morphology for innovative applications

    OpenAIRE

    Juan L Vivero-Escoto, Ya-Dong Chiang, Kevin C-W Wu and Yusuke Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent developments in mesoporous titania materials, particularly in the fields of morphology control and applications. We first briefly introduce the history of mesoporous titania materials and then review several synthesis approaches. Currently, mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTNs) have attracted much attention in various fields, such as medicine, catalysis, separation and optics. Compared with bulk mesoporous titania materials, which are above a micrometer...

  2. Template method synthesis of mesoporous carbon spheres and its applications as supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wilgosz, Karolina; Chen, Xuecheng; Kierzek, Krzysztof; Machnikowski, Jacek; Ryszard J. Kalenczuk; Mijowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon spheres (MCS) have been fabricated from structured mesoporous silica sphere using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ethylene as a carbon feedstock. The mesoporous carbon spheres have a high specific surface area of 666.8?m2/g and good electrochemical properties. The mechanism of formation mesoporous carbon spheres (carbon spheres) is investigated. The important thing is a surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which accelerates the process of carbon depos...

  3. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  4. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

  5. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

  6. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica Microspheres by Using Polymeric Surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since mesoporous M41S families were discovered by Mobile Corporation researchers, synthesis of the mesoporous materials with novel morphologies and pore structures because of their potential applications as versatile catalysts, catalyst supports, separation media, and hosts for clusters and have been reported through various synthetic strategies by using surfactant templated process. Spherical morphology has become quite attractive in many applications such as a packing material in chromatography or as an easy-to-handle form for catalytic purposes. Based on modified Stober process, the synthesis of the spherical mesoporous silica particles with sub-micrometer size has been reported. However, Modified-Stober process in a homogeneous environment for preparing mesoporous silica spheres rarely produce silica particles larger than 10 ?m. Recently, Kosuge and Singh have directly synthesized the silica microspheres of 30 ? 50 ?m in diameter by using n-alkylamine (C12-NH2) and ethanol in an acidic medium at room temperature. Also, Stucky et al. reported the slow sol-gel surfactant template synthesis of mesoporous silica spheres larger than 100 ?m. In our previous study, we reported a new robust surfactant-template synthesis strategy for the stable suspension of large silica microspheres by introducing an additional cosurfactant. Bis(2- ethylhexyl)phosphate (BEHP) as a cosurfactant played a key role in suspension stabilization without distorting the spherical morphology as well as in the formation of uniform pore structures. Although most mesoporous silica particles above mentioned possess the narrow pore size distribution, high surface area, and large pore volume, their pore structure consists to the single pore system. Recently, mesoporous materials with bimodal pore systems are of considerable interest for applications in catalysis and separations, since they combine the benefits of each pore size regime

  7. The Sequestration and Protection of Organic Matter Within Mineral Mesopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Chorover, J. D.; Komarneni, S.; Brantley, S. L.

    2002-12-01

    Organic matter-mineral interactions may explain diverse phenomena such as sequestration of pollutants and preservation of organic matter in soils and sediments. Mineral mesopores (2-50 nm diameter) may sequester organic matter (natural and pollutant) and protect it from microbial and fungal enzymatic degradation in soils and sediments. To test this idea, we carried out batch aqueous experiments to examine adsorption of amino acid monomers and polymers onto synthetic mesoporous and nonporous alumina and silica with controlled intraparticle porosity with similar surface chemistry. All amino acid monomers and polymers smaller than about one-third the pore diameter exhibited significantly greater adsorption (on a surface area normalized basis) to mesoporous alumina (8.2 nm mean pore diameter) and silica (3.4 nm mean pore diameter) versus nonporous phases. Amino acid polymers (lysozyme, albumin, g-globulin) of sizes approaching and larger than the mesopores, however, exhibited greater adsorption to the nonporous phases indicating their exclusion from the internal surfaces of the mesoporous minerals. Further, we observed a sharp decrease in the surface area of the mesoporous materials after adsorption of these proteins indicating blockage of pore openings. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration of sedimentary organic matter. To test whether these pore-sequestered materials are likely to be preserved, we incubate mesoporous and nonporous minerals and sorbed organic matter (model amino acid compounds and natural organic matter extracts) in solutions containing bacterial or fungal derived enzymes. The amount of degradation of sorbed organic matter is detected by measuring sediment TOC before and after the experiment while qualitative changes are indicated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra. We expect that small organic compounds sorbed within pores will be protected from degradation while organic matter sorbed to nonporous mineral will be minimally protected. An overall bias toward the preservation of lower molecular weight organic matter is predicted. These results highlight the importance of particle surface morphology for organic matter preservation in soils and sediments.

  8. 75 FR 59997 - Shipping; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...mixtures (having 10% Benzene or more) 0 g. Butylbenzene, see Alky(C3-C4)benzenes 0 h. Butyl phenol, Formaldehyde resin in Xylene 0 i. Butyl toluene 0 j. Cymene 0 k. Decylbenzene, see Alkyl(C9+) benzenes 0 l....

  9. Method for making adhesive from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.A.; Riemath, W.F.

    1984-03-30

    A method is described for making adhesive from biomass. A liquefaction oil is prepared from lignin-bearing plant material and a phenolic fraction is extracted therefrom. The phenolic fraction is reacted with formaldehyde to yield a phenol-formaldehyde resin. 2 figures.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLUED LAMINATED PANELS PRODUCED WITH STRIPS OF BRAZILIAN NATIVE BAMBOO (Guadua magna) FROM CERRADO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Divino Eterno; Bastos, Rodrigo Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Sérgio Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Plywood panels were produced with strips of bamboo (Guadua magna) and bonded with phenol-formaldehyde and PVA based resins, glued in three and five plies. The panels’ characterization was based on physical and mechanical tests. The tests primarily related to commercial adhesives used in the manuf...

  11. Novel mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the first report on the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). A series of NR/HMS composites were prepared in tetrahydrofuran via an in situ sol–gel process using tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica precursor. The physicochemical properties of the composites were characterized by various techniques. The effects of the gel composition on the structural and textural properties of the NR/HMS composites were investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS NMR) results revealed that the surface silanol groups of NR/HMS composites were covered with NR molecules. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data indicated an expansion of the hexagonal unit cell and channel wall thickness due to the incorporation of NR molecules into the mesoporous structure. NR/HMS composites also possessed nanosized particles (?79.4 nm) as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution analysis. From N2 adsorption–desorption measurement, the NR/HMS composites possessed a high BET surface area, large pore volume and narrow pore size distribution. Further, they were enhanced hydrophobicity confirmed by H2O adsorption–desorption measurement. In addition, the mechanistic pathway of the NR/HMS composite formation was proposed. - Highlights: • NR molecules were incorporated into hexagonal meso-structure of HMS. • NR/HMS composites exhibited an expanded unit cell and channel wall thickness. • Nanosized NR/HMS composites with a lower particle size range were obtained. • NR/HMS had high surface area, large pore volume and narrow pore size distribution. • NR/HMS composites displayed an enhanced hydrophobicity

  12. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consist of basic resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. These optional...

  13. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom's Diphonix reg-sign resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds

  14. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled

  15. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H2O2. Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H1NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  16. Ion exchange resins for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density and capacity of macroporous ion exchange resins are increased by incorporating therein at least one of titania hydrate, zirconia hydrate, hydrated titanium phosphorous, and hydrated zirconium phosphate hydrates. Such resin composites are useful, e.g., in removing uranium values from aqueous solutions

  17. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  18. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Clusia floral resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, A L; Machado, S M; de Oliveira, C M; Bittrich, V; Amaral, M C; Marsaioli, A J

    2000-12-01

    From the floral resins of various Clusia species, seven polyisoprenylated benzophenones were isolated. HPLC allowed their quantification in all resins, revealing a distribution of benzophenone derivatives distinct from each other. In some species the staminal oils were collected and oleic, stearic and palmitic acids were the main constituents. PMID:11190392

  19. Experience with NuResin, a mobile ion exchange resin reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange resin used in condensate polishing, steam generator blowdown, and radwaste systems is a major contributor to the volume of low-level waste (LLW) at operating nuclear plants. Plant regeneration systems for resins use large quantities of demineralized water for cleaning, separating, and regenerating resins. These systems generate a tremendous volume of LLW from boiling water reactors (BWRs) and those pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that have experienced steam generator tube leaks. At essentially all BWRs and those PWRs that replace rather than regenerate condensate polishing resin, the LLW volume contribution from the resin alone is significant. This report describes a process for the treatment of resins with the objective of returning the resin to service

  20. Effect of Resin Viscosity in Fiber Reinforcement Compaction in Resin Injection Pultrusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, N.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In resin injection pultrusion, the liquid resin is injected through the injection slots into the fiber reinforcement; the liquid resin penetrates through the fibers as well as pushes the fibers towards the centerplane causing fiber compaction. The compacted fibers are more difficult to penetrate, thus higher resin injection pressure becomes necessary to achieve complete reinforcement wetout. Lower injection pressures below a certain range (depending upon the fiber volume fraction and resin viscosity) cannot effectively penetrate through the fiber bed and thus cannot achieve complete wetout. Also, if the degree of compaction is very high the fibers might become essentially impenetrable. The more viscous the resin is, the harder it is to penetrate through the fibers and vice versa. The effect of resin viscosity on complete wetout achievement with reference to fiber-reinforcement compaction is presented in this study.

  1. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  2. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  3. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  4. Immobilization of Lactate Oxidase Within a Hybrid Mesoporous Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Jiao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid mesoporous membrane was prepared by using Pluronic F127((PEO106(PRO70(PEO106as a structure-directing agent. Columnar mesoporoussilica was formed inside the anodic aluminium membrane (AAM pores and had a length of ca. (50±2um. Nano-fiber with the diameters of the pores being about 12 nm was aligned along the long axis of the AAM pore walls. The lactate oxidase (LODencapsulation was done by covalent attachment on the inner wall of the silica mesopores. After removing of Pluronic F127 inside the silica mesopores by calcination, the 3-aminopropylethoxysilane (APTMS was immobilized on the inner pore surface. Then, the LOD was covalently attached via a linker of glutaraldehyde(GA and the LOD-M was obtained. The resulting LOD-M was applied for conversion of lactic acid to pyuvic acid. The LOD-M can be used for conversion of lactic acid by using a conventional? ltration apparatus. The proposed scheme allows conversion of lactic acid without separation of the mesoporous silica host from the reaction media. We compared the morphology of the mesoporous material after imobilization of enzyme by TEM and isotherm. The effect on enzyme activity, such as concentration of L-lacate, flow speeds and storage time, was also tested.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOPOROUS MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR CO2 SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous and precipitated alumina were synthesized as the base material for CO(sub 2) adsorbent. The porous alumina is doped with Ba to enhance it CO(sub 2) affinity due to the basicity of Ba. it is shown by gas chromatograph (GC) that the addition of Ba enhances the separation CO(sub 2) from N(sub 2). It was found that mesoporous alumina has larger specific surface area and better selectivity of CO(sub 2) than precipitated alumina. Ba improves the affinity of mesoporous alumina with CO(sub 2). Phase may play an important role in selective adsorption of CO(sub 2). It is speculated that mesoporous alumina is more reactive than precipitated alumina creating the xBaO(centerdot) Al(sub 2)O(sub 3) phase that may be more affinity to CO(sub 2) than N(sub 2). On the other hand, the barium aluminate phase (Ba(sub 3)Al(sub 2)O(sub 6)) in the mesoporous sample does not help the adsorption of CO(sub 2)

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Mesoporous Iron-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Hong-Tao,SHEN Shui-Fa,PAN Hai-Bo,XIE Chang-Huai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal oxides are easy to form insoluble oligomer in reaction because of complicated oxidation states, so it is difficult to obtain the desired mesoporous structure. To resolve the problem, mesoporous iron oxide was synthesized by reacting a micellar phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS with iron polymer solution which was prepared by controlling the proportion of sodium hydroxide and ferric chloride. Crystal structure and surface structure of the mesoporous iron oxide was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform ª² infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analyse(TGA, Nitrogen adsorptionª²desorption method and so on. The results show that mesoporous ¦?Fe2O3 can be obtained after calcining at 450¡?ith OH-/Fe3+ ratio of 2.0. Its surface area is 146.5m2¡¤g-1, BJH average diameter is 6.9nm, pore volume is 0.27cm3¡¤g-1. The asª²prepared mesoporous iron oxide has better thermal stability, it still has surface area of 110.2m2¡¤g-1 after calcination at 550¡?

  7. Mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-based PEMFC catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Lee, K.; Hui, R.; Zhang, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation; Chavallier, L.; Jones, D.; Roziere, J. [Montpellier Univ., Montpellier (France). Inst. Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, Laboratoire des Agregats Interfaces et Materiaux pour l' Energie

    2009-07-01

    The interest in ordered mesoporous carbon for use as a fuel cell catalyst support can be attributed to its high surface area, ordered porous structure, and narrow pore size distribution. However, carbon corrosion is one of the factors that influences the durability and reliability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Several strategies have been developed to address this problem and facilitate commercialization of the PEMFC. The strategies include using graphitized carbon, preparing alternative support, and synthesizing transition metal oxide/carbon composite supports. Two types of catalyst supports were investigated in this study, and their properties were then compared. In the first case, ordered mesoporous carbon was coated with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) . A crystalline mesoporous doped-TiO{sub 2} based cermet was prepared in the second case in order to investigate the possibility of decreasing the Pt loading. These materials were characterized by TEM, N2 isotherm, and SEM/EDX analysis. Pt catalysts were deposited on both the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} coated carbon supports and doped-TiO{sub 2} supports. Electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate their catalytic activity and anodic properties. The study also investigated the effect of the TiO{sub 2} coating on the durability of the carbon support and the stability of the mesoporous supports.

  8. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchena, Martin H. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granada, Mara [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Bordoni, Andrea V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Joselevich, Maria [Asociacion Civil Expedicion Ciencia, Cabrera 4948, C1414BGP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Troiani, Horacio [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [DQIAQyF-INQUIMAE FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolosiuk, Alejandro, E-mail: wolosiuk@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  9. Oxidative nanopatterning of titanium generates mesoporous surfaces with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variola, Fabio; Zalzal, Sylvia Francis; Leduc, Annie; Barbeau, Jean; Nanci, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning have the capacity to selectively regulate cell behavior, but their impact on microorganisms has not yet been explored. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of such surfaces on the adherence of two common bacteria and one yeast strain that are responsible for nosocomial infections in clinical settings and biomedical applications. In addition, because surface characteristics are known to affect bacterial adhesion, we further characterized the physicochemical properties of the mesoporous surfaces. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to generate ultrathin sections for elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans onto titanium disks with mesoporous and polished surfaces was compared. Disks with the two surfaces side-by-side were also used for direct visual comparison. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study indicate that bacterial adhesion is significantly hindered by the mesoporous surface. In addition, we provide evidence that it alters structural parameters of C. albicans that determine its invasiveness potential, suggesting that microorganisms can sense and respond to the mesoporous surface. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of a simple chemical oxidative treatment in generating nanotextured surfaces with antimicrobial capacity with potential applications in the implant manufacturing industry and hospital setting. PMID:24872694

  10. Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2?4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. (paper)

  11. PENGARUH STRUKTUR PORI TERHADAP KAPASITANSI ELEKTRODA SUPERKAPASITOR YANG DIBUAT DARI KARBON NANOPORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Ariyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available THE EFFECT OF PORE STRUCTURE ON THE ELECTRODE CAPACITANCE OF SUPERCAPACITOR PREPARED BY NANOPOROUS CARBON. Nanoporous carbons, due to high specific surface area, high pore accessibility, and relatively low cost, have been used as material electrode supercapacitors. In this work, the influence of pore structure of nanoporous carbons on the specific capacitance of supercapacitors was examined. Nanoporous carbons with several types of pore structure were prepared by carbonization of phenolic resin produced by polymeric condensation of phenolic compound with formaldehyde. Furthermore, ethylene glycol, as a filler, was added in the phenolic resin polymerization to increase the mesoporosity of nanoporous carbon. The nanoporous carbons produced were characterized for their surface morphology, specific internal surface area (BET method, and pore structure. Samples were used as electrode material in supercapacitor and specific capacitances were characterized by galvanostatic test using 30% KOH aqueous solution as electrolyte. The capacitance test of supercapacitors exhibited that increasing mesoporosity increase specific capacitance value of supercapacitors. The highest specific capacitance of 336 F/g was obtained by using mesoporous carbon produced by carbonization of resorcinol phenol formaldehyde ethylene glycol (C-RPFEG2 as electrode material of supercapacitors.  Karbon nanopori dikarenakan memiliki luas permukaan internal yang tinggi, aksesibilitas pori yang baik, dan relatif murah telah digunakan sebagai material elektroda superkapasitor. Pada penelitian ini, pengaruh struktur pori dari karbon nanopori terhadap kapasitansi spesifik superkapasitor telah dipelajari. Karbon berpori dengan berbagai struktur pori dibuat dengan cara karbonisasi phenolic resin yang dibuat dengan cara polimerisaasi kondensasi senyawa phenolic dengan formaldehyde. Selain itu, etilen glikol sebagai filler ditambahkan pada saat polimerisasi phenolic resin untuk meningkatkan mesoporositas dari karbon nanopori. Karbon yang diperoleh dikarakterisasi berupa morfologi permukaan, luas permukaan spesifik (metode BET, dan struktur pori. Karbon tersebut kemudian digunakan sebagai material elektroda superkapasitor dan kapasitansi spesifik dikarakterisasi dengan tes galvanostatik menggunakan KOH 30% sebagai elektrolit. Uji kapasitansi superkapasitor menunjukkan bahwa meningkatnya mesoporositas karbon nanopori akan meningkatkan nilai kapasitansi spesifik. Kapasitansi spesifik tertinggi sebesar 336 F/g diperoleh jika menggunakan karbon mesopori hasil karbonisasi resorcinol phenol formaldehyde ethylene glycol (C-RPFEG2 sebagai material elektroda superkapasitor.

