WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Correlative Association between Resident Plasmids and the Host Chromosome in a Diverse Agrobacterium Soil Population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil samples collected from a fallow field which had not been cultivated for 5 years harbored a population of Agrobacterium spp. estimated at 3 x 10 CFU/g. Characterization of 72 strains selected from four different isolation media showed the presence of biovar 1 (56%) and bv. 2 (44%) strains. Pathogenicity assays on five different test plants revealed a high proportion (33%) of tumorigenic strains in the resident population. All tumorigenic strains belonged to bv. 1. Differentiation of the strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins, and utilization patterns of 95 carbon substrates (Biolog GN microplate) revealed a diversified bv. 1 population, composed of five distinct chromosomal backgrounds (chr A, C, D, E, and F), and a homogeneous bv. 2 population (chr B). chr A, B, C, and D were detected at similar levels throughout the study site. According to opine metabolism, pathogenicity, and agrocin sensitivity, chr A strains carried a nopaline Ti plasmid (pTi), whereas chr C strains had an octopine pTi. In addition, four of six nontumorigenic bv. 1 strains (two chr D, one chr E, and one chr F) had distinct and unusual opine catabolism patterns. chr B (bv. 2) strains were nonpathogenic and catabolized nopaline. Although agrocin sensitivity is a pTi-borne trait, 14 chr B strains were sensitive to agrocin 84, apparently harboring a defective nopaline pTi similar to pAtK84b. The other two chr B strains were agrocin resistant. The present analysis of chromosomal and plasmid phenotypes suggests that in this Agrobacterium soil population, there is a preferential association between the resident plasmids and their bacterial host.

Bouzar H; Ouadah D; Krimi Z; Jones JB; Trovato M; Petit A; Dessaux Y

1993-05-01

2

PLASMID  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A plasmid vector characterized by having a promoter sequence that can be recognized by an RNA polymerase which is not inherent in a host and that controls the expression of target genes and a replication origin that increases the number of copies under the induction by foreign factors; methods of expression and isolation of target genes by using the vector; a polypeptide having the activity of an AccIII restriction enzyme; and a DNA encoding the polypeptide. The invention provides for the first time a plasmid vecto r which can introduce a foreign target gene encoding proteins which are fatal or noxious to hosts into said hosts, a method of efficiently expressing the proteins by using the vector, and also a method of permitting a restriction enzyme gene constituting a restriction-modification system to be isolated even in the absence of a modification enzyme gene, which has been difficult according to prior art.

SAGAWA Hiroaki; UENO Harumi; OSHIMA Atsushi; KATO Ikunoshin

3

Mega crackers mean mega challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with 'mega' steam-crackers, i.e. base load plants akin to power plants and having a throughput of at least a mega ton of ethylene per year and higher. The construction of such plants brings several problems and challenges which are approached in this article: select the products and their return on investment, select the site, select the final capacity and the turndown ratio, select the equipment sizes and taking into account their consequences, using proven machinery or first of its kind, considering the effect of scale on equipments and materials, and on the operating costs. (J.S.)

Buffenoir, M.H.; Aubry, J.M.; Boniface, P.; Hurstel, X. [Technip-Coflexip Group, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

2003-06-01

4

Mega cisterna magna  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to discover various uncommon intracranial structures and to elucidate the morbidity of these pathophysiological conditions. The mega cisterna magna is an example of such a structure being widely known, but the incidence and morbidity being uncertain. Since the mega cisterna magna has shown no special symptoms and signs and does not require any surgical treatment, it was not necessary to diagnose it property before the establishment of routine examination by CT. From April 1979 to June 1980; a total of 2089 patients were examined by CT; of these, 9 cases (0.43%) of mega cisterna magna were identified. The symptoms and signs of those 9 patients were headache, vertigo, nausea, right hemiparesis, convulsive seizure, hyperventilation syndrome, and tremor. One patient was examined for head injury. A plain craniogram revealed a thinness of the occipital bone in 2 cases. The sizes of the mega cisterna magna appearing on CT were from 1.0 x 1.5 cm to 3.5 x 4.0 cm at the level of +40 -60 mm from the plane of the 0/sup 0/ OM line. The craniotomy was performed on one patient who was suspected of having arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa.

Kumagai, Y.; Yamakawa, K.; Tsujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Nawata, H. (Ebara Metropolitan Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

1981-06-01

5

Mega cisterna magna  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to discover various uncommon intracranial structures and to elucidate the morbidity of these pathophysiological conditions. The mega cisterna magna is an example of such a structure being widely known, but the incidence and morbidity being uncertain. Since the mega cisterna magna has shown no special symptoms and signs and does not require any surgical treatment, it was not necessary to diagnose it property before the establishment of routine examination by CT. From April 1979 to June 1980; a total of 2089 patients were examined by CT; of these, 9 cases (0.43%) of mega cisterna magna were identified. The symptoms and signs of those 9 patients were headache, vertigo, nausea, right hemiparesis, convulsive seizure, hyperventilation syndrome, and tremor. One patient was examined for head injury. A plain craniogram revealed a thinness of the occipital bone in 2 cases. The sizes of the mega cisterna magna appearing on CT were from 1.0 x 1.5 cm to 3.5 x 4.0 cm at the level of +40 -60 mm from the plane of the 00 OM line. The craniotomy was performed on one patient who was suspected of having arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

6

The mega-NOPR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is a review of recent Notices of Proposed Rulemaking (Mega-NOPR) trends at the Federal Energy Regulatory Administration, particularly focusing on direct-access and generation market power. Relative to access, FERC`s proposal is to ensure that: (1) all participants in wholesale electricity markets have nondiscriminatory open access to the transmission network, and (2) transmission owners must offer nondiscriminatory open access transmission and ancillary services to wholesale sellers and purchasers of electricity. Relative to the generation power market, FERC`s standards require an applicant to demonstrate that they lack or have mitigated market power in generation and transmission. If this rulemaking achieves its goals, increased competition will occur and the need for generation-related market power may disappear.

Henney, A.

1995-07-01

7

The smr gene resides on a novel plasmid pSP187 identified in a Staphylococcus pasteuri isolate recovered from unpasteurized milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work describes a novel plasmid pSP187 (5550 bp) carrying the small multidrug resistance determinant smr encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). pSP187 was identified in a Staphylococcus pasteuri isolate recovered from bulk milk in a dairy cattle herd in Norway. Sequence analysis revealed 6 putative ORFs in addition to the smr gene within a cassette with identical genetic organization to that found in the pSK41-like Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pTZ22. A protein homology search suggested the gene product of ORF7 to be a putative replication initiation protein, while ORF2 was predicted to encode a protein homologous to members of FtsK/SpoIIIE cell division-DNA segregation protein families. Sequence similarities to some initiator proteins of rolling circle replicons (RCR) indicated that pSP187 uses a RCR mode of replication, supported by the detection of intermediate ssDNA using S1 nuclease treatment and hybridization analysis. Interestingly, a 30-bp sequence found upstream from ORF7 showed high similarity to other dyad symmetry motifs proposed as putative double-strand origins of replication in the plasmids pGI3 (Bacillus thuringiensis), pSTK1 (Bacillus stearothermophilus), and pER1-2 (Streptococcus thermophilus). In conclusion: The novel smr-containing plasmid pSP187 is the first member of RCR group VI to be identified in a Staphylococcus sp.

Bjorland J; Bratlie MS; Steinum T

2007-03-01

8

The MEGA data acquisition system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment will acquire 3 MB/sec of data into a 9-crate Fastbus system controlled by a single Fastbus master. A second-level trigger will be implemented in a Fermilab Advanced Computer Program (ACP) farm of 32 Motorola 68020 microprocessors. Output from the ACP farm at a rate of 24 KB/sec will be sent to a MicroVAX II for taping. 16 refs.

Oothoudt, M.A.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D.; Hughes, E.B.; Jui, C.C.H.; Cooper, P.S.; Hahn, K.; Lauer, R.B.; Markey, J.K.

1987-01-01

9

The MEGA data acquisition system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment will acquire 3 MB/sec of data into a 9-crate Fastbus system controlled by a single Fastbus master. A second-level trigger will be implemented in a Fermilab Advanced Computer Program (ACP) farm of 32 Motorola 68020 microprocessors. Output from the ACP farm at a rate of 24 KB/sec will be sent to a MicroVAX II for taping.

Oothoudt, M.A.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D.; Cooper, M.D.; Foreman, W.M.; Hogan, G.E.; Kozlowski, T.; Naivar, F.J.; Smith, W.

1987-08-01

10

BACTERIAL PLASMIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb). Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication). Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

Biljana Miljkovic-Selimovic; Tatjana Babic; Branislava Kocic; Predrag Stojanovic; Ljiljana Ristic; Marina Dinic

2007-01-01

11

MEGA (Mechanical Engineering General Analysis) User's Document.  

Science.gov (United States)

MEGA (Mechanical Engineering General Analysis) is a FORTRAN computer code, which allows the user to analyze data, generated by a variety of data acquisition systems currently being used by Engineering Sciences Division (DVM Node, Transient Recorder, Fract...

B. Voegeli C. K. Wong

1983-01-01

12

Plasmid DNA in Strains of Pediococcus cerevisiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five parental strains of Pediococcus were examined for plasmid content. Each strain contained three to six resident plasmids, ranging in size from 4.5 to 39.5 megadaltons. A bacteriocin-like substance produced by Pediococcus cerevisiae FBB63 was tentatively linked to a 10.5-megadalton plasmid after ...

Graham, Donald C.; McKay, Larry L.

13

Characterization of Boolean Valued Star and Mega Lattice Functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a study on Boolean valued star and mega lattice functions. It establishes a positive lattice measure, complex lattice measure, star lattice function and founds that every star lattice function is a positive lattice measure on s(L) and every star lattice function is a s-additive on X. Also, it classifies mega lattice function, mega lattice and demonstrates that in a mega lattice the limit of the integral is equal to the integral of the limit and every mega lattice is a s-additive. Finally, it confirms that every mega lattice preserves Fatous lemma.

J. Pramada; J. Venkateswara Rao; D.V.S.R. Anil Kumar

2012-01-01

14

Urban air quality in mega cities: a case study of Delhi City using vulnerability analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems in India, affecting health of thousands of 'urban' residents residing in mega cities. The need of the day is to evolve an 'effective' and 'efficient' air quality management plan (AQMP) encompassing the essential 'key players' and 'stakeholders.' This paper describes the formulation of an AQMP for mega cities like Delhi in India taking into account the aforementioned key 'inputs.' The AQMP formulation methodology is based on past studies of Longhurst et al., (Atmospheric Environment, 30, 3975-3985, 1996); Longhurst & Elsom, ((1997). Air Pollution-II, Vol. 2 (pp. 525-532)) and Beatti et al., (Atmospheric Environment, 35, 1479-1490, 2001). Further, the vulnerability analysis (VA) has been carried out to evaluate the stresses due to air pollution in the study area. The VA has given the vulnerability index (VI) of 'medium to high' and 'low' at urban roadways/intersections and residential areas, respectively.

Jain S; Khare M

2008-01-01

15

Mega Planning Practical Tools for Organizational Success  

CERN Document Server

Mega Planning involves significant stakeholders in defining success and then identifies what each person and part of an organization must do to succeed. The author uses proven techniques, and covers the basic `how-to's' of quality management, needs assessment, gap analysis, benchmarking, reengineering, and continuous improvement.

Kaufman, Dr Roger

1999-01-01

16

Characterization of non-virulence plasmids with homology to the virulence plasmid of Salmonella dublin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six wild-type (wt) strains of Salmonella typhimurium, one wt strain of S. heidelberg and 12 wt strains of Escherichia coli were isolated based on both hybridization to a 6-kb HindIII fragment of the non-virulence coding part of the S. dublin serovar-specific virulence plasmid and the absence of hybridization to the virulence genes (spv genes) of the same plasmid. Such hybridization was shown to be caused by resident plasmids in all strains and to involve the same region of 30 to 37 kb of consecutive HindIII fragments on the S. dublin virulence plasmid, suggesting a common origin of this plasmid DNA. Nine of the plasmids were selected for detailed characterization and were shown not to be of the same plasmid species. They varied in size between 44 and 88 kb, they showed incompatibility with the plasmid K-MP10, or belonged to incompatibility group X, and with the exception of five plasmids from E. coli, they showed different HindIII restriction profile patterns. PMID:8584797

Aabo, S; Olsen, J E; Threlfall, E J; Brown, D J

17

Mega-joule experiment area study, 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document contains Chapters 3 and 4 from the Mega-Joule Experiment Area Study, 1989. Water frost on the first containment wall is studied in detail in Chapter 3. Considered topics are the computer modeling of frost ablation and shock propagation and the experimental characterization of water frost. The latter is broken down into: frost crystal morphology, experiment configuration, growth rate results, density results, thermal conductivity, crush strength of frost, frost integrity, frost response to simulated soft x-rays. Chapter 4 presents information on surrounding shielding and structures to include: cryogenic spheres for first wall and coolant containment; shield tank concerning primary neutron and gamma ray shielding; and secondary shielding.

Slaughter, D.; Oirth, C.; Woodworth, J.

1995-03-09

18

Vishal Mega-Mart- An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the background of high consumerism and income of the urban consumers, in recent year, a number of companies have expressed their interest towards retail sector outlets. As a result, numbers of shopping malls have started their operations in metro and urban areas. Pantaloon, big bazaar, Vishal Mega Mart, Reliance Fresh are the best known examples of retail sector outlets in India.Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers. A retailer is one who stocks the producer’s goods and is involved in the act of selling it to the individual consumer, at a margin of profit. As such, retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain. Some of the key features of retailing include: -Selling directly to customers without having any intermediaries-Selling in smaller units / quantities, breaking the bulk-Present in neighborhood or in the location which is quite convenient to the customers.-Very high in numbers-Recognized by their service levels-Fitting any size and or locationThe objective of this article is to study the Marketing Mix and Shareholding pattern of Vishal Mega-Mart, a renowned name in Retail Industry of India.

Shikha Gupta; Preeti Khatri; Kapil Gulati; Santosh Chauhan

2010-01-01

19

Elluminate Article: Revisiting Mega-Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2006, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ (Elluminate Support) for details on how to download this FREE software. * Revisiting Mega-Universities Gene Rubin and Claudine SchWeber University of Maryland University College

Eugene Rubin; Claudine SchWeber

2006-01-01

20

Broad Host Range Plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmids are and will remain as important cloning vehicles for biotechnology. They have also been associated with the spread of a number of diseases and therefore are a subject of environmental concern. With the advent of sequencing technologies the database of plasmids is increasing. It will be of immense importance to identify the various bacterial hosts in which the plasmid can replicate. The present review article describes the features that confer broad host range to the plasmids, the molecular basis of plasmid host range evolution and applications in recombinant DNA technology and environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Jain A; Srivastava P

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Plasmid Mediated Chromate Resistance in Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the genetic basis and mechanism of chromate resistance in chromate resistant bacteria, conjugal transfer as well as curing of plasmids in these bacteria and its effect on chromium uptake are being investigated. From the effluent of Shafiq Tannery, Kasur, Pakistan, four bacterial strains STCr-1, STCr-2, STCr-3 and STCr-4 which could endure 40 mg mL-1 of potassium chromate in nutrient agar medium were isolated. All of them were gram negative, aerobic and motile rods. One strain STCr-1 was identified as Ochrobactrum species by 16S rRNA gene sequence homology. Each strain harboured a single conjugative plasmid, which conferred resistance to chromate. Maximum plasmid transfer was recorded after 24 h of mating except for plasmid residing in STCr-3 (pSH1322), which transferred maximally after 16 h of mating. The plasmids harboring STCr-1 (pSH1320), STCr-3 (pSH1322) and STCr-4 (pSH1323) manifested highest transfer frequency at donor:recipient ratio 1, while plasmid resident of STCr-2 (pSH1321) preferred donor:recipient ratio 5. Transfer frequency of plasmids pSH1320 and pSH1322 was maximal at 28°C and that of pSH1321 and pSH1323 at 37°C. Optimum pH for plasmid transfer was 8 for these plasmids except pSH1320, which opted for pH 6 or 7. Curing of chromate resistant plasmids from these strains was achieved with SDS at high temperature and curing of plasmid was associated with the loss of chromate resistance phenotype. A comparison of Cr uptake by the parental strains and their cured derivatives revealed that plasmids in these strains express high level resistance to chromate by exerting stringent control on the accumulation/uptake of Cr.

Sikander Sultan; Shahida Hasnain

2005-01-01

22

Virulence plasmid diversity in Clostridium perfringens type D isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clostridium perfringens type D isolates are important in biodefense and also cause natural enterotoxemias in sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. In these isolates, the gene (etx) encoding epsilon-toxin is thought to reside on poorly characterized large plasmids. Type D isolates sometimes also produce other potentially plasmid-encoded toxins, including C. perfringens enterotoxin and beta2 toxin, encoded by the cpe and cbp2 genes, respectively. In the current study we demonstrated that the etx, cpe, and cpb2 genes are carried on plasmids in type D isolates and characterized the toxin-encoding plasmids to obtain insight into their genetic organization, potential transferability, and diversity. Southern blotting of pulsed-field gels showed that the etx gene of type D isolates can be present on at least five different plasmids, whose sizes range from 48 to 110 kb. The etx plasmids also typically carried IS1151 and tcp open reading frames (ORFs) known to mediate conjugative transfer of C. perfringens plasmid pCW3. PCR studies revealed that other than their tcp ORFs, etx plasmids of type D isolates do not carry substantial portions of the conserved or variable regions in the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. Southern blotting also demonstrated that in type D isolates the cpe and cpb2 genes are sometimes present on the etx plasmid. Collectively, these findings confirmed that the virulence of type D isolates is heavily plasmid dependent and indicated that (i) a single type D isolate can carry multiple virulence plasmids, (ii) a single type D virulence plasmid can carry up to three different toxin genes, and (iii) many etx plasmids should be capable of conjugative transfer.

Sayeed S; Li J; McClane BA

2007-05-01

23

Virulence plasmid diversity in Clostridium perfringens type D isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium perfringens type D isolates are important in biodefense and also cause natural enterotoxemias in sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. In these isolates, the gene (etx) encoding epsilon-toxin is thought to reside on poorly characterized large plasmids. Type D isolates sometimes also produce other potentially plasmid-encoded toxins, including C. perfringens enterotoxin and beta2 toxin, encoded by the cpe and cbp2 genes, respectively. In the current study we demonstrated that the etx, cpe, and cpb2 genes are carried on plasmids in type D isolates and characterized the toxin-encoding plasmids to obtain insight into their genetic organization, potential transferability, and diversity. Southern blotting of pulsed-field gels showed that the etx gene of type D isolates can be present on at least five different plasmids, whose sizes range from 48 to 110 kb. The etx plasmids also typically carried IS1151 and tcp open reading frames (ORFs) known to mediate conjugative transfer of C. perfringens plasmid pCW3. PCR studies revealed that other than their tcp ORFs, etx plasmids of type D isolates do not carry substantial portions of the conserved or variable regions in the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. Southern blotting also demonstrated that in type D isolates the cpe and cpb2 genes are sometimes present on the etx plasmid. Collectively, these findings confirmed that the virulence of type D isolates is heavily plasmid dependent and indicated that (i) a single type D isolate can carry multiple virulence plasmids, (ii) a single type D virulence plasmid can carry up to three different toxin genes, and (iii) many etx plasmids should be capable of conjugative transfer. PMID:17339362

Sayeed, Sameera; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

2007-03-05

24

Virulence Plasmid Diversity in Clostridium perfringens Type D Isolates? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium perfringens type D isolates are important in biodefense and also cause natural enterotoxemias in sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. In these isolates, the gene (etx) encoding ?-toxin is thought to reside on poorly characterized large plasmids. Type D isolates sometimes also produce other potentially plasmid-encoded toxins, including C. perfringens enterotoxin and beta2 toxin, encoded by the cpe and cbp2 genes, respectively. In the current study we demonstrated that the etx, cpe, and cpb2 genes are carried on plasmids in type D isolates and characterized the toxin-encoding plasmids to obtain insight into their genetic organization, potential transferability, and diversity. Southern blotting of pulsed-field gels showed that the etx gene of type D isolates can be present on at least five different plasmids, whose sizes range from 48 to 110 kb. The etx plasmids also typically carried IS1151 and tcp open reading frames (ORFs) known to mediate conjugative transfer of C. perfringens plasmid pCW3. PCR studies revealed that other than their tcp ORFs, etx plasmids of type D isolates do not carry substantial portions of the conserved or variable regions in the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. Southern blotting also demonstrated that in type D isolates the cpe and cpb2 genes are sometimes present on the etx plasmid. Collectively, these findings confirmed that the virulence of type D isolates is heavily plasmid dependent and indicated that (i) a single type D isolate can carry multiple virulence plasmids, (ii) a single type D virulence plasmid can carry up to three different toxin genes, and (iii) many etx plasmids should be capable of conjugative transfer.

Sayeed, Sameera; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A.

2007-01-01

25

Thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices  

CERN Multimedia

This technical report presents a thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices. This analysis evaluates the thermal cycling of representative devices in order to estimate the expected lifetime. Simulation results based on manufacturer specifications are presented.

Cravero, Jean-Marc; Garcia Retegui, Rogelio; Maestri, Sebastian; Wassinger, Nicolas

2011-01-01

26

Building phylogenetic trees from molecular data with MEGA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phylogenetic analysis is sometimes regarded as being an intimidating, complex process that requires expertise and years of experience. In fact, it is a fairly straightforward process that can be learned quickly and applied effectively. This Protocol describes the several steps required to produce a phylogenetic tree from molecular data for novices. In the example illustrated here, the program MEGA is used to implement all those steps, thereby eliminating the need to learn several programs, and to deal with multiple file formats from one step to another (Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 28:2731-2739). The first step, identification of a set of homologous sequences and downloading those sequences, is implemented by MEGA's own browser built on top of the Google Chrome toolkit. For the second step, alignment of those sequences, MEGA offers two different algorithms: ClustalW and MUSCLE. For the third step, construction of a phylogenetic tree from the aligned sequences, MEGA offers many different methods. Here we illustrate the maximum likelihood method, beginning with MEGA's Models feature, which permits selecting the most suitable substitution model. Finally, MEGA provides a powerful and flexible interface for the final step, actually drawing the tree for publication. Here a step-by-step protocol is presented in sufficient detail to allow a novice to start with a sequence of interest and to build a publication-quality tree illustrating the evolution of an appropriate set of homologs of that sequence. MEGA is available for use on PCs and Macs from www.megasoftware.net.

Hall BG

2013-05-01

27

Top, GigaZ, MegaW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review the physics potential of top mass measurements and the GigaZ/MegaW options of the International Linear Collider (ILC) for probing New Physics models and especially the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We demonstrate that the anticipated experimental accuracies at the ILC for the top-quark mass, mt, the W boson mass, M{sub W}, and the effective leptonic weak mixing angle, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}, will provide a high sensitivity to quantum effects of New Physics. In particular, a new and more precise measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}, for which the experimental central value is currently obtained from an average where the most precise single measurements differ by more than three standard deviations, could lead to a situation where both the Standard Model and the MSSM in its most general form are ruled out. Alternatively, the precision measurements may resolve virtual effects of SUSY particles even in scenarios where the SUSY particles are so heavy that they escape direct detection at the LHC and the first phase of the ILC. (orig.)

Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2010-08-15

28

SPP1-mediated plasmid transduction.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The virulent Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 transduces plasmid DNA. Plasmid-transducing phages contain only plasmid DNA. Such DNA represents a concatemer of monomeric plasmid molecules with the molecular weight of mature SPP1 DNA. Biological parameters of plasmid transduction are described.

Canosi, U; Lüder, G; Trautner, T A

29

The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological), toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

Daniel Andri?an

2011-01-01

30

Mega-solar Optimal Allocation using Data Envelopment Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, mega-solar optimal allocation using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is examined. A great attention is paid to the photovoltaic generation in our country. Such power generation that can be freely used is attractive in our country, which has a little resources. It is an important problem to allocate mega-solar, a large-scale photovoltaic generation, in such a way that we can expect its efficient operation. The authors tried to apply DEA in Shizuoka Prefecture and to solve this issue. In this type of DEA application, some analyst often experiences zero weighting factors in the parameters of some items to be studied, which implies that the corresponding items are not appropriately evaluated. The existing studies do not give special consideration to this situation. In this study a new calculation scheme is proposed and the above stated problems are successfully solved, and the optimal candidate sites have been selected for the mega-solar allocation.

Yokota, Shinya; Kumano, Teruhisa

31

Mega-masers, Dark Energy and the Hubble Constant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Powerful water maser emission (water mega-masers) can be found in accretion disks in the nuclei of some galaxies. Besides providing a measure of the mass at the nucleus, such mega-masers can be used to determine the distance to the host galaxy, based on a kinematic model. We will explain the importance of determining the Hubble Constant to high accuracy for constraining the equation of state of Dark Energy and describe the Mega-maser Cosmology Project that has the goal of determining the Hubble Constant to better than 3%. Time permitting, we will also present the scientific capabilities of the current and future NRAO facilities: ALMA, EVLA, VLBA and GBT, for addressing key astrophysical problems

Lo, Fred K. Y.

2007-10-15

32

Reversible atrial fibrillation secondary to a mega-oesophagus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and it increases in prevalence with advancing age to about 5% in people older than 65 years. Case presentation We present a rare case of atrial fibrillation secondary to a mega-oesophagus occurring in an 84-years-old Caucasian woman. The patient had a history of progressive dysphagia and the accumulation of food debris lead to mega-oesophagus. Conclusion The diagnosis was made by barium swallow and electrocardiogram; evacuations of 300 ml of the food debris lead to complete resolution of the arrhythmia. The possible aetiology leading to this AF is discussed.

Upile Tahwinder; Jerjes Waseem; El Maaytah Mohammed; Singh Sandeep; Hopper Colin; Mahil Jaspal

2006-01-01

33

Reversible atrial fibrillation secondary to a mega-oesophagus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and it increases in prevalence with advancing age to about 5% in people older than 65 years. Case presentation We present a rare case of atrial fibrillation secondary to a mega-oesophagus occurring in an 84-years-old Caucasian woman. The patient had a history of progressive dysphagia and the accumulation of food debris lead to mega-oesophagus. Conclusion The diagnosis was made by barium swallow and electrocardiogram; evacuations of 300 ml of the food debris lead to complete resolution of the arrhythmia. The possible aetiology leading to this AF is discussed.

Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; El Maaytah, Mohammed; Singh, Sandeep; Hopper, Colin; Mahil, Jaspal

2006-01-01

34

Mega-challenges: programming management for event projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the pursuit of signature event architecture never slows down, solutions to the post-utilization issues seem too slow to catch up, leaving behind many “white-elephant”-type event legacies. Despite such mega-failures originated from a dearth of long-term visions beyond the events on the organize...

Deng, Y; Poon, SW

35

Plasmid-chromosome recombination of irradiated shuttle vector DNA in African Green Monkey kidney cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double-strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp/sup r/ recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome.

Mudgett, J.S.

1987-01-01

36

Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

Keener, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-08-07

37

[Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid DNA].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid DNAs were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and their physico-chemical properties were studied. The DNAs were purified using ultracentrifugation in a CsCl2 density gradient. The molecular weight of these extrachromosomal DNAs determined by electrophoresis in 0.6% agarose gel and by electron microscopy was 6 . 10(6)--10 . 10(6) daltons; a DNA with a molecular weight of 90 . 10(6) daltons was also found. Digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI yielded fragments of the plasmid DNAs with cohesive ends; these were further identified by means of electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel. PMID:440159

Zakharian, R A; Israelian, Iu A; Agabalian, A S; Tatevosian, P E; Akopian, S M

38

[Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid DNA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid DNAs were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and their physico-chemical properties were studied. The DNAs were purified using ultracentrifugation in a CsCl2 density gradient. The molecular weight of these extrachromosomal DNAs determined by electrophoresis in 0.6% agarose gel and by electron microscopy was 6 . 10(6)--10 . 10(6) daltons; a DNA with a molecular weight of 90 . 10(6) daltons was also found. Digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI yielded fragments of the plasmid DNAs with cohesive ends; these were further identified by means of electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel.

Zakharian RA; Israelian IuA; Agabalian AS; Tatevosian PE; Akopian SM

1979-03-01

39

Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA.

Andersen MT; Liefting LW

2013-01-01

40

Plasmid Mediated Degradation of Phenol by Two Bacterial Strains Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two microorganisms, which utilize phenol as a sole source of carbon and energy, were isolated from an enrichment culture. The microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp. The bacterial strains were found to harbor three endogenous plasmids. Two of the plasmids were lost when the microorganisms were treated with ethidium bromide. Loss of the plasmids in the organisms were correlated with the loss of the ability to metabolize phenol. Phenotypic testing of the wild type and cured strains revealed that the gene(s) responsible for phenol degradation may reside upon the plasmids.

Asif H. Chowdhuryi; Parvez Hassan; M. Asik Mosaddik; Shah Alam Bhuyan; M. Habur Rahman; Ananda K. Saha; 5Monzur Hossain

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Plasmid-to-plasmid recombination in Haemophilus influenzae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No recombination between plasmids was observed after conjugal transfer of a plasmid into a cell carrying another plasmid. Two types of such recombination took place after transformation, one type being Rec/sup +/ dependent and suggesting a preferred site of recombination. The other much rarer type was at least partially Rec/sup +/ independent.

Balganesh, M.; Setlow, J.K.

1986-01-01

42

Assessment of MEGA BORG impacts on sea turtles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to assess the impacts of the MEGA BORG oil spill on sea turtles in the path of the oil plume. Aerial surveys were performed to determine the presence of turtles and provide a gross visual assessment of potential impacts. Although extensive efforts were made to capture sea turtles around oil and gas platforms only one loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, was captured. Neither external visual inspection nor laboratory fecal analysis showed evidence of petroleum contamination.

1993-01-01

43

A study of the decay ? ? e? by the MEGA experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the lepton-flavor number non-conserving rare decay ? ? e?. Data- taking is complete, with 450 million events on tape taken over approximately 107 seconds. A small portion of the data sample has been processed through the complete event reconstruction codes to search for the ? ? e? process. No evidence for the ? ? e? decay is observed at a sensitivity of ?7 x 10-11 (90% confidence)

1996-01-01

44

Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200??m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18??km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40??m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Thornton, E. B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, Jr. , A. H.

2007-01-01

45

Plasmids in Frankia sp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plas...

Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

46

Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

2008-01-01

47

The MEGA [Muon decays into an Electron and a GAmma ray] hardware trigger system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the rare decay ? ? e ? with a branching ratio sensitivity of /approximately/10-13. As is typical of rare-decay experiments, extensive, online filtering of the data is required for MEGA. The MEGA experiment uses a hardware pattern-recognition system based on Programmable Array Logic (PAL) devices. Additional events are eliminated in an online ACP system before data are written to tape. The MEGA trigger system is generally applicable where high-rate, short-propagation-delay trigger systems are required. This report contains an introduction to the MEGA experiment, a discussion of the MEGA hardware trigger system and a discussion of the system's measured performance. 4 refs., 3 figs

1988-12-03

48

The MEGA (Muon decays into an Electron and a GAmma ray) hardware trigger system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the rare decay ..mu.. ..-->.. e ..gamma.. with a branching ratio sensitivity of /approximately/10/sup -13/. As is typical of rare-decay experiments, extensive, online filtering of the data is required for MEGA. The MEGA experiment uses a hardware pattern-recognition system based on Programmable Array Logic (PAL) devices. Additional events are eliminated in an online ACP system before data are written to tape. The MEGA trigger system is generally applicable where high-rate, short-propagation-delay trigger systems are required. This report contains an introduction to the MEGA experiment, a discussion of the MEGA hardware trigger system and a discussion of the system's measured performance. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Szymanski, J.J.; Amann, J.F.; Black, J.K.; Cooper, M.D.; Wright, S.C.; Crocker, J.; Sanders, H.