  12. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran, which are representative model compounds of bio-oil, was performed using two different Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts, Pt/mesoporous Y and Pt/mesoporous MFI. The reforming of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation was investigated using a batch reactor at 40 bar and 250 °C. The characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption. Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts containing both strong acid sites and mesopores showed the higher conversion of 2-methoxy phenol than Pt/SiO2 and Pt/Si-MCM-48 with no acid sites, Pt/?-Al2O3, and a mixture of mesoporous Y and Pt/SiO2, indicating the importance of both Pt and strong acid sites for high catalytic activity. Among the two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts tested, the conversion of 2-methoxy phenol to cyclohexane over Pt/mesoporous Y was much higher than that over the Pt/mesoporous MFI. This was attributed to the better textural properties, such as surface area, pore volume and micropore size, compared to those of Pt/mesoporous MFI. The catalytic conversions of dibenzofuran obtained using two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts were similar and the main products were 1,1?-bicyclohexyl, cyclopentylmethyl-cyclohexane and cyclohexane. In addition, the reaction mechanisms of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolite were suggested. - Highlights: • HDO of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran was performed over Pt/mesoporous zeolites. • Pt/mesoporous zeolites have mesopores and strong acid sites. • Main product of HDO of 2-methoxy phenol was cyclohexane. • Main products of HDO of dibenzofuran were bicyclohexyl (BCH), i-BCH, and cyclohexane

  13. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137Cs, 85Sr, and 60Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85Sr or 60Co. Release rates of 137Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137Cs, 85Sr, and 60Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  14. FABRICATION AND STUDY OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Singh Singha,; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2008-01-01

    Fabrication of polymer composites reinforced with lignocellulosic materials has increased considerably during the last few years. This work reports the synthesis of natural fiber reinforced phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin matrix based polymer composite using a compression molding technique. Initially the PF resin was prepared by varying the concentration of formaldehyde with a fixed weight of phenol. Polymeric resin of different P: F ratios were subjected for optimization of their mechanical p...

  15. Enhancing the Porosity of Mesoporous Carbon-Templated ZSM-5 by Desilication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Egeblad, Kresten

    2008-01-01

    A tunable desilication protocol applied on a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized by carbon-templating is reported. The strategy enables a systematic manufacture of zeolite catalysts with moderate to very high mesoporosities. Coupling carbon-templating and desilication thus allow for more than a doubling of the original mesopore volume and mesopore surface area. The porosity effect arising from various treatment times and base amounts in the media has been thoroughly mapped. Initially, small mesopores are created, and as desilication strength increases the average mesopore size enhances. Crystallinity of the treated samples is retained, and electron microscopy indicates solely intracrystalline mesoporosity. (

  16. Highly Loaded Mesoporous Silica/Nanoparticle Composites and Patterned Mesoporous Silica Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Rohit; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Wang, Xinyu; Watkins, James J.

    2014-03-01

    Novel approaches for the preparation of highly filled mesoporous silica/nanoparticle (MS/NP) composites and for the fabrication of patterned MS films are described. The incorporation of iron platinum NPs within the walls of MS is achieved at high NP loadings by doping amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®) copolymer templates via selective hydrogen bonding between the pre-synthesized NPs and the hydrophilic portion of the block copolymer. The MS is then synthesized by means of phase selective condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) within the NP loaded block copolymer templates dilated with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) followed by calcination. For patterned films, microphase separated block copolymer/small molecule additive blends are patterned using UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography. Infusion and condensation of a TEOS within template films using ScCO2 as a processing medium followed by calcination yields the patterned MS films. Scanning electron microscopy is used characterize pattern fidelity and transmission electron microscopy analysis confirms the presence of the mesopores. Long range order in nanocomposites is confirmed by low angle x-ray diffraction.

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous silica microsphere from dual surfactant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Venkatathri, Narayanan.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is reported to synthesis mesoporous silica micro sphere for the first time. In these method two surfactants namely Span 80 and Tween 80 were used. Small angle X ray diffraction and N2 adsorption analysis shows the synthesized material has mesoporous property. The material has spheric [...] al morphology with 1-10 µm particle size. Beside the material found to have microcapsule property as observed from the Transmission electron microscopy. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopic analysis reveals that the materials are similar to other mesoporous materials. We also encapsulated an UV-absorber Ibuprofen inside the microcapsule, by mixing it before the synthesis. This shows a possibility of the materials in cosmetic applications.

  18. Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Henschel, Anke; Huber, Patrick; 10.1080/09500831003766999

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous sil...

  19. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  20. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 oC, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 oC to 500 oC. The N2 adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous silica microsphere from dual surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatathri Narayanan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is reported to synthesis mesoporous silica micro sphere for the first time. In these method two surfactants namely Span 80 and Tween 80 were used. Small angle X ray diffraction and N2 adsorption analysis shows the synthesized material has mesoporous property. The material has spherical morphology with 1-10 µm particle size. Beside the material found to have microcapsule property as observed from the Transmission electron microscopy. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopic analysis reveals that the materials are similar to other mesoporous materials. We also encapsulated an UV-absorber Ibuprofen inside the microcapsule, by mixing it before the synthesis. This shows a possibility of the materials in cosmetic applications.

  2. Electrochromic and optical properties of mesoporous tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Esra; Lee, Se-Hee; Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Deb, Satyen K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, 80401 Golden, CO (United States); Tepehan, Fatma Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    Standard and mesoporous sol-gel tungsten oxide thin films were prepared by a spin-coating technique from an ethanolic solution of tungsten hexachloride. A block copolymer (BASF Pluronic p{sub 123}) was employed as a template to generate the mesoporous structure. An ultraviolet (UV) illumination method was employed to remove the polymer templates at room temperature. The electrochromic and optical properties of the mesoporous films are described and compared to standard sol-gel tungsten oxide films. Results are also presented on the samples prepared by thermal treatment. We demonstrate that the UV illumination/ozone treatment is a superior method to remove templates which enables us to more effectively investigate the effect of mesoporosity on the electrokinetics of ion insertion into tungsten oxide films.

  3. Syntheses and applications of periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Jonas G.; Cattoën, Xavier; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO) nanomaterials are envisioned to be one of the most prolific subjects of research in the next decade. Similar to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), PMO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from organo-bridged alkoxysilanes have tunable mesopores that could be utilized for many applications such as gas and molecule adsorption, catalysis, drug and gene delivery, electronics, and sensing; but unlike MSN, the diversity in chemical nature of the pore walls of such nanomaterials is theoretically unlimited. Thus, we expect that PMO NPs will attract considerable interest over the next decade. In this review, we will present a comprehensive overview of the synthetic strategies for the preparation of nanoscaled PMO materials, and then describe their applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. The remarkable assets of the PMO structure are also detailed, and insights are provided for the preparation of more complex PMO nanoplatforms.

  4. Novel Mesoporous Carbon Supports for PEMFC Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Banham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade; a significant amount of research has been performed on novel carbon supports for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. Specifically, carbon nanotubes, ordered mesoporous carbon, and colloid imprinted carbons have shown great promise for improving the activity and/or stability of Pt-based nanoparticle catalysts. In this work, a brief overview of these materials is given, followed by an in-depth discussion of our recent work highlighting the importance of carbon wall thickness when designing novel carbon supports for PEMFC applications. Four colloid imprinted carbons (CICs were synthesized using a silica colloid imprinting method, with the resulting CICs having pores of 15 (CIC-15, 26 (CIC-26, 50 (CIC-50 and 80 (CIC-80 nm. These four CICs were loaded with 10 wt. % Pt and then evaluated as oxygen reduction (ORR catalysts for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To gain insight into the poorer performance of Pt/CIC-26 vs. the other three Pt/CICs, TEM tomography was performed, indicating that CIC-26 had much thinner walls (0–3 nm than the other CICs and resulting in a higher resistance (leading to distributed potentials through the catalyst layer during operation. This explanation for the poorer performance of Pt/CIC-26 was supported by theoretical calculations, suggesting that the internal wall thickness of these nanoporous CICs is critical to the future design of porous carbon supports.

  5. Comparison of marginal adaptation between a monoincremental resin with sonic activation and a conventional resin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine differences in marginal adaptation between a conventional composite resin and a monoincremental resin with sonic activation. Materials and methods: 32 composite resin discs of 2.5mm in diameter and 2mm thick were fabricated in a propylene matrix and distributed in 2 groups of 16 samples each. Groups 1 FiltekTMZ350XT resin; Group 2 SonicFillTM resin with sonic activation. The gap generated between the resin and the matrix as a result of the polymerization shrinkage was analyzed in microns using a microscope at a magnification of 40X. The percentage of the lineal polymerization shrinkage was also calculated. To calculate differences in marginal adaptation between the two resins statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test. Results: The extent of the gaps measured in microns and their respective standard deviations were SonicFillTM 9.95 ± 3.05 and FiltekTMZ350XT 10.21 ± 5.14 (p=.86. Conclusion: The use of the monoincremental resin system with sonic activation shows a marginal adaptation similar to that of conventional resin composites, with no statistically significant differences between the studied resins.

  6. Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 for gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, D W; Liu, H; Ahn, H J; Wang, G X

    2013-05-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous Co3O4 nanostructures were prepared using SBA-15 silica as hard templates. The mesoporous structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm analysis. The results demonstrated that the as-prepared mesoporous Co3O4 has an ordered P6mm symmetric mesoporous structure. The optical absorption properties of the mesoporous Co3O4 were investigatted by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the results indicate that the mesoporous Co3O4 materials are semiconducting with direct band gaps of 2, 1.385 and 0.38 eV. The gas-sensing performance of the mesoporous Co3O4 was tested towards a series of typical solvents. They demonstrated a good sensing performance towards these vapour with rapid response and high sensitivity at low operating temperature. PMID:23858858

  7. Adsorption and Diffusion of Xylene Isomers on Mesoporous Beta Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and detailed analysis of adsorption and diffusion properties of xylene isomers over Beta zeolites with different mesoporosity was conducted. Adsorption isotherms of xylene isomers over microporous and mesoporous Beta zeolites through gravimetric methods were applied to investigate the impact of mesopores inside Beta zeolites on the adsorption properties of xylene isomers in the pressure range of lower 20 mbar. It is seen that the adsorption isotherms of three xylene isomers over microporous and mesoporous Beta zeolites could be successfully described by the single-site Toth model and the dual-site Toth model, respectively. The enhanced adsorption capacities and decreased Henry’s constants (KH and the initial heats of adsorption (Qst for the all xylene isomers are observed after the introduction of mesopores in the zeolites. For three xylene isomers, the order of Henry’s constant is o-xylene > m-xylene > p-xylene, whereas the adsorption capacities of Beta zeolite samples for xylene isomers execute the following order of o-xylene > p-xylene > m-xylene, due to the comprehensive effects from the molecular configuration and electrostatic interaction. At the same time, the diffusion properties of xylene isomers in the mesoporous Beta zeolites were also studied through the desorption curves measured by the zero length column (ZLC method at 333–373 K. It turned out that the effective diffusion time constant (Deff/R2 is a growing trend with the increasing mesoporosity, whereas the tendency of the activation energy is just the reverse, indicating the contribution of mesopores to facilitate molecule diffusion by shortening diffusion paths and reducing diffusion resistances. Moreover, the diffusivities of three xylene isomers in all Beta zeolites follow an order of p-xylene > m-xylene > o-xylene as opposed to KH, conforming the significant effects of adsorbate-adsorbent interaction on the diffusion.

  8. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  9. Monolithic gyroidal mesoporous mixed titanium-niobium nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Spencer W; Sai, Hiroaki; DiSalvo, Francis J; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-08-26

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium-niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  10. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  11. Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesoporous walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Gundiah

    2001-04-01

    Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesopores have been prepared by employing polymethylmethacrylate beads as templates in the presence of the cationic surfactant, N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide. The Si/Al ratio in the composites has been varied between 4.5 and 48 and the occurrence of mesopores has been verified by X-ray diffraction. The surface areas of the samples vary between 676 and 1038 m2g–1, with the highest value in the sample with Si/Al = 48.

  12. Positronium annihilation and pore surface chemistry in mesoporous silica films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetimes of ortho-positronium in mesoporous silica films were measured before and after surface trimethylsilylation of -OH groups. Variations of positronium lifetimes in the mesopores upon the surface modification indicate that the interaction between positronium and the pore surface is weakened in the pores, whose surface is covered with -CH3 groups, in comparison with those covered with -OH groups. This is consistent with the authors' previous observation that positronium slowing down is less efficient in the pores covered with -CH3 groups. The present work demonstrates that in the porosimetric application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the interaction between positronium and the pore surface has to be properly taken into consideration

  13. Exploring Mass Transfer in Mesoporous Zeolites by NMR Diffusometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryong Ryoo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of mesoporous zeolites, the exploration of their transport properties has become a task of primary importance for the auspicious application of such materials in separation technology and heterogeneous catalysis. After reviewing the potential of the pulsed field gradient method of NMR (PFG NMR for this purpose in general, in a case study using a specially prepared mesoporous zeolite NaCaA as a host system and propane as a guest molecule, examples of the attainable information are provided.

  14. Nanoindentation studies of nickel zinc ferrite embedded mesoporous silica template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Hajra, P.; Mada, M. R.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Chakravorty, D.

    2013-02-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite (NZF) embedded mesoporous silica KIT-6 nanocomposite (NZFMS) was synthesized via impregnation method. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation (NI) studies were carried out on both mesoporous silica (MS) and the nanocomposite NZFMS. It was found that the young's modulus (E) and hardness (H) of the NZFMS were higher than that of the MS. From creep measurement it was observed that the creep-strain rate was greater for NZFMS compared to MS. This arose due to diffusion of Fe3+ ions from nickel zinc ferrite to the silica glass. The results indicate that the NZFMS material shows superplastic behaviour at room temperature.

  15. Host-guest chemistry of mesoporous silicas: precise design of location, density and orientation of molecular guests in mesopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohmiya, Minoru; Saito, Kanji; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Mesoporous solids, which were prepared from inorganic-surfactant mesostructured materials, have been investigated due to their very large surface area and high porosity, pore size uniformity and variation, periodic pore arrangement and possible pore surface modification. Morphosyntheses from macroscopic morphologies such as bulk monolith and films, to nanoscopic ones, nanoparticles and their stable suspension, make mesoporous materials more attractive for applications and detailed characterization. This class of materials has been studied for such applications as adsorbents and catalysts, and later on, for optical, electronic, environmental and bio-related ones. This review summarizes the studies on the chemistry of mesoporous silica and functional guest species (host-guest chemistry) to highlight the present status and future applications of the host-guest hybrids.

  16. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  17. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  18. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  19. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H+ ? Na+) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na+, NaOH, and Cs+ concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied

  20. Advanced Fibre Reinforced Methyl Nadicimide Resins .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Alam

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass/carbon/kevlar-reinforced composites were fabricated using two structurally different methl nadicimide resins. The resin content of the laminates was in the range of 32-39 per cent. Interlaminar shear strength (ILSSand flexual strength (FS depended on the structure of the methyl nadicimide resins. A significant decrease in the ILSS was observed on treatment with boiling water for 500 h and on isothermal ageing at 300 degree celsius for 100,250 and 500 h. The limiting oxygen index (LOI was the lowest for laminates based on Kevlar fabrics (i.e.54 whereas the laminates based on glass/carbon showed very high LOI(>90.

  1. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  2. Kinetic Study of Resin-Curing on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composites by Microwave Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Shimamoto; Yusuke Imai, Yuji Hotta

    2014-01-01

    Microwave processing has great potential for improving composite manufacturing such as reduction of curing time, energy requirements and operational costs. In this paper, the effects of microwave irradiation for resin-curing of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite that was composed of discontinuous carbon fibers of 130 ?m or 3 mm were investigated. The mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite cured by microwave irradiation for 20 min at 120°C were si...

  3. Organosulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuntang, Sakdinun; Poompradub, Sirilux [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Butnark, Suchada [PTT Research and Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited, Wangnoi, Ayutthaya 13170 (Thailand); Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: Chawalit.Ng@Chula.ac.th [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2014-10-15

    This study is the first report on synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). In comparison with propylsulfonic acid-functionalized HMS (HMS-SO{sub 3}H), a series of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared via an in situ sol–gel process using tetrahydrofuran as the synthesis media. Tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source, was simultaneously condensed with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane in a solution of NR followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to achieve the mesoporous composites containing propylsulfonic acid groups. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results verified that the silica surfaces of the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were functionalized with propylsulfonic acid groups and covered with NR molecules. After the incorporation of NR and organo-functional group into HMS, the hexagonal mesostructure remained intact concomitantly with an increased framework wall thickness and unit cell size, as evidenced by the X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated a high interparticle porosity of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites. The textural properties of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H were affected by the amount of MPTMS loading to a smaller extent than that of HMS-SO{sub 3}H. NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited higher hydrophobicity than HMS-SO{sub 3}H, as revealed by H{sub 2}O adsorption–desorption measurements. Moreover, the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H catalysts possessed a superior specific activity to HMS-SO{sub 3}H in the esterification of lauric acid with ethanol, resulting in a higher conversion level. - Highlights: • Acidic NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared by in situ sol–gel process. • Propylsulfonic acid was functionalized onto HMS surface by direct co-condensation. • NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited a hexagonal mesostructure and high mesoporosity. • NR incorporated into the HMS structure improved the hydrophobicity of the composites. • NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H had a high esterification activity for lauric acid with ethanol.

  4. Organosulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is the first report on synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). In comparison with propylsulfonic acid-functionalized HMS (HMS-SO3H), a series of NR/HMS-SO3H composites were prepared via an in situ sol–gel process using tetrahydrofuran as the synthesis media. Tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source, was simultaneously condensed with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane in a solution of NR followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to achieve the mesoporous composites containing propylsulfonic acid groups. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 29Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results verified that the silica surfaces of the NR/HMS-SO3H composites were functionalized with propylsulfonic acid groups and covered with NR molecules. After the incorporation of NR and organo-functional group into HMS, the hexagonal mesostructure remained intact concomitantly with an increased framework wall thickness and unit cell size, as evidenced by the X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated a high interparticle porosity of NR/HMS-SO3H composites. The textural properties of NR/HMS-SO3H were affected by the amount of MPTMS loading to a smaller extent than that of HMS-SO3H. NR/HMS-SO3H exhibited higher hydrophobicity than HMS-SO3H, as revealed by H2O adsorption–desorption measurements. Moreover, the NR/HMS-SO3H catalysts possessed a superior specific activity to HMS-SO3H in the esterification of lauric acid with ethanol, resulting in a higher conversion level. - Highlights: • Acidic NR/HMS-SO3H composites were prepared by in situ sol–gel process. • Propylsulfonic acid was functionalized onto HMS surface by direct co-condensation. • NR/HMS-SO3H exhibited a hexagonal mesostructure and high mesoporosity. • NR incorporated into the HMS structure improved the hydrophobicity of the composites. • NR/HMS-SO3H had a high esterification activity for lauric acid with ethanol

  5. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Santiago, Sérgio Lima; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Jorge, Mauro Fonseca Ferreira; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  6. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs

  7. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  8. Heavy metal recovery by a chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption on a chelating resin is a method to recover metals from waste water containing very small quantities of heavy metals. The usual regeneration of the resin consists of an acidic desorption of the metallic ion, an alkaline treatment of the resin and an electrolysis. A new recovering method of the metallic ion by strong complexing agents has been developed. In this case, the recovering agent is concentrated by reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, electrolysed and then recycled at the beginning of the process. The resin used for our application is the Chelamine Standard (JPS-Chimie, Neuchatel, Switzerland). It is made of a polyacrylamide gel with tetraethylene pentamine chelating groups. Physical properties of this resin were measured. A thermodynamical study in a closed vessel showed that equilibrium was well represented by a Langmuir isotherm. These experiments stressed the influence of the resin conditioning on its equilibrium capacity: a resin regenerated in very alkaline conditions had a greater capacity than if the regenerating agent was slightly basic or neutral. Adsorption kinetics in a continuous stirred tank reactor were also conducted. Experiments were simulated by a global kinetic model comprising mass transfer in a liquid film around the resin particles, diffusion through the pores and reaction on the adsorption sites. Kinetics has been found limited by film mass transfer for all metals studied (Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zp>, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+). The mass-transfer coefficient kL was found to be around 10-4 ms-1. Adsorption of heavy metals was then carried out at mini-pilot scale. Problems due to a decrease in average particle diameter during the adsorption prompted us to use a fluidized bed. It is also possible with this reactor to treat solutions containing suspended solids which would clog fixed beds. (author) figs., tabs., refsAdsorption on a chelating resin is a method to recover metals from waste water containing very small quantities of heavy metals. The usual regeneration of the resin consists of an acidic desorption of the metallic ion, an alkaline treatment of the resin and an electrolysis. A new recovering method of the metallic ion by strong complexing agents has been developed. In this case, the recovering agent is concentrated by reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, electrolysed and then recycled at the beginning of the process. The resin used for our application is the Chelamine Standard (JPS-Chimie, Neuchatel, Switzerland). It is made of a polyacrylamide gel with tetraethylene pentamine chelating groups. Physical properties of this resin were measured. A thermodynamical study in a closed vessel showed that equilibrium was well represented by a Langmuir isotherm. These experiments stressed the influence of the resin conditioning on its equilibrium capacity: a resin regenerated in very alkaline conditions had a greater capacity than if the regenerating agent was slightly basic or neutral. Adsorption kinetics in a continuous stirred tank reactor were also conducted. Experiments were simulated by a global kinetic model comprising mass transfer in a liquid film around the resin particles, diffusion through the pores and reaction on the adsorption sites. Kinetics has been found limited by film mass transfer for all metals studied (Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and

  9. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  10. Advanced cement solidification technique for spent resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 40 years, the nuclear facilities of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) produced an amount of radioactive organic resins, a kind of problematic stream in nuclear industry. As these facilities were stepping into decommissioning, the treatment of the spent organic resins was put on the agenda. The various routes for spent resin treatment such as incineration, advanced oxidation, cement immobilization, etc, were considered. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages when applied in the treatment of spent resins. Since the quantities of the spent organic resins were relatively small and an experience with variety of cementation processes existed in CIAE, predominately for immobilization of the evaporated concentrates, the option of direct encapsulation of the spent organic resins into cementitious materials was adopted in 2003, as a preferred method from the point of view of saving the on the cost of the disposal. In order to realize the end goal, the main work consisted of: the survey of the source terms; cementitious material formula investigation; and the process development. This work, which was undertaken in the following years, is addressed as follows. Source terms of the spent resins in CIAE were to be made clear firstly. The results showed that a total of 24-29 m3 of spent resins was generated and accumulated in the past 40 years. Spent resin arose from two research reactors (heavy water reactor and light water reactor), and from the waste management plant. The amount of the spent resins from the heavy water reactor was 1m3 or so, but its radioactive concentration was high to ∼108-∼109Bq/m3. Two kinds of cements, ASC and OPC cement were selected next, as the solidifying matrix to be investigated. A mixture surface response approach was employed to design experiment and interpret data. In comparison, ASC was superior to OPC cement and it displayed preferable performances to encapsulate spent resins. The optimum formulation is:1) resin: .17(dry w/w); and 2) ASC cement: .43; zeolite: .10; water: .30. The properties of the resulting resin-cement concrete mix met the national criterion and the process requirements. These properties included 104mm for the slump, 9.6(Mpa) for the 28-day compressive strength, 1.2% and 6.0% for the compressive strength loss after 42-day water immersion and 5 thaw-freeze circles, 2.72E-06(cm2/d) and 1.63E-07 (cm2/d) for 137Cs and 60Co diffusivities. Lastly, a scale-up demonstration of 200L and the corresponding process was carried out. The cementation process was performed in batches directly in the final storage container, which was a 200L steel drum. Based on the recommended concrete formulation and on the determined operation conditions, the large volumes of resin-cement concretes were produced. The properties of the resin-cement concretes were examined by analysis of drilling cores. The results showed that homogeneous solidified forms were obtained under the given process parameters, and that mechanical performances and the peak temperature satisfied the regulatory requirements. The source term investigation provided the basis for determination of the status of radioactive ion-exchange resins in CIAE. The cement formula as well as the cold bench scale test reached the required end goal, which established bases for the active pilot process, although some improvement should be done in the future. (author)

  11. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  12. Eluting uranium from ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is claimed for recovering uranium and/or related values from an ion-exchange resin. The values are desorbed from the resin by an eluant, and precipitated from the eluate by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The decant solution is used to make up fresh eluant for recycling. It is passed through a catalytic material capable of decomposing any hydrogen peroxide present in the solution

  13. Resin composites : Sandwich restorations and curing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s resin composite has been used for Class II restorations in stress-bearing areas as an alternative to amalgam. Reasons for this were the patients’ fear of mercury in dental amalgam and a growing demand for aesthetic restorations. During the last decades, the use of new resin composites with more optimized filler loading have resulted in reduced clinical wear. Improved and simplified amphiphilic bonding systems have been introduced. However, one of the main problems with res...

  14. Adsorption of plant phenols by polystyrene resins

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyoshi Fukushima; Hioaki Hase; Koshi Saito

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption of nine plant phenols by nine polystyrene ion-exchange resins was investigated in an experimental model system. The phenols were adsorbed by Amberlite CG-120 more efficiently than any other acidically charged resins tested in this study. They were also taken up by anion exchangers. Among them Dowex 1-X8 was found to show the strongest effect on the adsorption of the phenolic constituents applied. A comparison of the efficiency of plant phenol adsorption between two different types ...

  15. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  16. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  17. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-01

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements. PMID:21779058

  18. Composition of resin acids in different rosins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druskina, E.Z.; Tabachkova, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Absolute contents were determined by summing the contents of individual compounds separated by GC. Data are tabulated for the total and individual resin acids and total fatty acids in samples of Scots pine gum and wood rosins, larch gum rosin and Pinus sibirica wood rosin from the USSR. All contained the same range of compounds apart from the presence of lambertianic acid in Pinus sibirica only. The total resin acid content was highest (90-95%) in Scots pine gum rosin. (Refs. 5).

  19. Core/shell magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with radially oriented wide mesopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ž. Kneževi?

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell nanoparticles, containing magnetic iron-oxide (maghemite core and mesoporous shell with radial porous structure, were prepared by dispersing magnetite nanoparticles and adding tetraethylorthosilicate to a basic aqueous solution containing structure-templating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and a pore-swelling mesithylene. The material is characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, nitrogen sorption and powder X-ray di?raction. Distinctive features of the prepared material are its high surface area (959 m2/g, wide average pore diameter (12.4 nm and large pore volume (2.3 cm3/g. The material exhibits radial pore structure and the high angle XRD pattern characteristic for maghemite nanoparticles, which are obtained upon calcination of the magnetite-containing material. The observed properties of the prepared material may render the material applicable in separation, drug delivery, sensing and heterogeneous catalysis.

  20. Solution Plasma Process for Template Removal in Mesoporous Silica Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2010-12-01

    The plasma discharge in aqueous solution was scientifically studied and applied to template removal in mesoporous silica synthesis. Highly dispersed spherical mesoporous silica particles were synthesized by the ternary surfactant system containing the Pluronic P123 copolymer (EO20PO69EO20), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate, via the sol-gel method in acid solutions. The solution plasma process (SPP), instead of conventional thermal calcinations, was used to remove the template. The mechanism of the removal of the organic template occurred via oxidation by the hydroxyl radicals generated during discharge. The transformation of a mesopore structure from a disordered wormlike structure to a hexagonally arranged structure was observed by X-ray diffraction analysis and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The results of the thermal analysis and functional group identification of mesoporous silica after SPP showed evidence of organic template removal. The surface area calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory and the mean pore diameter results could be used to evaluate the plasma efficiency, demonstrating that this method does not affect the pore size in the case of discharge in a solution of pH 3 compared with the results of thermal calcination. Hence, SPP was proved to be highly efficient for organic template removal, exhibiting short consumption time and less contamination.

  1. Mesoporous molecular sieves - advanced supports for olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; ?ejka, Ji?í

    Leipzig : Leibnitz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung (IOM), 2009. O 18-O 18. [The International Symposium on Olefin Metathesis and Related CHemistry /18./. 02.08.2009-07.08.2009, Leipzig] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mesoporous molecular sieves * olefin metathesis catalyst * molybdenum Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Mesoporous molecular sieves as supports for metathesis catalysts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; ?ejka, Ji?í

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2007, s. 151-166. ISBN 978-1-4020-6090-8 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4040411; GA ?R GA203/05/2194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mesoporous molecular sieves * heterogeneous catalysts * olefin metathesis * metathesis polymerization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Pore ordering in mesoporous matrices induced by different directing agents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Putz, A.-M.; Cecilia, S.; Ianasi, C.; Dudás, Z.; Székely, N. K.; Plocek, Ji?í; Sfarloaga, P.; Sacarescu, L.; Almásy, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 22, ?. 2 (2015), s. 321-331. ISSN 1380-2224 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Mesoporous silica * MCM-41 * Dodecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide * Hexadecyl-trimethylammonium bromide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.108, year: 2014

  4. Preparation of mesoporous titania solid superacid and its catalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Zhao, Qian; Li, Mei; Yin, Hengbo

    2008-11-30

    Mesoporous titania (TiO(2)) was synthesized by hydrothermal method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template and using anhydrous ethanol and tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT) as raw materials. Mesoporous titania solid superacid and nanosized titania solid superacid catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method. The structure and property of as-prepared samples were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and N(2) physical adsorption. The esterification of salicylic acid with isoamyl alcohol and the condensation of cyclohexanone with ethylene were used as model reactions to test the catalytic activities of the catalysts. On the other hand, the comparison of catalytic activities of the prepared solid superacid catalysts and the conventional liquid acid H(2)SO(4) was also carried out under the same experimental conditions. The results show that the catalytic activities of the prepared solid superacid catalysts were higher than that of the conventional liquid acid H(2)SO(4), and that the catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO(2) solid superacid is the highest among the three catalysts. Mesoporous TiO(2) solid superacid is a good catalyst for the synthesis of isoamyl salicylate or cyclohexanone ethylene ketal. PMID:18343571

  5. Novel Mesoporous Polydivinylbenzenes with Very High Surface Area.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Je?ábek, Karel

    - : American Chemical Society, 2013, s. 1. ISBN N. [245th ACS National Meeting and Exposition. New Orleans, LA (US), 07.04.2013-11.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12194 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mesoporous * polydivinylbenzene * surface area Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. Mesoporous molecular sieves as advanced supports for olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; ?ejka, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 257, 21-22 (2013), s. 3107-3124. ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400805; GA ?R GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Olefin metathesis * mesoporous molecular sieves * Heterogeneous catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.098, year: 2013

  7. Alkylation and Disproportionation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over Mesoporous Molecular Sieves.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ejka, Ji?í; Krej?í, Andrea; Žilková, Nad?žda; D?de?ek, Ji?í; Hanika, J.