1988-01-01

49

COMPOSITE PLASMID VECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE:To obtain the titled vector capable of utilizing various kinds of restriction enzymes, by linking the plasmid pAMalpha1 of Streptococcus faecalis DS5 with the vector pACYC177 of Escherichia coli in a specific state. CONSTITUTION:The plasmid pAMalpha1 of Streptococcus faecalis DS5 (ATCC14508) and the vecto pACYC177 of Escherichia coli are enzymatically incised in a manner to include the tetracycline-resistant gene region (Tc) originated from pAMalpha1, ampicillin-resistant gene region (Amp), and both of the replication initiation region (Ori pAMalpha1), originated from pAMalpha1 and the replication initiation region (Ori 177) originated from pACYC177. The incised fractions are linked together inserting a poly-linker having the recognition sites of the restriction enzymes EcoRI and HindIII between the fractions.

ISAWA HIROMI; SHIBAHARA HARUE; MUTAI MASAHIKO

50

Surveillance system with mega-pixel scalable transcoder  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a video surveillance system that displays mega-pixel streams effectively, while transmitting and processing the streams efficiently with limited resources such as bandwidth, computing power and display resolution. The proposed system stores high-resolution and high-quality video data and associated object metadata, which includes ROI (Region-of-Interest) information. To satisfy such resource constraints and display important parts in detail without missing the overall scene context, the stored images are efficiently transcoded in the compressed-domain based on the ROI information, display resolution and available bandwidth. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of objective measures and subjective evaluation.

Hata, Toshihiko; Kuwahara, Naoki; Schwenke, Derek L.; Vetro, Anthony

2007-01-01

51

Maharashtra's Mega Sugar Mill Cogen Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mega Sugar Mill Cogeneration Power Project involving sugar mills in the Indian state of Maharashtra's is led by the Maharashtra State Federation of Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd (Sakhar Sangh) and MITCON. The Project, which aims to implement cogeneration projects at 55-60 sugar mills by October 2005, has the backing of national agencies and financial institutions. The criteria for mill selection, the three options for participating mills, the potential power generation and the support provided by Sakhar Sangh and MITCON are explained. Some of the mills that have started work are named. The difficulties in establishing cogeneration projects in India are summarised in a side box.

Matu, Sunil [MITCON, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

52

Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

2005-01-01

53

Plasmids of corynebacterium glutamicum and derived plasmid vectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to two plasmids isolated from the strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LP-6, deposited under the number DSM 5816, one of which has a high and the other has a low copy number, and from which plasmid vectors capable of autonomous replication in coryneform bacteria (shuttle vectors) can be derived.

Thierbach Georg Dr.; Kautz Petra-Sabine; Kutzner Hans Jürgen Prof. Dr.; Sonnen Hans; Bachmann Frank; Pühler Alfred Prof. Dr.; Schäfer Andreas

54

Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Mega-cities and urban agglomerations  

Science.gov (United States)

The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space implies that traditional estimations of seismic hazard for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. The evident patterns of distributed seismic activity follow the Unified Scaling Law that generalizes Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation. The results of the systematic global analysis of the local earthquake size distribution imply that (i) the recurrence of earthquakes in a seismic region, for a wide range of magnitudes and sizes is characterized with the following law: Log N(M,L) = A - B (M - 5) + C Log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of magnitude M within an area of liner size L; (ii) for a wide range of control parameter A from under -1.0 to above 0.5, which value determines the average rate of earthquakes that accordingly differs by a factor of 30 or more, the balance between magnitude ranges, B, resides mainly from 0.6 to 1.1, while the fractal dimension of the local seismic prone setting, C, changes from under 1 to 1.4 and larger; (iii) any estimate of earthquake recurrence rate depends on the size of the territory that is used for averaging and, therefore, differ dramatically when scaled down in proportion to the area of interest. Stabilized version of a robust box-counting algorithm was used to map the values of A, B, and C in every place on the Earth, where the US GS/NEIC Global Hypocenters' Data Base permits a reliable estimation. Using these basic characteristics of earthquake distribution the recurrence rates of moderate, strong, major, and great earthquakes are estimated for each mega-city or an urban agglomeration situated in seismically active territories worldwide. The results are compared to traditionally scaled estimates based on the observed recurrence rates in the extended neighborhoods of a mega-city. The general level of such an underestimation of the rates is too large for being ignored in seismic risk and earthquake loss evaluations necessary for a knowledgeable disaster prevention and mitigation.

Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.

2005-12-01

55

Conjugative plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM) determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones) and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants) have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233) or containing Dutch (pEP5289) or American (pEP5050) type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids conjugated efficiently between N. gonorrhoeae strains, but did not enhance transfer of a genetic marker. PMID:20376355

Pachulec, Emilia; van der Does, Chris

2010-04-01

56

Conjugative plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM) determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones) and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants) have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233) or containing Dutch (pEP5289) or American (pEP5050) type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids conjugated efficiently between N. gonorrhoeae strains, but did not enhance transfer of a genetic marker.

Pachulec E; van der Does C

2010-01-01

57

Nursing Homes: Resident Rights  

Science.gov (United States)

... on this website may not be available. Nursing Homes Resident Rights Nursing home residents have patient rights and certain protections under the law. The nursing home must list and give all new residents a ...

58

Growth dependence of conjugation explains limited plasmid invasion in biofilms: an individual?based modelling study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasmid invasion in biofilms is often surprisingly limited in spite of the close contact of cells in a biofilm. We hypothesized that this poor plasmid spread into deeper biofilm layers is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth rate (relative to the maximum growth rate) of the donor. By extending an individual?based model of microbial growth and interactions to include the dynamics of plasmid carriage and transfer by individual cells, we were able to conduct in silico tests of this and other hypotheses on the dynamics of conjugal plasmid transfer in biofilms. For a generic model plasmid, we find that invasion of a resident biofilm is indeed limited when plasmid transfer depends on growth, but not so in the absence of growth dependence. Using sensitivity analysis we also find that parameters related to timing (i.e. a lag before the transconjugant can transfer, transfer proficiency and scan speed) and spatial reach (EPS yield, conjugal pilus length) are more important for successful plasmid invasionthan the recipients' growth rate or the probability of segregational loss. While this study identifies one factor that can limit plasmid invasion in biofilms, the new individual?based framework introduced in this work is a powerful tool that enables one to test additional hypotheses on the spread and role of plasmids in microbial biofilms.

Merkey, Brian; Lardon, Laurent

2011-01-01

59

[Plasmid DNA of Salmonella derby].  

Science.gov (United States)

S. derby K 89 isolated from sick children have been found to contain plasmids which determine the resistance of these organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. 3 types of plasmid DNA with molecular weights of 40. 12 and 8 megadaltons (Md) have been detected by electrophoretic analysis. The dissociation of the large plasmid (40 Md) into 3 independent replicons has been observed. The circular, covalently closed forms of the DNA cointegrate and its constituent replicons have been identified by electron microscopy. In S. derby K 89 grown in broth prepared from dried meat concentrate the loss of these plasmids is observed, and the culture thus becomes sensitive to penicillin and chloramphenicol. This suggests that dried meat concentrate contains some factor capable of eliminating the plasmids. PMID:7180262

Vartanian, M K; Kazanchian, A F; Amirkhanova, L M; Agaballian, A S; Zakharian, R A

1982-08-01

60

[Plasmid DNA of Salmonella derby  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

S. derby K 89 isolated from sick children have been found to contain plasmids which determine the resistance of these organisms to penicillin and chloramphenicol. 3 types of plasmid DNA with molecular weights of 40. 12 and 8 megadaltons (Md) have been detected by electrophoretic analysis. The dissociation of the large plasmid (40 Md) into 3 independent replicons has been observed. The circular, covalently closed forms of the DNA cointegrate and its constituent replicons have been identified by electron microscopy. In S. derby K 89 grown in broth prepared from dried meat concentrate the loss of these plasmids is observed, and the culture thus becomes sensitive to penicillin and chloramphenicol. This suggests that dried meat concentrate contains some factor capable of eliminating the plasmids.

Vartanian MK; Kazanchian AF; Amirkhanova LM; Agaballian AS; Zakharian RA

1982-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Plasmid recombination in Haemophilus influenzae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DNA recombination in exponential phase and competent Haemophilus influenzae was measured by an electron microscopic assay that relies on the conversion of plasmid RSF0885 monomers into multimeric forms. Dimer circles were present at a frequency of 2% in plasmid preparations from competent Rd (wild-type) cells; multimers were present at a frequency of 0.2% in preparations from exponential phase cells. Thus, plasmid recombination was stimulated in competent cells. Multimer formation occurred efficiently in cells of the transformation defective mutant rec2, implying that the rec2 gene product is not required for plasmid recombination. However, the absence of multimer plasmids in preparations from competent cells of the transformation defective mutant rec1 suggests that the rec1 gene product is required. Digestion of purified plasmids with restriction endonuclease PvuII, which makes a single cut in the monomer, revealed the presence of recombination intermediates composed of two linear plasmids joined to form two pairs of arms resembling the Greek letter chi. Length measurements of these arms taken from a population of recombination intermediates gave evidence that the plasmids were joined at sites of homology. The distributions of individual DNA strands, at the intersections of the four arms, could be resolved in some recombination intermediates and were of two types. The first type of junction appeared as a single-stranded arm appended to each corner. The second type of junction consisted of a single strand of DNA linking the two linear plasmids at a site of homology. The single-stranded linker was frequently situated at the edge of a short gap on one of the plasmids in the pair. The fine structures of the recombinational joints have been interpreted in terms of previously proposed models of recombination.

McCarthy, D.

1982-01-01

62

Paleofluvial mega-canyon beneath the central Greenland ice sheet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subglacial topography plays an important role in modulating the distribution and flow of basal water. Where topography predates ice sheet inception, it can also reveal insights into former tectonic and geomorphological processes. Although such associations are known in Antarctica, little consideration has been given to them in Greenland, partly because much of the ice sheet bed is thought to be relatively flat and smooth. Here, we present evidence from ice-penetrating radar data for a 750-km-long subglacial canyon in northern Greenland that is likely to have influenced basal water flow from the ice sheet interior to the margin. We suggest that the mega-canyon predates ice sheet inception and will have influenced basal hydrology in Greenland over past glacial cycles.

Bamber JL; Siegert MJ; Griggs JA; Marshall SJ; Spada G

2013-08-01

63

A Case of Diastrophic Dysplasia Associated With Mega Cysterna Magna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias comprise a large group of hereditary disorders characterized by abnormal growth, short stature and malformations and deformations of bone and cartilage. Diastrophic dysplasia is a skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, foot and spinal deformities, hitchhiker's thumb and ear abnormalities. Internal organs develop normally. The physical examination of the newborn referred to our hospital for multiple abnormalities revealed a poor general condition with cyanosis, disproportionate short stature, large front fontanel, short neck, misshapen upper ear and ‘cauliflower' deformity, cleft palate, hitchhiker's thumb, long and slim fingers except the thumb, proximally located toes, flexion contractures in the large joints, bilateral talipes equinovarus and left scrotal hernia. Mega cysterna magna was demonstrated in the posterior fossa in the cranial tomography. With these clinical and radiological findings, the newborn was diagnosed as diastrophic dysplasia. The infant was discharged on day 19 after genetic counseling to the family and was to be followed up by the newborn outpatient clinic.

Ridvan DURAN; Ulfet VATANSEVER; Nukhet ALADAG; Betul ACUNAS; Beyhan TUYSUZ

2007-01-01

64

ROLE OF MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON BRANDING DESTINATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sporting events to help make creating beautiful scenery and unique areas to tourism. Thepurpose of this study was investigated the role of holding sporting events on destinationsBranding with hosted of mega sports event (Traditional Sport ;hors riding) on branding sportstourism destinations in Golestan province. Data from a questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha = 91%)and interviews were collected. Statistical population of this study was 217 patients (53 expert(cultural heritage; physical education; agencies; hotel owners); 74 tourists and 90 sportsphysical education teachers). For data analysis descriptive statistics and inferential (chi-squaretest) were used. Findings showed: 77% percent of subjects mentioned that horse riding;traditional sport is major attractive and capable for Sport Tourism Development in Golestanprovince. Also mentioned that were one of the major reasons tourists visit the Golestanprovince; were watching traditional horse riding event.

Abdul Hamid Zeitoonly; Hasan Asadi; Habib Honari; Abolfazl Farahani; Mohammad Pour Ranjbar

2011-01-01

65

A Positive Study on the Residents' Tourism Expectation of Shanghai EXPO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The attitude, cognition and expectation of residents in certain eventholding destination play a significant role to the success of this mega-event. This research analyzed the expectation of Shangehai residents, as well as the interdependent relationship between residents' expectation and 2010 Shanghai EXPO focusing on 2010 Shanghai EXPO. This study revealed that factor analysis selected 5 tourism expectation factors (infrastructural& environmentalfactor;positive attitude;social phenomenal;economic and price & real estate).Among Shanghai residents' demographic characteristics, except gender, the otherdemographic variables like age,educationallevel, marital level and profession all have obvious differences with the 5expectation factors.multi-regression analysis also revealed that Shanghai residents' expectation has apositive correlation with the active participating attitudes.Inthe end the insufficiency of this study is put forwardand recommendations on the futurestudyare alsogiven.

CHEN Nan; QIAO Guang-hui; ZHANG Yun-yao

2010-01-01

66

The Salmonella virulence plasmid enhances Salmonella-induced lysis of macrophages and influences inflammatory responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid mediates systemic infection in mice and cattle. Here, we analyze the interaction between wild-type and plasmid-cured Salmonella strains with phagocytes in vitro and in vivo. The intracellular recovery of S. dublin from murine peritoneal and bovine alveolar macrophages cultured in the presence of gentamicin in vitro was not related to virulence plasmid carriage. However, the virulence plasmid increased the lytic activity of S. dublin, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella choleraesuis for resident or activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Lysis was not mediated by spv genes and was abolished by cytochalasin D treatment. Peritoneal and splenic macrophages were isolated from mice 4 days after intraperitoneal infection with wild-type or plasmid-cured S. dublin strains. The wild-type strain was recovered in significantly higher numbers than the plasmid-cured strain. However, the intracellular killing rates of such cells cultured in vitro for both S. dublin strains were not significantly different. Four days after infection, there was a lower increase of phagocyte numbers in the peritoneal cavities and spleens of mice infected with the wild-type strain compared with the plasmid-cured strain. The virulence plasmid influenced the survival of macrophages in vitro following infection in vivo as assessed by microscopy. Cells from mice infected with the plasmid-cured strain survived better than those from mice infected with the wild-type strain. This is the first report demonstrating an effect of the virulence plasmid on the interaction of Salmonella strains with macrophages. Plasmid-mediated macrophage dysfunction could influence the recruitment and/or the activation of phagocytic cells and consequently the net growth of Salmonella strains during infection. PMID:8757880

Guilloteau, L A; Wallis, T S; Gautier, A V; MacIntyre, S; Platt, D J; Lax, A J

1996-08-01

67

Genetic diversity and composition of a plasmid metagenome from a wastewater treatment plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid metagenome nucleotide sequence data were recently obtained from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bacteria with reduced susceptibility to selected antimicrobial drugs by applying the ultrafast 454-sequencing technology. The sequence dataset comprising 36,071,493 bases (346,427 reads with an average read length of 104 bases) was analysed for genetic diversity and composition by using a newly developed bioinformatic pipeline based on assignment of environmental gene tags (EGTs) to protein families stored in the Pfam database. Short amino acid sequences deduced from the plasmid metagenome sequence reads were compared to profile hidden Markov models underlying Pfam. Obtained matches evidenced that many reads represent genes having predicted functions in plasmid replication, stability and plasmid mobility which indicates that WWTP bacteria harbour genetically stabilised and mobile plasmids. Moreover, the data confirm a high diversity of plasmids residing in WWTP bacteria. The mobile organic peroxide resistance plasmid pMAC from Acinetobacter baumannii was identified as reference plasmid for the most abundant replication module type in the sequenced sample. Accessory plasmid modules encode different transposons, insertion sequences, integrons, resistance and virulence determinants. Most of the matches to Transposase protein families were identified for transposases similar to the one of the chromate resistance transposon Tn5719. Noticeable are hits to beta-lactamase protein families which suggests that plasmids from WWTP bacteria encode different enzymes possessing beta-lactam-hydrolysing activity. Some of the sequence reads correspond to antibiotic resistance genes that were only recently identified in clinical isolates of human pathogens. EGT analysis thus proofed to be a very valuable method to explore genetic diversity and composition of the present plasmid metagenome dataset.

Schlüter A; Krause L; Szczepanowski R; Goesmann A; Pühler A

2008-08-01

68

Between Discourse and Reality: The Un-Sustainability of Mega-Event Planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The zero-sum nature of mega-event hosting encourages cities to escalate investment with an eye towards convincing event rights holders that a positive outcome will result. The discursive frameworks of “legacy” and “sustainability”, the global competition to attract events and the compressed event horizon make for mega-event preparation regimes that may seriously compromise long-term urban planning agendas in mega-event hosts. By examining the sustainable urban planning literature, the discursive frameworks of sustainability in the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the discursive framing of the Rio 2016 bid, this paper will examine the Olympic Golf project being implemented in Rio de Janeiro. Through this case study the paper argues that unless mega-event rights holders change their candidacy and selection processes, these events will inevitably be detrimental to their hosts.

Christopher Gaffney

2013-01-01

69

IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet...

Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne

70

Novel Macrolide Resistance Module Carried by the IncP-1? Resistance Plasmid pRSB111, Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The macrolide resistance plasmid pRSB111 was isolated from bacteria residing in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant. The 47-kb plasmid confers resistance to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, and tylosin when it is carried by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and is ...

Szczepanowski, Rafael; Krahn, Irene; Bohn, Nadine; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

71

Recombination efficiency is a quadratic function of the length of homology during plasmid transformation of Bacillus subtilis protoplasts and Escherichia coli competent cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recombination efficiency between transforming and resident plasmids was 100 times higher in Bacillus subtilis protoplasts than in Escherichia coli competent cells. In both systems it varied with the square of the length of the sequences common to two plasmids within the studied range 0.96-8.8 kb in ...

Michel, B; Ehrlich, S D

72

Lithospheric Scale Deformation in Mega-thrust Subduction Zones  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the general plate tectonic model of subduction zone deformation and its relationship to the earthquake cycle for mega-thrust earthquakes is well known, there is neither consistency in such descriptions nor compatibility among seismological, geodetic, and geologic frameworks for such events. In particular in most seismologic studies of mega-thrust earthquakes there is an implicit assumption that the co-seismic slip is essentially symmetric across the fault surface - that is both the upper and lower plates moved equal amounts (but in opposite directions) during the rupture. Implicit in many geologic studies along convergent margins is the assumption that most permanent deformation is within the upper plate and the subducting slab basically transits the seismogenic zone with little permanent deformation. This perspective serves as the framework for many animations of subduction zone tectonics. Two subduction zone locales, the Kuriles and Solomon Islands, that have hosted recent Mw 8+ earthquakes demonstrate two end-member styles of subduction zone processes neither consistent with the conventional view. The November 2006 (thrust) and January 2007 (normal) earthquake pair in the Kuriles provide an opportunity to quantify the deformation within the subducting Pacific slab during the interseismic period. Based on the correspondence in slip during these events, we are able to both estimate the deformation (dominantly in the subducting slab and not in the overriding plate) and place a constraint on the static frictional strength of the megathrust interface of approximately 2-5 MPa. The 2007 Solomon Island Mw 8+ earthquake shows a distinctly different pattern of interseismic deformation. During this event, the propagating rupture traversed an active transform plate boundary between the separately subducting Australia and Solomon Sea plates. We interpret this to represent a situation in which interseismic deformation is primarily in the upper (Pacific) plate allowing the rupture to jump the fundamental barrier of a plate boundary. This is also compatible with limited GPS data available for the Australia plate near the trench indicating unimpeded subduction of Australia and thus little internal deformation of the subducting slab. These two subduction regimes indicate that there is likely a full continuum in how deformation is accommodated during subduction, and implies that attempts to determine the megathrust (and associated tsunami) potential of subduction zones using observations of upper-plate deformation is problematic.

Furlong, K. P.; Ammon, C.; Lay, T.

2008-12-01

73

System modelling and identification of Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A dynamic system response model for plasma in Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) has been developed using RZIP. This is a linearized tokamak model. It assumes a constant plasma current distribution and axisymmetry. The plasma and conducting structures are approximated by discrete toroidal current filaments. RZIP generates a state-space model of the system behaviour, with PF coil voltages as inputs and various predicted diagnostic measurements as outputs. A separate SIMULINK model has been developed to represent the MAST plant, power supplies and analogue feedback controller. The RZIP and SIMULINK models were combined to produce a complete system model. This combined model was used to simulate test shots under both vacuum and plasma conditions. The two sets of traces cohere reasonably well, with some difference in attenuation levels. System identification experiments were carried out on the PF coils, with particular attention paid to the vertical field coils, under vacuum conditions. The frequency response behaviour was found using an excitation signal comprising a number of sinusoids. The RZIP model was verified by comparing its predicted response with experimental data

2001-01-01

74

MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

Charles L. Mader; Michael L. Gittings

2002-01-01

75

Comportamento do peso do coração e do corpo em chagásicos crônicos com e sem "megas"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O peso do coração é menor nos chagásicos com "megas" do que nos falecidos subitamente ou em I.C.C., sendo, porém, maior que nos controles. Já o peso corporal ésemelhante nos chagásicos falecidos subitamente e nos controles, havendo redução moderada no grupo com I.C.C., e rtiais acentuada nos chagásicos com "megas" (redução de 20% em relação aos controles). A relação percentual peso cardíaco/peso corporal é de 1,1% no grupo com I.C.C.; 0,71% no grupo de (more) morte súbita; 0,77% no grupo com "megas"; 0,49% no grupo controle e 0,60% ne grupo de doenças caquetizantes. Com base nas médias dos pesos cardíacos e corporal dos grupos controle, de doenças caquetizantes e de megas, calculou-se que o emagrecimento ocorrido nos megas reduziria o peso cardíaco médio de apenas 6,8%. Abstract in english Heart weight is less in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes than in those which have died suddenly or with congestive heart failure, it is, however, greater than in the Controls. Body weight is similar in chagasic patients who have died suddenly and in the Controls, there is a moderate body weight reduction in the group with congestive heart failure, and a more accentuated reduction in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes (a reduction of 20% in comparíson with the (more) Controls). The relationship between heart - weight and body - weight, expressed as a percentage is 1,1% in the group with congestive heart failure; 0,71% in the group which died suddenly; 0.77% in the group with "mega" syndromes, 0.49% in the Controls group and 0.60% in the group with cachexia producing diseases. On the basis of mean heart - weights and body - weights of the control group, group with cachexia producing diseases and group with "mega" syndromes it was calculated that the emaciation which occurred in those with "mega"syndromes could reduce mean heart - weight by at least 6.8%.

Almeida, Hipólito de Oliveira; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula A.; Araújo, Waldyr Ferreira de

1980-12-01

76

Outline for Mega-Float project and engagement in R and D program; Mega float kaihatsu no gaiyo to torikumi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the development of technologies for the embodiment of ultra-large floating structures in the ocean, a demonstration scale model reduced to 1/10-1/15 is sited in a marine test area. Research and development using this model cover the verification of technologies for designing ultra-large elastic floating structures, for designing a floating structure model, and for simulation by measuring the behavior and displacement of the model in the marine test area; demonstration of construction technologies that are highly productive, for example, in performing connection of components on the sea; establishment of technologies for realizing permanent durability and for performing maintenance and inspection so that a floating structure will remain in service for 100 years or longer; evaluation of the impact of floating structure emplacement in the sea on the flow conditions and the ecosystem; and the identification of facilities and functions to be aboard the floating structure assuming, for example, the construction of an airport. The effort has realized technologies required for the designing and construction of Mega-Floats. Furthermore, overall system technologies have been established, which involve arrangements for maintenance, management, and repair for a prolonged use, function designing techniques to fulfill any of various purposes, and methods for assessing influence over the environment. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Kado, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-12-20

77

Characterization of plasmids in halobacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extrachromosomal, covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid has been isolated from different species of halobacteria. Three strains of Halobacterium halobium and one of Halobacterium cutirubrum, all of which synthesize purple membrane (Pum+) and bacterioruberin (Rub+), contain plasmids of different size which share extensive sequence homologies. One strain of Halobacterium salinarium, another one of Halobacterium capanicum, and two new Halobacterium isolates from Tunisia, which are also Pum+ Rub+, do not harbor covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid but contain sequences, presumably integrated into the chromosome, which are similar if not identical to those of pHH1, i.e., the plasmid originally isolated from H. halobium. Three other halophilic strains, Halobacterium trapanicum, Halobacterium volcanii, and a new isolate from Israel, do not carry pHH1-like sequences. These strains are, by morphological and physiological criteria, different from the others examined and harbor plasmids unrelated to pHH1.

Pfeifer F; Weidinger G; Goebel W

1981-01-01

78

Determination of Mega-Environments for Peanut Breeding Using the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut Model  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breeding for locally adapted cultivars requires a subdivision of the target region into mega-environments. Crop models could assist in generating the required data for mega-environment determination. The objective of this study was to determine whether subdividing the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production areas in Thailand into mega-environments using a crop simulation model would be justified. The Cropping System Model (CSM) CROPGRO-Peanut was used to simulate pod yield of 17 diverse peanut lines for 130 locations covering all peanut production areas in Thailand. The data were statistically analyzed, and the genotype and genotype x environment (GGE) biplot method was used to subdivide the peanut production areas into subregions. The results reveal that the genotype x location interaction accounted for only a small proportion of total yield variation for all years. The analyses of yearly data by the GGE biplot shows inconsistent results across years for location grouping as well as for the winning genotypes of the individual location-groups. The GGE biplot analysis of the mean data over 30 yr also indicates a similarity in genotype discrimination for all the locations. The results from this study show that the subdivision of peanut production areas into mega-environments is not justified for Thailand. Therefore, for peanut breeding, Thailand should be considered as one mega-environment.

Putto W; Patanothai A; Jogloy S; Hoogenboom G

2008-05-01

79

MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.

Tamura K; Peterson D; Peterson N; Stecher G; Nei M; Kumar S

2011-10-01

80

Efficient spectral editing at 7 T: GABA detection with MEGA-sLASER.  

Science.gov (United States)

At high field (7 T) spectral editing of ?-aminobutyric acid with MEGA-point-resolved spectroscopy is inefficient due to the large chemical shift displacement error. In this article, a new pulse sequence is designed which has minimal chemical shift displacement error to perform an efficient spectral editing of the ?-aminobutyric acid 3.0 ppm resonance at 7 T. The sequence consists of the conventional MEGA editing pulses and a semi-localized by adiabatic selective refocusing sequence. Phantom and in vivo measurements demonstrated an efficient detection of ?-aminobutyric acid. Using ECG triggering, excellent in vivo performance of the MEGA-semi-localized by adiabatic selective refocusing (MEGA-sLASER) provided well-resolved ?-aminobutyric acid signals in 27 mL volumes in the human brain at an echo time of 74 ms within a relatively short acquisition time (5 min). Furthermore, the high efficiency of the MEGA-sLASER was demonstrated by acquiring small volumes (8 mL) at an echo time of 74 ms, as well as long echo time measurements (222 ms in 27 mL volume). PMID:22213204

Andreychenko, Anna; Boer, Vincent O; Arteaga de Castro, Catalina S; Luijten, Peter R; Klomp, Dennis W J

2011-12-28

 
 
 
 
81

Efficient spectral editing at 7 T: GABA detection with MEGA-sLASER.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At high field (7 T) spectral editing of ?-aminobutyric acid with MEGA-point-resolved spectroscopy is inefficient due to the large chemical shift displacement error. In this article, a new pulse sequence is designed which has minimal chemical shift displacement error to perform an efficient spectral editing of the ?-aminobutyric acid 3.0 ppm resonance at 7 T. The sequence consists of the conventional MEGA editing pulses and a semi-localized by adiabatic selective refocusing sequence. Phantom and in vivo measurements demonstrated an efficient detection of ?-aminobutyric acid. Using ECG triggering, excellent in vivo performance of the MEGA-semi-localized by adiabatic selective refocusing (MEGA-sLASER) provided well-resolved ?-aminobutyric acid signals in 27 mL volumes in the human brain at an echo time of 74 ms within a relatively short acquisition time (5 min). Furthermore, the high efficiency of the MEGA-sLASER was demonstrated by acquiring small volumes (8 mL) at an echo time of 74 ms, as well as long echo time measurements (222 ms in 27 mL volume).

Andreychenko A; Boer VO; Arteaga de Castro CS; Luijten PR; Klomp DW

2012-10-01

82

Plasmid profiles of mercuric chloride tolerant rhizobia from horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty two rhizobia were isolated from the fresh healthy root nodules of horse gram. They were found to be highly salt tolerant. They were identified as rhizobia by cultural, biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence. The sequences of the four selected isolates were deposited in the NCBI GenBank. The obtained accession numbers were GQ483457, GQ483458, GQ483459 and GQ483460. All the rhizobia were able to grow at 10 ppm mercuric chloride concentration. Four isolates HGR-11, 16, 30 and 31 were used to study the effect of different concentrations of mercuric chloride on the growth of rhizobia. These isolates were able to grow at 30 ppm concentration also. In these isolates, HGR-11 and HGR-30 showed maximum growth at 20 ppm than at control. These isolates contained one mega plasmid (-22 kb) at 20 ppm mercuric chloride concentration. PMID:23033678

Edulamudi, Prabhavati; Johnson, Antony A M; Divi, Venkata Ramana Sai Gopal; Konada, Veera Mallaiah

2012-03-01

83

Plasmid profiles of mercuric chloride tolerant rhizobia from horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty two rhizobia were isolated from the fresh healthy root nodules of horse gram. They were found to be highly salt tolerant. They were identified as rhizobia by cultural, biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence. The sequences of the four selected isolates were deposited in the NCBI GenBank. The obtained accession numbers were GQ483457, GQ483458, GQ483459 and GQ483460. All the rhizobia were able to grow at 10 ppm mercuric chloride concentration. Four isolates HGR-11, 16, 30 and 31 were used to study the effect of different concentrations of mercuric chloride on the growth of rhizobia. These isolates were able to grow at 30 ppm concentration also. In these isolates, HGR-11 and HGR-30 showed maximum growth at 20 ppm than at control. These isolates contained one mega plasmid (-22 kb) at 20 ppm mercuric chloride concentration.

Edulamudi P; Johnson AA; Divi VR; Konada VM

2012-03-01

84

“Corte Transversal”: una mega escultura entre el río Mapocho y la autopista Costanera Norte en Santiago de Chile/ “Corte Transversal”: a mega sculpture between the Mapocho River and the Costanera Norte toll road in Santiago de Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Corte Transversal”: una mega escultura entre el río Mapocho y la autopista Costanera Norte en Santiago de Chile/“Corte Transversal”: a mega sculpture between the Mapocho River and the Costanera Norte toll road in Santiago de Chile

Revista de Urbanismo, Departamento de Urbanismo de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile. (Reportaje de M.I.PavezR.- M.P.Henríquez.O)

2008-01-01

85

Plasmids and transposable elements in Salmonella wien.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The plasmids from six clinical strains of Salmonella wien have been characterized. All the S. wien strains were found to carry three types of plasmids: an IncFI R-Tc Cm Km Ap (resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and ampicillin) plasmid, either conjugative or nonconjugative, of la...