    44-45, 1/3 (2001), s. 499-507. ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA4040001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : mesoporous MCM-41 * heteropoly acids * aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.497, year: 2001

  8. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Advanced Supports for Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; ?ejka, Ji?í

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 293, ?. 1 (2010), s. 43-47. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400805; GA AV ?R KAN100400701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysts * mesoporous molecular sieves * olefin metathesis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic properties in well-ordered mesoporous WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2010-01-01

    We used polyisoprene-block-ethyleneoxide copolymers as structure-directing agents to synthesise well-ordered and highly-crystalline mesoporous WO 3 architectures that possess improved photocatalytic properties due to enhanced dye-adsorption in absence of diffusion limitation. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Resin volume reduction by high force compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The packaging, transportation, and disposal of contaminated spent ion exchange resin constitutes one of the most expensive items on the utility radwaste manager's budget. The waste volume limits and surcharges imposed by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1985 have created strong incentives for the application of high force compaction to reduce the volume of ion exchange resin shipped for disposal. Lab and full-scale test results demonstrated that the volume reduction achieved by compaction is a function of compressive force, resin type, moisture and crud content, and the container/packaging method. Simulated waste resin and actual plant-generated resin was tested using compressive forces between 600 and 6680 psi. Volume reduction factors, as compared to conventional dewatering, of 2:1 to 6:1 were measured using high force compaction. The relative simplicity of compaction technology as compared to other resin volume reduction technologies, and the availability of high force compaction equipment set the stage for a very cost effective and easily implemented volume reduction system

  11. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH2BO3-H3BO3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  12. Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7 hours. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Tyrosinase aggregates in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, could be used repeatedly for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic, organic and biochemical contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  13. Textural manipulation of mesoporous materials for hosting of metallic nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junming; Bao, Xinhe

    2008-01-01

    The preparation and stabilization of nanoparticles are becoming very crucial issues in the field of so-called "nanocatalysis". Recent developments in supramolecular self-assembled porous materials have opened a new way to get nanoparticles hosted in the channels of such materials. In this paper, a new approach towards monodisperse and thermally stable metal nanoparticles by confining them in ordered mesoporous materials is presented, and three aspects are illustrated. Firstly, the recent progress in the functional control of mesoporous materials will be briefly introduced, and the rational tuning of the textures, pore size, and pore length is demonstrated by controlling supramolecular self-assembly behavior. A novel synthesis of short-pore mesoporous materials is emphasized for their easy mass transfer in both biomolecule absorption and the facile assembly of metal nanocomposites within their pore channels. In the second part, the different routes for encapsulating monodisperse nanoparticles inside channels of porous materials are discussed, which mainly includes the ion-exchange/conventional incipient wetness impregnation, in situ encapsulation routes, organometallic methodologies, and surface functionalization schemes. A facile in situ autoreduction route is highlighted to get monodisperse metal nanoparticles with tunable sizes inside the channels of mesoporous silica. Finally, confinement of mesoporous materials is demonstrated to improve the thermal stability of monodisperse metal nanoparticles catalysts and a special emphasis will be focused on the stabilization of the metal nanoparticles with a low Tammann temperature. Several catalytic reactions concerning the catalysis of nanoparticles will be presented. These uniform nanochannels, which confine monodisperse and stable metal nanoparticles catalysts, are of great importance in the exploration of size-dependent catalytic chemistry and further understanding the nature of catalytic reactions. PMID:18668502

  14. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (San Diego, CA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA)

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  15. Adsorption of L-phenylalanine onto mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous silica materials, such as SBA-3, SBA-15, SBA-16 and KIT-6 were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica source and different surfactants as templates. The products were characterised by a number of techniques, including low-temperature nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results of the studies confirmed the ordered mesoporous structures of all silica samples obtained. Adsorption of L-phenylalanine on various mesoporous adsorbents was studied from solutions with different pH (5.6–9.4). Maximum sorption capacity was observed at pH 5.6, which is close to the isoelectric point of L-phenylalanine (pI = 5.48). Above this pH value, the amount of adsorbed amino acid decreased. In the range of equilibrium concentration (pH 5.6), the adsorption capacities of ordered silica samples decreased in the following order: KIT-6 (420 ?mol g?1) > SBA-15 (389 ?mol g?1) > SBA-16 (357 ?mol g?1) > SBA-3 (219 ?mol g?1). The lowest sorption capacity towards L-phenylalanine was found for SBA-3 despite the fact that it showed the largest surface area, which can be explained assuming that part of the pores in SBA-3 can be inaccessible to L-phenylalanine molecules. Large pore size of KIT-6 and SBA-15 permitted the amino acid molecule to enter into the pores of these mesoporous molecular sieves. - Highlights: • SBA-3, SBA-15, SBA-16, KIT-6 materials were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Ordered mesoporous silicas are promising as adsorbents of L-phenylalanine. • Adsorption of L-phenylalanine was studied from solutions with different pH. • Sorption capacities decrease in the following order: KIT-6 > SBA-15 > SBA-16 > SBA-3. • Large pore size of KIT-6 and SBA-15 permit the amino acid to enter into the pores

  16. Novel organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiuwei

    Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials have been prepared successfully via the nonsurfactant templated sol-gel pathway using dibenzoyl-L-tartaric acid (DBTA) as the templating compound. Styrene and methyl methacrylate polymers have been incorporated into the mesoporous silica matrix on the molecular level. The synthetic conditions have been systematically studied and optimized. Titania based mesoporous materials have also been made using nonionic polyethylene glycol surfactant as the pore forming or structure-directing agent. In all of the above mesoporous materials, pore structures have been studied in detail by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) characterizations. The relationship between the template concentration and the pore parameters has been established. This nonsurfactant templated pathway possesses many advantages over the known surfactant approaches such as low cost, environment friendly and biocompatability. To overcome the drawback of nonsurfactant templated mesoporous materials that lack a well ordered pore structure, a flow induced synthesis has been attempted to orientate the sol-gel solution in order to obtain aligned pore structures. The versatility of this nonsurfactant templated pathway can even be extended to the making of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials. On the basis of this approach, polymer-silica nanocomposite materials have been prepared using a polymerizable template. It is shown that the organic monomer such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate can act as a template in making nanoporous silica materials and then be further polymerized through a post synthesis technique. The properties and morphology of this new material have been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (FTIR). Electroactive organic-inorganic hybrid materials have also been synthesized via the sol-gel process. A coupling agent was used to covalently bond the organic and inorganic species. The morphology and conductivity of the products have been investigated.

  17. Adsorption of L-phenylalanine onto mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscianska, Joanna; Olejnik, Anna; Pietrzak, Robert, E-mail: pietrob@amu.edu.pl

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous silica materials, such as SBA-3, SBA-15, SBA-16 and KIT-6 were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica source and different surfactants as templates. The products were characterised by a number of techniques, including low-temperature nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results of the studies confirmed the ordered mesoporous structures of all silica samples obtained. Adsorption of L-phenylalanine on various mesoporous adsorbents was studied from solutions with different pH (5.6–9.4). Maximum sorption capacity was observed at pH 5.6, which is close to the isoelectric point of L-phenylalanine (pI = 5.48). Above this pH value, the amount of adsorbed amino acid decreased. In the range of equilibrium concentration (pH 5.6), the adsorption capacities of ordered silica samples decreased in the following order: KIT-6 (420 ?mol g{sup ?1}) > SBA-15 (389 ?mol g{sup ?1}) > SBA-16 (357 ?mol g{sup ?1}) > SBA-3 (219 ?mol g{sup ?1}). The lowest sorption capacity towards L-phenylalanine was found for SBA-3 despite the fact that it showed the largest surface area, which can be explained assuming that part of the pores in SBA-3 can be inaccessible to L-phenylalanine molecules. Large pore size of KIT-6 and SBA-15 permitted the amino acid molecule to enter into the pores of these mesoporous molecular sieves. - Highlights: • SBA-3, SBA-15, SBA-16, KIT-6 materials were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Ordered mesoporous silicas are promising as adsorbents of L-phenylalanine. • Adsorption of L-phenylalanine was studied from solutions with different pH. • Sorption capacities decrease in the following order: KIT-6 > SBA-15 > SBA-16 > SBA-3. • Large pore size of KIT-6 and SBA-15 permit the amino acid to enter into the pores.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (27Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystal pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. 27Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: ? Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. ? Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. ? The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. ? Higher catalytic activities were obtained.

  19. Oxidative nanopatterning of titanium generates mesoporous surfaces with antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Variola F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Variola,1,2 Sylvia Francis Zalzal,3 Annie Leduc,3 Jean Barbeau,3 Antonio Nanci31Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Mesoporous surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning have the capacity to selectively regulate cell behavior, but their impact on microorganisms has not yet been explored. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of such surfaces on the adherence of two common bacteria and one yeast strain that are responsible for nosocomial infections in clinical settings and biomedical applications. In addition, because surface characteristics are known to affect bacterial adhesion, we further characterized the physicochemical properties of the mesoporous surfaces. Focused ion beam (FIB was used to generate ultrathin sections for elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED, and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM imaging. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans onto titanium disks with mesoporous and polished surfaces was compared. Disks with the two surfaces side-by-side were also used for direct visual comparison. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study indicate that bacterial adhesion is significantly hindered by the mesoporous surface. In addition, we provide evidence that it alters structural parameters of C. albicans that determine its invasiveness potential, suggesting that microorganisms can sense and respond to the mesoporous surface. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of a simple chemical oxidative treatment in generating nanotextured surfaces with antimicrobial capacity with potential applications in the implant manufacturing industry and hospital setting.Keywords: mesoporosity, surface characterization, microorganisms, adhesion

  20. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Sadeghi; Mohammad Atafat; Mehdi Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm) were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12) and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cure...

  1. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Kapil

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted great interest for last two decades due to their unique and advantageous structural properties, such as high surface area, pore volume, stable mesostructure, tunable pore size and controllable particle morphology. The robust silica framework provides sites for organic modifications, making MSNs ideal platforms for adsorbents and supported organocatalysts. In addition, the pores of MSNs provide cavities/ channels for incorporation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticle catalysts. These supported metal nanoparticle catalysts benefit from confined local environments to enhance their activity and selectivity for various reactions. Biomass is considered as a sustainable feedstock with potential to replace diminishing fossil fuels for the production of biofuels. Among several strategies, one of the promising methods of biofuel production from biomass is to reduce the oxygen content of the feedstock in order to improve the energy density. This can be achieved by creating C-C bonds between biomass derived intermediates to increase the molecular weight of the final hydrocarbon molecules. In this context, pore size and organic functionality of MSNs are varied to obtain the ideal catalyst for a C-C bond forming reaction: the aldol condensation. The mechanistic aspects of this reaction in supported heterogeneous catalysts are explored. The modification of supported organocatalyst and the effect of solvent on the reaction are rationalized. The significance of two functional surfaces of MSNs is exploited by enzyme immobilization on the external surface and organo catalyst functionalization on the internal surface. Using this bifunctional catalyst, the tandem conversion of small chain alcohols into longer chain hydrocarbon molecules is demonstrated. The ability to incorporate metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in the pores and subsequent functionalization led to develop organic modified magnetic MSNs (OM-MSNs) for applications in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of alpha-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of alpha-tocopherol.

  2. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-02

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted great interest for last two decades due to their unique and advantageous structural properties, such as high surface area, pore volume, stable mesostructure, tunable pore size and controllable particle morphology. The robust silica framework provides sites for organic modifications, making MSNs ideal platforms for adsorbents and supported organocatalysts. In addition, the pores of MSNs provide cavities/ channels for incorporation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticle catalysts. These supported metal nanoparticle catalysts benefit from confined local environments to enhance their activity and selectivity for various reactions. Biomass is considered as a sustainable feedstock with potential to replace diminishing fossil fuels for the production of biofuels. Among several strategies, one of the promising methods of biofuel production from biomass is to reduce the oxygen content of the feedstock in order to improve the energy density. This can be achieved by creating C-C bonds between biomass derived intermediates to increase the molecular weight of the final hydrocarbon molecules. In this context, pore size and organic functionality of MSNs are varied to obtain the ideal catalyst for a C-C bond forming reaction: the aldol condensation. The mechanistic aspects of this reaction in supported heterogeneous catalysts are explored. The modification of supported organocatalyst and the effect of solvent on the reaction are rationalized. The significance of two functional surfaces of MSNs is exploited by enzyme immobilization on the external surface and organo catalyst functionalization on the internal surface. Using this bifunctional catalyst, the tandem conversion of small chain alcohols into longer chain hydrocarbon molecules is demonstrated. The ability to incorporate metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in the pores and subsequent functionalization led to develop organic modified magnetic MSNs (OM-MSNs) for applications in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of -tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of {alpha}-tocopherol.

  3. A study of asphaltene-resin interactions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz C. C., Marques; Juliana O., Pereira; André D., Bueno; Valdo S., Marques; Elizabete F., Lucas; Claudia R. E., Mansur; André L. C., Machado; Gaspar, González.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para investigar a interação entre asfaltenos (em soluções de tolueno) e resinas (em soluções de n-heptano). Para entender melhor o tipo de interação entre essas frações, quantificou-se o consumo de resina quando asfaltenos (dissolvidos em tolueno) foram precipitados com uma s [...] olução de n-heptano contendo resina. Os resultados indicaram que a precipitação de asfaltenos ocorre juntamente com a redução na concentração de resina. Os perfis das isotermas de ligação indicaram que a saturação ocorreu em um caso, em quanto que o efeito cooperativo com posterior platô inicial foi observado para duas outras amostras. Estes resultados confirmaram a hipótese de que resinas podem adsorver em asfaltenos, mas não podem evitar floculação e precipitação de asfaltenos. Além disso, resultados de microcalorimetria sugeriram que a resina e asfalteno interagem por forças fracas de van der Waals. Estes resultados estão em contraste com a escola de pensamento predominante desde a década de 1940 que advoga que as resinas podem peptizar e estabilizar asfaltenos. Abstract in english A study was carried out to investigate the interaction between asphaltenes (in toluene solutions) and resins (in n-heptane solutions). To better understand the type of interaction between these fractions, it was quantified the resin uptake when asphaltenes (dissolved in toluene) were precipitated by [...] a resin-containing n-heptane solution. These results indicated the asphaltene precipitation occurs together with a reduction in the resin concentration. The binding isotherm profiles indicated that saturation occurred in one case, while collective association following an initial plateau was observed for the other two samples. These results confirmed the hypothesis that resins can adsorb on asphaltenes but cannot prevent asphaltenes from flocculating and precipitating. Furthermore, microcalorimetric results suggested that the resin and asphaltene interact by weak van der Waals forces. These results are in stark contrast with the school of thought prevalent since the 1940s that resins can peptize and stabilize asphaltenes.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of a novel mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites. ? The strong acidic intensity. ? High activity for the alkylation of phenol and tert-butyl alcohol. ? Remarkable hydrothermal stability. - Abstract: A novel mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite was hydrothermally synthesized using glucose as a template. Characterizations by XRD, TEM and nitrogen isotherms indicated that ZSM-5 possessed worm-like mesoporous. 27Al-MAS-NMR and NH3-TPD showed that the mesoporous ZSM-5 preserved tetrahedral coordination aluminum and stronger acidity than conventional mesoporous material. As-prepared mesoporous ZSM-5 was successfully used in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butanol and exhibited significantly high phenol conversion and 2,4-DTBP selectivity. In addition, the hydrothermal stability was also studied by boiling in water for 7 days and displayed good results

  5. The benefits of meso-porous solids for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meso-porous material is a porous material whose pores have a width between 2 nm and 50 nm. In the early nineties, new synthesis methods were discovered, providing ways of obtaining meso-porous ceramics in large quantities.These scientific advances thus made it possible to bring in meso-porous systems in many fields of research, e.g. catalysis, gas detection, water decontamination. Somewhat surprisingly, the nuclear world stood relatively aloof from this veritable vogue, even though the properties exhibited by meso-porous solids turn out to be highly attractive. Meso-porous materials appears to be choice materials in separation chemistry, actinide extraction, retention of radionuclides, decontamination of radioactive effluents, and even in reducing the impact of heavy irradiations. The combination of meso-porous materials with nano-structured materials opens a broad field of investigation concerning all the materials used in the nuclear sector and particularly in the fuel cycle. (A.C.)

  6. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of a novel mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yuanyuan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals of College of Heilongjiang Province, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Hu, Jing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Jia, Lihua [Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals of College of Heilongjiang Province, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Li, Zhifang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: catalysischina@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wu, Shujie, E-mail: wusj@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites. ? The strong acidic intensity. ? High activity for the alkylation of phenol and tert-butyl alcohol. ? Remarkable hydrothermal stability. - Abstract: A novel mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite was hydrothermally synthesized using glucose as a template. Characterizations by XRD, TEM and nitrogen isotherms indicated that ZSM-5 possessed worm-like mesoporous. {sup 27}Al-MAS-NMR and NH{sub 3}-TPD showed that the mesoporous ZSM-5 preserved tetrahedral coordination aluminum and stronger acidity than conventional mesoporous material. As-prepared mesoporous ZSM-5 was successfully used in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butanol and exhibited significantly high phenol conversion and 2,4-DTBP selectivity. In addition, the hydrothermal stability was also studied by boiling in water for 7 days and displayed good results.

  7. Direct coating of mesoporous titania on CTAB-capped gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Xu, Pengyu; Li, Yue; Wu, Jian; Xue, Junfei; Zhu, Qiannan; Lu, Xuxing; Ni, Weihai

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a CTAB-templated approach towards direct coating of mesoporous titania on gold nanorods in aqueous solutions. The formation of the mesoporous shell is found to be closely correlated with CTAB concentration and the amount of the titania precursor. This approach can be readily extended to form mesoporous titania shells on other CTAB-capped nanoparticles.We demonstrate a CTAB-templated approach towards direct coating of mesoporous titania on gold nanorods in aqueous solutions. The formation of the mesoporous shell is found to be closely correlated with CTAB concentration and the amount of the titania precursor. This approach can be readily extended to form mesoporous titania shells on other CTAB-capped nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details including chemicals, sample preparation, and characterization methods. UV-Vis extinction spectra, SEM images, and TEM images of AuNR@mTiO2 nanostructures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05692f

  8. Ordered mesoporous carbon film as an effective solid-phase microextraction coating for determination of benzene series from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hui [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Geography Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lijsh@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Jiang, Mingyue; Lu, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2015-08-12

    The present work reports preparation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) film supported on a graphite fiber as a new type of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for determination of benzene series from aqueous media. The strategy for the supported OMC film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) approach. A graphite fiber was immersed in an ethanol solution containing phenolic resin and Pluronic triblock copolymer. Upon solvent evaporation and subsequent pyrolysis under 700 °C, the phenolic resin and the surfactant self-assembled on the surface of the graphite fiber to form smooth OMC film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen isothermal adsorption results indicate that the resultant OMC film possesses well-ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure with pore diameters of 4.5 nm and BET surfaces of 630 m{sup 2}/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show the supported OMC film with thickness at 8.5 μm is continuous and defect-free. The SPME efficiency of the OMC fiber was evaluated by analysis of five benzene series (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and m-xylene) from water samples by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The analysis results indicate that the prepared OMC fiber has wide linear ranges (0.5–500 μg/L), low detection limits (0.01–0.05 μg/L) and good repeatabilities (4.0–5.8% for one fiber, 2.9–8.7% for fiber-to-fiber). Compared with commercial counterparts, the OMC fiber exhibits improved extraction efficiency for benzene series and PAHs. - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous carbon film supported on graphite fiber was first reported as solid-phase microextraction coating. • The strategy for the film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with evaporation-induced self-assembly approach. • The obtained fiber showed enhanced thermal stability and organic solvents resistance. • The fiber outperformed the commercial counterpart on extraction efficiency toward benzene series.

  9. Ordered mesoporous carbon film as an effective solid-phase microextraction coating for determination of benzene series from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports preparation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) film supported on a graphite fiber as a new type of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for determination of benzene series from aqueous media. The strategy for the supported OMC film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) approach. A graphite fiber was immersed in an ethanol solution containing phenolic resin and Pluronic triblock copolymer. Upon solvent evaporation and subsequent pyrolysis under 700 °C, the phenolic resin and the surfactant self-assembled on the surface of the graphite fiber to form smooth OMC film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen isothermal adsorption results indicate that the resultant OMC film possesses well-ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure with pore diameters of 4.5 nm and BET surfaces of 630 m2/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show the supported OMC film with thickness at 8.5 μm is continuous and defect-free. The SPME efficiency of the OMC fiber was evaluated by analysis of five benzene series (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and m-xylene) from water samples by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The analysis results indicate that the prepared OMC fiber has wide linear ranges (0.5–500 μg/L), low detection limits (0.01–0.05 μg/L) and good repeatabilities (4.0–5.8% for one fiber, 2.9–8.7% for fiber-to-fiber). Compared with commercial counterparts, the OMC fiber exhibits improved extraction efficiency for benzene series and PAHs. - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous carbon film supported on graphite fiber was first reported as solid-phase microextraction coating. • The strategy for the film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with evaporation-induced self-assembly approach. • The obtained fiber showed enhanced thermal stability and organic solvents resistance. • The fiber outperformed the commercial counterpart on extraction efficiency toward benzene series

  10. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:25047352

  11. USE OF BABAÇU FLOUR WITH ALTERNATIVE EXTENDER FOR PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika da Silva Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the potentiality of babaçu flour under differents percents (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% as alternative extensers to wheatmeal for plywood manufacturing. Third three panels with five veneers were produced using Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze, with urea-formaldehyde – UF and phenol-formaldehyde – FF resins and being three panels per treatment. The following formulations (in parts per wheight were used: UF resin – 100 x extender – 50 x water – 50 x catalyst – 7 and FF resin – 100 x extender – 18 x water – 22. The results of both glue line shear strength obtained for plywood manufactured with urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins showed the feasibility of the use of babaçu flour as the extender in parcial or total substitution of wheat flour in the plywood manufactures.

  12. Mesoporous zeolite single crystal catalysts: Diffusion and catalysis in hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christina Hviid; Johannsen, Kim; Toernqvist, Eric; Schmidt, Iver; Topsoe, Henrik; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    During the last years, several new routes to produce zeolites with controlled mesoporosity have appeared. Moreover, an improved catalytic performance of the resulting mesoporous zeolites over conventional zeolites has been demonstrated in several reactions. In most cases, the mesoporous zeolites exhibit higher catalytic activity, but in some cases also improved selectivity and longer catalyst lifetime has been reported. The beneficial effects of introducing mesopores into the zeolites has in mos...

  13. Multifunctional hybrid nanocarrier: Magnetic CNTs ensheathed with mesoporous silica for drug delivery and imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Singh; K. D. Patel; Kim, J-J; Kim, T-H.; Kim, J-H; Shin, U. S.; Lee, E-J; Kim, H-W; Knowles, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we communicate the development of a novel multifunctional hybrid nanomaterial, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) ensheathed with mesoporous silica, for the simultaneous applications of drug delivery and imaging. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were first decorated onto the multiwalled CNTs, which was then layered with mesoporous silica (mSiO) to facilitate the loading of bioactive molecules to a large quantity while exerting magnetic properties. The hybrid nanomaterial showed a high mesopor...

  14. Selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules on mesoporous borosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Manidipa; Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous materials can play a pivotal role as a host material for delivery application to a specific part of a system. In this work we explore the selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules such as safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) on mesoporous borosilicate materials. The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and borosilicate materials (MBS) were prepared using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. After template removal the materials show high surface areas and in some cases ordered mesopores of dimensions ca. 6-7 nm. High surface area, mesoporosity and the presence of heteroatom (boron) help this mesoporous borosilicate material to adsorb high amount of cationic dye molecules at its surface from the respective aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the mesoporous borosilicate samples containing higher percentage adsorbed dyes show excellent release of ST or MG dye in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at physiological pH = 7.4 and temperature 310 K. The adsorption and release efficiency of mesoporous borosilicate samples are compared with reference boron-free mesoporous pure silica material to understand the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent interaction at the surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate materials have been synthesized by using Pluronic P123 as template. The materials show very good adsorption and release of organic cationic dye molecules under physiological conditions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonionic Pluoronic P123 templated mesoporous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of organic dyes at the mesopore surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled release of dyes under physiological pH and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) dyes in simulated body fluids.

  15. Selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules on mesoporous borosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous materials can play a pivotal role as a host material for delivery application to a specific part of a system. In this work we explore the selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules such as safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) on mesoporous borosilicate materials. The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and borosilicate materials (MBS) were prepared using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. After template removal the materials show high surface areas and in some cases ordered mesopores of dimensions ca. 6–7 nm. High surface area, mesoporosity and the presence of heteroatom (boron) help this mesoporous borosilicate material to adsorb high amount of cationic dye molecules at its surface from the respective aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the mesoporous borosilicate samples containing higher percentage adsorbed dyes show excellent release of ST or MG dye in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at physiological pH = 7.4 and temperature 310 K. The adsorption and release efficiency of mesoporous borosilicate samples are compared with reference boron-free mesoporous pure silica material to understand the nature of adsorbate–adsorbent interaction at the surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate materials have been synthesized by using Pluronic P123 as template. The materials show very good adsorption and release of organic cationic dye molecules under physiological conditions. Highlights: ► Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate. ► Nonionic Pluoronic P123 templated mesoporous material. ► Adsorption of organic dyes at the mesopore surface. ► Controlled release of dyes under physiological pH and temperature. ► Release of safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) dyes in simulated body fluids.

  16. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route

    OpenAIRE

    Chengli Huo; Jing Ouyang; Huaming Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered aluminum-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MCM-41) was prepared using attapulgite clay mineral as a Si and Al source. Mesoporous complexes embedded with CuO nanoparticles were subsequently prepared using various copper sources and different copper loadings in a direct synthetic route. The resulting CuO/Al-MCM-41 composite possessed p6mm hexagonally symmetry, well-developed mesoporosity, and relatively high BET surface area. In comparison to pure silica, these mesoporous material...

  17. Hierarchical zeolites: progress on synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zeolite single crystal catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a new family of crystalline zeolitic materials was reported, the so-called mesoporous zeolite single crystals featuring individual zeolite single crystals with an additional noncrystalline mesopore system interconnected with the usual micropore system of the zeolite, resulting in a hierarchical pore size distribution. In this work, the preparation of mesoporous ZSM-12 single crystal catalysts using a new improved procedure for directly introducing carbon in the reaction mixture is repo...

  18. Catalytic Behaviour of Mesoporous Cobalt-Aluminum Oxides for CO Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Bordoloi; Miguel Sanchez; Heshmat Noei; Stefan Kaluza; Dennis Großmann; Yuemin Wang; Wolfgang Grünert; Martin Muhler

    2014-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous materials are promising catalyst supports due to their uniform pore size distribution, high specific surface area and pore volume, tunable pore sizes, and long-range ordering of the pore packing. The evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process was applied to synthesize mesoporous mixed oxides, which consist of cobalt ions highly dispersed in an alumina matrix. The characterization of the mesoporous mixed cobalt-aluminum oxides with cobalt loadings in the range from 5 t...

  19. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  20. Controversies in posterior composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E G; Mandradjieff, M; Brindock, T

    1990-01-01

    The use of posterior composites is riddled with so many controversies that the puzzled practitioner must step warily among them. This modality is a minefield, where one careless movement can bring disaster. All composite restorations are subject to three big destructive forces--moisture, polymerization shrinkage, and clinical wear--forces that can eventually produce both microleakage and deterioration of the silane coupling agent linking filler particles to resin matrix. Despite the extreme technique sensitivity of posterior composite resins, knowledge of resin technology, sound operative dentistry principles and foresight in case selection can be effective in producing durable cosmetic restorations. Posterior composite resin restorations bonded to enamel and dentin reputedly strengthen teeth in both conventional and adhesive types of preparations provided polymerization shrinkage can be controlled. It is imperative that a knowledge of occlusal contacts be used to influence cavity outline, confining the trauma or occlusal forces away from the tooth-resin interface and helping to minimize occlusal wear. With the increased use of posterior resins, the trend in cavity preparations should break away from the traditional Black preparation toward the adhesive type preparation. If the Black Class II preparation is used, it is suggested that bevels be confined to the facial and lingual margins of the proximal box. Prewedging helps to maintain a conservative Class II preparation. Shade selection must be made prior to rubber dam isolation for greater accuracy and to help prevent postinsertion discoloration. The enamel should be pumiced to present a clean substrate for acid etching. The smear layer should be removed. The type of pulp protection applied before acid etching is dependent on the material used. After etching, the enamel should be washed with a 1 per cent potassium chloride solution. It is a more universally chemically stable solution than additive-laden local water supplies. The potassium chloride solution lowers the electrostatic forces on the enamel that would interfere with the flow of enamel bonding agents. Furthermore, tests have shown that the use of potassium chloride washes increase the strength of the enamel body by 40 per cent. Because of the depth of most posterior cavities, an incremental filling technique must be used to ensure a thorough polymerization of the resin and to forestall a massive polymerization shrinkage. When finished and contoured, the margins of the restoration should be re-etched, washed, and dried and then covered with an application of unfilled resin to discourage microleakage. Traditional operative dentistry technique must become flexible enough to meet the new demands of resin technology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2403943

  1. Method of decomposing ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To attain the shortening for the processing time, economization for the amount of chemical consumed and reduction in the size of the device upon decomposing treatment of radioactive ion exchange resins wastes by using oxidizers. Method: A reaction vessel for conducting pulverization and conversion into inorganic substances as the decomposing step for resin wastes is made of corrosion resistant and non-magnetic material and a great amount of spindle-like actuation pieces made of ferromagnetic material are contained in the vessel. Resin wastes and oxidizers (hydrogen peroxide), and decomposing catalyst (iron ions) are supplied to the vessel. When electric power is supplied to a moving type magnetic field generator disposed on both sides of the vessel, moving magnetic fields act to the inside of the vessel thereby causing each of the actuation pieces to float upwardly, rotate around its axis and revolve around the vessel. Thus, the resin wastes are pulverized into almost colloidal state, mixed sufficiently and reacted with chemicals and decomposed into inorganic materials. According to the result of the experiment, about 100 % of the resin wastes can be converted into inorganic material for about 4 minutes. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  3. Stabilizing parquet blocks with epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Glazkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While parquet blocks and panels from stabilized wood show much promise as finishing materials, their widespread use is limited by their low dimensional stability in variable-humidity environments. Existing solutions to stabilize the blocks have several disadvantages, including hard-to-find or toxic stabilizers. This is why this study discusses modifications of epoxy resin which has sufficient functionality for effective structuring. We analyzed the capillary-porous structure of different types of wood, and established the patterns associated with a reduction in the porosity or the specific volume of voids in pine, birch and oak. The basic characteristics of impregnating compositions indicating the high penetrative and structuring capabilities of epoxy resin have been discovered. It is shown that in addition to increasing the strength characteristics, there is a steady decline in water absorption and swelling with an increase in resin content in the wood. It has been found by the method of test fluids that curing the epoxy resin in the presence of hexamethylenediamine is accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of polar components in the total value of the surface tension. Oligomer molecules were shown to penentrate pine wood cells, providing a high moisture protection effect. The results suggest it is possible to use epoxy resin to modify parquet blocks and panels that would be used under variable humidity and high impact loads.