Maimone, F; Colonna, B; Bazzicalupo, P; Oliva, B; Nicoletti, M; Casalino, M

86

Biochemical Studies of Two Bacillus pumilus Plasmids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacillus pumilus NRS 576 harbored an estimated two copies per chromosome of a covalently closed, circular (CCC) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, the 576 plasmid. The 576 plasmid has a buoyant density of 1.698 g/cm3 and a molecular weight of about 28 × 106. Plasmid copy number remained about the...

Lovett, Paul S.; Bramucci, Michael G.

87

F plasmid ccd mechanism in Escherichia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ccd mechanism specified by the ccdA and ccdB genes of the mini-F plasmid determines fate of plasmid-free segregants in Escherichia coli (Jaffé et al., J. Bacteriol. 163:841-849, 1985). The killing function in plasmid-free segregants by the ccd mechanism did not affect cell growth of coexisting c...

Hiraga, S; Jaffé, A; Ogura, T; Mori, H; Takahashi, H

88

A Practical Data Recovery Technique for Long-Term Strain Monitoring of Mega Columns during Construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A practical data recovery method is proposed for the strain data lost during the safety monitoring of mega columns. The analytical relations among the measured strains are derived to recover the data lost due to unexpected errors in long-term measurement during construction. The proposed technique is applied to recovery of axial strain data of a mega column in an irregular building structure during construction. The axial strain monitoring using the wireless strain sensing system was carried out for one year and five months between 23 July 2010 and 22 February 2012. During the long-term strain sensing, three different types of measurement errors occurred. Using the recovery technique, the strain data that could not be measured at different intervals in the measurement were successfully recovered. It is confirmed that the problems that may occur during long-term wireless strain sensing of mega columns during construction could be resolved through the proposed recovery method.

Choi SW; Kwon E; Kim Y; Hong K; Park HS

2013-01-01

89

A Practical Data Recovery Technique for Long-Term Strain Monitoring of Mega Columns during Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A practical data recovery method is proposed for the strain data lost during the safety monitoring of mega columns. The analytical relations among the measured strains are derived to recover the data lost due to unexpected errors in long-term measurement during construction. The proposed technique is applied to recovery of axial strain data of a mega column in an irregular building structure during construction. The axial strain monitoring using the wireless strain sensing system was carried out for one year and five months between 23 July 2010 and 22 February 2012. During the long-term strain sensing, three different types of measurement errors occurred. Using the recovery technique, the strain data that could not be measured at different intervals in the measurement were successfully recovered. It is confirmed that the problems that may occur during long-term wireless strain sensing of mega columns during construction could be resolved through the proposed recovery method.

Se Woon Choi; EunMi Kwon; Yousok Kim; Kappyo Hong; Hyo Seon Park

2013-01-01

90

Residence, Migration, and Earnings.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Examination of the effects of including place of origin, current residence, and place of migration in the Sewell-Hauser basic model of socioeconomic achievement indicated that place of current residence had an important influence on socioeconomic achievement, particularly on earnings. (DS)|

Wang Shiang Yun, Charlotte; Sewell, William H.

1980-01-01

91

Changes in medicine: residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

Robbins RA

2011-01-01

92

Testing of MicroMegas for ATLAS Muon Small wheel Detection Panels  

CERN Document Server

This document consists of a brief summary of all the research that I have done here as a summer student working together with the MicroMegas group. It mainly focuses on several testing techniques that have been carried out on an L2 panel to verify sseveral criteria such as flatness and flexibility.

Borg, Miryea Nicole

2013-01-01

93

Sustainability as Global Norm: The Greening of Mega-Events in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This volume explores sports mega-events, their social, political, and cultural characters, the value systems that they inscribe and draw on, the claims they make on us and the claims the organisers make for them, the spatial and ethical relationships they create, and the responses of civil societies...

Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.

94

Residents' Perspectives on Professionalism  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Research defining professionalism exists, yet little is known about how residents view this important attribute for medical practice. Knowing more about residents' interpretations of professionalism and about how they value professionalism would enhance definitions and facilitate support for the development of professionalism skills and behaviors at the graduate level. Purpose The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate how residents think about professionalism, how they value it, and how it plays out in their educational lives. Methods This study uses qualitative methods, employing 5 focus groups representative of a range of disciplines. Methods include providing unstructured prompts, member checking and informant feedback to support credibility, and content analysis to discern significant patterns. Results Content analysis supported that residents highly value professionalism and see it as a complex construct, dependent on the situation, discipline, and on personal experience. Challenges to professionalism are common in graduate medical education and a great concern for residents. Conclusions Physician educators often discuss professionalism as an overarching concept in medicine, especially in classes during the preclinical years. Although some general principles are applicable, residents relate more deeply to aspects of professionalism that concern their own clinical practice, situation, and specialty. Implications for measurement of professional skills and for further research are included in this report.

Krain, Lewis P.; Lavelle, Ellen

2009-01-01

95

pLS010 plasmid vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb malM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb T.sub.c r DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY); Balganesh, Tanjore S. (Upton, NY)

1988-01-01

96

Plasmids of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasmid DNA of Synechocystis 6803 is described and a plasmid is described which can be used as the basis for construction of vector molecules for this cyanobacterium. Plasmid DNA was extracted from the cells of Synechocystis 680 from a 41 7-day culture by the method of Van den Hondel, et. al. The plasmid DNA was treated with restriction endonuclease by the usual method and gel electrophoresis was performed in 0.8 percent agarose. The plasmid DNA was abstracted by electrophoresis in agarose gel. Plasmid DNA was studied with an electron microscope. Several experiments were performed on isolation of plasmids in a CsCl-EB density gradient. Preliminary restriction analysis indicated that large plasmids have a greater number of recognition sites for various restriction endonucleases. In spite of the absence of unique sites for the restrictases used, the plasmid pSS2 is apparently a good basis for construction of vectors capable of autonomous replication in the cells of synechocystic 6803. 11 references, 3 figures.

Elanskaya, I.V.; Bibikova, M.V.; Bogdanova, S.L.; Koksharova, T.A.; Agamalova, S.R.; Nikitina, E.I.; Shestakov, S.V.

1985-01-01

97

Plasmids in several strains of deinococcus radiodurans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deinococcus radiodurans is known as a radioresistant bacterium. For the construction of the shuttle vector, plasmids of this bacterium were isolated and investigated. At least two plasmids in the cells of D. radiodurans MR{sub 1}, KR{sub 1} and Sark were found in this experiment. However, a common plasmid among MR{sub 1}, KR{sub 1} and Sark strains could not be found. These plasmids would be useful for the construction of the shuttle vector for cloning radioresistant genes of this bacterium. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Masahiro Kikuchi; Shigeru Kitayama; Sri Hariani Sjarief; Hiroshi Watanabe [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)

1994-07-01

98

pLS101 plasmid vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb ma1M gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tcr DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lacks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

1985-02-19

99

Effect of chromosome homology an plasmid transformation and plasmid conjugal transfer in Haemophilus influenzae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pairing between plasmid and the homologous part of the chromosome associated with plasmid establishment may differ from the pairing which results from integration of a homologous region of the plasmid into the chromosome. Thus the rate of novobiocin transformation decreases with duplication of the chromosomal portion in pMB2, but the rate of establishment of the plasmid increases with this duplication. A model to explain these data is given. 17 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

Balganesh, M.; Setlow, J.K.

1984-05-14

100

Adaptive Plasmid Evolution Results in Host-Range Expansion of a Broad-Host-Range Plasmid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little is known about the range of hosts in which broad-host-range (BHR) plasmids can persist in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, and whether this “long-term host range” can evolve over time. Previously, the BHR multidrug resistance plasmid pB10 was shown to be highly unstable in...

De Gelder, Leen; Williams, Julia J.; Ponciano, José M.; Sota, Masahiro; Top, Eva M.

 
 
 
 
101

Plasmid transduction by Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1: effects of DNA homology between plasmid and bacteriophage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any SPP1 DNA restriction fragment cloned into Bacillus subtilis plasmid pC194 or pUB110 increased the transduction frequency of the plasmid by SPP1 100- to 1,000-fold over the transduction level of the plasmid alone. This increment was observed irrespective of whether a fragment contained the SPP1 p...

Deichelbohrer, I; Alonso, J C; Lüder, G; Trautner, T A

102

Residents as teachers: survey of Canadian family medicine residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. DESIGN: A 16-question online survey. SETTING: Canadian family medicine residency programs. PARTICIPANTS: Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. RESULTS: A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. CONCLUSION: It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.

Ng VK; Burke CA; Narula A

2013-09-01

103

A mega-splay fault system and tsunami hazard in the southern Ryukyu subduction zone  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 1771, a subduction earthquake generated a great tsunami that struck the south Ryukyu islands and killed ˜12,000 people, whereas its mechanism is still enigmatic (Nakata and Kawana, 1995; Nakamura, 2006; Matsumoto et al., 2009). In this paper, we show its probable source on a mega-splay fault system existing along the southern Ryukyu forearc. Analyses of deep multi-channel seismic reflection profiles indicate that the mega-splay fault system is rising from the summit of a ˜1 km high ridge situated at a ˜5° landward dipping plate interface. An outer ridge marks the seafloor outcrop of the splay fault system and separates the landward inner wedge and the oceanward outer wedge. The inner wedge is uplifting and exhibits widespread normal faulting while the outer wedge shows folded structures. The mega-splay fault system is parallel to the Ryukyu Trench east of 125.5°E and is estimated to be ˜450 km long. The origin of this south Ryukyu mega-splay fault system is ascribed to a resistant subduction of the elevated transverse ridges associated with the subducting portion of the trench-parallel Luzon-Okinawa Fracture Zone. In contrast, no similar splay fault is found west of 125.5°E where the oblique subduction has produced large shear zones along the south Ryukyu forearc. We infer that a thrust earthquake linked to the mega-splay fault system is responsible for the south Ryukyu tsunami. However, another possible scenario of generating a large tsunami affecting the south Ryukyu islands is that the subducted ridge in the western end of the mega-splay fault system nucleated a large earthquake and simultaneously triggered the ˜100 km long E-W trending strike-slip fault west of 125.5°E and induced a southward-dipping tsunami-genic subsidence. In any case, after a quiescence of ˜241 yr, a large earthquake and tsunami is anticipated in the south Ryukyu forearc in the near future.

Hsu, Shu-Kun; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Doo, Wen-Bin; Tsai, Ching-Hui

2013-01-01

104

Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible for causing infections both in humans and animals worldwide; these are Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae; ß-lactams are antimicrobials commonly prescribed to treat uncomplicated as well as severe infections caused by these Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram negative and also Gram positive bacteria. In particular, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems found broad application in treatment of infections caused by the aforementioned enteric species. Recently however, increasing levels of resistance to ß-lactams is observed in these key infectious agents as well as in many other previously susceptible species. This phenomenon has become a major public concern. Antimicrobials including ß-lactams have been often used in heavy amounts in farming, not only to treat the diagnosed infections in individual animals but also as prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion. It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams) could be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm animals to humans (farm workers, animal caretakers etc.). It has been therefore speculated whether the plasmids with the bla genes found in Enterobacteriaceae in humans could actually originate from the animal sources. The overall aim of this thesis was to verify if indeed related resistance plasmids can circulate between enteric bacteria from humans and food production animals; and if so, then which of these plasmid species are specifically associated with the epidemic types of blaTEM genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, the association of the plasmid encoded blaTEM genes with transposable elements is also studied in order to get a broader perspective of which MGEs are involved in mobilization and spread of these bla genes in the diverse reservoirs. Finally, an attempt is made to encompass ecological aspects of plasmid driven transmission of resistance among the enteric bacteria. In the first study the relationship between plasmids harbouring blaTEM-52 genes isolated from humans, poultry and also meat products was examined. Twenty- two plasmids from a collection of E. coli and different serovars of S. enterica were characterized. The study delivered molecular evidences that epidemiologically related plasmids circulated in the diverse species of enteric bacteria and between humans and animals, and the possible transmission route could have been contaminated food products like meat. Two types of epidemic plasmids were detected in isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; namely undistinguishable IncI1 blaTEM-52 plasmids were found in human and poultry isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; also undistinguishable IncX1 plasmids were isolated from E. coli and S. enterica from human infections, poultry and meat products (from poultry, broiler and beef). The strains harbouring these plasmids were confirmed not to be clonally related, hence indicating the transmission of the plasmids between the different bacteria from humans and animals rather than isolation of the same bacterial clones from the different reservoirs. With relation to the study I, a range of other observations was made. On majority of the examined plasmids, the blaTEM-52 genes resided on the Tn3-related transposons. Further analysis of the genetic environment o

Bielak, Eliza Maria

2012-01-01

105

An assigned teaching resident rotation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the specialty board exam and to develop teaching skills in preparation for attending positions. Changing the residency program structure and implementing a Teaching Resident rotation addressed these needs simultaneously. METHODS: The authors describe the responsibilities of the teaching resident, the role of the teaching resident in the program, and instruction in educational methods. Residents shared their perceptions of the new teaching resident rotation in an anonymous survey. RESULTS: PGY-1, PGY-2, and the PGY-4 residents found the teaching resident rotation helpful in many areas of their learning. CONCLUSION: Service requirements were not compromised and highly valuable educational objectives were achieved for both the PGY-4 teaching residents and the PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents whom they taught. An intensive teaching rotation for senior residents who teach junior residents and medical students is an effective way to deal with systemic changes in psychiatric education.

Daniels-Brady C; Rieder R

2010-07-01

106

Plasmid Mediated Salt Tolerance in Root Associated Bacteria from Erigerone linifolious  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial strains (which could tolerate 2-3M NaCl in the growth medium) were isolated from the roots of Erigerone linifolious. They were El-1, El-2, El-3 (from histoplane of roots) and REl-1, REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 (from the rhizoplane). All bacterial strains were motile rods (except El-2 which were cocci), exhibiting either Gram-negative (El-1, El-2, El-3, REl-1) or Gram-variable (REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5) staining. These strains were affiliated with genus Delya (El-1), Vibrio (El-3, REl-1), while four Gram-variable strains shaired characters with Bacillus pumilus. They have wide temperature and pH ranges with different optima. These strains also exhibit multiple salts/osmolytes/heavy metals/antibiotics resistance. Curing of plasmids from four of these strains revealed that salt tolerance and most of the other resistances were plasmid encoded. Plasmids residing in these halo-tolerant strains were conjugative (except pSH1413). Hybridization experiments revealed that one of these plasmids (pSH1414) belonged to IncN group of plasmids.

Azra Yasmin; Shahida Hasnain

2000-01-01

107

Analysis of plasmid samples on a microchip.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a LabChip-based plasmid assay that runs on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. The assay determines the sizes and relative concentrations of the multiple forms of plasmid samples. Twelve samples can be analyzed on each chip in an automated run lasting approximately 30min. By using a supercoiled DNA sizing standard of 2-16kb, the size of the analyzed plasmid can be determined. The resulting MW has a relative standard deviation (CV) <5% and error <5%. Plasmids from 2-8kb can be separated with resolution better than 1kb. Topological isoforms in a plasmid sample can also be separated. However, due to differential staining, the heterogeneity of plasmid samples can only be measured if the signal of each isomer peak can be calibrated with pure standards for every isomer form. For a typical plasmid preparation which predominately is in the supercoiled form, the normalized corrected peak area for the supercoiled form correlates with the plasmid concentration in a broad range of 1-100ng/microl. The measurement is semiquantitative with a CV lower than 20%. A number of applications of this assay on a Labchip will be shown.

Ding L; Williams K; Ausserer W; Bousse L; Dubrow R

2003-05-01

108

Analysis of plasmid samples on a microchip.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a LabChip-based plasmid assay that runs on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. The assay determines the sizes and relative concentrations of the multiple forms of plasmid samples. Twelve samples can be analyzed on each chip in an automated run lasting approximately 30min. By using a supercoiled DNA sizing standard of 2-16kb, the size of the analyzed plasmid can be determined. The resulting MW has a relative standard deviation (CV) <5% and error <5%. Plasmids from 2-8kb can be separated with resolution better than 1kb. Topological isoforms in a plasmid sample can also be separated. However, due to differential staining, the heterogeneity of plasmid samples can only be measured if the signal of each isomer peak can be calibrated with pure standards for every isomer form. For a typical plasmid preparation which predominately is in the supercoiled form, the normalized corrected peak area for the supercoiled form correlates with the plasmid concentration in a broad range of 1-100ng/microl. The measurement is semiquantitative with a CV lower than 20%. A number of applications of this assay on a Labchip will be shown. PMID:12694731

Ding, Li; Williams, Kathi; Ausserer, Walter; Bousse, Luc; Dubrow, Robert

2003-05-01

109

Current results for {mu}{r_arrow}e+{gamma} decay search with the MEGA experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment at LAMPF is designed to search for the rare decay {mu} {r_arrow} e+{gamma} with a branching ratio sensitivity of 4x10{sup {minus}13}. The detector consists of an electron spectrometer (a set of low-mass MPWCs and two barrels of scintillators) and a photon arm (three-layer pair spectrometer) in a 1.5-T solenoidal magnetic field. The experimental design maximizes rate capability, retains large solid angle, and suppresses the background to below the experimental sensitivity. In the summer of 1992, the MEGA collaboration successfully finished whole-system tests and got 163.6 million {mu}{r_arrow}E+{gamma} candidate events by using the electron arm and two of the three photon pair spectrometers. The status of the data analysis will be described.

Zhang, Y.

1993-04-01

110

Prevalence Of Hypertension Amongst The Employees Of A Mega Industry Of South Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hypertension in the employees of a mega industry? Objective : To find out the prevalence of hypertension and the impact of various risk factors on it and suggest the remedial measures. Study design: Population based cross â€" sectional study during 1994-95. Settings: A mega industry located in South Gujarat. Participants: 1300 employees of the industry. Results : Coverage rate of study population was only 76%. The prevalence of hypertension was high (24%). Hypertension was more in general shift workers and in certain sections (transport, finance and accounts, fire brigade, security etc). Prevalence was also high in persons who were overweight consuming alcohol and / or tobacco. Treatment compliance amongst 204 â€?aware” patients was only 17%.

Kumar Pradeep; Desai Vikas K; Kosambia JK

2002-01-01

111

Apparent fusion of the TOL plasmid with the R91 drug resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The TOL catabolic plasmid was shown to be compatible with the R91 drug resistance plasmid. However, the TOL plasmid was extremely unstable in mutant PA03 of P. aeruginosa. By selecting for stabilization of the TOL plasmid in PA03 harbouring R91, it was possible to isolate a strain in which markers from both R91 and TOL appeared to exist in a single recombinant plasmid. This plasmid, pND3, encoded resistance to carbenicillin, was able to transfer at the same frequency as the R91 plasmid and encoded the ability to grow on m-toluate, p-toluate, m-xylene, p-xylene and toluene. In addition, it was shown to be incompatible with the NAH catabolic plasmid and it could be transferred by transduction. The TOL plasmid could stabilize in PA03 harbouring R91 without fusion with R91, and could stabilize in PA03 in the absence of R91. PA03 harbouring either the recombinant plasmid or the stable TOL plasmid in the absence of R91 could promote bacterial chromosome transfer between mutant derivatives of P. aeruginosa strain PA0.

White GP; Dunn NW

1977-08-01

112

Low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPC's for the MEGA experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of MWPCs for the MEGA experiment at LAMPF are described. The chambers are cylindrical, low mass (3 x 10-4 radiation lengths), and are designed to operate at high rates (3 x 104 /mm2/s). Several novel construction techniques have been developed and custom electronics have been designed to help achieve the required performance, which corresponds to that needed at high luminosity colliders. 4 refs., 3 figs

1990-01-01

113

Low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPC's for the MEGA experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of MWPCs for the MEGA experiment at LAMPF are described. The chambers are cylindrical, low mass (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} radiation lengths), and are designed to operate at high rates (3 {times} 10{sup 4} /mm{sup 2}/s). Several novel construction techniques have been developed and custom electronics have been designed to help achieve the required performance, which corresponds to that needed at high luminosity colliders. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Mischke, R.E.; Armijo, V.; Black, J.K.; Bolton, R.D.; Carius, S.; Cooper, M.D.; Espinoza, C.; Hart, G.W.; Hogan, G.E.; Piilonen, L.E.; Sandoval, J.; Schilling, S.; Sena, J.; Stanislaus, S.; Suazo, G.; Szymanski, J.J.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Fisk, R.; Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W. (Valparaiso Univ., IN (USA)); Jui, C. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

114

[A review of the firefighting techniques used on the tanker 'Mega Borg' explosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the events leading up to the explosion and fire of the Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker which exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in June of 1990. It briefly discusses the fire fighting strategy used to cool the ship prior to foam application and the types of equipment used. It also briefly discusses the lightering operation and the cargo recovery and dewatering operations which took place after the fire was extinguished

1992-01-01

115

Hybrid three-stage repair of mega aorta syndrome with the Lupiae technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Open surgical replacement of the whole aorta in mega aorta syndrome remains a surgical challenge. We report our experience in the treatment of patients with mega aorta syndrome using a 3-stage hybrid repair. METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2011, 12 patients with mega aorta syndrome underwent total replacement of the aorta with a 3-stage hybrid repair, consisting of total replacement of the arch (first stage), retrograde revascularization of the visceral vessels (second stage), and deployment of an endograft (third stage). The intraoperative, early (30-day), and follow-up results were analyzed. RESULTS: No intraoperative mortality occurred in any of the open or endovascular procedures. After the first stage, 1 patient died, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 8.3%. After the second stage, the overall major morbidity was 27.3% (1 surgical revision and 2 temporary dialysis treatments). After the third stage, no conversion or major complication was recorded. The overall mean follow-up period was 31.9 months (range, 1-60 months). One patient died at 10 months postoperatively, and another patient required adjunctive implantation of a stent graft for a type III endoleak. At 3 years, the estimated survival, freedom from any device-related reinterventions, and freedom from type I endoleak was 83.3%, 77.9%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our hybrid 3-stage approach seems to be effective in the treatment of mega aorta syndrome. The second stage was affected by non-negligible rates of perioperative complications. The overall mid-term results were encouraging, although a larger sample size with longer follow-up is needed to compare this technique with others.

Troisi N; Bichi S; Patrini D; Arena V; Setti M; Pitì A; Esposito G

2013-03-01

116

Use of the MEGA exposure database for the validation of the Stoffenmanager model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This paper explores the usefulness of the exposure database MEGA for model validation and evaluates the capability of two Stoffenmanager model equations (i.e. handling of powders/granules and machining) to estimate workers exposure to inhalable dust. METHODS: For the task groups, 'handling of powders and granules' (handling) and 'machining of wood and stone' (machining) measurements were selected from MEGA and grouped in scenarios depending on task, product, and control measures. The predictive capability of the model was tested by calculating the relative bias of the single measurements and the correlation between geometric means (GMs) for scenarios. The conservatism of the model was evaluated by checking if the percentage of measurement values above the 90th percentile estimate was ?10%. RESULTS: From 22?596 personal measurements on inhalable dust within MEGA, 390 could be selected for handling and 1133 for machining. The relative bias for the task groups was -25 and 68%, respectively, the percentage of measurements with a higher result than the estimated 90th percentile 11 and 7%. Correlations on a scenario level were good for both model equations as well for the GM (handling: r(s) = 0.90, n = 15 scenarios; machining: r(s) = 0.84, n = 22 scenarios) as for the 90th percentile (handling: r(s) = 0.79; machining: r(s) = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: The MEGA database could be used for model validation, although the presented analyses have learned that improvements in the database are necessary for modelling purposes in the future. For a substantial amount of data, contextual information on exposure determinants in addition to basic core information is stored in this database. The relative low bias, the good correlation, and the level of conservatism of the tested model show that the Stoffenmanager can be regarded as a useful Tier 1 model for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals legislation.

Koppisch D; Schinkel J; Gabriel S; Fransman W; Tielemans E

2012-05-01

117

Financial debt of orthopedic residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many orthopedic residents accrue considerable debt by residency graduation. These debts for graduating medical students continue to increase due to the yearly increase of medical school tuition. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of financial debt, as well the effects of debt on orthopedic residents.Orthopedic residents from postgraduate years 1 to 5 (N=27) completed an anonymous, optional financial survey. The survey asked questions regarding the characteristics of the residents' debt and their concern caused by their debt. All residents from our institute (N=27) voluntarily participated in the survey. The residents consisted of 4 (15%) women and 23 (85%) men, with 14 (56%) single residents and 12 (44%) married residents. No statistically significant difference existed in total debt >$100,000 between single and married residents or men and women. Forty-eight percent (n=13) of the residents had medical educational debt >$100,000, whereas 45% (n=12) had total debt >$200,000. Residents with total debt >$100,000 were concerned about their debt, whereas 1 of 4 residents with <$100,000 of total debt reported concern (P<.001).Debts affect orthopedic residents financially and may cause stress and hinder their medical training. Appropriate measures should be taken to help residents properly manage their debt and to provide supplemental assistance with their financial struggles.

Hwang JS; Beebe KS; Benevenia J; Karanfilian B; Berberian WS

2012-04-01

118

Solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes into decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solubilization of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, n-pentylbenzene, and n-hexylbenzene into micelles of decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) was studied, where equilibrium concentrations of the above solubilizates were determined spectrophotometrically at 303.2 K. The concentration of the above solubilizates remained constant below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and increased linearly with an increase in Mega-10 concentration above the cmc. The Gibbs free energy change of the solubilizates from the aqueous bulk to the liquid solubilizate phase was evaluated from the dependence of their aqueous solubility on the alkyl chain length of the solubilizates, which leads to -3.46 kJ mol-1 for DeltaG(0)(CH), the energy change per CH2 group of the alkyl chain. The first stepwise solubilization constant (K(overline)1 ) was evaluated from the slope of the change of solubilizate concentration versus Mega-10 concentration. The Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG(0,s)) for the solubilization decreased linearly with the carbon number of the alkyl chain of the solubilizates, from which DeltaG(0,s)(CH2) as evaluated to be -2.71 kJ mol-1. The similar values above clearly indicate that the location of the alkyl chain is a hydrophobic micellar core, which is also supported by the absorption spectrum of the solubilized molecules. PMID:18052401

Nakamura, Shohei; Kobayashi, Lisa; Tanaka, Ryo; Isoda-Yamashita, Teruyo; Motomura, Konomi; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

2007-12-06

119

Solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes into decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solubilization of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, n-pentylbenzene, and n-hexylbenzene into micelles of decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) was studied, where equilibrium concentrations of the above solubilizates were determined spectrophotometrically at 303.2 K. The concentration of the above solubilizates remained constant below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and increased linearly with an increase in Mega-10 concentration above the cmc. The Gibbs free energy change of the solubilizates from the aqueous bulk to the liquid solubilizate phase was evaluated from the dependence of their aqueous solubility on the alkyl chain length of the solubilizates, which leads to -3.46 kJ mol-1 for DeltaG(0)(CH), the energy change per CH2 group of the alkyl chain. The first stepwise solubilization constant (K(overline)1 ) was evaluated from the slope of the change of solubilizate concentration versus Mega-10 concentration. The Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG(0,s)) for the solubilization decreased linearly with the carbon number of the alkyl chain of the solubilizates, from which DeltaG(0,s)(CH2) as evaluated to be -2.71 kJ mol-1. The similar values above clearly indicate that the location of the alkyl chain is a hydrophobic micellar core, which is also supported by the absorption spectrum of the solubilized molecules.

Nakamura S; Kobayashi L; Tanaka R; Isoda-Yamashita T; Motomura K; Moroi Y

2008-01-01

120

Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

Hyo Seon Park; Sewook Son; Se Woon Choi; Yousok Kim

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Wireless laser range finder system for vertical displacement monitoring of mega-trusses during construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

Park HS; Son S; Choi SW; Kim Y

2013-01-01

122

A new free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings is developed. The physical model of a mega frame is idealized as a three-dimensional assemblage of stiffened close-thin-walled tubes with continuously distributed mass and stiffness. One-variable functions defined on the nodal lines selected by the analyst are unknown functions (eigenfunctions) employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the model. By a Hamiltonian principle, the governing equations of the free vibration analysis can be obtained, which are a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) of the eigenfunctions with their corresponding boundary conditions. The desired vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration modes (eigenfunctions) can be obtained by numerically solving the system of ODEs with boundary conditions. The free vibration analysis also includes the coupling vibration modes of the collection composed by several nodal lines. The results from the illustration example show that the method is rational and powerful for the free vibration analysis of space-mega-frame systems.

2010-06-01

123

A survey on medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studying medicine consumption is a significant parameter in the estimation of the health care system of a country. This study evaluates the amount of medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran and indentifies individual factors that influence this consumption.Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey of public medicine consumption was directed at random samples that counted 628 persons of fifteen years and older in several public places in the mega cities of Iran. The data were collected through questionnaires administered at the public vaccination department of the Pasteur institute of Iran in Tehran, and in other public places in Esfahan. A multiple regression model was utilized to analyze individual information.Results: Our results showed that 59.4% of the respondents were current medicine consumers. Women used medicines less frequently. The rates of medicine consumption among the surveyed population, for daily and weekly-monthly consumption, were 21.8% and 37.6% respectively. In Iran, it emerged that 52.4% of the respondents obtained their medicines, such as acetaminophen antibiotics, and pain-killers, without a prescription.Conclusions: the study clearly showed that more than 53% of the medicine consuming persons undertake self treatment. Three factors gender, age and income level are the main factors influencing medicines consumed without physicians’ prescription in the mega cities of Iran.

Mehdi Rahimpour; Kamelia Saremi; Elham Shirvani; Hosna Gomari; Mahmoud Rahimpour; Amin Niroumanesh; Soroush Sardari

2011-01-01

124

Identificación de mega?ambientes para potenciar el uso de genotipos superiores de arroz en Panamá/ Identifying mega?environments to enhance the use of superior rice genotypes in Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar tres métodos para identificar mega?ambientes, para optimizar el uso del potencial genético de los cultivares de arroz, durante el proceso de selección, y para hacer recomendaciones sobre siembras comerciales en Panamá. Los datos experimentales fueron obtenidos de los ensayos de productividad de cultivares precoces realizados entre 2006 y 2008. Para lograr la estratificación de los ambientes y definir los mega?ambien (more) tes, se utilizaron los métodos del genotipo vencedor mediante el modelo AMMI1, el modelo biplot GGE y el de conglomerado por el método de Ward, complementado con el biplot GGE. Los tres métodos utilizados identificaron dos mega?ambientes, donde los cultivares sobresalientes fueron Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145?05. Hubo una coincidencia de 100% en el agrupamiento del conglomerado x el biplot GGE, mientras que entre conglomerado x AMMI1 y biplot GGE x AMMI1 fue de 95,2%. El genotipo más estable, en ambos mega?ambientes, fue el cultivar Idiap 145?05, lo que indica capacidad de adaptación amplia y específica. La capacidad adaptativa de los genotipos superiores y no las condiciones agroclimáticas de las localidades evaluadas fue responsable de la definición de los mega?ambientes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate three methods to identify mega?environments, in order to optimize the use of the genetic potential of rice cultivars during the selection process and to make recommendations for commercial plantations in Panama. Experimental data were obtained from the test performance, between 2006 and 2008, for early maturing cultivars. To achieve the stratification of environments and define mega?environments, the winner genotype m (more) ethod by the AMMI1 model, GGE biplot model and cluster by Ward's method supplemented by GGE biplot were used. The three methods used identified two mega?environments, where the outstanding cultivars were Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145?05. There was 100% coincidence in the grouping of the cluster x the GGE biplot, with 95.2% coincidence between the AMMI1 x cluster and GGE biplot x AMMI1. The most stable genotype, in both mega?environments, was the Idiap?145?05 cultivar, which indicates its broad and specific adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity of the superior genotypes and not the agroclimatic conditions of the assessed localities was responsible for defining the mega?environments.

Camargo‑ Buitrago, Ismael; Quirós‑ Mc Intire, Evelyn; Gordón‑ Mendoza, Román

2011-09-01

125

The evolution of IncP catabolic plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recent adoption of whole plasmid genome sequencing as a routine analytical technique has provided the basis for cataloging the historical events through which plasmids are assembled from the available families of modular plasmid components. Horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmids plays an important role in the adaptation of bacteria to the presence of specific metabolizable compounds, including man-made chemicals, in the surrounding environment. Bacterial plasmid genome sequence comparisons indicate that plasmids have complex genetic histories resulting from transposition, homologous recombination, and illegitimate recombinational events. Evidence from IncP plasmid genome sequences indicates that cryptic plasmid backbones acquire diverse catabolic pathways through gene capture and horizontal gene transfer.

Dennis JJ

2005-06-01

126

The evolution of IncP catabolic plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent adoption of whole plasmid genome sequencing as a routine analytical technique has provided the basis for cataloging the historical events through which plasmids are assembled from the available families of modular plasmid components. Horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmids plays an important role in the adaptation of bacteria to the presence of specific metabolizable compounds, including man-made chemicals, in the surrounding environment. Bacterial plasmid genome sequence comparisons indicate that plasmids have complex genetic histories resulting from transposition, homologous recombination, and illegitimate recombinational events. Evidence from IncP plasmid genome sequences indicates that cryptic plasmid backbones acquire diverse catabolic pathways through gene capture and horizontal gene transfer. PMID:15961030

Dennis, Jonathan J

2005-06-01

127

Conjugative transfer of the naturally occurring plasmids of Acetobacter xylinum by IncP-plasmid-mediated mobilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Broad-host-range plasmids and cloning vectors were conjugatively transferred to Acetobacter xylinum. One of the plasmids, RP4::Mu cts61, was used for the insertion of Tn1 into the 16-, 44-, and 64-kilobase-pair plasmids of A. xylinum. The Tn1-labeled plasmids could be mobilized by a helper plasmid. Many of the Tn1 insertions affected the copy number of the plasmids.

Valla S; Coucheron DH; Kjosbakken J

1986-01-01

128

A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: from 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed by mega-sites is reflected upon in its entirety. These complexities are associated with uncertainties and unknowns that have to be addressed, as they have an impact on the strategies being developed and applied. We contend that the best that can be hoped for in mega-site management is an acceptable solution for the current state of affairs, with good flexibility to modify strategies as new site conditions, remediation possibilities, community preferences and management objectives develop over time.

Schirmer M; Lyon K; Armstrong JE; Farrell KN

2012-01-01

129

[Resident cardiac stem cells].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The search for sources of stem/progenitor cells the use of which has a potential to affect course of ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure is conducted nowadays in many countries. Resident cardiac stem cells (CSC) were revealed during recent years on the basis of expression of c-kit, sca-1, MDR1, and islet-1 markers. In vitro experiments demonstrated possibility of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cell and endothelial cells. Introduction of CSC in injured myocardium in animals facilitated its partial repair and short term improvement of cardiac function. This holds promise for the use of these cells in the future. In the review we have attempted to summarize literature data on resident CSC and their application for the treatment of heart diseases.

Dergilev KV; Rubina KA; Parfenova EV

2011-01-01

130

[Resident cardiac stem cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for sources of stem/progenitor cells the use of which has a potential to affect course of ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure is conducted nowadays in many countries. Resident cardiac stem cells (CSC) were revealed during recent years on the basis of expression of c-kit, sca-1, MDR1, and islet-1 markers. In vitro experiments demonstrated possibility of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cell and endothelial cells. Introduction of CSC in injured myocardium in animals facilitated its partial repair and short term improvement of cardiac function. This holds promise for the use of these cells in the future. In the review we have attempted to summarize literature data on resident CSC and their application for the treatment of heart diseases. PMID:21623726

Dergilev, K V; Rubina, K A; Parfenova, E V

2011-01-01

131

Plasmids and bacterial resistance to biocides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid-encoded bacterial resistance to antibiotics and to anions and cation (including important mercurial and silver compounds) has been widely studied. Plasmid-mediated resistance to organic cationic agents which are important biocides has been described for chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds (and also for the less important acridine, diamidines and ethidium bromide) in antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis strains. Plasmids may also encode reduced biocide susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria, but intrinsic resistance is likely to be of greater significance. Antibiotic resistance and biocide resistance may be linked but this is not always found clinically.

Russell AD

1997-08-01

132

Plasmids and bacterial resistance to biocides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid-encoded bacterial resistance to antibiotics and to anions and cation (including important mercurial and silver compounds) has been widely studied. Plasmid-mediated resistance to organic cationic agents which are important biocides has been described for chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds (and also for the less important acridine, diamidines and ethidium bromide) in antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis strains. Plasmids may also encode reduced biocide susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria, but intrinsic resistance is likely to be of greater significance. Antibiotic resistance and biocide resistance may be linked but this is not always found clinically. PMID:9281819

Russell, A D

1997-08-01

133

[Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida plasmid DNAs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physico-chemical characteristics of plasmid DNAs isoalted from Pseudomonas putida G7 were studied as well as the behavior of these DNAs in th eourse of chromatography on columns with Sepharose 4B and kieselguhr with methylated albumin (MAC). This strain was found to contain several plasmid DNAs having molecular weights of 33-36X10(6), 15-18X10(6), and 3-5X10(6) dalton. The plasmid DNAs of biodegradation are supposed to be located in the vicinity of chromosomes, and only a small part of them is characterized by extrachromosomal localization.

Agabalian AS; Zakharian RA; Akopian SM; Bakunts KA; Israelian IuA

1978-01-01

134

[Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida plasmid DNAs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Physico-chemical characteristics of plasmid DNAs isoalted from Pseudomonas putida G7 were studied as well as the behavior of these DNAs in th eourse of chromatography on columns with Sepharose 4B and kieselguhr with methylated albumin (MAC). This strain was found to contain several plasmid DNAs having molecular weights of 33-36X10(6), 15-18X10(6), and 3-5X10(6) dalton. The plasmid DNAs of biodegradation are supposed to be located in the vicinity of chromosomes, and only a small part of them is characterized by extrachromosomal localization. PMID:651695

Agabalian, A S; Zakharian, R A; Akopian, S M; Bakunts, K A; Israelian, Iu A

135

Residence time distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slurry phase residence time in the SRC-II dissolver is a major process variable affecting the extent of conversion to distillate products. Kinetic studies have shown that overall conversion of vacuum bottoms to lighter hydrocarbons is a zero order process with respect to vacuum bottoms. This implies that although the extent of backmixing is not a critical process variable, slurry phase mean residence time is. Experimental results from the P-99 PDU supported this. Radioactive tracers were injected into the Ft. Lewis dissolver during normal operation to study the residence time distribution of the gas and slurry phases. Results from gas phase radiotracers showed the gas phase to approach plug flow behavior, but with much larger than expected gas holdup. Gas holdup appeared to be 20% of the reactor volume, rather than the 10 to 12% predicted by standard holdup correlations. Slurry phase radiotracer results indicated that the slurry phase was well-backmixed. Experiments with a downcomer designed to enhance direct slurry flow from the top to the bottom of the dissolver showed this to be a viable and controllable device. The high level of gas holdup at Ft. Lewis suggest that standard holdup correlations must be modified to be used with confidence in the design of coal liquefaction reactors. Additional programs to define holdup relationships in high temperature, high pressure coal liquefaction reactors are recommended. 11 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

1984-02-01

136

Mentoring in Psychiatric Residency Programs: A Survey of Chief Residents  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Mentorship is an important component of graduate education. This study assessed the perceptions of general psychiatry chief residents regarding the adequacy of mentorship provided during training. Methods: The authors surveyed 229 chief residents participating in the APA National Chief Residents Leadership Program in 2004 and 2005. The…

Lis, Lea DeFrancisci; Wood, William C.; Petkova, Eva; Shatkin, Jess

2009-01-01

137

Design and Constructing pBGGT Plasmid: a Carrier Plasmid for Betathalassaemia Gene Targeting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Most of molecular biology studies depend on making gene constructs. Although commercial plasmids are widely used for this purpose, sometimes due to the nature of the restriction sites or need of multiple subcloning, usual restriction sites available in original multiple cloning sites (MCS) of the plasmids could not be easily used, if not impossible at all. Here, we report an easy and fast method to construct suitable plasmid with a new MCS for constructing a 16kb gene targeting plasmid. Methods: Firstly, the suitable MCS was designed by studying the sequence of desired gene fragments in Gene runner software. Two partial complementary 74 base long oligonucleotides were designed and constructed to make this MCS. The original pUC19 MCS was replaced with the new one by enzymatic digestion of the plasmid and removal of the MCS, followed by adding the two complementary oligonucleotides and ligating the construct and transforming it into Ecoli TOP10 F.The new plasmid was then purified and sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. Findings: Synthesis of two 74 base polynuclotides was successful, and these polynucleotides formed a double stranded fragment which was successfully inserted between HindIII-EcoRI sites of pUC19. Analysis of intermediate step results showed successful progress of cloning reaction. Final analysis of the plasmid by restriction analysis and sequencing the MCS confirmed authenticity of the new plasmid. Conclusions: The method described here is a fast and easy way to make suitable plasmid out of commercially available plasmids. This process can considerably decrease the time and cost of plasmid construction. Availability of suitable restriction sites in proper order makes it possible to directionally clone the desired gene fragments which is more efficient and excludes screening steps for the right direction of the fragments. The plasmid reported herein is specifically tailored to insert different fragments of a beta-globin gene targeting construct.

H Khanahmad; K Azadmanesh; MA Shokrgozar; AR Niavarani; M Karimi; B Rabbani; M Khalili; R Bagheri; F Maryami; S Zeinali

2006-01-01

138

Emergency nurse residency program evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this mixed method descriptive study was to perform a program evaluation on an emergency nurse residency program. The study identified leaders' goals, objectives, and outcomes and the nurse residents' perceptions of the program, including whether they felt prepared to make the transition into their new role. The program evaluation revealed that the nurse residents felt confident, secure, and prepared to function as well-rounded emergency nurses after completing the emergency nurse residency program, in congruence with leaders' objectives.

Johnson A; Salisbury H; Johannsson M; Barajas K

2013-09-01

139

A METHOD OF CURING ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT PLASMIDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject of our invention is to identify a novel plasmid curing/antiplasmid agent from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Swartz. The compound used in the present invention I 'acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) with a formula C13H14O4 is not known before as an antiplasmid agent. ACA is capable of reducing the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotic required to inhibit growth of bacteria thus making the antibiotic treatment more effective in vivo and in vitro. It is capable of curing plasmids from bacterial host by reducing the copy number of plasmids in the daughter cells or by completely eliminating the plasmids in the daughter cells. Thus, ACA has a potential of eliminating or curing antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells making the bacterial population sensitive to antibiotic.

CHANDRAMATHI LATHA; SHRIRAM VARSHA DUBAYYA; ROJATKAR SUPADA RAMBHAU; JAHAGIRDAR SHEETAL SHRIPAD; DHAKEPHALKAR PRASHANT KAMALAKAR

140

Challenges to publishing pharmacy resident research projects from the perspectives of residency program directors and residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify barriers to completing and publishing pharmacy residency research projects from the perspective of program directors and former residents.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of pharmacy residency program directors and former post-graduate year one and two residents. Directors of pharmacy residency programs whose residents present their projects at the Western States Conference (n=216) were invited to complete an online survey and asked to forward the survey to former residents of their program in 2009, 2010, or 2011. The survey focused on four broad areas: 1) demographic characteristics of the residency programs, directors, and residents; 2) perceived value of the research project; 3) perceived barriers with various stages of research; and 4) self-identified barriers to successful research project completion and publication.Results: A total of 32 program directors and 98 residents completed the survey. The minority of programs offered formal residency research training. Both groups reported value in the research project as part of residency training. Significantly more directors reported obtaining institutional review board approval and working through the publication process as barriers to the research project (46.7% vs. 22.6% and 73.3% vs. 43.0%, respectively p<0.05) while residents were more likely to report collecting and analyzing the data as barriers (34.4% vs. 13.3% and 39.8% vs. 20.0%, respectively, p<0.05). Both groups self-identified time constraints and limitations in study design or quality of the study as barriers. However, while program directors also indicated lack of resident motivation (65.5%), residents reported lack of mentorship or program structural issues (43.3%). Conclusion: Overall, while both groups found value in the residency research projects, there were barriers identified by both groups. The results of this study may provide areas of opportunity for improving the quality and publication rates of resident research projects.

Irwin AN; Olson KL; Joline BR; Witt DM; Patel RJ

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent major advances in the understanding of prokaryotic DNA segregation have been achieved by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize the localization of cellular components. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are partitioned in a highly dynamic fashion, suggesting the presence of a mitotic-like apparatus in prokaryotes. The identification of chromosomal homologues of the well-characterized plasmid partitioning genes indicates that there could be a general mechanism of bacterial DNA partitioning. Udgivelsesdato: July 1

MØller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

2000-01-01

142

Genetic homology between independently isolated chlorobenzoate-degradative plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two chlorobenzoate-degradative plasmids were studied by the hybridization of the restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of one plasmid after transfer to a nitrocellulose filter with nick-translated radioactive DNA of the other plasmid as a probe. Two strains harboring the 3-chlorobenzoic acid-degradative plasmids were isolated in two different parts of the world at two different times. The plasmids are now found to be closely related to each other by hybridization studies. The chlorobenzoate-degradative plasmid from Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 (termed pB13) has a 6-kilobase deletion but otherwise is homologous with previously described plasmid pAC25.

Chatterjee DK; Chakrabarty AM

1983-01-01

143

Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research work was conducted in Uppanar estuary to ascertain the role of plasmids in the antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Water and sediment samples were collected for a period of three months. When tested against 20 antibiotics 22 MAR strains were isolated from the samples, which were found resistant to 5-13 antibiotics. They belong to 7 genera and 10 species. Gram-negative bacteria namely Neisseria mucosa, N. sicca, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella ozaenae, Citrobacterintermedius, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated. Gram-positive bacteria were of Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. When plasmid curing was done using acredine orange, the resistance against penicillin-G, ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxycillin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol were totally lost in all strains, which confirmed the role of plasmid in these strains against antibiotics. Ten strains belong to different species were selected for the plasmid isolation and electrophoresis was done. Presence of plasmids in all strains was confirmed and the molecular weight was in the range of 2850 to 3170 bp. The study revealed that MAR strains are common in Uppanar estuary and they are plasmid mediated. This environment is seemed to be deteriorating at an alarming rate. PMID:18380085

Thavasi, R; Aparnadevi, K; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T

2007-07-01

144

Immobilization of plasmid DNA in bacterial ghosts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of novel delivery vehicles is crucial for the improvement of DNA vaccine efficiency. In this report, we describe a new platform technology, which is based on the immobilization of plasmid DNA in the cytoplasmic membrane of a bacterial carrier. This technology retains plasmid DNA (Self-Immobilizing Plasmid, pSIP) in the host envelope complex due to a specific protein/DNA interaction during and after protein E-mediated lysis. The resulting bacterial ghosts (empty bacterial envelopes) loaded with pDNA were analyzed in detail by real time PCR assays. We could verify that pSIP plasmids were retained in the pellets of lysed Escherichia coli cultures indicating that they are efficiently anchored in the inner membrane of bacterial ghosts. In contrast, a high percentage of control plasmids that lack essential features of the self-immobilization system were expelled in the culture broth during the lysis process. We believe that the combination of this plasmid immobilization procedure and the protein E-mediated lysis technology represents an efficient in vivo technique for the production of non-living DNA carrier vehicles. In conclusion, we present a "self-loading", non-living bacterial DNA delivery vector for vaccination endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope.

Mayrhofer P; Tabrizi CA; Walcher P; Haidinger W; Jechlinger W; Lubitz W

2005-02-01

145

Immobilization of plasmid DNA in bacterial ghosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of novel delivery vehicles is crucial for the improvement of DNA vaccine efficiency. In this report, we describe a new platform technology, which is based on the immobilization of plasmid DNA in the cytoplasmic membrane of a bacterial carrier. This technology retains plasmid DNA (Self-Immobilizing Plasmid, pSIP) in the host envelope complex due to a specific protein/DNA interaction during and after protein E-mediated lysis. The resulting bacterial ghosts (empty bacterial envelopes) loaded with pDNA were analyzed in detail by real time PCR assays. We could verify that pSIP plasmids were retained in the pellets of lysed Escherichia coli cultures indicating that they are efficiently anchored in the inner membrane of bacterial ghosts. In contrast, a high percentage of control plasmids that lack essential features of the self-immobilization system were expelled in the culture broth during the lysis process. We believe that the combination of this plasmid immobilization procedure and the protein E-mediated lysis technology represents an efficient in vivo technique for the production of non-living DNA carrier vehicles. In conclusion, we present a "self-loading", non-living bacterial DNA delivery vector for vaccination endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties of the Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope. PMID:15681093

Mayrhofer, Peter; Tabrizi, Chakameh Azimpour; Walcher, Petra; Haidinger, Wolfgang; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Lubitz, Werner

2005-02-16

146

Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research work was conducted in Uppanar estuary to ascertain the role of plasmids in the antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Water and sediment samples were collected for a period of three months. When tested against 20 antibiotics 22 MAR strains were isolated from the samples, which were found resistant to 5-13 antibiotics. They belong to 7 genera and 10 species. Gram-negative bacteria namely Neisseria mucosa, N. sicca, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella ozaenae, Citrobacterintermedius, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated. Gram-positive bacteria were of Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. When plasmid curing was done using acredine orange, the resistance against penicillin-G, ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxycillin, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol were totally lost in all strains, which confirmed the role of plasmid in these strains against antibiotics. Ten strains belong to different species were selected for the plasmid isolation and electrophoresis was done. Presence of plasmids in all strains was confirmed and the molecular weight was in the range of 2850 to 3170 bp. The study revealed that MAR strains are common in Uppanar estuary and they are plasmid mediated. This environment is seemed to be deteriorating at an alarming rate.

Thavasi R; Aparnadevi K; Jayalakshmi S; Balasubramanian T

2007-07-01

147

Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?/ Sport mega-eventos: pueden ser legados y el desarrollo equitativo y sostenible?/ Mega-eventos esportivos: podem desenvolvimento e legado ser equalitários e sustentáveis?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os mega-eventos esportivos (MEE) envolvem lutas para se determinar a definição de legado e as prioridades que guiam os processos de planejamento, financiamento e processos de implementação de resultados. A história mostra que os legados refletem os interesses do capital, e os benefícios são usufruidos principalmente, se não exclusivamente, por interesses empresariais poderosos, por alguns líderes políticos e por organizações que governam o esporte de alto rend (more) imento. Este artigo aborda os desafios enfrentados pelas cidades e países que hospedam MEE e demonstra que legados justos e equalitários e resultados em termos de desenvolvimento são alcançados somente quando as vozes e os interesses da população em geral são ouvidos e considerados como prioridade durante o processo de planejamento, financiamento e implementação. Ele também demonstra que a representação plena no processo de definição e prossecução de legados e a consecução de resultados em termos de desenvolvimento podem ser prejudicados por crenças populares sobre o poder do esporte. Abstract in spanish Los mega-eventos deportivos (DME) implican luchas para determinar la definición del legado y las prioridades que guían los procesos de planificación, financiación financiamiento y ejecución de los resultados. La historia muestra que los legados reflejan los intereses del capital y que los beneficios son disfrutados principalmente, si no exclusivamente por los intereses empresariales poderosos, por algunos líderes políticos y por las organizaciones que dirigen los d (more) eportes de alto rendimiento. Este artículo aborda los desafíos que enfrentan las ciudades y los países anfitriones de los DME, y demuestra que legados justos y equitativos y resultados en sentido de desarrollo se logran solamente cuando se considera y se da prioridad a las voces e intereses de la población en general durante el proceso de planificación, financiamiento e implementación. Él también demuestra que la representación plena en el proceso de definición y consecución de los legados y los resultados en sentido de desarrollo pueden ser socavadas por las creencias populares sobre el poder del deporte. Abstract in english Sport mega-events (SMEs) involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries th (more) at host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

Coakley, Jay; Souza, Doralice Lange

2013-09-01

148

[Formation of cointegrates during mobilization of nonconjugated plasmids to genetic transfer by plasmid pAP42].  

Science.gov (United States)

pAP42 plasmid mobilizes nonconjugative pMR5, pBR322, pACYC 184, RSF2124, RSF1010 plasmids with different frequency. During mobilization of nonconjugative RSF2124 and pACYC184 plasmids by pAP42 factor there form cointegrative structures similar in their properties to typical R plasmids. PMID:6318863

Khamidullina, R G; Gigani, O B; Pekhov, A P

1984-01-01

149

[Formation of cointegrates during mobilization of nonconjugated plasmids to genetic transfer by plasmid pAP42  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

pAP42 plasmid mobilizes nonconjugative pMR5, pBR322, pACYC 184, RSF2124, RSF1010 plasmids with different frequency. During mobilization of nonconjugative RSF2124 and pACYC184 plasmids by pAP42 factor there form cointegrative structures similar in their properties to typical R plasmids.

Khamidullina RG; Gigani OB; Pekhov AP

1984-01-01

150

Location of plasmid-mediated citrate utilization determinant in R27 and incidence in other H incompatibility group plasmids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citrate utilization (Cit+) is encoded by a specific subgroup of incompatibility HI plasmids, viz., IncHI1 plasmids. Only one IncHI1 plasmid, pRG1271, which originated in a Mexican typhoid outbreak in 1972, did not specify Cit+. All other Cit+ plasmids hybridized to a Cit+ probe, a 2-kilobase BglII f...

Taylor, D E; Brose, E C

151

Solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes into decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) solution; temperature dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solubilization of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, n-pentylbenzene, and n-hexylbenzene into micelles of decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) was studied at 303.2, 308.2, 313.2, and 318.2K, where equilibrium concentrations of the above solubilizates were determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of the above solubilizates remained constant below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and increased linearly with an increase in Mega-10 concentration above the cmc at each temperature above. The Gibbs free energy change of the solubilizates from aqueous bulk to their liquid solubilizate phase was evaluated from dependence of their aqueous solubility on alkyl chain length of the solubilizates, which leads to the DeltaG(CH0)(2) values (-3.60 to -3.38 kJ mol(-1)), the energy change per CH2 group of the alkyl chain with no strong temperature dependence. The first stepwise solubilization constant (K1) was evaluated from the slope for the change of solubilizate concentration vs. Mega-10 concentration. The Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG(0,s)) for the solubilization decreased linearly with the carbon number of alkyl chain of the solubilizates, and the DeltaG(CH0)(2)(s) values (-2.71 to -2.54 kJ mol(-1)) obtained from the linearity showed a slight increase with temperature. The DeltaG(CH0)(2) values are less than the DeltaG(CH0)(2)(s) values, where the latter values clearly indicate that the location of alkyl chain is a hydrophobic micellar core. The fact is also supported by the absorption spectrum of the solubilized molecules. Temperature dependence of DeltaG(0,s) indicated that the solubilization is entropy-driven for the solubilizates with shorter alkyl chains, while it becomes enthalpy-driven for those with longer alkyl chains.

Nakamura S; Kobayashi L; Tanaka R; Isoda-Yamashita T; Lee J; Moroi Y

2009-02-01

152

Solubilization of n-alkylbenzenes into decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) solution; temperature dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solubilization of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, n-pentylbenzene, and n-hexylbenzene into micelles of decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (Mega-10) was studied at 303.2, 308.2, 313.2, and 318.2K, where equilibrium concentrations of the above solubilizates were determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of the above solubilizates remained constant below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and increased linearly with an increase in Mega-10 concentration above the cmc at each temperature above. The Gibbs free energy change of the solubilizates from aqueous bulk to their liquid solubilizate phase was evaluated from dependence of their aqueous solubility on alkyl chain length of the solubilizates, which leads to the DeltaG(CH0)(2) values (-3.60 to -3.38 kJ mol(-1)), the energy change per CH2 group of the alkyl chain with no strong temperature dependence. The first stepwise solubilization constant (K1) was evaluated from the slope for the change of solubilizate concentration vs. Mega-10 concentration. The Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG(0,s)) for the solubilization decreased linearly with the carbon number of alkyl chain of the solubilizates, and the DeltaG(CH0)(2)(s) values (-2.71 to -2.54 kJ mol(-1)) obtained from the linearity showed a slight increase with temperature. The DeltaG(CH0)(2) values are less than the DeltaG(CH0)(2)(s) values, where the latter values clearly indicate that the location of alkyl chain is a hydrophobic micellar core. The fact is also supported by the absorption spectrum of the solubilized molecules. Temperature dependence of DeltaG(0,s) indicated that the solubilization is entropy-driven for the solubilizates with shorter alkyl chains, while it becomes enthalpy-driven for those with longer alkyl chains. PMID:19150232

Nakamura, Shohei; Kobayashi, Lisa; Tanaka, Ryo; Isoda-Yamashita, Teruyo; Lee, Jungno; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

2008-12-11

153

Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

1999-01-01

154

Megalencephaly, mega corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development: delineation of a rare syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unlike atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC), callosal hypertrophy is a rare neuroimaging finding with only few reported patients. The "megalencephaly, mega CC, and complete lack of motor development" syndrome is morphologically characterized by generalized megalencephaly, a thickened CC, and extensive polymicrogyria causing a pachygyric appearance. We report on the fifth patient showing this rare syndrome, a 3-year-old girl displaying the typical neuroimaging features. Clinically she showed a severely impaired motor, mental, and speech development with marked muscular hypotonia but no dysmorphic facial signs. She also retained the ability to move by rolling sidewards so that complete lack of motor development may not be a consistent feature.

Hengst M; Tücke J; Zerres K; Blaum M; Häusler M

2010-09-01

155

Megalencephaly, mega corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development: delineation of a rare syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC), callosal hypertrophy is a rare neuroimaging finding with only few reported patients. The "megalencephaly, mega CC, and complete lack of motor development" syndrome is morphologically characterized by generalized megalencephaly, a thickened CC, and extensive polymicrogyria causing a pachygyric appearance. We report on the fifth patient showing this rare syndrome, a 3-year-old girl displaying the typical neuroimaging features. Clinically she showed a severely impaired motor, mental, and speech development with marked muscular hypotonia but no dysmorphic facial signs. She also retained the ability to move by rolling sidewards so that complete lack of motor development may not be a consistent feature. PMID:20803648

Hengst, Meike; Tücke, Jens; Zerres, Klaus; Blaum, Marcus; Häusler, Martin

2010-09-01

156

Macroscopic transport of mega-ampere electron currents in aligned carbon-nanotube arrays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We demonstrate that aligned carbon-nanotube arrays are efficient transporters of laser-generated mega-ampere electron currents over distances as large as a millimeter. A direct polarimetric measurement of the temporal and the spatial evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields (as high as 120 MG) at the target rear at an intensity of (10(18)-10(19))??W/cm2 was corroborated by the rear-side hot electron spectra. Simulations show that such high magnetic flux densities can only be generated by a very well collimated fast electron bunch.

Chatterjee G; Singh PK; Ahmed S; Robinson AP; Lad AD; Mondal S; Narayanan V; Srivastava I; Koratkar N; Pasley J; Sood AK; Kumar GR

2012-06-01

157

A study of the decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} by the MEGA experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the lepton-flavor number non-conserving rare decay {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma}. Data- taking is complete, with 450 million events on tape taken over approximately 10{sup 7} seconds. A small portion of the data sample has been processed through the complete event reconstruction codes to search for the {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma} process. No evidence for the {mu} {yields} {ital e}{gamma} decay is observed at a sensitivity of {approximately}7 x 10{sup -11} (90% confidence).

Hogan, G.E.; Amann, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ahmed, M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

158

Resident and faculty perceptions of a surgical residency program merger.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To evaluate resident and faculty perceptions of a residency merger process.Survey of faculty and residents of a recently merged general surgical residency. Nineteen separate program characteristics were evaluated via a numerical scoring system, and additional written commentary regarding dominant perceived benefits and detriments of the merger was solicited. Statistical significance was evaluated on numerically scored items by applying the Mann-Whitney U test to median values expressed with interquartile ranges, comparing resident and faculty responses.Scoring system responses from faculty and residents were generally similar. The merger was seen as neutral to positive in its impact on academic issues, but it had more negative effects on issues related to overall program atmosphere and morale. Statistically significant differences between resident and faculty responses were noted in 2 areas: teaching conference timing and overall program effectiveness in preparing for practice. Both of these areas were more favorably impacted by the merger from the residents' perspective, and more negatively as judged by the faculty (p < 0.05). Written commentary by both groups similarly emphasized areas of academic strengthening as a positive effect of the merger, and relationship and morale issues as being more negatively impacted.As reflected by resident and faculty perceptions, program mergers may provide opportunities to strengthen and enhance the academic and clinical foundation of residency. This may, however, occur at the expense of morale and relational issues, which may be negatively impacted by program administrative and geographic expansion.

Mellinger J; Bonnell B; Passinault W; Wilcox R; Vanderkolk W; Baker R; Davis A; Brasser B

2001-03-01

159

Resident and faculty perceptions of a surgical residency program merger.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate resident and faculty perceptions of a residency merger process.Survey of faculty and residents of a recently merged general surgical residency. Nineteen separate program characteristics were evaluated via a numerical scoring system, and additional written commentary regarding dominant perceived benefits and detriments of the merger was solicited. Statistical significance was evaluated on numerically scored items by applying the Mann-Whitney U test to median values expressed with interquartile ranges, comparing resident and faculty responses.Scoring system responses from faculty and residents were generally similar. The merger was seen as neutral to positive in its impact on academic issues, but it had more negative effects on issues related to overall program atmosphere and morale. Statistically significant differences between resident and faculty responses were noted in 2 areas: teaching conference timing and overall program effectiveness in preparing for practice. Both of these areas were more favorably impacted by the merger from the residents' perspective, and more negatively as judged by the faculty (p < 0.05). Written commentary by both groups similarly emphasized areas of academic strengthening as a positive effect of the merger, and relationship and morale issues as being more negatively impacted.As reflected by resident and faculty perceptions, program mergers may provide opportunities to strengthen and enhance the academic and clinical foundation of residency. This may, however, occur at the expense of morale and relational issues, which may be negatively impacted by program administrative and geographic expansion. PMID:11275250

Mellinger, J; Bonnell, B; Passinault, W; Wilcox, R; Vanderkolk, W; Baker, R; Davis, A; Brasser, B

2001-03-01

160

Status and perspectives of Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system with high temporal resolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we briefly summarize our long period experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. General requirements for hardware for such systems are discussed along with algorithms of real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, the MegaTORTORA, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we are building now at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitivity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously.

Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Ivanov, E.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Greco, G.; Shearer, A.; Sasyuk, V.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Plasmid in Bacillus pumilus and the Enhanced Sporulation of Plasmid-Negative Variants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 3% of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Bacillus pumilus NRS576 can be isolated as covalently closed, circular duplex molecules of homogeneous size. The mol wt of the 576 plasmid is approximately 30 million. NRS576 (plasmid+) is oligosporogenic; less than 1% of the cells form spores d...

Lovett, Paul S.