  4. Morphological Control of Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Catalysis Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong Huh

    2004-12-19

    I found an efficient method to control the morphology of the organically monofunctionalized mesoporous silica materials by introducing different types of organoalkoxysilanes in a base-catalyzed co-condensation reaction. The monofunctionalized materials exhibit different particle morphologies relative to the pure MCM-41 material. The concentration dependence of the morphology is a critical factor to determine the final particle shape. A proposed mechanism of the shape evolution is also offered. After understanding the role of organoalkoxysilanes in producing various well-shaped nanomaterials, I also obtained a series of bifunctional mesoporous silica materials with certain particle morphology. A series of bifunctional mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) whose physicochemical properties was investigated via solid state NMR techniques and Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity tests, The ratio of two different organic groups inside of mesopores of these MSNs could be fine-tuned. These MSNs serve as a useful model system to study substrate selectivity in catalytic reactions and sorption phenomena. For example, the Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity of these materials was dictated by the chemical nature of the mesopores generated by the different organic functional groups. An investigation of the substrate selectivity of the bifunctionalized MSNs in a competitive nitroaldol reaction using an equimolar amount of two competing 4-nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives was performed. Shape-controlled bifunctional MSNs were employed as the catalysts. The properties of the MSNs were investigated using various spectroscopic methods and electron microscopy. The more hydrophobic the surface organic groups are, the higher the ratio of hydrophobic final product. This is the first example to demonstrate the selection of substrate using physicochemical nature of the mesopore surface other than the conventional shape selection in zeolite systems. I also created a cooperative dual catalyst system that is capable of activating two different substrates in aldol reaction, Henry reaction and cyanosilylation. One catalytic group activates the nucleophile, another organic group simultaneously activates the electrophile to enhance the total reaction rate. I systematically vaned the amount of two organic groups and performed the three model reactions to compare rate enhancements.

  5. Preparation of superhydrophilic mesoporous SiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Peiyi [Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu Yun, E-mail: huyun@scut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wei Chaohai [Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-03-01

    Using a simple sol-gel/spin-coating method, mesoporous SiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared on glass slides. All of the prepared thin films were colorless and transparent as original glass substrates. XRD and TEM measurements revealed that the prepared SiO{sub 2} thin films coated 3-12 times possess hexagonal mesoporous structure. The mesoporous SiO{sub 2} thin films performed the superhydrophilicity and antifogging property in the absence of UV light irradiation. The results suggested that the appropriate film thickness and mesoporous structures can improve the surface superhydrophilic behavior of SiO{sub 2} thin films.

  6. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Pneumatic moulding sand reclamation in the linear regenerator system

    OpenAIRE

    H. Szlumczyk; Janerka, K.; Homa, D.; A. Myszor

    2007-01-01

    This article covers the analysis of the pneumatic moulding sand reclamation, made of different types of binders. The research has been carried out for the sand with resin binder (phenolic – formaldehyde and furan resins) as well as water glass (hardened with flodur and arconite hardener). Reclamation has been carried in the pneumatic conveying system in the linear regenerator in the technical scale. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the reclamation has been made on the basis of tests determi...

  8. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nazrul ISLAM; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  9. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  10. Adsorption of plant phenols by polystyrene resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Fukushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of nine plant phenols by nine polystyrene ion-exchange resins was investigated in an experimental model system. The phenols were adsorbed by Amberlite CG-120 more efficiently than any other acidically charged resins tested in this study. They were also taken up by anion exchangers. Among them Dowex 1-X8 was found to show the strongest effect on the adsorption of the phenolic constituents applied. A comparison of the efficiency of plant phenol adsorption between two different types of the synthetic polymers revealed that the basically charged polystyrenes had more prefarable affinities for phenols than cation exchangers. For example, the ratio of the efficiency between Amberlite CG-120 and Dowex 1-X8 was roughly calculated to be 3:7 under the present experimental conditions. The adsorption rate of the test phenols was raised mostly by increasing the amount of the resins added, if they were mixed with effective polymers in the incubation model system.

  11. Decontamination capability of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epoxy resin coatings with and without solvents, which have dominated nuclear technology applications, are being replaced more and more frequently by powerful two-component epoxy resin coatings which are emulsifiable with water. This replacement is required for reasons of environmental legislation. To assess the decontamination characteristics and the resistance to chemicals, these three systems were subjected to comparative studies without previous exposure and after gamma irradiation in steps up to 10 Gy. The investigations showed that coats emulsifiable with water performed as well as the solvent-bearing varieties. In this respect, they meet the criteria for coatings in nuclear plants according to the DIN 55991 Part 1 standard. The good properties, such as insensitivity to moisture in concrete, excellent adhesion and adhesion as intermediate layers also on old coatings, are going to help epoxy resin coatings emulsifiable with water win broad application in nuclear medicine and nuclear technology. (orig.)

  12. Large-Scale, Three-Dimensional, Free-Standing, and Mesoporous Metal Oxide Networks for High-Performance Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Li, Xinshi; Hu, Chao; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Junfang; Yan, Yan; Xi, Guangcheng

    2013-07-01

    Mesoporous nanostructures represent a unique class of photocatalysts with many applications, including splitting of water, degradation of organic contaminants, and reduction of carbon dioxide. In this work, we report a general Lewis acid catalytic template route for the high-yield producing single- and multi-component large-scale three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous metal oxide networks. The large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter-sized) and mesoporous nanostructure with huge pore volume and large surface exposure area. This method also can be used for the synthesis of large-scale 3D macro/mesoporous hierarchical porous materials and noble metal nanoparticles loaded 3D mesoporous networks. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks enable high photocatalytic activity. The present synthetic method can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D mesoporous nanomaterials.

  13. Large-Scale, Three–Dimensional, Free–Standing, and Mesoporous Metal Oxide Networks for High–Performance Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Li, Xinshi; Hu, Chao; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Junfang; Yan, Yan; Xi, Guangcheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous nanostructures represent a unique class of photocatalysts with many applications, including splitting of water, degradation of organic contaminants, and reduction of carbon dioxide. In this work, we report a general Lewis acid catalytic template route for the high–yield producing single– and multi–component large–scale three–dimensional (3D) mesoporous metal oxide networks. The large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter–sized) and mesoporous nanostructure with huge pore volume and large surface exposure area. This method also can be used for the synthesis of large–scale 3D macro/mesoporous hierarchical porous materials and noble metal nanoparticles loaded 3D mesoporous networks. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the large–scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks enable high photocatalytic activity. The present synthetic method can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D mesoporous nanomaterials. PMID:23857595

  14. Ordered mesoporous carbon film as an effective solid-phase microextraction coating for determination of benzene series from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Li, Jiansheng; Jiang, Mingyue; Lu, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-12

    The present work reports preparation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) film supported on a graphite fiber as a new type of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for determination of benzene series from aqueous media. The strategy for the supported OMC film preparation was combined dip-coating technology with solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) approach. A graphite fiber was immersed in an ethanol solution containing phenolic resin and Pluronic triblock copolymer. Upon solvent evaporation and subsequent pyrolysis under 700 °C, the phenolic resin and the surfactant self-assembled on the surface of the graphite fiber to form smooth OMC film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen isothermal adsorption results indicate that the resultant OMC film possesses well-ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure with pore diameters of 4.5 nm and BET surfaces of 630 m(2)/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show the supported OMC film with thickness at 8.5 ?m is continuous and defect-free. The SPME efficiency of the OMC fiber was evaluated by analysis of five benzene series (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and m-xylene) from water samples by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The analysis results indicate that the prepared OMC fiber has wide linear ranges (0.5-500 ?g/L), low detection limits (0.01-0.05 ?g/L) and good repeatabilities (4.0-5.8% for one fiber, 2.9-8.7% for fiber-to-fiber). Compared with commercial counterparts, the OMC fiber exhibits improved extraction efficiency for benzene series and PAHs. PMID:26320962

  15. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  16. Catalytic conversion of cellulose over mesoporous Y zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Jun, Bo Ram; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeong, Kwang-Eun

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous Y zeolite (Meso-Y) was applied, for the first time, to the catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose which is a major constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, to produce high-quality bio-oil. A representative mesoporous catalyst Al-MCM-41 was also used to compare its catalytic activity with that of Meso-Y. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the experiments. Meso-Y, with higher acidity, led to larger yields of aromatics and furans with high value-added than Al-MCM-41, resulting in the production of bio-oil with higher quality. The effect of temperature on the catalytic pyrolysis was not significant within the range of 400-500 degrees C. When the Meso-Y to cellulose ratio was increased from 1/1 via 2/1 to 3/1, the deoxygenation efficiency increased, leading to increased yield of aromatics. PMID:24757989

  17. Interconnected mesopores and high accessibility in UVM-7-like silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabero, Monica [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain); Hungria, Ana B. [Universidad de Cadiz, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Morales, Jose Manuel [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain); Tortajada, Marta; Ramon, Daniel [Biopolis S. L. (Spain); Moragues, Alaina; El Haskouri, Jamal; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.amoros@uv.es [Universitat de Valencia, Institut de Ciencia dels Materials (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Nanoparticulated bimodal mesoporous silicas (NBS) have proved to constitute adequate supports in a variety of applications requiring enhanced accessibility to the active sites. Mass-transfer kinetics seems to be highly favoured in UVM-7-derived NBS materials. To understand the mass-diffusion phenomena throughout UVM-7-like supports requires well-grounded knowledge about their pore architecture. 3-D reconstructions of the UVM-7 mesostructure carried out by electron tomography reveal the existence of a true hierarchic connectivity involving both inter- and intra-nanoparticle pores. This connectivity makes self-supported nanoparticulated mesoporous bimodal carbon replicas of the supports feasible to obtaining by nanocasting. Both the temperature-induced mobility of gold nanodomains and the fast and efficient enzyme adsorption in UVM-7-like silicas are examples of non-constrained diffusion processes happening inside such an open network.

  18. Extreme Light Management in Mesoporous Wood Cellulose Paper for Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Zhu; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Shen, Fei; Preston, Colin; Wu, Wenxin; Peng, Peng; Jang, Nathaniel; Yu, Qingkai; Yu, Zongfu; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-01-26

    Wood fibers possess natural unique hierarchical and mesoporous structures that enable a variety of new applications beyond their traditional use. We dramatically modulate the propagation of light through random network of wood fibers. A highly transparent and clear paper with transmittance >90% and haze 90% and haze >90% is also achieved. A thorough investigation of the relation between the mesoporous structure and the optical properties in transparent paper was conducted, including full-spectrum optical simulations. We demonstrate commercially competitive multitouch touch screen with clear paper as a replacement for plastic substrates, which shows excellent process compatibility and comparable device performance for commercial applications. Transparent cellulose paper with tunable optical properties is an emerging photonic material that will realize a range of much improved flexible electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. PMID:26673796

  19. Flash freezing route to mesoporous polymer nanofibre networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitsu, Sadaki; Zhang, Rui; Peng, Xinsheng; Krishnan, Mohan Raj; Fujii, Yoshihisa; Ichinose, Izumi

    2013-10-01

    There are increasing requirements worldwide for advanced separation materials with applications in environmental protection processes. Various mesoporous polymeric materials have been developed and they are considered as potential candidates. It is still challenging, however, to develop economically viable and durable separation materials from low-cost, mass-produced materials. Here we report the fabrication of a nanofibrous network structure from common polymers, based on a microphase separation technique from frozen polymer solutions. The resulting polymer nanofibre networks exhibit large free surface areas, exceeding 300?m2?g-1, as well as small pore radii as low as 1.9?nm. These mesoporous polymer materials are able to rapidly adsorb and desorb a large amount of carbon dioxide and are also capable of condensing organic vapours. Furthermore, the nanofibres made of engineering plastics with high glass transition temperatures over 200?°C exhibit surprisingly high, temperature-dependent adsorption of organic solvents from aqueous solution.

  20. Noble Metal Nanoparticle-loaded Mesoporous Oxide Microspheres for Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao

    Noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals have attracted much attention as catalysts due to their unique characteristics, including high surface areas and well-controlled facets, which are not often possessed by their bulk counterparts. To avoid the loss of their catalytic activities brought about by their size and shape changes during catalytic reactions, noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals are usually dispersed and supported finely on solid oxide supports to prevent agglomeration, nanoparticle growth, and therefore the decrease in the total surface area. Moreover, metal oxide supports can also play important roles in catalytic reactions through the synergistic interactions with loaded metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals. In this thesis, I use ultrasonic aerosol spray to produce hybrid microspheres that are composed of noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous metal oxide matrices. The mesoporous metal oxide structure allows for the fast diffusion of reactants and products as well as confining and supporting noble metal nanoparticles. I will first describe my studies on noble metal-loaded mesoporous oxide microspheres as catalysts. Three types of noble metals (Au, Pt, Pd) and three types of metal oxide substrates (TiO2, ZrO2, Al 2O3) were selected, because they are widely used for practical catalytic applications involved in environmental cleaning, pollution control, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical syntheses. By considering every possible combination of the noble metals and oxide substrates, nine types of catalyst samples were produced. I characterized the structures of these catalysts, including their sizes, morphologies, crystallinity, and porosities, and their catalytic performances by using a representative reduction reaction from nitrobenzene to aminobenzene. Comparison of the catalytic results reveals the effects of the different noble metals, their incorporation amounts, and oxide substrates on the catalytic abilities. For this particular reaction, I found that Pd nanoparticles supported on mesoporous TiO2 exhibit the best catalytic performance. The demonstrated low-cost and high-productivity preparation method can be extended to other catalysts, which can contain various metals and oxide substrates and will have high potential for industrial applications. Our preparation method also provides a platform for the studies of the synergetic catalytic effects between different oxide substrates and metals. I further fabricated hollow mesoporous microspheres containing differently shaped noble metal nanocrystals. Hollow structures are strongly desired in many applications because of their high pore volumes, surface areas, and possible light-trapping effect. In my study, the hollow structures were obtained by simply dispersing polystyrene (PS) nanospheres into the precursor solution for aerosol spray. The PS spheres were removed by thermal calcination to produce hollow mesoporous microspheres. In my first study, the noble metal salts were dissolved in the precursor solutions, and the noble metal nanoparticles were obtained through thermal calcination. In this way, the size and shape of the metal nanoparticles cannot be well controlled. In my second study, I first grew noble metal nanocrystals and then incorporated them into the oxide supports. This preparation route allowed me to incorporate metal nanocrystals with controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions into the oxide matrices. The metal nanocrystals I used in this experiment included Pd nanocubes, Au nanorods, and Au core--Pd shell nanorods. These nanocrystals were functionalized with thiol-terminated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) . The surface functionalization allowed them to adsorb on the PS spheres. After thermal calcination, the noble metal nanocrystals were left inside and adsorbed on the inner surface of the hollow mesoporous metal oxide microspheres. I investigated the catalytic activities of the Pd nanocube-embedded hollow mesoporous TiO2 and ZrO2 microspheres for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. I also examined the recycla

  1. Chemoradiotherapeutic wrinkled mesoporous silica nanoparticles for use in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaweera, Imalka; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr., E-mail: Balkus@utdallas.edu, E-mail: Anthony.DiPasqua@unthsc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Koneru, Bhuvaneswari; Shi, Yi; Di Pasqua, Anthony J., E-mail: Balkus@utdallas.edu, E-mail: Anthony.DiPasqua@unthsc.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76107 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the development and application of nanotechnology in cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy have been widely reported. Engineering of vehicles for the simultaneous delivery of chemo- and radiotherapeutics increases the effectiveness of the therapy and reduces the dosage of each individual drug required to produce an observable therapeutic response. We here developed a novel chemoradiotherapeutic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid coated/uncoated platinum drug loaded, holmium-containing, wrinkled mesoporous silica nanoparticle. The materials were characterized with TEM, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, energy dispersive x-ray, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and zeta potential measurements. In vitro platinum drug release from both lipid coated and uncoated chemoradiotherapeutic wrinkled mesoporous silica are reported. Various kinetic models were used to analyze the release kinetics. The radioactivity of the chemoradiotherapeutic nanocarriers was measured after neutron-activation.