162

Guidelines for resident teaching experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postgraduate year one (PGY1) and postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies serve to develop pharmacists into skillful clinicians who provide advanced patient-centered care in various general and specialized areas of pharmacy practice. Pharmacy residencies are a minimum requirement for many clinical pharmacy positions, as well as for positions in academia. The role of clinical pharmacists typically includes teaching, regardless of whether they pursue an academic appointment. Common teaching duties of pharmacist-clinicians include giving continuing education or other invited presentations, providing education to colleagues regarding clinical initiatives, precepting pharmacy students (early and advanced experiences) and residents, and educating other health care professionals. Although ASHP provides accreditation standards for PGY1 and PGY2 residencies, the standards pertaining to teaching or education training are vague. Through the years, teaching certificate programs that develop residents' teaching skills and better prepare residents for a diverse pharmacy job market have increased in popularity; moreover, teaching certificate programs serve as an attractive recruitment tool. However, the consistency of requirements for teaching certificate programs is lacking, and standardization is needed. The Task Force on Residencies developed two sets of guidelines to define teaching experiences within residencies. The first guideline defines the minimum standards for teaching experiences in any residency-training program. The second guideline is for programs offering a teaching certificate program to provide standardization, ensuring similar outcomes and quality on program completion. One of the main differences between the guidelines is the recommendation that residency programs offering a teaching certificate program be affiliated with an academic institution to provide the pedagogy and variety of teaching experiences for the resident. Residency program directors should consider adopting these guidelines to offer consistent teaching experiences. In addition, residents should inquire about the elements of teaching in a program as an aid to selecting the training best suited to their needs. PMID:23401039

Havrda, Dawn E; Engle, Janet P; Anderson, Keri C; Ray, Shaunta' M; Haines, Seena L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ballard, Stephanie L; Crannage, Andrew J; Rochester, Charmaine D; Parman, Malinda G

2013-02-11

163

Resident cardiac stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The introduction of stem cells in cardiology provides new tools in understanding the regenerative processes of the normal and pathologic heart and opens new options for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The feasibility of adult bone marrow autologous and allogenic cell therapy of ischemic cardiomyopathies has been demonstrated in humans. However, many unresolved questions remain to link experimental with clinical observations. The demonstration that the heart is a self-renewing organ and that its cell turnover is regulated by myocardial progenitor cells offers novel pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases and raises the possibility to regenerate the damaged heart. Indeed, cardiac stem progenitor cells (CSPCs) have recently been isolated from the human heart by several laboratories although differences in methodology and phenotypic profile have been described. The present review points to the potential role of CSPCs in the onset and development of congestive heart failure and its reversal by regenerative approaches aimed at the preservation and expansion of the resident pool of progenitors.

Frati C; Savi M; Graiani G; Lagrasta C; Cavalli S; Prezioso L; Rossetti P; Mangiaracina C; Ferraro F; Madeddu D; Musso E; Stilli D; Rossini A; Falco A; Angelis AD; Rossi F; Urbanek K; Leri A; Kajstura J; Anversa P; Quaini E; Quaini F

2011-10-01

164

Resident cardiac stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regardless of erroneous claims by a minority of reports, adult cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells which do not re-enter the cell-cycle under any known physiological or pathological circumstances. However, it has recently been shown that the adult heart has a robust myocardial regenerative potential, which challenges the accepted notions of cardiac cellular biology. The source of this regenerative potential is constituted by resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs). These CSCs, through both cell transplantation and in situ activation, have the capacity to regenerate significant segmental and diffuse myocyte losts, restoring anatomical integrity and ventricular function. Thus, CSC identification has started a brand new discipline of cardiac biology that could profoundly changed the outlook of cardiac physiology and the potential for treatment of cardiac failure. Nonetheless, the dawn of this new era should not be set back by premature attempts at clinical application before having accumulated the required scientifically reproducible data.

Torella D; Ellison GM; Karakikes I; Nadal-Ginard B

2007-03-01

165

Estudo das vias biliares extrahepáticas em pacientes portadores de "megas" chagásieos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em 22 pacientes internados no Hospital das Clinicas da F. M. U. F. Pe e portadores de "megas" chagásicos. cuja etiologia foi comprovada através de pesquisas epidemiológicas, clínicas e laboratoriais, realizamos a colecisto-colangiografia intravenosa. Verificamos em 21 enfermos a vesícula e o colédoco com topografia, morfologia e dmãmica normais. Em apenas um doente encontramos a vesícula bastante aumentada de volume e o coledoco de calibre dilatado, sem imagem de (more) cálculo no seu interior. O tempo de esvaziamento colédoco-duodeno muito prolongado, sugeriu alterações motoras. Abstract in english The Author reports the results of his studies with intravenous cholecystocho­langiography in the chronic stages of Chagas' disease, specially in "megas" - megaesophagus and megacolon. The research was performed in the Hospital das Clinicas of the University Federal of Pernambuco, Brazil, in out-patients from endemic areas. The diagnosis was established by strongly positive complement fixation test for Chagas disease (Guerreiro & Machado's test); roentgenologic changes of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary ducts were considered.

Huggins, Donald

1972-06-01

166

A case with mega cisterna magna renal and ear anomalies: is this a new syndrome?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient's laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and hypochromic microcytic anemia. His cerebrospinal fluid was cytologically and biochemically normal. Cranial MRI revealed 1.5?cm diametered mega cisterna magna in the retrocerebellar region. Although there were no significant epileptical discharges in the electroencephalography, there were slow wave discharges arising from the anterior regions of both hemispheres. Because he had stomachache, abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and horseshoe kidney was determined. Abdominal CT did not reveal any abnormalities except the horseshoe kidney. There were not any cardiac pathologies in echocardiography. He had normal 46XY karyotype and there were no repeated chromosomal derangements, but we could not evaluate for molecular and submicroscopic somatic changes. He was treated with valproic acid and myoclonic jerks did not repeat. Conclusion. We suggest that the presence of these novel findings may represent a newly recognized, separate syndrome.

Konca C; Caliskan B; Tas MA

2013-01-01

167

A case with mega cisterna magna renal and ear anomalies: is this a new syndrome?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient's laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and hypochromic microcytic anemia. His cerebrospinal fluid was cytologically and biochemically normal. Cranial MRI revealed 1.5?cm diametered mega cisterna magna in the retrocerebellar region. Although there were no significant epileptical discharges in the electroencephalography, there were slow wave discharges arising from the anterior regions of both hemispheres. Because he had stomachache, abdominal ultrasonography was performed, and horseshoe kidney was determined. Abdominal CT did not reveal any abnormalities except the horseshoe kidney. There were not any cardiac pathologies in echocardiography. He had normal 46XY karyotype and there were no repeated chromosomal derangements, but we could not evaluate for molecular and submicroscopic somatic changes. He was treated with valproic acid and myoclonic jerks did not repeat. Conclusion. We suggest that the presence of these novel findings may represent a newly recognized, separate syndrome. PMID:23762068

Konca, Capan; Caliskan, Bahar; Tas, Mehmet Ali

2013-05-15

168

MEGA -- A search for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment is a search for the decay {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}. Even though there is no fundamental reason to expect lepton number to be a conserved quantity, processes such as {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} have not been observed. (The present upper limit for the branching ratio for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} is 4.9 x 10{sup {minus}11}.) The minimal standard model of electroweak interactions, which is enormously successful, builds in lepton number conservation. However, the decay {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} is expected in many extensions to the standard model, in particular in supersymmetry models. The experimental signature for {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma} from decays at rest is the observation of a positron and photon, each of 52.8 MeV , that are back-to-back, in time coincidence, and originate from a common spatial point. The MEGA detector consists of two spectrometers designed to measure the kinematic characteristics of positrons and photons to search for events with this signature. The primary difficulty in the analysis of these data has been the development of reconstruction algorithms that balance efficiency and resolution. Also, many calibrations and corrections are needed to get optimum resolutions. Most surviving candidate events are accidentals. Results of analysis are given.

Mischke, R.E.; MEGA Collaboration

1998-12-01

169

Photon detector for MEGA. Final report, July 16, 1992--May 31, 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past year, we have continued our work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83 MeV photon produced in a ? ? e? decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm2, a directional resolution of 10 degree, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. (All quoted resolutions are FWHM.) It consists of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin (0.045 radiation lengths each) Pb foils to convert photons into e+e- pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers have three drift chamber layers to track the e+e- pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer has four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons such as those from the ?0 ? 2? decay.

1993-01-01

170

Photon detector for MEGA. Final report, July 16, 1992--May 31, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past year, we have continued our work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83 MeV photon produced in a {pi} {yields} e{gamma} decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 {times} 5 mm{sup 2}, a directional resolution of 10{degree}, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. (All quoted resolutions are FWHM.) It consists of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin (0.045 radiation lengths each) Pb foils to convert photons into e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers have three drift chamber layers to track the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer has four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons such as those from the {pi}{sup 0} {yields} 2{gamma} decay.

Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

1993-12-31

171

Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results  

CERN Multimedia

We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'{AB}=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates ...

Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier; Reylé, Céline; Bertin, Emmanuel; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Robin, Annie C; Allard, France; Doyon, Rene; Hill, Gary J

2008-01-01

172

The mega-Gray-level glucose dosimeter using optical rotation change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dosimetric characteristics of glucose dosimeter based on the radiation induced change in optical rotation of D-glucose solution was studied for the high-dose dosimetry at mega-Gray level. D-glucose solution of 20 wt% concentration was used for dosimeter solution. The optical rotation of solution is independent of the temperature of solution during measurement in the range of 5 to 30 deg C and stable for a long period at room temperature before and after irradiation. Radiation induced optical rotation change also does not depend on the temperature during irradiation in the range of 25 to 50 deg C. Glucose dosimeter was found to be very reproducible in mega-Gray level and covers high dose range from 0.01 to 4.30 MGy within the accuracy of ± 4 %. As to the radiation chemical mechanism, the optical rotation change of glucose solution is ascribed to radiation induced decomposition of D-glucose, and the G value for the decomposition, which is 4.1 to initial stage of irradiation, decreases with the increase of dose. (author).

1987-01-01

173

Geologic support for the putative Borealis basin (Mega-Impact) on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of recent papers (all in Nature v. 453) using Martian gravity and topography [Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008], 3-D hydrodynamic simulations [Marinova et al., 2008], and 2-D hydrocode models [Nimmo et al., 2008] have eloquently reintroduced the single mega-impact hypothesis for the formation of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy boundary. Although geophysical models often return non-unique solutions, the coalition front presented by these three independent methods to test such a hypothesis lends credibility and demands further evaluation. The central tenet of these works is the proposition that an elliptical basin (long axis 10,600km, ellipticity 1.25) centered at 67N, 208E marks the pre-Tharsis crustal thickness transition and thus the real dichotomy boundary. Evaluation of this new boundary with respect to the geologic record offers new avenues, especially since geologic tests of the mega-impact hypothesis have mostly proved inconclusive because of Mars' multi-stage and multi-process geologic history. Within this survey, a slightly larger ellipse with a long axis of 12,500 km, ellipticity of 1.48, and centered at 65.3N, 250E expands the putative Borealis impact basin (which does not necessarily represent the transient or final impact cavity dimensions, but defines a potential 'affected zone') while maintaining agreement with the original observations with respect to gravity and topography. The 'affected zone' can be defined by basement structure that may become susceptible to later deformation, or it may in fact have been the paleo- topographic expression of the basin. By expanding the overall area (nearly twice the area of the original mega-impact basin proposed by Wilhelms and Squyres in 1984) several geologic features become significant in evaluating the mega-impact story. 1) Valles Marineris is concentric to the putative basin interior and parallels the ellipse margin suggesting that it is the structural manifestation of localized crustal relaxation of the Tharsis volcanic pile over pre-existing basement structure related to Borealis basin subsidence. The present day Valles Marineris may actually represent the 'missing portion' of the original crustal dichotomy trace underneath Tharsis. 2) The 'great faults' (Connerney et al., 2005) that offset the magnetic field pattern radiate from near the center of the putative basin, again suggesting basement structural control related to basin formation. 3) The mysterious Medusa Fossae Formation is completely enclosed within the basin margin and the units' southern contacts fall within 5 km of the same elliptical trace that bisects central Valles Marineris. 4) Chaos regions at the eastern end of Valles Marineris are wholly contained within the basin margin and suggest some kind of marginal control on their locations. 5) Valley network (channel) densities sharply increase outside the basin and are truncated by the Borealis ellipse. Integrating these and other geologic observations (still ongoing) with the newly formulated geophysical methods suggests that a single mega-impact is reemerging as a viable and perhaps preferred mechanism for dichotomy formation.

Bleamaster, L. F.

2008-12-01

174

Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Richard F Wagner Jr, Sharon S Raimer, Brent C Kelly Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA Abstract: Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. Keywords: dermatology, resident, research, education, accreditation

Wagner RF Jr; Raimer SS; Kelly BC

2013-01-01

175

Encouraging residents to seek feedback.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: To explore resident and faculty perceptions of the feedback process, especially residents' feedback-seeking activities. Methods: We conducted focus groups of faculty and residents exploring experiences in giving and receiving feedback, feedback-seeking, and suggestions to support feedback-seeking. Using qualitative methods and an iterative process, all authors analyzed the transcribed audiotapes to identify and confirm themes. Results: Emerging themes fit a framework situating resident feedback-seeking as dependent on four central factors: (1) learning/workplace culture, (2) relationships, (3) purpose/quality of feedback, (4) emotional responses to feedback. Residents and faculty agreed on many supports and barriers to feedback-seeking. Strengthening the workplace/learning culture through longitudinal experiences, use of feedback forms and explicit expectations for residents to seek feedback, coupled with providing a sense of safety and adequate time for observation and providing feedback were suggested. Tensions between faculty and resident perceptions regarding feedback-seeking related to fear of being found deficient, the emotional costs related to corrective feedback and perceptions that completing clinical work is more valued than learning. Conclusion: Resident feedback-seeking is influenced by multiple factors requiring attention to both faculty and learner roles. Further study of specific influences and strategies to mitigate the tensions will inform how best to support residents in seeking feedback.

Delva D; Sargeant J; Miller S; Holland J; Alexiadis Brown P; Leblanc C; Lightfoot K; Mann K

2013-07-01

176

Isolation and screening of plasmids from the epilithon which mobilize recombinant plasmid pD10.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the potential of bacteria from river epilithon to mobilize a recombinant catabolic plasmid, pD10, encoding 3-chlorobenzoate degradation and kanamycin resistance. Fifty-four mobilizing plasmids were exogenously isolated by triparental matings between strains of Pseudomonas putida and epilithic bacteria from the River Taff (South Wales, United Kingdom). Frequencies for mobilization ranged from 1.7 x 10(-8) to 4.5 x 10(-3) per recipient at 20 degrees C. The sizes of the mobilizing plasmids isolated ranged from 40 kb to over 200 kb, and 19 of 54 were found to encode mercury resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was also found but not resistance to UV light or various heavy metals. Eight plasmids of epilithic bacteria, analyzed by comparing restriction fragmentation patterns, showed significant differences between those isolated from different independent matings. Optimal temperatures for mobilization of pD10 were between 15 and 25 degrees C. Four mercury resistance plasmids were found to be broad host range, transferring mercury resistance and mobilizing pD10 readily to representative species of beta- and gamma-purple bacteria. In general, frequencies of pD10 mobilization by plasmids of epilithic bacteria were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than conjugal transfer frequencies. Thus, there is a high potential for exchange of recombinant genes introduced into the epilithon by mobilization between a variety of bacterial species.

Hill KE; Weightman AJ; Fry JC

1992-04-01

177

Plasmid Coded Halotolerance in Mangrove Soil Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing salinity in the soil and irrigation water is a global concern of paramount importance especially to Pakistan. Isolation was carried out from soil samples of Mangrove area near `REHRI`, two isolates CMG350 (Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and CMG351 (Pseudomonas paucimobilis) were selected for further studies. Character halotolerance in both the isolates was plasmid born, as cured derivatives lost the character. Maximum accumulation of Na+ i.e., 12.5% was observed by CMG351 whereas 9.8% was observed by CMG350. Halotolerance was found associated with proteins encoded by plasmids.

Nuzhat Ahmed; Fehmida Fasim; Zafar Nawaz; Fouad M. Qureshi

2003-01-01

178

Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1) Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg.) and 2) Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU; Berrak GÜMÜ?KAYA ÖCAL; Esra Zeynep CO?KUNO?LU; ?lke ÇULHA; Ali Fuat Ç?ÇEK; Emel DA?LAR; Özgür ?LHAN; Alper KOÇBIYIK; Ay?e ÖZGÜN; Gonca ÖZGÜN; Demet ?ENGÜL

2008-01-01

179

Student Engagement and Completion in Precalculus Precalculus Mega Section: Efficiently Assisting Student Engagement and Completion with Communications and Information Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Precalculus Mega Section project was developed with the main purpose of improving the overall performance of the student body in Precalculus, an important gatekeeper course that affects student engagement and completion, with typical drop/failure rates of over 50 percent. Strategies such as integration of technology and additional practice…

Brusi, Rima; Portnoy, Arturo; Toro, Nilsa

2013-01-01

180

Urban development in mega-cities in developing countries : potentials of citizen participation in planning and managing urban development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuing urbanization and especially the growth of large cities are going to be among the most important challenges for developing countries in the future. This paper develops a model for citizen participation in planning and managing the development of mega-cities in developing countries. The app...

Buehler, Ralph

 
 
 
 
181

Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a gen...

Martin Müller

182

Resident cardiac stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of stem cells in cardiology provides new tools in understanding the regenerative processes of the normal and pathologic heart and opens new options for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The feasibility of adult bone marrow autologous and allogenic cell therapy of ischemic cardiomyopathies has been demonstrated in humans. However, many unresolved questions remain to link experimental with clinical observations. The demonstration that the heart is a self-renewing organ and that its cell turnover is regulated by myocardial progenitor cells offers novel pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases and raises the possibility to regenerate the damaged heart. Indeed, cardiac stem progenitor cells (CSPCs) have recently been isolated from the human heart by several laboratories although differences in methodology and phenotypic profile have been described. The present review points to the potential role of CSPCs in the onset and development of congestive heart failure and its reversal by regenerative approaches aimed at the preservation and expansion of the resident pool of progenitors. PMID:22114897

Frati, C; Savi, M; Graiani, G; Lagrasta, C; Cavalli, S; Prezioso, L; Rossetti, P; Mangiaracina, C; Ferraro, F; Madeddu, D; Musso, E; Stilli, D; Rossini, A; Falco, A; Angelis, A De; Rossi, F; Urbanek, K; Leri, A; Kajstura, J; Anversa, P; Quaini, E; Quaini, F

2011-10-01

183

The Aftershock Analyses of 27 February 2010 Chile M=8.8 Mega Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1960, the biggest earthquake (M=9.5), the human ever recorded event, occurred in south Chile. Subsequently several mega earthquake (M >8) occurred, including the M=8.8 earthquake in 2010. This reflects that an incomplete release of tectonic energy exists in the Chile subduction system. The west coast of Chile is a long convergence plate boundary between the Nazca and the South American plate. The Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South American Plate toward the northeast with a convergence rate of about 6.5 cm/year, accumulating the stress in the lower part of the subducted plate to some extent resulting in destructive ruptures. On 27 February 2010, the Maule mega earthquake (M=8.8) occurred offshore central Chile. The epicenter (35.9° S, 72.73° W) is located at 115 km, NE of Concepción, the second biggest city in Chile. The main shock was a thrust-type subduction earthquake where the Nazca Plate subducted into the South America Plate (the Chile subduction system). The focal depth of main shock is 35 km which caused more than 500-km long rupture in the accretionary prism and produced a destructive tsunami of more than 20 m. It killed several hundreds of people and damaged countless buildings. Even up to today, aftershocks and volcanic activities continue to occur in this region. During May-August of last year, we shipped 20 OBSs to Chile and conducted two aftershock surveys in the tsunami-affected area. The OBSs recorded more than 4,000 aftershock events, magnitude from M=6.0 to 1.0. Results show that the aftershock data were concentrated into two masses: the landward side of the paleo-accretionary prism and the seaward side of the subducting plate, leaving a "white zone" in the frontal accretionary prisms. Both data sets consistently indicate the same result. The angle between the paleo-accretionary prism and the subduction plate seems to be greater than that of the frontal-accretionary prism. We suggest that the greater of the splay fault angle the higher the risk for the occurrence of a destructive tsunami. Even though our study covered only a short period of aftershocks it appears to show shows important basic characteristics of the 2010 Maule mega event.

Lee, C.-S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Gutscher, M.; Miller, M.; Gallardo, V.

2012-04-01

184

A novel method of plasmid isolation using laundry detergent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the discovery of plasmid, various methods have been developed to isolate plasmid DNA. All the methods have one common and important target of isolating plasmid DNA of high quality and quantity in less time. These methods are not completely safe because of use of toxic chemicals compounds. The developed protocol for plasmid extraction is based on the alkaline lysis method of plasmid preparation (extraction atpH 8.0) with slight modifications. Cell lysis reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate is replaced by lipase enzyme present in laundry detergent. A good plasmid preparation can be made, which is well suited for subsequent molecular biology applications. By taking safety measures on count, contaminants like, RNA and protein can be completely avoided with maximized plasmid yield. The resultant plasmid quality and quantity can be well comparable to other prevalent methods.

Yadav P; Yadav A; Garg V; Datta TK; Goswami SL; De S

2011-07-01

185

Isolation and characterization of cryptic plasmids from filamentous, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many filamentous, nonheterocystous, N/sub 2/-fixing cyanobacteria from the LPP group contain cryptic plasmids. Plasmid number and size were determined as well as sequence homologies among independent strains of the same species, and different species. Only a few studied have been carried out to determine plasmid profiles in filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. Also, sequence homologies between plasmids have been examined only in the unicellular organisms. Using both liquid and solid BG-11 culture media, various strain specific, rapid, small-scale plasmid isolation procedures have been developed. These include lysozyme/SDS incubations, phenol and chloroform extractions, and an isopropanol precipitation. Resuspended pellets were electrophoresed on agarose gels, providing a quick and accurate method of determining plasmid size and number. Several endogenous plasmids have been isolated, cloned, and mapped through restriction enzyme digestion. These clones were used in Southern hybridizations to determine sequence homologies between plasmids of several strains and species.

Felkner, R.H.; Barnum, S.R.

1986-04-01

186

Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quinolone resistance encoded by the qnr gene and mediated by plasmid pMG252 was discovered in a clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae that was isolated in 1994 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center. The gene codes for a protein that protects DNA gyrase from quinolone inhibitio...

Jacoby, George A.; Chow, Nancy; Waites, Ken B.

187

Selective plasmid transduction in Bacillus pumilus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inducible temperate bacteriophage phi75 and a clear-plaque-forming variant, phi75C1, mediated transduction of a 4.4 X 10(6)-dalton multicopy Bacillus pumilus plasmid, pPL10, at frequencies of 10(-5) to 10(-6) transductants per plaque-forming unit. phi75- and phi75C1-mediated transduction of seve...

Bramucci, M G; Lovett, P S

188

Molecular Delivery of Plasmids for Genetic Vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid vaccination is a smart gene delivery application mostly achieved through the utilisation of viral or copolymeric systems as surrogated carriers in micro or nano formulations. A common polymeric protocol for plasmid vaccine formulation, which as somewhat been successful, is via the complexation of the DNA molecules with a cationic polymer, and encapsulating in a vehicular carrier polymer. Even though plasmid vaccination research has not witnessed the much anticipated success, due a number of cellular and physicochemical reasons, application of copolymeric carriers with tight functionalities is a promising strategy to optimally deliver the DNA molecules; in view of the available chemistries and physical properties that could be tuned to enable enhanced targeted delivery, uptake and specific transfection. This also enables the targeting of specific epitopes and antigen presenting cells for the treatment of many pathogenic infections and cancer. This paper provides a brief critical review of the current state of plasmid vaccines formulation and molecular delivery with analysis of performance data obtained from clinical trials.

Mazid R; X Tan M; K Danquah M

2013-09-01

189

Survey of plasmids in various mycoplasmas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty-three strains representing 15 distinct Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNAs of three strains, Mycoplasma sp. strain 747, Spiroplasma mirum strain SMCA, and M. ho...

Harasawa, R.; Barile, M. F.

190

Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52?). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good conditions for agriculture. Areas of ancient civilizations (Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Greece) always are concentrated near zones of high seismic activity. Catastrophic earthquakes occurred with interval about 200-500 years, and memory of population was limited usually by duration of 2-3 generations, i.e. by interval 50-80 years. The proposed hypothesis of exposed latitudinal zones at the Earth as pulsating geoid may present nowadays basic interest. References. 1.Ben-Zion Y. Earthquake physics and seismic hazard. 8-th Alexander von Humboldt International Conference. EGU Series. Natural Disasters, Global Change, and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites. Cusco. Peru. 2012. P.14. 2.Sun W. Seismic energy distribution in latitude and a possible tidal stress explanation // Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 1992. Vol. 71. P. 205-216. 3.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Latitudinal distribution of earthquakes in the Andes and its peculiarity. Advances in Geosciences. 2009. 22. 139-145. www.adv.geosci.net/22/139/2009/ 4.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Seismicity of the Pacific region: global feature detection. - M.: Janus-K. 2012. 308 p. 5.Veronnet, Alex. Rotation de l'ellipsoide hétérogène et figure exacte de la Terre. Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées. 1912. 6e série, tome 8, p. 331-463.

Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej

2013-04-01

191

ADAPTION OF “MEGA EVENT IMPACT SCALE”: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY (2011 ERZURUM 25. WINTER UNIVERSIADE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at carrying out validity and reliability studies and the adaption of Turkish version of the scale titled “Mega Event Impact Scale” and developed by Jie ve Yan (2010). The scale, which consists of five-point Likert scale 42 items, was administered to the local audience following 2011 Erzurum 25. Winter Universiade. The subjects of the study were 412 people (55 % male and 45 % female), who were chosen through random sampling method. Explanatory factor analysis, applied to determine construct validity of the scale, revealed a construct with 36 items and 8 factors. The internalconsistency reliability coefficient for the whole study was found 0.917. The findings showed that internal consistency reliability of factor items had an item / total correlation coefficient ranging between 0.50 and 0.85. The results were discussed in terms of the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale.

Kerem Y?ld?r?m ?im?ek

2012-01-01

192

High-power optical coatings for a mega-joule class ICF laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As a consequence of advancements in Inertial Confinement Fusion research, LLNL is developing plans for a new 1.5 to 2 mega-joule solid-state Nd:glass laser designed to achieve fusion ignition. The new design is possible in part due to advances in optical coatings suitable for high power laser systems. High damage threshold mirrors and polarizers are comprised of electron beam deposited dielectric multilayers. Subthreshold illumination, or laser conditioning, of the multilayer coatings results in an increase in the damage thresholds by factors of 2 to 3 at 1.06?m, thus meeting the fluence requirements of the advanced architecture. For anti-reflective coatings, protective organic coatings for non-linear crystals and phase plates for beam smoothing, sol-gel films provide high damage thresholds coatings at low cost

1992-01-01

193

RAINWATER FLOODING AND ITS COUNTER MEASURES IN URBAN AREA OF MEGA-UNDERGROUND MALL  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequency of rainfalls over the capacity of drainage system is increasing and underground inundations occurred in some Japanese cities in recent years. It is an urgent matter that managers of underground spaces plan for safe evacuation of users. In order to make the plan, they should know when and from which entrances the rainwater will flow into there. In this paper, inflow discharge was calculated by using 1D-2D urban drainage model in a drainage basin where one of mega-underground mall is located. And appropriate counter measures were investigated. From the results, it is found that peak discharge of inflow appears behind the rainfall peak and that the delay time is from 0.5 to 2.5 hours and depends on the rainfall conditions. It means that several rainfalls should be considered for planning of counter measures and evacuation.

Morikane, Masayuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Ozaki, Taira; Toda, Keiichi

194

Mitotic and meiotic stability of linear plasmids in yeast.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Circular recombinant DNA plasmids that contain autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) are maintained in extrachromosomal form in transformed yeast cells. However, these plasmids are unstable, being rapidly lost from cells growing without selection. Although the stability of such a plasmid can be ...

Dani, G M; Zakian, V A

195

Control of the ccd operon in plasmid F.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The F sex factor plasmid of Escherichia coli contains a pair of genes, ccdA and ccdB, whose protein gene products are involved in an unusual feature of plasmid maintenance. The CcdB protein is a cytotoxin that becomes activated when the F plasmid is lost, thereby killing the F- segregant cells. In F...

Tam, J E; Kline, B C

196

Endogenous mutagenesis in recombinant sulfolobus plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low rates of replication errors in chromosomal genes of Sulfolobus spp. demonstrate that these extreme thermoacidophiles can maintain genome integrity in environments with high temperature and low pH. In contrast to this genetic stability, we observed unusually frequent mutation of the ?-D-glycosidase gene (lacS) of a shuttle plasmid (pJlacS) propagated in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The resulting Lac(-) mutants also grew faster than the Lac(+) parent, thereby amplifying the impact of the frequent lacS mutations on the population. We developed a mutant accumulation assay and corrections for the effects of copy number and differential growth for this system; the resulting measurements and calculations yielded a corrected rate of 5.1 × 10(-4) mutational events at the lacS gene per plasmid replication. Analysis of independent lacS mutants revealed three types of mutations: (i) G · C-to-A · T transitions, (ii) slipped-strand events, and (iii) deletions. These mutations were frequent in plasmid-borne lacS expressed at a high level but not in single-copy lacS in the chromosome or at lower levels of expression in a plasmid. Substitution mutations arose at only two of 12 potential priming sites of the DNA primase of the pRN1 replicon, but nearly all these mutations created nonsense (chain termination) codons. The spontaneous mutation rate of plasmid-borne lacS was 175-fold higher under high-expression than under low-expression conditions. The results suggest that important DNA repair or replication fidelity functions are impaired or overwhelmed in pJlacS, with results analogous to those of the "transcription-associated mutagenesis" seen in bacteria and eukaryotes.

Sakofsky CJ; Grogan DW

2013-06-01

197

Resistance carrying plasmid in a traumatic wound.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To isolate and identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the exudate of a complex wound and determine if antibiotic resistance genes are chromosomal or plasmid borne. METHOD: Antibiotic resistant bacteria from wound exudate of a single clinical sample were selected on agar media with ampicillin. A single colony was further screened for resistance to kanamycin by antibiotic-supplemented agar and to other antibiotics by an automated Phoenix instrument. Identification of the isolate was carried out by biochemical profiling and by 16S rDNA analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 51% of total bacteria in the wound exudate with identical colony morphotype were resistant to 100 microg/ml of ampicillin. A single colony from this population also demonstrated resistance to 50 microg/ml of kanamycin on kanamycin-supplemented agar. Further antimicrobial sensitivity testing by the Phoenix instrument indicated resistance to inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefazolin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis identified this bacterial isolate as a member of genus Enterobacter. A plasmid preparation from this isolate successfully transferred ampicillin and kanamycin resistance to E. coli competent cells. E. coli transformants displayed two resistance phenotypes and the plasmids from these transformants displayed two different restriction type patterns, with one correlating to ampicillin and kanamycin resistance and the other only to ampicillin resistance. CONCLUSION: A multiple antibiotic-resistant Enterobacter spp. from the wound fluid of a clinical sample was found to carry an antibiotic-resistant plasmid in a closely related species E. coli. The presence of antibiotic resistance plasmid in Enterobacteria that are part of the normal microbial flora of the human gut and skin could lead to the spread of resistance phenotype and emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study suggests normal human microbial fl ora could be a potential reservoir for resistance genes.

Alavi MR; Ravizee A; Burgess R; Antonic V; Izadjoo M; Stojadinovic A

2010-07-01

198

Late Neogene Submarine Mega-slides on the SW Barents Sea Margin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Late Neogene history of the NE Atlantic continental margin is characterized by numerous mass movement features reflecting a variety of scales and processes. Such slide processes have also been reported on the margin off the western Barents Sea, where the Bjornoyrenna Slide is a major feature. We have now further studied the Late Neogene sequences in this area by analyzing high quality multi-channel seismic lines on the continental slope and in the adjacent Lofoten Basin, allowing resolution of these features at depth. The seismic data reveal the existence of three pre-Holocene mega-slides, Slides I-III, of which we have calculated the extent, timing and the volume of sediment involved in the mass movements. We document that major sliding may occurred as a far back as 1.5 Ma, and that the largest slide, Slide II (0.5-1.0 Ma), affected an area of 120 000 km2 and involved about 25 000 km3 of sediments. The dimensions of even the smallest slide, Slide I, is comparable with the Holocene Storegga Slide, considered the world's largest exposed submarine slide, affecting an area of about 95 000 km2. In terms of sediment volume, the two largest mega-slide events are as much as a magnitude larger than the Storegga Slide. Since about 2.6 Ma, the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations have left a thick cover of dense deposits over a softer substratum, inducing potential instability. The initial slide activity appears coeval with a glacial intensification at about 1.6 Ma, when ice sheets advanced to the shelf edge. We interpret that the repetitive advance of ice sheets to their maximum position caused an increased sediment supply onto the continental margin creating instable conditions, contributing to the release of these huge slide events.

Hjelstuen, B.; Eldholm, O.; Faleide, J.

2005-12-01

199

Sustainable Housing, Population Growth and Poverty: The Implications on Lagos Mega City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When people affected by poverty are unable to lead a decent life, there is no doubt that there will be a decay of the city. And when there are inadequate and unfit housing, the condition of the environment often result to slums and ghettos, there will be the disaster of homelessness, unplanned and sprawl nature of city growth. The magic year had the consolation slogan of “housing for all by the year 2000” but this has since changed to the hard fact of “ what Nigerians failed to realize is that housing is a thing that every family would need to provide for itself.” The era of subsidy is gone and this reality has raised a lot of pertinent questions especially on where lies the hope for the poor in a mega city? The phenomenal growth of our towns and cities has given rise to conurbation and metropolitan areas, with various planning problems such as traffic congestion, slum, shanty towns, waste management, housing, pollution, poverty and several others. There is no doubt that the impact of rapid population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually a consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town. There is always an upsurge and conglomeration of people in city centres with the resultant effects on housing growth arising from acute unemployment. This growth and physical expansion of cities have been accompanied by unplanned urban sprawl, environmental pollution, deterioration, deficiencies in modern basic facilities, and general urban decay. As increased poverty and urbanization exert more pressures on urban facilities, most Nigerian cities tend to have lost their original dignity, social cohesion and administrative efficiency.This paper therefore revealed the consequences of the problems of urbanization in Lagos, it focuses on the spatial growth and the rapid rate of development in Metropolitan Lagos in order to show the significance and the role of public-private-partnership in the Mega City. 

Ola E. Aluko

2011-01-01

200

New class of limited-host-range Agrobacterium mega-tumor-inducing plasmids lacking homology to the transferred DNA of a wide-host-range, tumor-inducing plasmid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biotype 1 and 2 strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were isolated from crown gall tumors of Lippia canescens plants growing as ground cover in Arizona. The isolates were agrocin 84 sensitive, did not catabolize octopine, nopaline, agropine, or mannopine, and were limited in their tumorigenic host r...

Unger, L; Ziegler, S F; Huffman, G A; Knauf, V C; Peet, R; Moore, L W; Gordon, M P; Nester, E W

 
 
 
 
201

Comparative genetic organization of incompatibility group P degradative plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmids that encode genes for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds are often examined only for characteristics of the degradative pathways and ignore regions that are necessary for plasmid replication, incompatibility, and conjugation. If these characteristics were known, then the mobility of the catabolic genes between species could be predicted and different catabolic pathways might be combined to alter substrate range. Two catabolic plasmids, pSS50 and pSS60, isolated from chlorobiphenyl-degrading strains and a 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading plasmid, pBR60, were compared with the previously described IncP group (Pseudomonas group P-1) plasmids pJP4 and R751. All three of the former plasmids were also members of the IncP group, although pBR60 is apparently more distantly related. DNA probes specific for known genetic loci were used to determine the order of homologous loci on the plasmids. In all of these plasmids the order is invariant, demonstrating the conservation of this "backbone" region. In addition, all five plasmids display at least some homology with the mercury resistance transposon, Tn501, which has been suggested to be characteristic of the beta subgroup of the IncP plasmids. Plasmids pSS50 and pSS60 have been mapped in detail, and repeat sequences that surround the suspected degradation genes are described.

Burlage RS; Bemis LA; Layton AC; Sayler GS; Larimer F

1990-12-01

202

Comparative genetic organization of incompatibility group P degradative plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmids that encode genes for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds are often examined only for characteristics of the degradative pathways and ignore regions that are necessary for plasmid replication, incompatibility, and conjugation. If these characteristics were known, then the mobility of the catabolic genes between species could be predicted and different catabolic pathways might be combined to alter substrate range. Two catabolic plasmids, pSS50 and pSS60, isolated from chlorobiphenyl-degrading strains and a 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading plasmid, pBR60, were compared with the previously described IncP group (Pseudomonas group P-1) plasmids pJP4 and R751. All three of the former plasmids were also members of the IncP group, although pBR60 is apparently more distantly related. DNA probes specific for known genetic loci were used to determine the order of homologous loci on the plasmids. In all of these plasmids the order is invariant, demonstrating the conservation of this "backbone" region. In addition, all five plasmids display at least some homology with the mercury resistance transposon, Tn501, which has been suggested to be characteristic of the beta subgroup of the IncP plasmids. Plasmids pSS50 and pSS60 have been mapped in detail, and repeat sequences that surround the suspected degradation genes are described. PMID:2254257

Burlage, R S; Bemis, L A; Layton, A C; Sayler, G S; Larimer, F

1990-12-01

203

Induced plasmid-genome rearrangements in Rhizobium japonicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P group resistance plasmids RP1 and RP4 were introduced into Rhizobium japonicum by polyethylene-glycol-induced transformation of spheroplasts. After cell wall regeneration, transformants were recovered by selecting for plasmid determinants. Plant nodulation, nitrogen fixation, serological, and bacterial genetics studies revealed that the transformants were derived from the parental strains and possessed the introduced plasmid genetic markers. Agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme analysis, and DNA hybridization studies showed that many of the transformant strains had undergone genome rearrangements. In the RP1 transformants, chromosomal DNA was found to have transposed into a large indigenous plasmid of R. japonicum, producing an even larger plasmid, and the introduced R plasmid DNA was found to be chromosomally integrated rather than replicating autonomously or integrated into the endogenous plasmid. Seemingly, a similar section of chromosomal DNA was involved in all the genomic rearrangements observed in the R. japonicum RP1 and RP4 transformant strains. PMID:6360996

Berry, J O; Atherly, A G

1984-01-01

204

Induced plasmid-genome rearrangements in Rhizobium japonicum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The P group resistance plasmids RP1 and RP4 were introduced into Rhizobium japonicum by polyethylene-glycol-induced transformation of spheroplasts. After cell wall regeneration, transformants were recovered by selecting for plasmid determinants. Plant nodulation, nitrogen fixation, serological, and bacterial genetics studies revealed that the transformants were derived from the parental strains and possessed the introduced plasmid genetic markers. Agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme analysis, and DNA hybridization studies showed that many of the transformant strains had undergone genome rearrangements. In the RP1 transformants, chromosomal DNA was found to have transposed into a large indigenous plasmid of R. japonicum, producing an even larger plasmid, and the introduced R plasmid DNA was found to be chromosomally integrated rather than replicating autonomously or integrated into the endogenous plasmid. Seemingly, a similar section of chromosomal DNA was involved in all the genomic rearrangements observed in the R. japonicum RP1 and RP4 transformant strains.

Berry JO; Atherly AG

1984-01-01

205

Impact of catabolic plasmids on host cell physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is difficult to know the exact extent to which catabolic plasmids influence the metabolism of different hosts, but this information is crucial for improving the use of xenobiotic degraders possessing conjugative catabolic plasmids. To determine the molecular mechanisms by which catabolic plasmids affect host-cell physiology and host responses, comprehensive molecular surveys have examined host responses to plasmid carriage. These studies have clarified the various interactions between catabolic plasmids and host cells and the importance of the effects on host-cell physiology and metabolic pathways. It has been suggested that catabolic plasmid-borne nucleoid-associated proteins play key roles in the adaptation of catabolic plasmids to the host-cell regulatory network. PMID:23083971

Nojiri, Hideaki

2012-10-16

206

Linear, non-mitochondrial plasmids of Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three plasmids, with sizes of 7.0 kbp, 6.8 kbp, and 5.0 kbp and designated pAal-1, pAal-2 and pAal-3 respectively, have been found in a tentoxin-producing isolate of Alternaria alternata. Exonuclease digestions show these plasmids to be linear with blocked 5' ends. Plasmid pAal-1 does not hybridize to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, or double-stranded RNA from a mycovirus found in the isolate, but does hybridize weakly to a series of linear DNAs which are not visible on gels and may include pAal-2 and pAal-3. Cellular fractionation shows that, unlike other linear fungal plasmids, these plasmids are not localized in the mitochondria. Plasmids have not been found in other tentoxin-producing isolates and there is no evidence that these plasmids have any effect on the production of tentoxin. PMID:1314706

Shepherd, H S

1992-02-01

207

Linear, non-mitochondrial plasmids of Alternaria alternata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three plasmids, with sizes of 7.0 kbp, 6.8 kbp, and 5.0 kbp and designated pAal-1, pAal-2 and pAal-3 respectively, have been found in a tentoxin-producing isolate of Alternaria alternata. Exonuclease digestions show these plasmids to be linear with blocked 5' ends. Plasmid pAal-1 does not hybridize to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, or double-stranded RNA from a mycovirus found in the isolate, but does hybridize weakly to a series of linear DNAs which are not visible on gels and may include pAal-2 and pAal-3. Cellular fractionation shows that, unlike other linear fungal plasmids, these plasmids are not localized in the mitochondria. Plasmids have not been found in other tentoxin-producing isolates and there is no evidence that these plasmids have any effect on the production of tentoxin.

Shepherd HS

1992-02-01

208

Role of Plasmid in Production of Acetobacter Xylinum Biofilms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetobacter xylinum has the ability to produce cellulotic biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is expected to be used in many industrial or biomedical materials for its unique characteristics. A. xylinum contains a complex system of plasmid DNA molecules. A 44 kilobases (kb) plasmid was isolated in wild type of A. xylinum. To improve the cellulose producing ability of A. xylinum, role of the plasmid in production of cellulose was studied. The comparisons between wild type and cured cells of A. xylinum showed that there is considerably difference in cellulose production. In order to study the relationship between plasmid and the rate of cellulose production, bacteria were screened for plasmid profile by a modified method for preparation of plasmid. This method yields high levels of pure plasmid DNA that can be used for common molecular techniques, such as digestion and transformation, with high efficiency.

Abbas Rezaee; Sanaz Solimani; Mehdi Forozandemogadam

2005-01-01

209

Plasmid-associated aggregation in Thermus thermophilus HB8  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermus thermophilus HB8, a moderate thermophile, exhibits visible aggregation when growing on a rich broth. Strain HB8 also contains two cryptic plasmids. The authors isolated cured strains from HB8 and observed that loss of the 47-MDa plasmid was correlated with loss of aggregation. An enrichment procedure was developed for aggregating cells and used to demonstrate that aggregation was restored upon transformation of a cured strain with plasmid DNA. The aggregation phenotype of transformed cells was variably stable; most did not retain either the plasmid or the phenotype for prolonged periods of growth. Hybridization experiments using a partial sequence from the 47-MDa plasmid suggested the presence of a repeated DNA sequence on this plasmid and on the chromosome. This is the first report of a phenotype associated with a plasmid from a Thermus strain.

Mather, M.W.; Fee, J.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1990-01-01

210

Does Global seismic energy release increase? An analysis based on the Lithospheric Seismic Energy Flow Model (LSEFM). The case of mega - earthquakes (M > 9)  

CERN Document Server

In this work the data of the earthquake catalog of the NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) are processed in terms of global seismic energy release. The determined Global Cumulative Seismic Energy Release (GCSER) graph as a function of time, is analyzed in the magnitude domain (discrete energy windows). Characteristic components of the analyzed graph are: its accelerated deformation character observed for energy windows lower than the background seismicity (M = 7.0 - 7.5), its lock state that started on 1923 and long seismic quiescence periods that preceded recent mega - earthquakes. The background GCSER value oscillates during the last century with a period of 60 years and with increasing amplitude. The recent (1952 - 2012) 5 mega - earthquakes are closely related to the amplitude increase of the GCSER oscillation. Hence, it is suggested that more mega - earthquakes are probable due to occur in the future. A global mechanism is postulated for the generation of the mega - earthquakes based on the pri...

Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

2012-01-01

211

pLs010 plasmid vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes recombinant plasmid pLS101, deposited in the American Type Culture Collection under deposit number39938. It is characterized as a Mal/sup +/ transformant and consists essentially of a 2.0 Kb MalM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tc/sup r/ DNA fragment and inserted in a suitable Gram-positive bacteria.

Lucks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

1988-03-08

212

Pathway of plasmid transformation in pneumococcus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmids transform Streptococcus pneumoniae by a process involving low efficiency assembly of replicons from fragments of single strands that have entered the cell separately. Transformation of preexisting replicons is much more efficient. We have cloned the erm gene of pIP501 into pMV158, which so far as we know is the first example of cloning in a pneumococcus host-vector system.

Guild, W.R.; Saunders, C.W.

1981-01-01

213

Novel DC ring topology and protection system - a comprehensive solution for mega city power grids  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of mega cities leads to increased load concentration and brings additional challenges to managing the electrical grid while keeping power available for critical loads. Techniques using FACTS devices are being applied to alleviate power management difficulties and to confine faults in their originating areas in order to limit the risk of cascading failures in the grid. The addition of many FACTS devices often results in control and protection coordination difficulties, power oscillations between connected networks, subsynchronous resonance problems, and torsional interactions with nearby generator units. The most effective solution is obtained when the individual AC subsystems representing sources and loads are decoupled so a fault in a given subsystem is not propagated to another subsystem. This solution can be achieved by the deployment of a DC system where power sources and loads are connected to the DC bus through voltage source converters. For a mega city, this would be conceived as a DC ring feeding multiple loads and connected to remote and local power sources. Unfortunately, the lack of fast DC circuit breakers has been one of the key issues affecting extensive applications of DC systems with common DC buses; a DC fault would discharge all the capacitors of the DC bus and cause delays in system recovery and possibly a wide system collapse. In this research, I provide a comprehensive solution to mega city power grid problems by proposing a DC system topology that enables grid expansions without affecting existing protection settings or changing existing AC breaker ratings. I also propose the means for protecting the DC system by designing a fast DC breaker and developing a control algorithm capable of isolating DC faults without blocking converter stations or depleting DC bus capacitors. My contribution is three folds: (1) I modeled and simulated Shanghai power grid and performed a study to identify short circuit and voltage stability problems using data provided by ABB corporate research located in China. I built on the work that had been performed in ABB China by considering different contingencies and I applied solutions using individual FACTS devices such as FCL, SVC-LightRTM, and HVDC-LightRTM. I analyzed the results from each solution in order to assess its merits and limitations in dealing with fault current and voltage stability problems. Then I presented a novel DC ring topology that provides redundancy, better protection against cascading faults, and does not increase short circuit levels. With this topology, adding loads or power sources does not impact system protection or performance. (2) I proposed two novel designs for a DC circuit breaker that is of critical importance to DC applications using multiple converter stations. The proposed designs solve the problem of DC fault clearing without causing significant voltage drops, current oscillations, or shutting down of any converter station connected to the DC bus. The DC breaker rated at a voltage of 320 kV and a current of 3000 A can interrupt DC currents as high as 70 kA within 800 mus. (3) I proposed a novel placement of the DC circuit breakers within the DC ring topology combined with an intelligent protection algorithm that optimizes fault detection and isolation without affecting the rest of the DC system. The protection scheme uses local measurements and special coordination techniques for clearing solid faults and uses differential measurements to identify and isolate high impedance faults.

Haj-Maharsi, Mohamed Yassine

214

Mining the ESO WFI and INT WFC archives for known Near Earth Asteroids. Mega-Precovery software  

CERN Multimedia

The ESO/MPG WFI and the INT WFC wide field archives comprising 330,000 images were mined to search for serendipitous encounters of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). A total of 152 asteroids (44 PHAs and 108 other NEAs) were identified using the PRECOVERY software, their astrometry being measured on 761 images and sent to the Minor Planet Centre. Both recoveries and precoveries were reported, including prolonged orbital arcs for 18 precovered objects and 10 recoveries. We analyze all new opposition data by comparing the orbits fitted before and after including our contributions. We conclude the paper presenting Mega-Precovery, a new online service focused on data mining of many instrument archives simultaneously for one or a few given asteroids. A total of 28 instrument archives have been made available for mining using this tool, adding together about 2.5 million images forming the Mega-Archive.

Vaduvescu, O; Comsa, I; Paraschiv, A; Lacatus, D; Sonka, A; Tudorica, A; Birlan, M; Suciu, O; Char, F; Constantinescu, M; Badescu, T; Badea, M; Vidican, D; Opriseanu, C

2013-01-01

215

Studies on the drift properties and spatial resolution using a microMEGAS-equipped time projection chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] R and D studies on the performance as well as on the gas properties of the microMEGAS-based time projection chamber with standard readout were carried out in June 2005 using 4 GeV/c pion beam in a magnetic field from 0 to 1 T at the proton synchrotron beam line at KEK, Japan. Analysis of the electron drift velocity, diffusion constant and point resolution of padrow measurement for MicroMEGAS TPC filled with 95% argon and 5% isobutane gas are presented. The underlying physical mechanism which determines the optimal TPC performance are briefly discussed. Preliminary measurements of gas properties and spatial resolution in close agreement with the analytical calculation and MAGBOLTZ simulation are summarized and presented in this paper. (author)

2007-01-01

216

Results from beam tests of MEGA's low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPCs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the leading experimental projects at LAMPF has been the MEGA experiment. This is an experiment to search for the rare decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} with a sensitivity of 10{sup {minus}13}. A prime component of this project has been the design and construction of high-rate, low mass MWPCs for the tracking of positrons from muon decay. With rate capabilities of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} e{sup +}/mm{sup 2}/s and a thickness of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} radiation lengths, these chambers are state-of-the-art cylindrical MWPCs. Cylindrical chambers of this size (0.9 m{sup 2}) and thinness have never been previously constructed. The MEGA project at LAMPF has recently succeeded in building chambers with these necessary performance characteristics as demonstrated by data taken from muon decays, cosmic rays, and sources.

Stanislaus, S.; Armijo, V.; Black, J.K.; Bolton, R.D.; Carius, S.; Cooper, M.D.; Espinoza, C.; Hart, G.; Hogan, G.; Gonzales, A.; Mischke, R.E.; Piilonen, L.E.; Sandoval, J.; Schilling, S.; Sena, J.; Suazo, G.; Szymanski, J.J.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Fisk, R.; Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W. (Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States)); Jui, C.C. (Stanford Univ., CA

1991-01-01

217

Results from beam tests of MEGA's low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPCs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the leading experimental projects at LAMPF has been the MEGA experiment. This is an experiment to search for the rare decay [mu][yields]e[gamma] with a sensitivity of 10[sup -13]. A prime component of this project has been the design and construction of high-rate, low-mass MWPCs for the tracking of positrons from muon decay. With rate capabilities of 2x10[sup 4] e[sup +]/mm[sup 2]/s and a thickness of 3x10[sup -4] radiation lengths, these chambers are state-of-the-art cylindrical MWPCs. Cylindrical chambers of this size (0.9 m[sup 2]) and thinness have never been previously constructed. The MEGA project at LAMPF has recently succeeded in buildung chambers with these necessary performance characteristics as demonstrated by data taken from muon decays, cosmic rays, and sources. (orig.).

Stanislaus, S.; Armijo, V.; Black, J.K.; Bolton, R.D.; Carius, S.; Cooper, M.D.; Espinoza, C.; Hart, G.; Hogan, G.; Gonzales, A.; Mischke, R.E.; Piilonen, L.E.; Sandoval, J.; Schilling, S.; Sena, J.; Suazo, G.; Szymanski, J.J.; Witehouse, D.A.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Fisk, R.; Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W. (Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States)); Jui, C.C. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-12-01

218

Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

2013-01-01

219

Evaluation of an animal product-free variant of MegaCell MEM as a storage medium for corneas destined for transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The traditional medium for storing corneas in European Eye Banks is Gibco's MEM (Eagle's) with Earle's salts and Hepes containing 2% fetal calf serum, glutamine and antimycotics. Although serum-free MegaCell MEM has been reported to be more suitable for this purpose, it contains components of animal origin that potentially pose health risks to corneal recipients. The possibility of removing or replacing these components has therefore been investigated. METHODS: A MegaCell basal medium (DME) and a formulation of this (MegaCell DCS), which contains no components of animal origin, have been prepared. The viability of the endothelial, epithelial and stromal cells of corneas held in these media has been assessed, their stress levels monitored and water content determined. RESULTS: The endothelial cell count and morphology of corneas held in MegaCell DME and DCS for 30 days remained little changed. Their epithelial and stromal cells also retained their ability to proliferate in culture. Neither DME nor DCS prevented corneal swelling but the lack of endogenous MMP-2 activation indicated that the corneas were not subject to metabolic stress. CONCLUSION: MegaCell DCS is an animal product-free medium formulated for corneal storage. The quality of corneas held in this medium is similar to those held in MegaCell MEM.

Smith VA; Johnson T

2010-01-01

220

Variations Lithospheric Scale Strain Accumulation in Mega-thrust Subduction Zones: Implications for Earthquake rupture  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the general plate tectonic model of subduction zone deformation and its relationship to the earthquake cycle for mega-thrust earthquakes is well known, there are in fact significant differences in terms of how inter-earthquake strain accumulation is considered by different communities. Most seismologic studies of mega-thrust earthquakes assume that the co-seismic slip is essentially symmetric across the fault surface - that is both the upper and lower plates moved equal amounts (but in opposite directions) during the rupture - implying s similar symmetric pattern of strain accumulation. Implicit in many geologic studies along convergent margins is the assumption that most permanent deformation is within the upper plate and the subducting slab basically transits the seismogenic zone with little permanent deformation. Based on the analyises of two recent great earthquakes, we conclude that the pattern of strain accumulation during the inter-earthquake period ranges from situations (akin to the ‘geologic' model) where most strain accumulates in the upper plate to situations where the subducting plate undergoes most of the recoverable elastic strain during the period between great earthquakes. Two subduction zone locales, the Kuriles and Solomon Islands, that have hosted recent Mw 8+ earthquakes demonstrate these two end-member styles of subduction zone processes. The November 2006 (thrust) and January 2007 (normal) earthquake pair in the Kuriles provide an opportunity to quantify the deformation within the subducting Pacific slab during the interseismic period. Based on the correspondence in slip during these events, we are able to both estimate the deformation (dominantly in the subducting slab and not in the overriding plate) and place a constraint on the static frictional strength of the megathrust interface of approximately 2-5 MPa. The 2007 Solomon Island Mw 8+ earthquake shows a distinctly different pattern of interseismic deformation. During this event, the propagating rupture traversed an active transform plate boundary between the separately subducting Australia and Solomon Sea plates. We interpret this to represent a situation in which interseismic deformation is primarily in the upper (Pacific) plate allowing the rupture to jump the fundamental barrier of a plate boundary. These two subduction regimes indicate that there is likely a full continuum in how deformation is accommodated during subduction, and implies that attempts to determine the megathrust (and associated tsunami) potential of subduction zones using solely observations of upper-plate deformation is problematic.

Furlong, K. P.; Lay, T.; Ammon, C. J.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18?759 independent and unrelated subjects of recent European ancestry (9240 MDD cases and 9519 controls). In the MDD replication phase, we evaluated 554 SNPs in independent samples (6783 MDD cases and 50?695 controls). We also conducted a cross-disorder meta-analysis using 819 autosomal SNPs with P<0.0001 for either MDD or the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium bipolar disorder (BIP) mega-analysis (9238 MDD cases/8039 controls and 6998 BIP cases/7775 controls). No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance in the MDD discovery phase, the MDD replication phase or in pre-planned secondary analyses (by sex, recurrent MDD, recurrent early-onset MDD, age of onset, pre-pubertal onset MDD or typical-like MDD from a latent class analyses of the MDD criteria). In the MDD-bipolar cross-disorder analysis, 15 SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), and all were in a 248?kb interval of high LD on 3p21.1 (chr3:52?425?083-53?822?102, minimum P=5.9 × 10(-9) at rs2535629). Although this is the largest genome-wide analysis of MDD yet conducted, its high prevalence means that the sample is still underpowered to detect genetic effects typical for complex traits. Therefore, we were unable to identify robust and replicable findings. We discuss what this means for genetic research for MDD. The 3p21.1 MDD-BIP finding should be interpreted with caution as the most significant SNP did not replicate in MDD samples, and genotyping in independent samples will be needed to resolve its status.

Ripke S; Wray NR; Lewis CM; Hamilton SP; Weissman MM; Breen G; Byrne EM; Blackwood DH; Boomsma DI; Cichon S; Heath AC; Holsboer F; Lucae S; Madden PA; Martin NG; McGuffin P; Muglia P; Noethen MM; Penninx BP; Pergadia ML; Potash JB; Rietschel M; Lin D; Müller-Myhsok B; Shi J; Steinberg S; Grabe HJ; Lichtenstein P; Magnusson P; Perlis RH; Preisig M; Smoller JW; Stefansson K; Uher R; Kutalik Z; Tansey KE; Teumer A; Viktorin A; Barnes MR; Bettecken T; Binder EB; Breuer R; Castro VM; Churchill SE; Coryell WH; Craddock N; Craig IW; Czamara D; De Geus EJ; Degenhardt F; Farmer AE; Fava M; Frank J; Gainer VS; Gallagher PJ; Gordon SD; Goryachev S; Gross M; Guipponi M; Henders AK; Herms S; Hickie IB; Hoefels S; Hoogendijk W; Hottenga JJ; Iosifescu DV; Ising M; Jones I; Jones L; Jung-Ying T; Knowles JA; Kohane IS; Kohli MA; Korszun A; Landen M; Lawson WB; Lewis G; Macintyre D; Maier W; Mattheisen M; McGrath PJ; McIntosh A; McLean A; Middeldorp CM; Middleton L; Montgomery GM; Murphy SN; Nauck M; Nolen WA; Nyholt DR; O'Donovan M; Oskarsson H; Pedersen N; Scheftner WA; Schulz A; Schulze TG; Shyn SI; Sigurdsson E; Slager SL; Smit JH; Stefansson H; Steffens M; Thorgeirsson T; Tozzi F; Treutlein J; Uhr M; van den Oord EJ; Van Grootheest G; Völzke H; Weilburg JB; Willemsen G; Zitman FG; Neale B; Daly M; Levinson DF; Sullivan PF

2013-04-01

222

The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance represents a significant public health problem. When resistance genes are mobile, being carried on plasmids or phages, their spread can be greatly accelerated. Plasmids in particular have been implicated in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the selective pressures which favour plasmid-carried resistance genes have not been fully established. Here we address this issue with mathematical models of plasmid dynamics in response to different antibiotic treatment regimes. Results We show that transmission of plasmids is a key factor influencing plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance, but the dosage and interval between treatments is also important. Our results also hold when plasmids carrying the resistance gene are in competition with other plasmids that do not carry the resistance gene. By altering the interval between antibiotic treatments, and the dosage of antibiotic, we show that different treatment regimes can select for either plasmid-carried, or chromosome-carried, resistance. Conclusions Our research addresses the effect of environmental variation on the evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance.

Svara Fabian; Rankin Daniel J

2011-01-01

223

Deletion of pT181-like sequence in an smr-encoding mosaic plasmid harboured by a persistent bovine Staphylococcus warneri strain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study the persistence and characteristics of Staphylococcus warneri strains resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), including sequencing and analysis of two plasmids proved to carry the smr gene. METHODS: During a 3.5 year period quarter milk samples were collected on three occasions from all lactating cows in a dairy herd. The samples were screened with regard to QAC-resistant bacteria using a selective medium. Thirty randomly selected QAC-resistant S. warneri were typed by PFGE and subjected to plasmid isolation and analysis followed by gene detection using PCR. Two smr-containing plasmids in S. warneri isolates were sequenced. RESULTS: All isolates from the initial collection of quarter milk contained smr residing on a 5.8 kb plasmid (pSW174), which contained regions with high similarities to various plasmids, including pT181, pSK108 and pPI-2. The pT181-like sequence was flanked by 148 bp direct repeats, denoted ISLE49, with high similarity to previously reported sequences of approximately 148 bp, including ISLE39 flanking the insertion sequence IS257 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. All isolates from subsequent collections of quarter milk harboured a smaller smr-containing plasmid (pSW49). Sequence analyses revealed pSW49 (3552 bp) to be an in-part deleted version of pSW174 (5767 bp). CONCLUSIONS: The IS-associated elements found in this study may have a wider role in the integration and excision of DNA sequences in staphylococci than previously reported. The mosaic plasmid structure based on genetic elements of various origins contributes to further knowledge on the flexibility of smr-encoding plasmids.

Bjorland J; Steinum T; Sunde M; Waage S; Sviland S; Oppegaard H; Heir E

2006-01-01

224

MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips). The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

Wan Xiang; Yang Can; Yang Qiang; Xue Hong; Tang Nelson LS; Yu Weichuan

2009-01-01

225

Optical system module having zooming function and image quality of mega pixel for a cellular phone camera  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed and developed a cellular phone camera like HD digital still camera having zooming function. To design an optical system module having the auto-zooming and the image quality of 2M mega pixel using Code V, we considered 6 lenses which were four aspheric plastic lenses and two glass lenses. The specifications of designed optical system module for a cellular phone camera were the focal length of 4.29mm at wide position to 10.55mm at tele position, fnumber of 3.2 at wide position to 5.3 at tele position, and field of view of 27.4 degree at tele position to 65.8 degree at wide position. Its zoom ratio was 2.5. The values of modulation transfer function (MTF) at 200lp/mm of the designed optical system module were over 21% at zoom position. We applied the design results of optical system module to the fabrication of a cellular phone camera having the zoom ratio of 2.5 and the image quality of 2M mega pixel, and adopted the aspheric glass lens having higher abbe number to compensate chromatic aberration and the VCM (Voice Coil Motor) as sub-miniature motor. We fabricated the optical module system having zoom ratio of 2.5 and image quality of 2M mega pixel in order to apply to a HD cellular phone camera.

Park, Seong Jong; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, Chang Sub

2009-08-01

226

Sequence of Two Plasmids from Clostridium perfringens Chicken Necrotic Enteritis Isolates and Comparison with C. perfringens Conjugative Plasmids  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-six isolates of Clostridium perfringens of different MLST types from chickens with necrotic enteritis (NE) (15 netB-positive) or from healthy chickens (6 netB-positive, 5 netB-negative) were found to contain 1–4 large plasmids, with most netB-positive isolates containing 3 large and variably sized plasmids which were more numerous and larger than plasmids in netB-negative isolates. NetB and cpb2 were found on different plasmids consistent with previous studies. The pathogenicity locus NELoc1, which includes netB, was largely conserved in these plasmids whereas NeLoc3, present in the cpb2 containing plasmids, was less well conserved. A netB-positive and a cpb2-positive plasmid were likely to be conjugative, and the plasmids were completely sequenced. Both plasmids possessed the intact tcp conjugative region characteristic of C. perfringens conjugative plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis of nine CpCPs, including the two plasmids described here, showed extensive gene rearrangements including pathogenicity locus and accessory gene insertions around rather than within the backbone region. The pattern that emerges from this analysis is that the major toxin-containing regions of the variety of virulence-associated CpCPs are organized as complex pathogenicity loci. How these different but related CpCPs can co-exist in the same host has been an unanswered question. Analysis of the replication-partition region of these plasmids suggests that this region controls plasmid incompatibility, and that CpCPs can be grouped into at least four incompatibility groups.