  2. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongdong, E-mail: lidongchem@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ? The materials have high surface area and amino group. ? The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH{sub 3}{sup +} on the matrix and -COO{sup ?}belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate.

  3. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Films for Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado Alvarez, Tania Maria

    Mesoporous silica materials are well known materials that can range from films to nanoparticles. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and mesoporous silica films have been of increasing interest among the scientific community for its use in cargo delivery. Silica provides ease of functionalization, a robust support and biocompatibility. Several methods have been used in order to give the mesoporous silica nanomaterials different qualities that render them a useful material with different characteristics. Among these methods is surface modification by taking advantage of the OH groups on the surface. When a molecule attached to the surface can act as a molecular machine it transforms the nanomaterial to act as delivery system that can be activated upon command. The work covered in this thesis focuses on the development and synthesis of different mesoporous silica materials for the purpose of trapping and releasing cargo molecules. Chapter 2 focuses in the photoactivation of "snap-top" stoppers over the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles that releases intact cargo molecules from the pores. The on-command release can be stimulated by either one UV photon or two coherent near-IR photons. Two-photon activation is particularly desirable for use in biological systems because it enables good tissue penetration and precise spatial control. Chapter 3 focuses on the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes intermolecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. The operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two photon is described. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy. Chapter 4 focuses on the attachment of a photoacid molecule on the surface of silica nanoparticles. Upon light irradiation the pKa of the photoacid molecules decreases causing the dissociation of the proton and the acidification of the nanoparticle surface. The local nanoparticle surface acidification was probed using a pH sensitive nanovalve that was attached to MSNs next to a photoacid. The particles were loaded with a fluorescent dye that was contained by the naovalve and released upon acidification of the surrounding environment. The amount of the dye release was measure continuously by detecting its fluorescence. Chapter 5 focuses on the synthesis of materials that utilize the micropatterned structure of a mesoporous silica film to successfully load and release cargo using a thermal sensitive polymer. Films with pore sizes of ˜2 and ˜5 nm aligned in the pulling direction were synthesized using evaporation induced self-assembly techniques. The pores are exposed using a new method of stamping micropatterns without the use hydrofluoric acid. A well-studied temperature dependent polymer [poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide)] was grafted onto the surface of these films to act as a temperature activated gatekeeper. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) the polymer is erect and can block the pore openings, trapping cargo inside the pores. When the temperature is above the LCST the polymer collapses and unblocks the pores, allowing cargo to escape. The loading capacities as well as the reusability of these films were studied.

  4. Adsorption of benzene, cyclohexane and hexane on ordered mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Dou, Baojuan; Zhang, Zhongshen; Wang, Junhui; Liu, Haier; Hao, Zhengping

    2015-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with high specific surface area and large pore volume was synthesized and tested for use as an adsorbent for volatile organic compound (VOC) disposal. Benzene, cyclohexane and hexane were selected as typical adsorbates due to their different molecular sizes and extensive utilization in industrial processes. In spite of their structural differences, high adsorption amounts were achieved for all three adsorbates, as the pore size of OMC is large enough for the access of these VOCs. In addition, the unusual bimodal-like pore size distribution gives the adsorbates a higher diffusion rate compared with conventional adsorbents such as activated carbon and carbon molecular sieve. Kinetic analysis suggests that the adsorption barriers mainly originated from the difficulty of VOC vapor molecules entering the pore channels of adsorbents. Therefore, its superior adsorption ability toward VOCs, together with a high diffusion rate, makes the ordered mesoporous carbon a promising potential adsorbent for VOC disposal. PMID:25872710

  5. A series of highly stable mesoporous metalloporphyrin Fe-MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kecheng; Feng, Dawei; Liu, Tian-Fu; Su, Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bosch, Mathieu; Zou, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-10-01

    A series of mesoporous metalloporphyrin Fe-MOFs, namely PCN-600(M) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), have been synthesized using the preassembled [Fe3O(OOCCH3)6] building block. PCN-600 exhibits a one-dimensional channel as large as 3.1 nm and the highest experimental pore volume of 1.80 cm(3)g(-1) among all the reported porphyrinic MOFs. It also shows very high stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 2-11 and is to our knowledge the only mesoporous porphyrinic MOF stable under basic aqueous conditions. PCN-600(Fe) has been demonstrated as an effective peroxidase mimic to catalyze the co-oxidation reaction. PMID:25208035

  6. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2011-02-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470?A. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  7. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  8. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ? The materials have high surface area and amino group. ? The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH3+ on the matrix and -COO?belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate

  9. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for bioadsorption, enzyme immobilisation, and delivery carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Amirali; Hartono, Sandy Budi; Stahr, Frances; Liu, Jian; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Qing (Max) Lu, Gao

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) provide a non-invasive and biocompatible delivery platform for a broad range of applications in therapeutics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. The creation of smart, stimuli-responsive systems that respond to subtle changes in the local cellular environment are likely to yield long term solutions to many of the current drug/gene/DNA/RNA delivery problems. In addition, MSNs have proven to be promising supports for enzyme immobilisation, enabling the enzymes to retain their activity, affording them greater potential for wide applications in biocatalysis and energy. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the advances made in the last decade and a future outlook on possible applications of MSNs as nanocontainers for storage and delivery of biomolecules. We discuss some of the important factors affecting the adsorption and release of biomolecules in MSNs and review of the cytotoxicity aspects of such nanomaterials. The review also highlights some promising work on enzyme immobilisation using mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

  10. NMR spectroscopy applied to the characterization of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for fundamental characterization of epoxi resins (DGEBA) had been developed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with one standard procedure. This methodology is only applicable to resins of low molecular weight. (author)

  11. Treatment of Methaqualone overdose with resin hemoperfusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggish, D.; S. Gray; Jatlow, P; Bia, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    We recently utilized the technique of resin hemoperfusion (employing an Amberlite XAD-4 resin cartridge) to remove drug from a patient i deep coma after an estimated ingestion of greater than 4.5 grams of methaqualone. At plasma flow rates of 204 ml/min, the mean value for plasma clearance of methaqualone was 179 ml/min. The amount of methaqualone recovered from the cartridge at the end of the 10-hour procedure was 1,565 mg measured by gas chromatography. The patient became responsive to deep...

  12. Treatment of liquid wastes using composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite ion exchange resins were prepared by coating copper ferrocyanide and hydrous manganese oxide powders on polyurethane foam. The binder used was polyvinyl acetate in alcohol/acetone medium. Studies were conducted in pilot scale using 50 L ion exchange column and treated category III radioactive liquid wastes. About 2000 to 2400 bed volumes of liquid wastes containing radioactive 137Cs and 90Sr were treated. Digestion of the resins was carried out in a 25 L column using alkaline KMnO4. The digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix and the matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength, biological and leach resistance. (author)

  13. Radiation resistance of synthetic resin cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term irradiation test period of over a year showed a linear reduction of the flexural strength with radiation dose at a half-value dose of 7 MJ/kg for an amine hardened epoxide resin cement. The flexural strength of a peroxide-hardened unsaturated polyester resin cement was on the other hand negligibly changed by a dose of 7 MJ/kg. This cement mass is hence particularly suitable for filling water tanks for the storage of radioactive sources and for other applications in nuclear technology. (orig.)

  14. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  15. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins by incorporation into epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy resin was used as an incorporation medium for inactive and labelled simulated spent ion-exchange resin. The quality of the final waste form has been defined using mechanical, thermal and homogeneity tests. Irradiation stability was studied by treating the end product with increasing doses before subjecting to mechanical tests. As for as the thermal stability is concerned, degradation occurs only above 280 C as shown by T G, DTG and DTA curves. The cumulative teach fractions were higher for both Ru-106 and Cs 137 than for Ce 144 labelled incorporated ion-exchange resin.2 tab., 5 fig

  16. Evaluation of marginal leakage between a flowable composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro VOLPATO

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, the leakage between a flowable composite resin (Fill Magic Flow® and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Vitremer®. Forty extracted human premolars were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly assigned into two groups. Class cavities were prepared with margin extended apically. All teeth were subjected to thermocycling with 250 cycles. Afterwards, the teeth were submitted to a basic fuccina 0,5% to be analyzed to the infiltration degree throughout the walls of the preparation. The results showed that resin-modified glass ionomer cements present the worst results (p < 0,05.

  17. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Spencer W.; Sai, Hiroaki; Disalvo, Francis J.; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal...

  18. Enzyme immobilisation and catalysis in ordered mesoporous silica

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Graham Murray

    2008-01-01

    A range of mesoporous materials based on SBA-15 have been prepared and characterised. The materials were templated by neutral block copolymer P123, and typically have a hexagonal (p6mm) pore structure, with high surface areas and narrow pore size distributions. The removal of the surfactant template by calcination and solvent extraction has been investigated. The aqueous stability of this material, and the hydrolysis of the surface was studied. Organic functional groups were incorporated i...

  19. Lewis acidity of mesoporous molecular sieves for acylation reactions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Vlk, Josef; Vitvarová, Dana; Šiklová, Helena; ?ejka, Ji?í

    Singapore : World Scientific Publ. Co. Pte. Ltd, 2008 - (Sayari, A.; Jaroniec, M.), s. 477-486 ISBN 978-981-277-915-1. [Nanoporous Materials /5./. Vancouver (CA), 25.05.2008-28.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA104/07/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mesoporous molecular sieves * Lewis acid ity * acylation reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. NiW Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Titanate Nanotubes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrov, L.; Palcheva, R.; Spojakina, A.A.; Jirátová, Kv?ta

    Sofia : -, 2009 - ( Petrova , G.; Vayssilov, G.), s. 129 ISBN 978-954-323-558-2. [International Symposium Advanced Micro- and Mesoporous Materials /3./. Albena (BG), 06.09.2009-09.09.2009] Grant ostatní: NSF(BG) TK01/0416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : titanate nanotubes * catalytic activity * hydrodesulfurization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://bg-conferences.org/micro2009_new_1/

  1. Synthesis of Mesoporous Material from Chrysotile-Derived Silica

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Joel Schwanke; Christian Wittee Lopes; Sibele Berenice Castellã Pergher

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous MCM-41-type molecular sieves were synthesized using calcined and leached chrysotile and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the silica source and structure directing agent, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 isothermal adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the samples. The calcined and leached chrysotile can be employed as an inexpensive silica source for the formation of low-order MCM-4...

  2. B-TUD-1: a versatile mesoporous catalyst:

    OpenAIRE

    Ranoux, A.; Djanashvili, K.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Hanefeld, U.

    2013-01-01

    Novel amorphous mesoporous borosilicate, B-TUD-1, was prepared to test its performance for different sustainable reactions. The structure of the material, the effective incorporation of boron into the framework as well as the nature of incorporated boron were verified by N2-sorption, XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, NH3-desorption, MAS NMR and FTIR. The potential of these materials as catalysts was tested in two reactions under different conditions. They showed an apparently good activity and recycling pot...

  3. Mesoporous silica layers with controllable porosity and pore size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica layers with controllable porosity and pore size were prepared via a templating approach. The structure of these mesoporous films was examined by porosimetry via ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy. A design of experiment (DOE) method was used to gather information about the influence of the processing parameters on the final film structure. A model was developed, allowing a precise control of the pore diameters and porosity of the silica coating.

  4. Formation of mesoporous SBA-15 from a colloidal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the hexagonal ordered mesoporous SBA-15 material has been invetsigated. The evolution from free spherical micelles into an ordered material was studied with time-resolved in-situ SAXS, USAXS and SANS measurements. Both the mesoscopic region and the colloidal region were monitored. Temperature, precursor and salt additions have been varied. From the time-resolved measurements the events taking place in the formation of SBA-15 was identified and put on a time line. An additiona...

  5. Hierarchically structured biphenylene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Keilbach, Andreas; Kienle, Marcel; GOTO, YASUTOMO; Inagaki, Shinji; Knoche, Paul; Bein, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Novel composites of highly ordered and stable biphenyl-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials confined within the pores of anodic alumina membranes (AAM) were successfully synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). 4,40-Bis(triethoxysilyl)biphenyl (BTEBP) was used as a precursor in combination with the ionic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or triblock-copolymer F127 as structure-directing agents. The resulting mesophases were cha...

  6. Interfacial slippage of helium films on 2D mesoporous hectorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieda, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yano1, H.; Wada, N.; Torii, K.

    2000-07-01

    We measured by 10 MHz ultrasound the interfacial slippage of 3He and 4He films on a vibrating substrate of a two-dimensional mesoporous hectorite. It was found that the interfacial slippage shows a qualitative difference between the monolayer and bilayer films, irrespective of the adsorbate. The monolayer films slipped and underwent decoupling from this substrate at low temperatures. In the bilayer films, in contrast, the first layer of the films was locked on the substrate by the second layer promotion.

  7. Percolation Diffusion into Self-Assembled Mesoporous Silica Microfibres

    OpenAIRE

    John Canning; George Huyang; Miles Ma; Alison Beavis; David Bishop; Kevin Cook; Andrew McDonagh; Dongqi Shi; Gang-Ding Peng; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2014-01-01

    Percolation diffusion into long (11.5 cm) self-assembled, ordered mesoporous microfibres is studied using optical transmission and laser ablation inductive coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Optical transmission based diffusion studies reveal rapid penetration (<5 s, D > 80 ?m2?s?1) of Rhodamine B with very little percolation of larger molecules such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) observed under similar loading conditions. The failure of ZnTPP to enter the microfibre was confi...

  8. A new phosphorous based resin for the extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin was synthesised for the extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium by attempting to replace the P-H group by P-Et groups. The extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium by this resin has been studied. From the extraction studies it was observed that the extraction behaviour of the resin obtained by the modified synthetic route is comparable to that of the MPBPA resin. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain ...

  10. Studies on ion-exchange resin complex of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

    OpenAIRE

    MALLADI, MADHUSUDHAN; JUKANTI, RAJU; NAIR, RASHMI; Wagh, Sanjay; Padakanti, Harishanker

    2010-01-01

    The objective of present work was to assess ion exchange resins for taste masking of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide (DM) - a highly bitter drug. A strong cationic exchange resin (Amberlite® IRP-69) and weak cationic exchange resin (Amberlite® IRP-64) were evaluated. Based on drug loading efficiency, Amberlite® IRP-69 was selected for further evaluation. The effect of different methods of drug loading, drug: resin ratios and particle size on drug complexation was evaluated. The formation of a r...

  11. Molecular Properties and Evaluation of Indion 234–Ondansetron Resinates

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, S.; Pandya, S.; Bhalekar, MR

    2010-01-01

    Ondansetron is a serotonin 5HT3 antagonist; anti-emetic drug. Bitter taste of the ondansetron is a major problem in ensuring patient compliance. The study was designed to formulate tasteless complexes of ondansetron with ion exchange resin and evaluate molecular properties of drug complex. The drug-loading process was carried out using various resins and was optimized using different drug:resin ratio and pH. Resinates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and X-ray po...

  12. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hasmukh S.; Kumar K. Panchal

    2004-01-01

    Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide) resins (UPEAs) were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA) and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY.) to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter ...

  13. Study on Bismaleimide Modified TDE-86 Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Daofang Shi; Xiaoqing Wu

    2010-01-01

    In the study, BMI was modified by Ortho-diallyl Bisphenol A under certain conditions and got performed polymer. Epoxy resin was modified by the performed polymer using nadic methyl anhydride (MNA) as curing agent. The study investigated the manufacturability, thermal and mechanical properties of modified resin. The manufacturability of the modified resin was indicated by viscosity- temperature, viscosity- time and the gel time curves. Thermal properties of modified resin were characterized by...

  14. Gamma-irradiation on cured glycidyl amino-epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the superconductive 'tokamak' concept. Amounts of epoxy resin are used in the superconductive tokamak device as impregnant resins, insulation breaks, etc. Resistance to ionizing radiation is a demanding performance of those epoxy resins. In this work, we study the effects of ?-irradiation on the mechanical properties and chemical structures of glycidyl amino-epoxy resins

  15. ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE ION EXCHANGE RESINATE BEADS

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit S. Raghuwanshi; U. K. Jain; Ajay S. Raghuwanshi

    2010-01-01

    Treating with ion exchange resin has chemically modified metformin hydrochloride to form an oral controlled release beads using ion-exchange resin sorption method. A strong cation exchange resin Amberlite IR 120 was utilized for the sorption of the drug and the drug resinates was evaluated for various physical and chemical parameters. The drug content and percentage drug release were determined spectrophotometrically at 233 nm. About 43% of drug was loaded in 4.5 h and in-vitro dissolution st...