Parreira, Valeria R.; Costa, Marcio; Eikmeyer, Felix; Blom, Jochen; Prescott, John F.

2012-01-01

227

Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

2005-01-01

228

Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland in 2008. The collars provided GPS-positions with 1-3-hours intervals hence giving detailed information on the spatial distribution of the animals. The detailed information prompt opportunities to introduce statistical models to enhance the understanding of causal effects on the distribution of the caribou in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine

229

A review of plasma boundary phenomena in the mega ampere spherical tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Enhanced diagnostics and an expanded operational space in Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) has lead to a wealth of data on the plasma boundary becoming available over the last year of operations and has significantly advanced the understanding of this region in the spherical tokamak and, more generally, is contributing to an improved understanding of the underlying plasma phenomena for this important region of the tokamak. Amongst the observations reported in this paper are that MAST is able to achieve simultaneous high confinement and high density with Type III ELMs for connected double-null discharges in which most (>93%) of the power efflux from the core observed at the targets (including during ELMs) arrives at the large wetted area outboard targets and is evenly distributed between the upper and lower divertor regions. Significant particle fluxes are reported well beyond the outboard separatrix during ELMs (up to 20 cm distant from the plasma) and appear to be associated with the radial expansion of a localised structure at around 1 km s-1. The result of preliminary experiments to broaden the SOL by asymmetric divertor biasing are also presented which show an encouraging, qualitative agreement with theory and demonstrate clear evidence for both SOL broadening and target power reduction

2003-01-01

230

A review of plasma boundary phenomena in the mega ampere spherical tokamak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhanced diagnostics and an expanded operational space in Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) has lead to a wealth of data on the plasma boundary becoming available over the last year of operations and has significantly advanced the understanding of this region in the spherical tokamak and, more generally, is contributing to an improved understanding of the underlying plasma phenomena for this important region of the tokamak. Amongst the observations reported in this paper are that MAST is able to achieve simultaneous high confinement and high density with Type III ELMs for connected double-null discharges in which most (>93%) of the power efflux from the core observed at the targets (including during ELMs) arrives at the large wetted area outboard targets and is evenly distributed between the upper and lower divertor regions. Significant particle fluxes are reported well beyond the outboard separatrix during ELMs (up to 20 cm distant from the plasma) and appear to be associated with the radial expansion of a localised structure at around 1 km s{sup -1}. The result of preliminary experiments to broaden the SOL by asymmetric divertor biasing are also presented which show an encouraging, qualitative agreement with theory and demonstrate clear evidence for both SOL broadening and target power reduction.

Counsell, G.F. E-mail: glenn.counsell@ukaea.org.uk; Ahn, J.-W.; Akers, R.; Arends, E.; Fielding, S.J.; Helander, P.; Kirk, A.; Meyer, H.; Tabasso, A.; Wilson, H.; Yang, Y

2003-03-01

231

Next-step-targeted experiments on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since its first physics campaign, the principal parameters on MAST (Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) [A. Sykes et al., Nuclear Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] have been brought up towards their design values. Considerable advances have been made in a range of physics areas of direct relevance to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER Physics Basis, Nuclear Fusion 39, 2175 (1999)]. In this paper, results on H-mode access, global confinement and pedestal studies are presented and compared with conventional aspect ratio tokamak scalings. Physics and engineering requirements relevant to next step spherical tokamak devices are discussed, in particular the plasma formation, current ramp-up and sustainment, and plasma exhaust. Results of first experiments directly targeting these issues are presented: Plasma current up to 0.5 MA has been produced without use of the central solenoid flux, and current ramp-up and sustainment without use of the central solenoid flux has been demonstrated. Experiments on neutral beam heating and current drive (CD) demonstrate up to 50% bootstrap current fraction and good CD efficiency, and divertor power loading has been found to be tolerable and have a favorable outboard asymmetry

2003-01-01

232

Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

CERN Document Server

In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity eta < 1E-5. In Hall-MHD three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the curre...

Stanier, A; Gordovskyy, M; McClements, K G; Gryaznevich, M P; Lukin, V S

2013-01-01

233

Feasibility of using respiratory correlated mega voltage cone beam computed tomography to measure tumor motion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using respiratory correlated mega voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT), taken during patient localization, to quantify the size and motion of lung tumors. An imaging phantom was constructed of a basswood frame embedded with six different-sized spherical pieces of paraffin wax. The Quasar respiratory motion phantom was programmed to move the imaging phantom using typical respiratory motion. The moving imaging phantom was scanned using various MVCBCT imaging parameters, including two beam line types, two protocols with different ranges of rotation and different imaging doses. A static phantom was also imaged as a control. For all the 3D volumetric images, the contours of the six spherical inserts were measured manually. Compared with the nominal sphere diameter, the average relative error in the size of the respiratory correlated MVCBCT spheres ranged from 5.3% to 12.6% for the four largest spheres, ranging in size from 3.6 cc to 29 cc. Larger errors were recorded for the two smallest inserts. The average relative error in motion was 5.1% smaller than the programmed amplitude of 3.0 cm. We are able to conclude that it is feasible to use respiratory correlated MVCBCT to quantify tumor motion for lung cancer patients.

Chen M; Siochi RA

2011-01-01

234

How soon would the next mega-earthquake occur in Japan?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of seismic danger estimate in Japan after Tohoku mega-earthquake 11 March of 2011 is considered. The estimates are based on processing low-frequency seismic noise wave-forms from broadband network F-net. A new method of dynamic estimate of seismic danger is used for this problem. The method is based on calculating multi-fractal properties and minimum entropy of squared orthogonal wavelet coefficients for seismic noise. The analysis of the data using notion of “spots of seismic danger” shows that the seismic danger in Japan remains at high level after 2011. 03. 11 within north-east part of Philippine plate—at the region of Nankai Though which traditionally is regarded as the place of strongest earthquakes. It is well known that estimate of time moment of future shock is the most difficult problem in earthquake prediction. In this paper we try to find some peculiarities of the seismic noise data which could extract future danger time interval by analogy with the behavior before Tohoku earthquake. Two possible precursors of this type were found. They are the results of estimates within 1-year moving time window: based on correlation between 2 mean multi-fractal parameters of the noise and based on cluster analysis of annual clouds of 4 mean noise parameters. Both peculiarities of the noise data extract time interval 2013-2014 as the danger.

Alexey Lyubushin

2013-01-01

235

Assessment of injury from the MEGA BORG oil spill: A case of cooperative damage assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The tanker MEGA BORG exploded while lightering about 60 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas on 8 June 1990. The explosion was followed by a spectacular fire and major release of Angolan crude. Up to 5.1 million gallons of the 41 million gallon cargo was lost to the sea or burning over a period of seven days. Vessel interests took responsibility for the spill and employed skimming and dispersive cleanup techniques. It is estimated that approximately 126 gallons ultimately reached shore in western Louisiana. Within a day of the explosion, the Norwegian vessel owner, French cargo owner and the Norwegian vessel insurer entered into discussion with the Texas Water Commission and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration regarding damage assessment options. Within the next two days the owners agreed to fund and participate in a cooperative preliminary assessment of environmental injury. Five projects were funded to determine whether there was sufficient injury to justify the completion of a full natural resource damage assessment: (1) Fate of spilled oil; (2) Effects on shrimp fishery; (3) Effects on marine mammals and turtles; (4) Effects of beach oiling and (5) Effects on recreation. Funds were also provided for report preparation and project management. Several issues of major concern were considered by vessel interests prior to agreement. Many of these issues are common to consideration of cooperative assessments and may be critical importance to future incidents particularly if the damage assessment regulations developed pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act encourage cooperative responses

1990-06-08

236

First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

C. Vella; F. Demory; V. Canut; P. Dussouillez; T. J. Fleury

2011-01-01

237

Tsunami simulations for historical and plausible mega-thrust events originating in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis have been reported at rates of one to two per year in the Mediterranean Sea, on average, over the past 2000 years (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010). However, quantification of tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea remains difficult, as large events are infrequent. Simulations were performed for a series of seismic events originating along the Eastern Hellenic Arc and Western Cyprian Arc. The locations and source characteristics represent plausible mega-thrust events similar to historical events along the Hellenic Arc, including the 365 AD and 1303 AD events. Sensitivity simulations were performed to address uncertainty in the location and source characteristics of the 1303 AD event, and in consideration of potential future events originating along the Eastern Hellenic Arc. Sensitivity simulations were also performed for events originating along the Western Cyprian Arc. The hydrodynamic simulations used a series of codes known as the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis, 1998). Reported results include wave propagation in the Eastern Mediterranean and tsunami inundation near Alexandria, Egypt, and for neighboring coastlines. References: Ambraseys, N. and C.E. Synolakis (2010), Tsunami Catalogs for the Eastern Mediterranean, Revisited, Journal of Earthquake Engineering 14(3): 309-330; and Titov V.V. and C.E. Synolakis (1998), 'Numerical modeling of tidal wave runup,' J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4): 157-171.

Valle, Brett; Kalligeris, Nikos; Findikakis, Angelos; Okal, Emile; Synolakis, Costas

2013-04-01

238

Measurement of the relative permittivities of rock for georadar exploration in mega-hertz band  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relative permittivities of rocks sampled in Korea were measured in the mega-hertz frequency band to provide the basic physical property for the georadar exploration. Measurements were done by using the system of BGR (Budesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe) of Germany. The measurement system is based on the principle of the resonance phenomena of simple RLC circuitry. The permittivities measured in 10-20 MHz band are presented for Cretaceous Bulguksa granite, Jurassic Daebo granite, gneiss, quartzite, limestone, shale, and Hwangsan tuff. Owing to the preparation of tested samples cut in two mutually orthogonal planes, we could measure the anisotropy. Shale and gneiss are revealed to be highly anisotropic and granite shows nearly isotropic. Measurements using various frequencies showed the dependence of permittivities on the frequency variation. The permittivities of shale and tuff changed greatly more than 40 % when frequenc= y varied from 1 to 70 MHz. Those of granite, gneiss, and limestone also showed the dependence on the frequency, but negligible within the measuring frequency band. Based on the permittivity measurements, the radar wave velocities were estimated for the georadar survey using the antenna with the central frequencies of 20 and 50 MHz. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

Kim, Jung Ho; Chung, Seung Hwan; Cho, In Ky [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-10-31

239

Plagiarism in residency application essays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest that some residency application essays contain plagiarized content. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of plagiarism in a large cohort of residency application essays. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 4975 application essays submitted to residency programs at a single large academic medical center between 1 September 2005 and 22 March 2007. MEASUREMENTS: Specialized software was used to compare residency application essays with a database of Internet pages, published works, and previously submitted essays and the percentage of the submission matching another source was calculated. A match of more than 10% to an existing work was defined as evidence of plagiarism. RESULTS: Evidence of plagiarism was found in 5.2% (95% CI, 4.6% to 5.9%) of essays. The essays of non-U.S. citizens were more likely to demonstrate evidence of plagiarism. Other characteristics associated with the prevalence of plagiarism included medical school location outside the United States and Canada; previous residency or fellowship; lack of research experience, volunteer experience, or publications; a low United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score; and non-membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. LIMITATIONS: The software database is probably incomplete, the 10%-match threshold for defining plagiarism has not been statistically validated, and the study was confined to applicants to 1 institution. Evidence of matching content in an essay cannot be used to infer the applicant's intent and is not sensitive to variations in the cultural context of copying in some societies. CONCLUSION: Evidence of plagiarism in residency application essays is more common in international applicants but was found in those by applicants to all specialty programs, from all medical school types, and even among applicants with significant academic honors. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: No external funding.

Segal S; Gelfand BJ; Hurwitz S; Berkowitz L; Ashley SW; Nadel ES; Katz JT

2010-07-01

240

Patients' satisfaction with dermatology residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Patients' perception of quality is a critical primary outcome of medical care. Important downstream effects of perceived quality include a more trusting attitude toward the physician, more adherence to treatment, and better treatment outcomes. Patients' satisfaction issues are important to address during dermatology residency training. The aim of the study was to determine patients' satisfaction with dermatology residents and identify potential areas that could be targeted to improve satisfaction. METHODS: Dermatology residents informed patients about a survey on an online doctor rating/patients' satisfaction Web site (www.DrScore.com), provided the patients with cards with the Web site address, and requested that they complete the survey. Respondents provided an overall rating, open comments, and detailed information in seven core areas. The numerical ratings were on a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (extremely satisfied). Patients had the option of indicating aspects of care that could be improved. Descriptive statistics are reported. RESULTS: A total of 148 surveys were collected with a mean rating for the six residents of 9.7 out of 10, with a range of 9.4 to 10. The average during the early period was 9.7 out of 10, whereas the average during the late period was 9.8 out of 10. Fifty-two surveys (35%) indicated areas for improvement, with the most common issues related to staff, parking availability, waiting time, waiting area, and ability to obtain information. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were generally satisfied with the care provided by dermatology residents. Areas for improvement were identified, but these were largely areas over which residents do not have direct control.

Huynh M; Lee AD; Miller LM; Davis S; Feldman SR; McMichael A

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

PLASMID PROFILE ANALYSIS OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE ENTERITIDIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmid profile analysis (PP) is a method of determining a number and size of plasmids in bacterial isolates. When using plasmid profile analysis in determining epidemical strain for evaluation of this method, it is necessary to compare epidemiological strains with non-epidemiological ones isolated in the same period of time. Plasmid profile determination is performed by lyses of bacterial cell, chromosomal denaturation, sedimentation of cells fragments by centrifugation, and precipitation of DNA with ethanol. DNA is separated by gel electrophoresis based on its molecule mass. Plasmids could be also analyzed by restriction enzymes, as well as by direct techniques, such as hybridization and electronomicroscopically. Using of plasmid profile analysis enables resolving numerous outbreaks caused by Enterobacteriaceae, especially Salmonella. This method could be performed alone for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, but also as a complementary method to phage typing (phagotypization), and other molecular genetic based techniques.

Biljana Miljkovic-Selimovic; Tatjana Babic; Branislava Kocic; Predrag Stojanovic; Ljiljana Ristic; Marina Dinic

2008-01-01

242

Transformation of Haemophilus influenzae by plasmid RSF0885  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmid RSF0885, which conferred ampicillin resistance, transformed competent Haemophilus influenzae cells with low efficiency (maximun, less than 0.01%). As judged by competition experiments and uptake of radioactivity, plasmid RSF0885 deoxyribonucleic acid was taken up into competent H. influenzae cells several orders of magnitude less efficiently than H. influenzae chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. Plasmid RSF0885 transformed cells with even lower efficiency than could be accounted for by the low uptake. Transformation was not affected by rec-1 and rec-2 mutations in the recipient, and strains cured of the plasmid did not show increased transformation. Plasmid molecules cut once with a restriction enzyme that made blunt ends did not transform. Transformation was favored by the closed circular form of the plasmid.

Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.; McCarthy, D.; Clayton, N.L.

1981-12-01

243

Transformation of Haemophilus influenzae by plasmid RSF0885  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Plasmid RSF0885, which conferred ampicillin resistance, transformed competent Haemophilus influenzae cells with low efficiency (maximun, less than 0.01%). As judged by competition experiments and uptake of radioactivity, plasmid RSF0885 deoxyribonucleic acid was taken up into competent H. influenzae cells several orders of magnitude less efficiently than H. influenzae chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. Plasmid RSF0885 transformed cells with even lower efficiency than could be accounted for by the low uptake. Transformation was not affected by rec-1 and rec-2 mutations in the recipient, and strains cured of the plasmid did not show increased transformation. Plasmid molecules cut once with a restriction enzyme that made blunt ends did not transform. Transformation was favored by the closed circular form of the plasmid

1981-01-01

244

Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5?Å and belonged to space group P212121.

Carr, Stephen B.; Mecia, Lauren B.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

245

Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever.  

Science.gov (United States)

Borrelia species of relapsing fever (RF) and Lyme disease (LD) lineages have linear chromosomes and both linear and circular plasmids. Unique to RF species, and little characterized to date, are large linear plasmids of ?160 kb, or ?10% of the genome. By a combination of Sanger and next-generation methods, we determined the sequences of large linear plasmids of two New World species: Borrelia hermsii, to completion of its 174-kb length, and B. turicatae, partially to 114 kb of its 150 kb. These sequences were then compared to corresponding sequences of the Old World species B. duttonii and B. recurrentis and to plasmid sequences of LD Borrelia species. The large plasmids were largely colinear, except for their left ends, about 27 kb of which was inverted in New World species. Approximately 60% of the B. hermsii lp174 plasmid sequence was repetitive for 6 types of sequence, and half of its open reading frames encoded hypothetical proteins not discernibly similar to proteins in the database. The central ?25 kb of all 4 linear plasmids was syntenic for orthologous genes for plasmid maintenance or partitioning in Borrelia species. Of all the sequenced linear and circular plasmids in Borrelia species, the large plasmid's putative partition/replication genes were most similar to those of the 54-kb linear plasmids of LD species. Further evidence for shared ancestry was the observation that two of the hypothetical proteins were predicted to be structurally similar to the LD species' CspA proteins, which are encoded on the 54-kb plasmids. PMID:23749977

Miller, Shelley Campeau; Porcella, Stephen F; Raffel, Sandra J; Schwan, Tom G; Barbour, Alan G

2013-06-07

246

NOVEL PLASMID ISOLATED FROM PEDIOCOCCUS PENTOSACEUS AND USE THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are a novel plasmid isolated from Pediococcus pentosaceus CBT-8 and use thereof. More specifically, disclosed are a plasmid, having a base sequence represented by SEQ ID NO: 1, and use thereof. The disclosed plasmid can be used as a vector to express target protein in various ways and, in addition, can be advantageously used to produce large amounts of pediocin having strong antimicrobial activity against microorganisms, including Listeria, Salmonella and Helicobacter pylori.

CHUNG MYUNG JUN; SEO JAE GU

247

Community-wide plasmid gene mobilization and selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmids have long been recognized as an important driver of DNA exchange and genetic innovation in prokaryotes. The success of plasmids has been attributed to their independent replication from the host's chromosome and their frequent self-transfer. It is thought that plasmids accumulate, rearrange and distribute nonessential genes, which may provide an advantage for host proliferation under selective conditions. In order to test this hypothesis independently of biases from culture selection, we study the plasmid metagenome from microbial communities in two activated sludge systems, one of which receives mostly household and the other chemical industry wastewater. We find that plasmids from activated sludge microbial communities carry among the largest proportion of unknown gene pools so far detected in metagenomic DNA, confirming their presumed role of DNA innovators. At a system level both plasmid metagenomes were dominated by functions associated with replication and transposition, and contained a wide variety of antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. Plasmid families were very different in the two metagenomes and grouped in deep-branching new families compared with known plasmid replicons. A number of abundant plasmid replicons could be completely assembled directly from the metagenome, providing insight in plasmid composition without culturing bias. Functionally, the two metagenomes strongly differed in several ways, including a greater abundance of genes for carbohydrate metabolism in the industrial and of general defense factors in the household activated sludge plasmid metagenome. This suggests that plasmids not only contribute to the adaptation of single individual prokaryotic species, but of the prokaryotic community as a whole under local selective conditions. PMID:23407308

Sentchilo, Vladimir; Mayer, Antonia P; Guy, Lionel; Miyazaki, Ryo; Green Tringe, Susannah; Barry, Kerrie; Malfatti, Stephanie; Goessmann, Alexander; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; van der Meer, Jan R

2013-02-14

248

Community-wide plasmid gene mobilization and selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmids have long been recognized as an important driver of DNA exchange and genetic innovation in prokaryotes. The success of plasmids has been attributed to their independent replication from the host's chromosome and their frequent self-transfer. It is thought that plasmids accumulate, rearrange and distribute nonessential genes, which may provide an advantage for host proliferation under selective conditions. In order to test this hypothesis independently of biases from culture selection, we study the plasmid metagenome from microbial communities in two activated sludge systems, one of which receives mostly household and the other chemical industry wastewater. We find that plasmids from activated sludge microbial communities carry among the largest proportion of unknown gene pools so far detected in metagenomic DNA, confirming their presumed role of DNA innovators. At a system level both plasmid metagenomes were dominated by functions associated with replication and transposition, and contained a wide variety of antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. Plasmid families were very different in the two metagenomes and grouped in deep-branching new families compared with known plasmid replicons. A number of abundant plasmid replicons could be completely assembled directly from the metagenome, providing insight in plasmid composition without culturing bias. Functionally, the two metagenomes strongly differed in several ways, including a greater abundance of genes for carbohydrate metabolism in the industrial and of general defense factors in the household activated sludge plasmid metagenome. This suggests that plasmids not only contribute to the adaptation of single individual prokaryotic species, but of the prokaryotic community as a whole under local selective conditions.

Sentchilo V; Mayer AP; Guy L; Miyazaki R; Green Tringe S; Barry K; Malfatti S; Goessmann A; Robinson-Rechavi M; van der Meer JR

2013-06-01

249

The centromere-specific histone variant Cse4p (CENP-A) is essential for functional chromatin architecture at the yeast 2-?m circle partitioning locus and promotes equal plasmid segregation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The centromere protein A homologue Cse4p is required for kinetochore assembly and faithful chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been regarded as the exquisite hallmark of centromeric chromatin. We demonstrate that Cse4 resides at the partitioning locus STB of the 2-?m plasmid. ...

Hajra, Sujata; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Jayaram, Makkuni

250

Histidine operon control region of Klebsiella pneumoniae: analysis with an Escherichia coli promoter-probe plasmid vector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The control region for the histidine operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae was cloned and analyzed with the Escherichia coli promoter-probe plasmid pPV33. A restriction fragment which contained the his control region was identified by its ability to activate the tetracycline resistance (Tcr) gene on this vector. Expression of Tcr by bacteria containing the his promoter-active plasmid was found to be under the attenuation control of the his promoter. DNA sequence analysis of the his control region revealed a base sequence homology of approximately 86% of the analogous DNA sequences of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Most of the base alterations in the K. pneumoniae DNA sequence were found to reside in regions flanking the transcriptional and translational regulatory sites.

Rodriguez RL; West RW Jr

1984-03-01

251

Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

2009-08-01

252

Plasmids foster diversification and adaptation of bacterial populations in soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is increasingly being recognized that the transfer of conjugative plasmids across species boundaries plays a vital role in the adaptability of bacterial populations in soil. There are specific driving forces and constraints of plasmid transfer within bacterial communities in soils. Plasmid-mediated genetic variation allows bacteria to respond rapidly with adaptive responses to challenges such as irregular antibiotic or metal concentrations, or opportunities such as the utilization of xenobiotic compounds. Cultivation-independent detection and capture of plasmids from soil bacteria, and complete sequencing have provided new insights into the role and ecology of plasmids. Broad host range plasmids such as those belonging to IncP-1 transfer a wealth of accessory functions which are carried by similar plasmid backbones. Plasmids with a narrower host range can be more specifically adapted to particular species and often transfer genes which complement chromosomally encoded functions. Plasmids seem to be an ancient and successful strategy to ensure survival of a soil population in spatial and temporal heterogeneous conditions with various environmental stresses or opportunities that occur irregularly or as a novel challenge in soil.

Heuer H; Smalla K

2012-11-01

253

Enhanced transgene expression from chromatinized plasmid DNA in mouse liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid DNA was chromatinized with core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) in vitro and was delivered into mouse liver by hydrodynamics-based administration. Transgene expression from the chromatinized plasmid DNA was more efficient than that from plasmid DNA delivered in the naked form. The use of acetylation-enriched histones isolated from cells treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A) seemed to be more effective. These results indicated that chromatinized plasmid DNA is useful for efficient transgene expression in vivo.

Kamiya H; Miyamoto S; Goto H; Kanda GN; Kobayashi M; Matsuoka I; Harashima H

2013-01-01

254

Impact of Plasmid Quality on Lipoplex-Mediated Transfection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work investigates the impact of quality attributes (impurity content, plasmid charge, and compactness) of plasmid DNA isolated with different purification methodologies on the characteristics of lipoplexes prepared thereof (size, zeta potential, stability) and on their ability to transfect mammalian cells. A 3.7 kb plasmid with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene, Lipofectamine®-based liposomes, and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were used as models. The plasmid was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC)/gel filtration, and with three commercial kits, which combine the use of chaotropic salts with silica membranes/glass fiber fleeces. The HIC-based protocol delivered a plasmid with the smallest hydrodynamic diameter (144 nm) and zeta potential (-46.5 mV), which is virtually free from impurities. When formulated with Lipofectamine®, this plasmid originated the smallest (146 nm), most charged (+13 mV), and most stable lipoplexes. In vitro transfection experiments further showed that these lipoplexes performed better in terms of plasmid uptake (?500,000 vs. ?100,000-200,000 copy number/cell), transfection efficiency (50% vs. 20%-40%), and GFP expression levels (twofold higher) when compared with lipoplexes prepared with plasmids isolated using commercial kits. Overall our observations highlight the potential impact that plasmid purification methodologies can have on the outcome of gene transfer experiments and trials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.

La Vega JD; Braak BT; Azzoni AR; Monteiro GA; Prazeres DM

2013-08-01

255

Degradative Plasmid and Heavy Metal Resistance Plasmid Naturally Coexist in Phenol and Cyanide Assimilating Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals are known to be powerful inhibitors of xenobiotics biodegradation activities. Alleviation the inhibitory effect of these metals on the phenol biodegradation activities in presence of heavy metals resistant plasmid was investigated. Approach: Combination of genetic systems of degradation of xenobiotic compound and heavy metal resistance was one of the approaches to the creation of polyfunctional strains for bioremediation of soil after co-contamination with organic pollutants and heavy metals. Results: A bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida PhCN (pPhCN1, pPhCN2) had been obtained. This bacterium contained two plasmids, a 120 Kb catabolic plasmid that encode for breakdown of phenol (pPhCN1) and pPhCN2 plasmid (100 Kb) that code for cadmium and copper resistant. Cyanide assimilation by this bacterium was encoded by chromosomal genes. The inhibitory effect of cadmium (Cd2+) or copper (Cu2+) on the degradation of phenol and cyanide by P. putida strains PhCN and PhCN1 (contained pPhCN1) were investigated. The resistant strain PhCN showed high ability to degrade phenol and cyanide in presence of Cd2+ or Cu2+ comparing with the sensitive strain PhCN1. In addition, Cd2+ or Cu2+ was also found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on the C23O dioxygenase enzyme activity in the presence of cyanide as a nitrogen source. Conclusion: The presence of heavy metal resistance plasmid alleviated the inhibitory effect of metals on the phenol and cyanide assimilation by resistant strain.

Bahig E.  Deeb; Abdullah D. Altalhi

2009-01-01

256

Plasmid DNA hydrogels for biomedical applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last few years, our research group has focused on the design and development of plasmid DNA (pDNA) based systems as devices to be used therapeutically in the biomedical field. Biocompatible macro and micro plasmid DNA gels were prepared by a cross-linking reaction. For the first time, the pDNA gels have been investigated with respect to their swelling in aqueous solution containing different additives. Furthermore, we clarified the fundamental and basic aspects of the solute release mechanism from pDNA hydrogels and the significance of this information is enormous as a basic tool for the formulation of pDNA carriers for drug/gene delivery applications. The co-delivery of a specific gene and anticancer drugs, combining chemical and gene therapies in the treatment of cancer was the main challenge of our research. Significant progresses have been made with a new p53 encoding pDNA microgel that is suitable for the loading and release of pDNA and doxorubicin. This represents a strong valuable finding in the strategic development of systems to improve cancer cure through the synergetic effect of chemical and gene therapy.

Costa D; Valente AJ; Miguel MG; Queiroz J

2013-08-01

257

[Development of antibody medicines by bio-venture: lesson from license negotiations with mega pharmacies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current method of antibody production is mainly the hybridoma method, in which mice are immunized with an excess amount of antigen for a short period to promote activation and proliferation of B-lymphocytes producing the antibodies of interest. Because of the excess antigen, those producing low-affinity antibodies are activated. In contrast, human blood B-lymphocytes are activated through natural immune reactions, such as the reaction to infection. B-lymphocytes are stimulated repeatedly with a small amount of antigen, and thus only those producing high-affinity antibodies are activated. Consequently, the lymphocytes producing the high-affinity antibodies are accumulated in human blood. Therefore, human lymphocytes are an excellent source of high-affinity antibodies. Evec, Inc. has established a unique method to produce high-affinity antibodies from human lymphocytes using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which induces the proliferation of B-lymphocytes. The method first induces the proliferation of B-lymphocytes from human blood using EBV, and then isolates those producing the antibodies of interest. The key features of the Evec technique are: 1) development of a lymphocyte library consisting of 150 donors' lymphocytes from which donors suited to develop the antibodies of interest can be selected in 4 days; and 2) development of a sorting method and cell microarray method for selecting lymphocyte clones producing the target antibodies. Licensing agreements have been concluded with European and Japanese pharmaceutical companies for two types of antibody. This paper describes Evec's antibody technology and experience in license negotiations with Mega Pharmacies.

Takada K

2013-01-01

258

Monitoring and modelling to support wastewater system management in developing mega-cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban drainage system models can be useful to assess and manage system performance and to plan its development. However, due to data and computational costs, sophisticated, high-resolution contemporary models of the sewer system may not be applicable. This constraint is particularly marked in developing country mega-cities where catchments can be large, data tend to be scarce, and there are many unknowns, for example regarding sources, losses and wrong connections. This paper presents work undertaken over the last 7 years to develop a suitable monitoring and modelling framework to support operation and development of the wastewater system of Bogotá (Colombia). Components of the framework covered here are: (a) the flow and water quality database, (b) a wastewater pollution load generator, and (c) a semi-distributed sewer network model, which aims at a complexity that matches the information available from the previous two components. Results from a catchment within Bogotá, area 150 km(2) and with 2.5 million inhabitants, show that the model outputs capture the scale and dynamics of the observed concentrations and loads at various points on the sewer system. However uncertainty is high because much of variability of observed dry weather flow profiles is apparently random. Against this variability, the effects of in-sewer processes were not identifiable except where backwaters caused particularly high retention times. Hence the work has resulted in an operational model with a scientifically justified, yet useful, level of complexity for Bogotá. More generally, the work demonstrates the value of monitoring and modelling programmes, including having modellers actively involved in monitoring specification and operations; and the insights into suitable level of model complexity that may be gained by uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. PMID:23318972

Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; McIntyre, Neil; Díaz-Granados, Mario; Quijano, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, ?edo

2013-01-11

259

Monitoring and modelling to support wastewater system management in developing mega-cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban drainage system models can be useful to assess and manage system performance and to plan its development. However, due to data and computational costs, sophisticated, high-resolution contemporary models of the sewer system may not be applicable. This constraint is particularly marked in developing country mega-cities where catchments can be large, data tend to be scarce, and there are many unknowns, for example regarding sources, losses and wrong connections. This paper presents work undertaken over the last 7 years to develop a suitable monitoring and modelling framework to support operation and development of the wastewater system of Bogotá (Colombia). Components of the framework covered here are: (a) the flow and water quality database, (b) a wastewater pollution load generator, and (c) a semi-distributed sewer network model, which aims at a complexity that matches the information available from the previous two components. Results from a catchment within Bogotá, area 150 km(2) and with 2.5 million inhabitants, show that the model outputs capture the scale and dynamics of the observed concentrations and loads at various points on the sewer system. However uncertainty is high because much of variability of observed dry weather flow profiles is apparently random. Against this variability, the effects of in-sewer processes were not identifiable except where backwaters caused particularly high retention times. Hence the work has resulted in an operational model with a scientifically justified, yet useful, level of complexity for Bogotá. More generally, the work demonstrates the value of monitoring and modelling programmes, including having modellers actively involved in monitoring specification and operations; and the insights into suitable level of model complexity that may be gained by uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

Rodríguez JP; McIntyre N; Díaz-Granados M; Quijano JP; Maksimovi? ?