  16. Comparative Mechanical Properties of Bulk-Fill Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Atabek Didem; Yalç?n Gözde; Özta? Nurhan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the flexural and compressive strengths of a new sonicactivated bulk-fill system (Sonicfill) with other bulk-fill resins and a universal posterior composite resin. Materials and Methods: A low-stress flowable base resin material (SDR), a bulk-fill composite resin (Tetric Evo Ceram), a universal posterior composite (GC G-aenial), and the Sonicfill system were compared. The specimens were prepared for each group following ISO St...

  17. Evaluation of cure shrinkage measurement techniques for thermosetting resins

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Darshil U.; Peter J. Schubel

    2010-01-01

    Resin chemical shrinkage dictates the surface integrity and the roughness of a composite structure. Thus, to minimize surface failures and to produce a good surface quality it is a requisite to be able to measure and track resin shrinkage during the cure process. This manuscript investigates and evaluates the measuring and monitoring of real-time resin shrinkage using a rheometer, a helium-based pycnometer and a thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA) for ambient curing UP and epoxy resins. Shrinkag...

  18. Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oral delivery of budesonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-functionalized and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle were loaded with anti-inflammatory drug budesonide and additionally post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol). TEM images showed spherical shape of the nanoparticles and slightly higher polydispersity after coating with carbopol. Nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetic analysis revealed that more efficient loading and incorporation into the pores of nanoparticles was achieved with the amino-functionalized silica carrier. Infrared spectra indicated that the post-coating of these nanoparticles with carbopol led to the formation of bond between amino groups of the functionalized carrier and carboxyl groups of carbopol. The combination of amino-functionalization of the carrier with the post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained budesonide release. Further, an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease showed that the cytoprotective effect of budesonide loaded in the post-coated silica nanoparticles on damaged HT-29 cells was more pronounced compared to the cytoprotection obtained with pure budesonide. -- Graphical abstract: Silica mesoporous MCM-41 particles were amino-functionalized, loaded with budesonide and post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol) in order to achieve prolonged residence of anti-inflammatory drug in GIT. Highlights: • Higher drug loading in amino-functionalized mesoporous silica. • Amino-functionalization and post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained drug release. • Achievement of higher cytoprotective effect with drug loaded into the nanoparticles

  19. Catalytic upgrading of xylan over mesoporous Y catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Soo; Jun, Bo Ram; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Suh, Dong Jin; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    In-situ catalytic cracking of xylan, a model compound of hemicellulose, was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry over mesoporous Y for the first time. Experiments were conducted at three different temperatures, 400 degrees C, 450 degrees C, and 500 degrees C, to investigate the effect of reaction temperature. Three different biomass-to-catalyst ratios, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3, were tested at 500 degrees C to examine the effect of catalyst dose. In addition, the catalytic activity of mesoporous Y was compared with that of Al-MCM-41. The catalysts used were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and X-ray diffraction. The main pyrolysis products of xylan were acids, hydrocarbons, phenolics, oxygenates, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mesoporous Y, which has acid sites with larger quantity and stronger acidity than those of Al-MCM-41, was shown to enhance the quality of bio-oil to a larger extent, producing a larger quantity of high-value-added products, such as aromatics and furans. PMID:24734712

  20. Ordered nanowire arrays in the mesoporous silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we report synthesis and investigation of the magnetic iron nanowire arrays in the mesoporous silica thin films. The films were deposited on SiC/Si(100) substrate by spin-coating technique, enabling one to obtain all mesopores parallel to the substrate surface and aligned radially by centrifugal force. Very high level of local alignment (90% on 2 cm2) of the pores was proved by small angle X-ray scattering and neutron reflectivity. Magnetic iron nanowires were synthesized in the mesoporous silica channels by intercalation of a hydrophobic iron compound into a hydrophobic part of the silica-surfactant composite followed by decomposition of the complex and additional crystallization of iron in hydrogen flow. Nanocomposites were studied by TEM, ED, SAXS, BET, BJH and neutron reflectometry. It was found that an ordered structure preserves after the chemical modification, while iron nanowires uniformly fill porous structure, making this system highly promising for high-density data recording media

  1. Aerosol-spray diverse mesoporous metal oxides from metal nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Wang, Junxin; Ming, Tian; Fang, Caihong; Sun, Zhenhua; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Jianfang

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are widely used in solar cells, batteries, transistors, memories, transparent conductive electrodes, photocatalysts, gas sensors, supercapacitors, and smart windows. In many of these applications, large surface areas and pore volumes can enhance molecular adsorption, facilitate ion transfer, and increase interfacial areas; the formation of complex oxides (mixed, doped, multimetallic oxides and oxide-based hybrids) can alter electronic band structures, modify/enhance charge carrier concentrations/separation, and introduce desired functionalities. A general synthetic approach to diverse mesoporous metal oxides is therefore very attractive. Here we describe a powerful aerosol-spray method for synthesizing various mesoporous metal oxides from low-cost nitrate salts. During spray, thermal heating of precursor droplets drives solvent evaporation and induces surfactant-directed formation of mesostructures, nitrate decomposition and oxide cross-linking. Thirteen types of monometallic oxides and four groups of complex ones are successfully produced, with mesoporous iron oxide microspheres demonstrated for photocatalytic oxygen evolution and gas sensing with superior performances. PMID:25897988

  2. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanyika, Harrison, E-mail: hwanyika@gmail.com [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Kenya)

    2013-08-15

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  3. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporous Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Rose Philo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry has been looked upon as a sustainable science which accomplishes both economical and environmental goals, simultaneously.With this objective, we developed an alternative process to obtain the industrially important benzyl aromatics by benzylation of aromatics using benzyl chloride, catalysed by mesoporous solid acid catalysts. In this work mesoporous ceria is prepared using neutral surfactant which helped the calcination possible at a lower temperature enabling a higher surface area. Mesoporous ceria modified with Fe can be successfully utilized for the selective benzylation of toluene to more desirable product methyl diphenyl methane with 100% conversion and selectivity in 2 hours using only 50mg of the catalyst under milder condition. The reusability, regenerability, high selectivity, 100% conversion, moderate reaction temperature and absence of solvent, etc. make these catalysts to be used in a truly heterogeneous manner and make the benzylation reaction an environment friendly one. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 30th June 2012; Revised: 7th November 2012; Accepted: 10th November 2012[How to Cite: K.J. Rose Philo, S. Sugunan. (2012. Benzylation of Toluene over Iron Modified Mesoporouxs Ceria. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 158-164. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3759.158-164 ] | View in 

  4. Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for oral delivery of budesonide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoncheva, K., E-mail: krassi.yoncheva@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Dunav Str., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Popova, M. [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Szegedi, A.; Mihaly, J. [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri út. 59-67, 1025 Budapest (Hungary); Tzankov, B.; Lambov, N.; Konstantinov, S.; Tzankova, V. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Dunav Str., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pessina, F.; Valoti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Universita di Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, Siena (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Non-functionalized and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle were loaded with anti-inflammatory drug budesonide and additionally post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol). TEM images showed spherical shape of the nanoparticles and slightly higher polydispersity after coating with carbopol. Nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetic analysis revealed that more efficient loading and incorporation into the pores of nanoparticles was achieved with the amino-functionalized silica carrier. Infrared spectra indicated that the post-coating of these nanoparticles with carbopol led to the formation of bond between amino groups of the functionalized carrier and carboxyl groups of carbopol. The combination of amino-functionalization of the carrier with the post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained budesonide release. Further, an in vitro model of inflammatory bowel disease showed that the cytoprotective effect of budesonide loaded in the post-coated silica nanoparticles on damaged HT-29 cells was more pronounced compared to the cytoprotection obtained with pure budesonide. -- Graphical abstract: Silica mesoporous MCM-41 particles were amino-functionalized, loaded with budesonide and post-coated with bioadhesive polymer (carbopol) in order to achieve prolonged residence of anti-inflammatory drug in GIT. Highlights: • Higher drug loading in amino-functionalized mesoporous silica. • Amino-functionalization and post-coating of the nanoparticles sustained drug release. • Achievement of higher cytoprotective effect with drug loaded into the nanoparticles.

  5. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite: Preparation, drug adsorption, and release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zhenyuwuhn@sina.com

    2014-11-14

    Mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized through gas–liquid chemical precipitation method at ambient temperature without any template. Structure, morphology and pore size distribution of HA were analyzed via X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug adsorption and release behavior of HA. The kinetics of DOX adsorption on HA followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms at various temperatures were obtained, and the equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy changes) demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. In vitro pH-responsive (pH = 7.4, 5.8) controlled release was investigated. DOX-loaded HA showed a slow, long-term, and steady release rate. The release rate at pH5.8 was larger than that at pH7.4. Consequently, the as-prepared mesoporous HA has potential applications in controlled drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • Mesoporous HA was synthesized by a simple precipitation method without any template. • The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. • Thermodynamics investigation showed that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. • DOX-loaded HA showed a long-term, steady, and pH-controlled release rate.

  6. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite: Preparation, drug adsorption, and release properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized through gas–liquid chemical precipitation method at ambient temperature without any template. Structure, morphology and pore size distribution of HA were analyzed via X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug adsorption and release behavior of HA. The kinetics of DOX adsorption on HA followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms at various temperatures were obtained, and the equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy changes) demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. In vitro pH-responsive (pH = 7.4, 5.8) controlled release was investigated. DOX-loaded HA showed a slow, long-term, and steady release rate. The release rate at pH5.8 was larger than that at pH7.4. Consequently, the as-prepared mesoporous HA has potential applications in controlled drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • Mesoporous HA was synthesized by a simple precipitation method without any template. • The kinetics of adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate expression. • Thermodynamics investigation showed that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. • DOX-loaded HA showed a long-term, steady, and pH-controlled release rate

  7. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol–gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil

  8. Conductivity of liquid lithium electrolytes with dispersed mesoporous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The conductivity of disperse lithium electrolytes with mesoporous fillers is studied. ? In contrast to other investigations in literature, no conductivity enhancement could be observed for standard battery electrolytes and typical mesoporous fillers in various combinations. ? Disperse electrolytes can become relevant in terms of battery safety. ? Dispersions of silicas and electrolyte with LiPF6 as conducting salt are not stable, although the silicas were dried prior to preparation and the electrolyte water content was controlled. Surface modification of the fillers improved the stability. ? The observed conductivity decrease varied considerably for various fillers. - Abstract: The electrical conductivity of disperse electrolytes was systematically measured as a function of temperature (0 °C to 60 °C) and filler content for different types of fillers with a range of pore geometry, pore structure and specific surface area. As fillers mesoporous silicas SBA-15, MCM-41 and KIT-6 with pore ranges between 3 nm and 15 nm were dispersed in commercially available liquid lithium electrolytes. As electrolytes 1 M of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) at the ratio 3:7 (wt/wt) and the same solvent mixture with 0.96 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imide (LiTFSI) were used. No conductivity enhancement could be observed, but with respect to safety aspects the highly viscous disperse pastes might be useful. The conductivity decrease varied considerably for the different fillers.

  9. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  10. Selective Response of Mesoporous Silicon to Adsorbants with Nitro Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, John A.; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Sushko, Petr V.; Boyko, Teak D.; Levitsky, Igor A.; Moewes, Alexander

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate that the electronic structure of mesoporous silicon is affected by adsorption of nitrobased explosive molecules in a compound-selective manner. This selective response is demonstrated by probing the adsorption of two nitro-based molecular explosives (trinitrotoluene and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) and a nonexplosive nitro-based aromatic molecule (nitrotoluene) on mesoporous silicon using soft X-ray spectroscopy. The Si atoms strongly interact with adsorbed molecules to form Si-O and Si-N bonds, as evident from the large shifts in emission energy present in the Si L2,3 X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements. Furthermore, we find that the energy gap (band gap) of mesoporous silicon changes depending on the adsorbant, as estimated from the Si L2,3 XES and 2p X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. Our ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of model compounds suggest that these changes are due to spontaneous breaking of the nitro groups upon contacting surface Si atoms. This compound-selective change in electronic structure may provide a powerful tool for the detection and identification of trace quantities of airborne explosive molecules.

  11. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  12. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  13. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  14. Solid-State Microwave Synthesis of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Bajia; Rashmi Sharma; Birbal Bajia

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of melamine-formaldehyde resin has been achieved using conventional as well as microwave irradiations (without and with solid support) in different molar ratio. Resin samples were tested for their chemical as well as physical properties. The structure of all the resin has been supported by their spectral data

  15. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  18. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food and...Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of...

  19. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  2. Electron sensitive resin and fabrication process of this one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns electron sensitive negative resins, that is to say the resins which, when subjected to the action of an electronic beam of adequate power, undergo a transformation that makes them resistant to certain chemical agents or insoluble in certain solvents. The invention also concerns a process for manufacturing this resin which is a 2.3 epithiopropylmethacrylate copolymer

  3. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as...

  6. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  9. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  10. Effect of polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan resinate tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Priprem, Aroonsri; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan (DMP) tablets. DMP resinates were formed by a complexation of DMP and strong cation exchange resins, Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69. The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct compression fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), and spray-dried...

  11. Effect of epoxy resin properties on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hong-Wei; Gao, Feng [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials; Li, Kai-Xi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China). Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials

    2013-09-15

    Three kinds of epoxy resins, i.e. tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (AG80), difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (E51) and novolac type epoxy resin (F46) were selected as matrices for carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The objective of this work is to study the mechanical properties of fiber/epoxy composites by using these three kinds of epoxy resins with different physical and chemical performance. The results show that the composites fabricated with AG80 present the best stiffness and the composites prepared with E5 1have the best toughness. The stiffness and toughness of the composites prepared with F46 are middle values located between those for AG80/epoxy and E51/epoxy composites. Thus, the mixed epoxy resin is a promising approach for industrial production. (orig.)

  12. Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

  13. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  14. Vapour absorption in melamine-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of vapour absorption on positron annihilation in cross-linked polymer were investigated. Contrary to linear polymers, absorption of vapor in cross-linked resin leads to the shortening of o-Ps lifetime. In vacuum absorbed molecules diffuse out. At room temperature desorption of hexane and hexanol is not complete; full elimination of absorbed molecules requires sample temperature increase. (author)

  15. Triterpenes from the resin of Boswellia neglecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Dekebo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The resin of Boswellia neglecta yielded four triterpenes canaric acid, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrone and epi-?-amyrin. Canaric acid and epi-?-amyrin are isolated here for the first time from the family Burseraceae. The compounds were identified using 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approximately the size of a 1/8-inch cube in at least 25 milliliters of 4.2 normal hydrochloric acid. (4... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and... manufactured by the condensation of hexamethylene-diamine and adipic acid. (2) Nylon 610 resins...

  17. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  19. ION EXCHANGE RESINS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange resins are cross-linked water insoluble polymer-carrying, ionisable functional groups. IER have received considerable attention from pharmaceutical scientists because of their versatile properties as drug delivery vehicles. Research over the last few years has revealed that IER are equally suitable for drug delivery technologies, including controlled release, transdermal, nasal, topical and taste masking. The major drawback of sustained release of extended release or extended release is dose dumping, resulting in increased risk of toxicity. The use of IER has occupied an important place in the development of controlled- or sustained-release systems because of their better drug-retaining properties and prevention of dose dumping. Synthetic ion exchange resins have been used in pharmacy and medicine for taste masking or controlled release of drug. Drug resin complexation converts drug to amorphous form leading to improved drug dissolution. Several studies have reported the use of IER for drug delivery at the desired site of action. Sulfonated and carboxylic resins with a polystyrene backbone are most widely used in clinical medicine.

  20. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b, E-mail: amms@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)