2013-02-01

260

Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The hypothesis suggests that instruments for direct democratic decision making can open up new pathways to support the break-through of the citizens’ will. The paper analyses an interesting case study where two referenda around the same issue closely followed each other: Firstly, a top-down initiated referendum with a tendentious formulation of the question and with strong single-sided media support and, secondly, a referendum initiated by a citizens’ petition. Even though the citizens’ initiative managed to win the referendum, invalidating the previous decisions, a new challenge lies in the lacking motivation of political leaders to implement it. Finally, the case study helps to formulate some proposals for improvement of direct democratic instruments. The main lesson that can be learned from the case study, however, is that our societies are in desperate need for a new “culture of governance in partnership” with the people, the stakeholders and the affected neighbouring societies. Political decision making and planning needs more transparent, fair and honest communication, exchange and mutual respect and learning. Such culture would make societies more liveable and, at the same time, resilient against any sort of crisis.

Rainer ROTHFUß; Camilla PERRONE; Rogério MORORÓ

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The poloidal distribution of turbulent fluctuations in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recently, it was shown that intermittency observed in magnetic fusion devices is caused by large-scales events with high radial velocity reaching about 1/10th of the sound speed (called avaloids or blobs) [G. Antar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 065001 (2001)]. In the present paper, the poloidal distribution of turbulence is investigated on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak [A. Sykes et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 2101 (2001)]. To achieve our goal, target probes that span the divertor strike points are used and one reciprocating probe at the midplane. Moreover, a fast imaging camera that can reach 10 ?s exposure time looks tangentially at the plasma allowing us to view a poloidal cut of the plasma. The two diagnostics allow us to have a rather accurate description of the particle transport in the poloidal plane for L-mode discharges. Turbulence properties at the low-field midplane scrape-off layer are discussed and compared to other poloidal positions. On the low-field target divertor plates, avaloids bursty signature is not detected but still intermittency is observed far from the strike point. This is a consequence of the field line expansion which transforms a structure localized in the poloidal plane into a structure which expands over several tens of centimeters at the divertor target plates. Around the X point and in the high-field side, however, different phenomena enter into play suppressing the onset of convective transport generation. No signs of intermittency are observed in these regions. Accordingly, like 'normal' turbulence, the onset of convective transport is affected by the local magnetic curvature and shear

2005-01-01

262

OER ON THE ASIAN MEGA UNIVERSITIES: DEVELOPMENTS, MOTIVES, OPENNESS, AND SUSTAINABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The OER movement originated and integrated into ODE developments. Mega Universities (MUs) are among the most important of ODE providers worldwide should be to be the primary organizations for providing access to OER. So far, however, in-depth studies on OER developments in the Asian MUs were very limited. This study focuses on the developments, motives, openness, and sustainability of OER at the six MUs official websites in Asia. Data were collected for six months using the documentation techniques and analyzed using web content or textual analyze. Results of the study shown, that: Ø OER developments on the Asian MUs’ were an ongoing process, multiyear program, and developed into three characteristics: special projects or initiatives; uploading the existing learning resources collections on the Website; and by taken out-links to the centers of OER websites worldwide. Contents of OER are very rich, diverse in categories, forms, and organized integrally into ‘One Stop Window’. The OER materials have developed by university as well as by joined with various parties of internal and external universities. Ø OER developments are based on three motives: the altruistic motivation of sharing, ego-boost motivation, and combination of both. Ø The OER openness for use or reuse by others can be classified into five categories: openness in the public domain; openness under provision by any license; openness under guarantee by government Laws, policies, missions or visions; openness under guarantee by universities policies, missions or visions; and openness because it was developed as a special initiative of the universities. Ø Sustainability models that have been used by MUs to makes OER become viable, and stable for the long-term are institutional, governmental, workflow, user-centered, wiki, and social software models.

Mohammad Imam FARISI,

2013-01-01

263

Hybrid repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (mega aortic syndrome) with lupiae technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Several techniques have been described for the treatment of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms in patients with mega aortic syndrome (MAS), but the incidence of stroke, spinal cord injury, and endoleaks remains high. We present the midterm results of a new hybrid, multistep technique to treat patients with MAS. METHODS: From November 2005 to January 2011, 80 patients with MAS underwent hybrid repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms with the Lupiae technique. Forty-six patients presented with chronic aortic aneurysms, and 34 patients who had undergone aortic arch debranching with the Lupiae graft for acute aortic dissection presented with an expanding false lumen into the residual aorta. Sixty patients underwent ascending aorta and arch replacement with a Gelweave Lupiae prosthesis plus epiaortic vessel debranching (thoracic Lupiae procedure). Fourteen patients underwent a thoracic Lupiae procedure plus partial visceral debranching (celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery) through a mini-laparotomy. Six patients underwent a thoracic Lupiae procedure plus a complete visceral debranching (celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries) with the implant of a second Lupiae prosthesis to replace the abdominal aorta. After the surgical steps, all the surviving patients underwent an endovascular procedure to implant multiple stent grafts to exclude the residual segment of diseased aorta. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 8.4%, and the incidence of temporary renal failure was 5.2%. None of the patients had a stroke or a spinal cord injury, and none of the patients presented endoleaks immediately following the procedure or during the follow-up computed tomography scans. No deaths occurred during the 6-year follow-up after the hybrid procedure. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results showed that the Lupiae technique is a safe and effective option for the treatment of patients with MAS. Indeed, the Lupiae technique achieves complete exclusion of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms with a low risk of paraplegia and endoleaks.

Esposito G; Cappabianca G; Contegiacomo G; Labriola G; Gallo N; Labriola C

2011-11-01

264

Das práticas de gestão de grandes projetos urbanos Management practices of urban mega projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo busca contribuir para o maior aprofundamento da discussão sobre um fenômeno comum a algumas cidades brasileiras: os Grandes Projetos Urbanos (GPUs). Para tanto, parte-se da assertiva de que se trata ainda de um conceito em formação na literatura acadêmica. Nesse sentido, baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, o artigo discute seu delineamento conceitual e sua implementação no cenário brasileiro a partir da década de 1970, estabelecendo relações com as práticas e modelos de gestão urbana presenciados ao longo das últimas quatro décadas de análise. Os resultados evidenciam aspectos similares e díspares no debate teórico sobre GPUs, enquanto as conclusões demonstram a necessidade de maior aprofundamento conceitual do tema, tendo em vista a relevância da discussão e reflexão sobre esse tipo de intervenção urbanística no planejamento do território das cidades contemporâneas.This article aims to contribute to further deepen the discussion of a phenomenon common to several Brazilian cities: the Urban Mega Projects (UMPs). To do so, it starts from the assertion that it's still an emergent concept in the academic literature. Based on a bibliographic research, the article discusses its formation and implementation in the Brazilian context since the 1970s, establishing relationships with the practices and models of urban management witnessed over the last four decades of analysis. The results reveal similarities and dissimilarities in the theoretical debate on UMPs, while the final conclusions show the need for deepening conceptual reflections on this topic, as it is a central question on this kind of intervention in territorial planning of contemporary cities.

Letícia Nerone Gadens; Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt; Klaus Frey

2012-01-01

265

Das práticas de gestão de grandes projetos urbanos/ Management practices of urban mega projects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo busca contribuir para o maior aprofundamento da discussão sobre um fenômeno comum a algumas cidades brasileiras: os Grandes Projetos Urbanos (GPUs). Para tanto, parte-se da assertiva de que se trata ainda de um conceito em formação na literatura acadêmica. Nesse sentido, baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, o artigo discute seu delineamento conceitual e sua implementação no cenário brasileiro a partir da década de 1970, estabelecendo relaçõ (more) es com as práticas e modelos de gestão urbana presenciados ao longo das últimas quatro décadas de análise. Os resultados evidenciam aspectos similares e díspares no debate teórico sobre GPUs, enquanto as conclusões demonstram a necessidade de maior aprofundamento conceitual do tema, tendo em vista a relevância da discussão e reflexão sobre esse tipo de intervenção urbanística no planejamento do território das cidades contemporâneas. Abstract in english This article aims to contribute to further deepen the discussion of a phenomenon common to several Brazilian cities: the Urban Mega Projects (UMPs). To do so, it starts from the assertion that it's still an emergent concept in the academic literature. Based on a bibliographic research, the article discusses its formation and implementation in the Brazilian context since the 1970s, establishing relationships with the practices and models of urban management witnessed over (more) the last four decades of analysis. The results reveal similarities and dissimilarities in the theoretical debate on UMPs, while the final conclusions show the need for deepening conceptual reflections on this topic, as it is a central question on this kind of intervention in territorial planning of contemporary cities.

Gadens, Letícia Nerone; Hardt, Letícia Peret Antunes; Frey, Klaus

2012-12-01

266

El erizo de mar Diadema antillarum Phillipi, 1845 influye sobre la diversidad y composición de la comunidad de mega-invertebrados vágiles en fondos rocosos del Archipiélago Canario/ The sea urchin Diadema antillarum Phillipi, 1845 influences the diversity and composition of the mobile mega-invertebrate community on rocky bottoms off the Canary Archipelago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe el efecto de la densidad del erizo Diadema antillarum sobre la diversidad y composición de la comunidad de mega-invertebrados vágiles (> 2 cm) que habita fondos rocosos del Archipiélago Canario (Atlántico oriental). Específicamente, se predijo que (1) las altas densidades de D. antillarum producen una baja diversidad de la comunidad de mega-invertebrados vágiles, y (2) la composición de las comunidades de mega-invertebrados varía entre fondos con difer (more) entes densidades de D. antillarum. La presencia de especies mega-invertebradas, y la densidad de individuos de D. antillarum, se registraron visualmente en cuadrados de 2 x 2 m (n = 16 réplicas) en un total de 24 localidades (tres localidades en cada una de las ocho islas principales del archipiélago), visitadas en cuatro ocasiones entre febrero-2003 y octubre-2004. Se observaron 33 taxones de mega-invertebrados vágiles. Se registró una relación inversa entre la riqueza específica y la densidad de D. antillarum (r s = -0,20; P 8 ind. m-2), la riqueza de especies fue siempre baja ( Abstract in english The effect of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum density over the diversity and composition of the mobile mega-invertebrate community (> 2 cm) inhabiting shallow rocky reefs off the Canary Archipelago (eastern Atlantic) is described. Specifically, it was predicted that (1) high densities of D. antillarum produce a low diversity of the mobile mega-invertebrate community, and (2) the composition of this community changes between rocky bottoms (= reefs) under different densit (more) ies of D. antillarum. The presence of mega-invertebrate taxa, and the density of D. antillarum individuals were recorded visually using 2 x 2 m quadrats (n = 16 replicates) in each of 24 locations (three locations in each of the eight main islands of the archipelago), which were visited in four occasions between February-2003 and October-2004. Thrity-three taxa of mobile mega-invertebrates were observed. We registered a decline in the richness of such assemblages with increasing densities of D. antillarum (r s = -0.20; P 8 ind. m-2). A CAP ordination analysis showed significant differences in the composition of the mega-invertebrate community between rocky bottoms under different densities of D. antillarum, and we registered a negative correlation between the presence of some taxa and the densities of sea urchin. Consequently, the sea urchin D. antillarum influences the diversity and composition of the mobile mega-invertebrate community on rocky bottoms off the Canary Archipelago.

Ortega, Leonor; Tuya, Fernando; Haroun, Ricardo J

2009-08-01

267

Variability of IncHI1 plasmids from Salmonella typhi with special reference to Peruvian plasmids encoding resistance to trimethoprim and other antibiotics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In spite of extensive DNA homology among IncHI1 plasmids, ApaI and XbaI restriction digests of plasmids from Peruvian Salmonella typhi varied considerably from other IncHI1 plasmids isolated previously. IncHI1 plasmids appear to be undergoing a process of modular evolution, probably by sequential ac...

Taylor, D E; Chumpitaz, J C; Goldstein, F

268

Physiology and Molecular-Genetics of 'Thermus' and 'Bacillus'. 3. Plasmid Curing in 'Thermus' sp. E86264: Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Plasmid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermus sp. E86264 was cured of plasmids by the RNA polymerase inhibitor, acridine orange, and a plasmid was isolated and characterized. Plasmid profiles were analyzed by electrophoresis and a physical map of the plasmid was constructed using five site-sp...

M. K. Virtala K. M. Nordstroem

1992-01-01

269

Complementation of Conjugation Functions of Streptomyces lividans Plasmid pIJ101 by the Related Streptomyces Plasmid pSB24.2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A database search revealed extensive sequence similarity between Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 and Streptomyces plasmid pSB24.2, which is a deletion derivative of Streptomyces cyanogenus plasmid pSB24.1. The high degree of relatedness between the two plasmids allowed the construction of a gen...

Pettis, Gregg S.; Prakash, Shubha

270

Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The plasmid pOG670, a 54 kb, conjugative plasmid that specifies resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin and belonging to the incompatibility group X (IncX), was transferred into 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis belonging to 10 different phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the 10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21, 6 and 13a respectively. The results indicate a different route for phage type conversion Enteritidis from others reportedin the literature and, although IncX plasmids are not normally present in PT8 or PT13a, may suggest a possible mechanism/link connecting these phage types.

Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

1999-01-01

271

The reactivity of direct coal liquefaction resids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An empirical test for determining the relative reactivity of coal liquefaction distillation resids was developed using the University of Delaware short contact time batch reactor. This test was applied to a suite of fifteen coal liquefaction resids. Conversions of resid to distillate obtained thermally and catalytically are significantly different. Kinetic data, although limited, indicate that a component of the resid is not convertible. Two coupled computer models were developed. A structural model describes the structural characteristics of the soluble portion of the distillation resids. A reaction model accepts the output of the structural model and produces a conversion value for each resid that is within two standard deviations of the experimentally determined values.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Calkins, W.H.; Klein, N.T.; Huang, H.; Campbell, D.; Wang, S.; Wang, K.

1998-07-01

272

[The resident as a teacher, Quo vadis?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Residents play an important role in the clinical teaching of medical students. Although this role is usually considered beneficial for both students and residents, it has rarely been evaluated and lacks academic recognition. Despite the fact that students value the teaching provided by residents positively, residents feel unprepared to teach. Some programs to improve resident teaching skills have been successfully developed. Association between hospitals and universities is essential to develop and provide with academic recognition these programs, whose funding should be shared. Internal Medicine should participate actively in clinical teaching and promote the figure of the resident as teacher by means of training activities adapted to the new times of our speciality.

Bernal-Bello D

2012-05-01

273

Pseudomonas streptomycin resistance transposon associated with R-plasmid mobilization.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmid pMG1 encodes resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and mercuric ions and also mobilizes pRO161, a transfer-deficient plasmid derived from RP1. Upon mobilization, pRO161 acquires streptomycin resistance (Smr) and can subsequently be remobilized by pMG1 at significantly higher ...

McCombie, W R; Hansen, J B; Zylstra, G J; Maurer, B; Olsen, R H

274

Plasmid-Encoded Tet B Tetracycline Resistance in Haemophilus parasuis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complete sequence of two plasmids, pHS-Tet (5.1 kb) and pHS-Rec (9.5 kb), isolated from Haemophilus parasuis strain HS1543 has been obtained. Plasmid pHS-Tet contains four open reading frames including a tet(B) tetracycline resistance gene which unusually did not have an associated tetR represso...

Lancashire, John F.; Terry, Tamsin D.; Blackall, P. J.; Jennings, Michael P.

275

Ultrafiltration of supercoiled plasmid DNA : modeling and application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mass transfer model is proposed for predicting sieving coefficients, Sobs, of supercoiled plasmid DNA (pDNA), in the presence of a salt, in membranes with narrow pores, i.e., pores smaller than the gyration radii of the plasmids to be considered for a certain application. The model assumes that pe...

Morão, A.; Nunes, J. C.; Sousa, Fani; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de; Escobar, I. C.; Queiroz, J. A.

276

Linearization of donor DNA during plasmid transformation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the fate of plasmid DNA after uptake during transformation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. An 11.5-kilobase plasmid, pFA10, was processed to linear double-stranded DNA during uptake by competent cells, but cleavage of pFA10 was not site specific. A minority of pFA10 entered as open circles. A ...

Biswas, G D; Burnstein, K L; Sparling, P F

277

Intramolecular recombination during plasmid transformation of Bacillus subtilis competent cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have constructed plasmids carrying direct internal repeats 260-2000 bp long. Monomers of such plasmids transformed Bacillus subtilis competent cells. The efficiency of transformation varied with the square of the length of repeats. The transformed clones harbored either the entire transforming pl...

Michel, B; Niaudet, B; Ehrlich, S D

278

Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suhartono (2010) Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids. Biodiversitas 11: 59-64. Of major uropathogens, Escherichia coli has been widely known as a main pathogen of UTIs globally and has considerable medical and financial consequences. A strain of UPEC, namely E. coli ST131, confers a large plasmid encoding cephalosporinases (class C ?-lactamase) or AmpC that may be disseminated through horizontal transfer among bacterial populations. Therefore, it is worth examining such large plasmids by isolating, purifying, and digesting the plasmid with restriction enzymes. The examination of the large plasmids was conducted by isolating plasmid DNA visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis as well as by PFGE. The relationship of plasmids among isolates was carried out by HpaI restriction enzyme digestion. Of 36 isolates of E. coli ST 131, eight isolates possessed large plasmids, namely isolates 3, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 26 and 30 with the largest molecular size confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and PFGE was ~42kb and ~118kb respectively. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed that isolates 9, 10, 12, 17 and 18 have the common restriction patterns and those isolates might be closely related.

SUHARTONO

2010-01-01

279

Plasmid cloning vehicle for Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new plasmid cloning vehicle (pDM2) was used to introduce a library of Haemophilus influenzae chromosomal fragments into H. influenzae. Transformants of the higly recombination-defective rec-1 mutant were more likely to contain exclusively recombinant plasmids after exposure to ligated DNA mixtures than was the wild type. pDM2 could replicate in Escherichia coli K-12.

McCarthy, D.; Clayton, N.L.; Setlow, J.K.

1982-09-01

280

Plasmids in Clostridium botulinum and related Clostridium species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toxigenic Clostridium botulinum and nontoxigenic C. sporogenes, C. subterminale, and C. botulinum-like organisms from a variety of sources were screened for plasmids. Of the 68 toxigenic C. botulinum isolates, 56% carried one or more plasmids, ranging in mass from 2.1 to 81 megadaltons. Within indiv...

Strom, M S; Eklund, M W; Poysky, F T

 
 
 
 
281

The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance represents a significant public health problem. When resistance genes are mobile, being carried on plasmids or phages, their spread can be greatly accelerated. Plasmids in particular have been implicated in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the se...

Svara, F; Rankin, D J

282

Role of Plasmid in Production of Acetobacter Xylinum Biofilms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acetobacter xylinum has the ability to produce cellulotic biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is expected to be used in many industrial or biomedical materials for its unique characteristics. A. xylinum contains a complex system of plasmid DNA molecules. A 44 kilobases (kb) plasmid was isola...

Abbas Rezaee; Sanaz Solimani; Mehdi Forozandemogadam

283

Plasmids in Corynebacterium diphtheriae and diphtheroids mediating erythromycin resistance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmids were isolated from erythromycin-resistant Corynebacterium diphtheriae and skin coryneforms. Six erythromycin-resistant C. diphtheriae strains, isolated from cutaneous lesions, all contained a 9.5-megadalton (Mdal) plasmid. Loss of resistance was associated with the deletion of a 1-Mdal segm...

Schiller, J; Groman, N; Coyle, M

284

Mobilization of the Proteus morganii chromosome by R plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

R plasmids R702, R711b, R1, D, Rip69, R447b, R471 and R394, belonging to different incompatibility groups, mobilized the Proteus morganii 2815 chromosome. Matings employing plasmids R711b or R702 as sex factors with doubly auxotrophic recipients produced recombinants characterized by the obligatory inheritance of ser-1+, irrespective of the selected marker. PMID:6934261

Beck, Y; Coetzee, J N

1980-06-01

285

Mobilization of the Proteus morganii chromosome by R plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

R plasmids R702, R711b, R1, D, Rip69, R447b, R471 and R394, belonging to different incompatibility groups, mobilized the Proteus morganii 2815 chromosome. Matings employing plasmids R711b or R702 as sex factors with doubly auxotrophic recipients produced recombinants characterized by the obligatory inheritance of ser-1+, irrespective of the selected marker.

Beck Y; Coetzee JN

1980-06-01

286

Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in uv-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA

1979-01-01

287

Mitochondrial DNAs and plasmids as taxonomic characteristics in Trichoderma viride.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was purified from 12 isolates of the Trichoderma viride aggregate and found to be, on the average, 32.7 kb in size. Plasmids were present in the mtDNA preparations from 8 of 12 strains of T. viride examined. Plasmids in four of the strains produced ladderlike banding patter...

Meyer, R J

288

Plasmid-mediated adhesion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of classical serotype enteropathogenic Escherichia coli has been made with respect to their plasmid profile and ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells. Thirty-one of the 32 strains examined contained a 50-70 Md plasmid, and many exhibited HEp-2 adherence. Strain E2348 (0127:H6), which causes diarrhea in volunteers and is HEp-2-adhesive, was chosen for further study. The large 55 Md plasmid in E2348, pMAR2, has been marked with a transposon coding for ampicillin resistance. E2348 that has been cured of pMAR2 loses the ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells, while HB101, a nonadherent E. coli K12, acquires HEp-2 adhesiveness after gaining this plasmid. Plasmid presence was also shown to correlate with in vivo adhesion to intestine, using the colostrum-deprived piglet model.

Baldini MM; Kaper JB; Levine MM; Candy DC; Moon HW

1983-01-01

289

Marker-free plasmids for biotechnological applications - implications and perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonviral gene therapy and DNA vaccines have become the first promising approaches to treat, cure, or ultimately prevent disease by providing genetic information encoded on a plasmid. Since 1989, more than 1800 clinical trials have been approved worldwide, and approximately 20% of them are using plasmid DNA (pDNA) as a vector system. Although much safer than viral approaches, DNA vectors generally do encode antibiotic resistance genes in the plasmid backbone. These antibiotic resistance markers constitute a possible safety risk, and they are associated with structural plasmid instabilities and decreased gene delivery efficiency. These drawbacks have initiated the development of various antibiotic marker-free selection approaches. We provide an overview on the potential implications of marker-free plasmids and perspectives for their successful biotechnological use in the future.

Oliveira PH; Mairhofer J

2013-09-01

290

Personal finances of urology residents in Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We examined how Urology residents in Canada manage their personal finances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey instrument was designed to elicit information on demographics, expenses, savings and incomes. The questionnaire was completed by 40 Urology residents attending the 2000 Queen's Urology Exam Skills Training (QUEST) program. RESULTS: Twenty-eight residents (70%) had educational debt (median debt $50 000). Seventeen residents (45%) paid credit card interest charges within the last year. Four residents (10%) maintained an unpaid credit card balance > $7500 at 17% annual interest rate. Twenty-six residents (67%) contributed to Registered Retirement Savings Program (RRSP) accounts. Seventeen residents (44%) contributed to non-RRSP retirement accounts. Nineteen residents (50%) budgeted expenses. Median resident income was $45 000. Thirteen residents (34%) had cash reserves < $250. CONCLUSION: Many residents save little, and incur substantial debt over and above educational loans. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management. Residents should be informed of the consequences of low saving and high debt.

Teichman JM; Tongco W; MacNeily AE; Smart M

2000-12-01

291

Multilocus sequence typing of IncN plasmids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: Incompatibility group N (IncN) plasmids have been associated with the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and are a major vehicle for the spread of blaVIM-1 in humans and blaCTX-M-1 in animals. A plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) scheme was developed for rapid categorization of IncN plasmids. METHODS: Twelve fully sequenced IncN plasmids available at GenBank were analysed in silico for selecting the loci for the IncN-specific pMLST. A total of 58 plasmids originating from different reservoirs (human, pig, poultry, cattle and horses) and geographic regions (Italy, Greece, Denmark, UK and The Netherlands) were classified by DNA sequencing of the amplicons obtained for the repA, traJ and korA loci. RESULTS: Eleven sequence types (STs) were defined on the basis of allele sequences of the three selected loci. Most plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 (24/27) isolated in different countries from both animals and humans belonged to ST1, suggesting dissemination of an epidemic plasmid through the food chain. Fifteen of 17 plasmids carrying blaVIM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, isolated during a 5year period in Greece were assigned to ST10, suggesting that spread and persistence of this particular IncN-carrying blaVIM-1 lineage in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the use of pMLST as a suitable and rapid method for identification of IncN epidemic plasmid lineages. The recent spread of blaCTX-M-1 among humans and animals seems to be associated with the dissemination of an epidemic IncN plasmid lineage.

García-Fernández, Aurora; Villa, Laura

2011-01-01

292

A case of mega cisterna magna (MCM) and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis with large facial hemangioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In 1949 Robertson reported a case of mega cisterna magna (MCM) for the first time, but only a few reports about MCM have been published. Recently, Adam, Alker and others reported 20 MCM cases. A five-month-old mentally retarded girl, who had a large hemangioma on the left lateral aspect of her face, visited our hospital and was diagnosed as MCM by means of brain X-ray, CT and NMR-CT. This is probably the first reported case of MCM with the NMR-CT imaging technique. (author)

1985-01-01

293

Restriction endonuclease analysis of the lactose plasmid in Streptococcus lactis ML3 and two recombinant lactose plasmids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the molecular relationship between the 60-megadalton (Mdal) recombinant lactose plasmids in ML 3 x LM2301 lactose-positive (Lac+) transconjugants and the genetic material of Streptococcus lactis ML3. Lactose metabolism is linked to the 33-Mdal plasmid pSK08 in ML3, and the recipient ...

Walsh, P M; McKay, L L

294

Cryptic Streptococcus mutans 5.6-kb plasmids encode a toxin–antitoxin system for plasmid stabilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In all Streptococcus mutans strains, 5–13% carry a 5.6-kb plasmid. Despite its frequency, little is known about its mediated functions with most of the information coming from a single study focussing on plasmid pUA140. Objective: Here, we describe the sequence and genetic organiz...

Anke Rheinberg; Izabela Jadwiga Swierzy; Tuan Dung Nguyen; Hans-Peter Horz; Georg Conrads

295

The Chief Resident Role in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study Objectives: Although other specialties have examined the role of the chief resident (CR), the role and training of the emergency medicine (EM) CR has largely been undefined.Methods: A survey was mailed to all EM CRs and their respective program directors (PD) in 124 EM residency programs. The survey consisted of questions defining demographics, duties of the typical CR, and opinions regarding the level of support and training received. Multiple choice, Likert scale (1 strong agreement, 5 strong disagreement) and short-answer responses were used. We analyzed associations between CR and PD responses using Chi-square, Student’s T and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: Seventy-six percent of CRs and 65% of PDs responded and were similar except for age (31 vs. 42 years; p<0.001). CR respondents were most often male, in year 3 of training and held the position for 12 months. CRs and PDs agreed that the assigned level of responsibility is appropriate (2.63 vs. 2.73, p=0.15); but CRs underestimate their influence in the residency program (1.94 vs. 2.34, p=0.002) and the emergency department (2.61 vs. 3.03, p=0.002). The majority of CRs (70%) and PDs (77%) report participating in an extramural training program, and those CRs who participated in training felt more prepared for their job duties (2.26 vs. 2.73; p=0.03).Conclusion: EM CRs feel they have appropriate job responsibility but believe they are less influential in program and department administration than PD respondents. Extramural training programs for incoming CRs are widely used and felt to be helpful. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2):120-125.

Hafner, John W. Jr., MD, MPH; Gardner, Joanna C MD; Boston, William S; Aldag, Jean C

2010-01-01

296

Pharmacists teaching in family medicine residency programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective To determine the percentage of family medicine residency programs that have pharmacists directly involved in teaching residents, the types and extent of teaching provided by pharmacists in family medicine residency programs, and the primary source of funding for the pharmacists. Design Web-based survey. Setting One hundred fifty-eight resident training sites within the 17 family medicine residency programs in Canada. Participants One hundred residency program directors who were responsible for overseeing the training sites within the residency programs were contacted to determine the percentage of training sites in which pharmacists were directly involved in teaching. Pharmacists who were identified by the residency directors were invited to participate in the Web-based survey. Main outcome measures The percentage of training sites for family medicine residency that have pharmacists directly involved in teaching residents. The types and the extent of teaching performed by the pharmacists who teach in the residency programs. The primary source of funding that supports the pharmacists’ salaries. Results More than a quarter (25.3%) of family medicine residency training sites include direct involvement of pharmacist teachers. Pharmacist teachers reported that they spend a substantial amount of their time teaching residents using a range of teaching modalities and topics, but have no formal pharmacotherapy curriculums. Nearly a quarter (22.6%) of the pharmacists reported that their salaries were primarily funded by the residency programs. Conclusion Pharmacists have a role in training family medicine residents. This is a good opportunity for family medicine residents to learn about issues related to pharmacotherapy; however, the role of pharmacists as educators might be optimized if standardized teaching methods, curriculums, and evaluation plans were in place.

Jorgenson, Derek; Muller, Andries; Whelan, Anne Marie; Buxton, Kelly

2011-01-01

297

Physical and functional mapping of two cointegrate plasmids derived from RP4 and TOL plasmid pDK1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cointegrate plasmids were formed in vivo between the broad-host-range R-plasmid RP4 and two catabolic plasmids derived from Pseudomonas putida HS1. One of these was the wild-type plasmid pDK1 encoding the complete inducible toluene/xylene (TOL) catabolic pathway and one was pDKT1, a deletion derivative of pDK1 selected after growth of HS1 on benzoate and supporting growth on only toluene. The two plasmids formed, pDK2 and pDKT2 respectively, each consisted of a complete RP4 replicon in which was an insert of the parent plasmid DNA respectively 40 and 20 kbp in size. The detailed restriction maps of the two plasmids were determined and many of the catabolic genes were located by subcloning and enzyme assay of recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas hosts. The insert in pDK2 contained both operons of the catabolic pathway, the 'upper pathway' operon (xylCAB) and the meta pathway operon (xylDLEGF(I,J,K)H), and a region identified as having the function of the regulator gene xylS. The insert in pDKT2 contained only the upper pathway operon and the regulatory region. Within each of the three coding regions there was great similarity with the same regions on TOL plasmids pWW0 and pWW53-4 apparent (a) by the same order of the genes, (b) by a similar pattern of restriction sites and (c) by hybridization studies. However, the order and orientations of the three coding regions differed from those previously described for both pWW0 and pWW53-4. The significance of these findings to the evolution of TOL plasmids is discussed.

Shaw LE; Williams PA

1988-09-01

298

Physical and functional mapping of two cointegrate plasmids derived from RP4 and TOL plasmid pDK1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cointegrate plasmids were formed in vivo between the broad-host-range R-plasmid RP4 and two catabolic plasmids derived from Pseudomonas putida HS1. One of these was the wild-type plasmid pDK1 encoding the complete inducible toluene/xylene (TOL) catabolic pathway and one was pDKT1, a deletion derivative of pDK1 selected after growth of HS1 on benzoate and supporting growth on only toluene. The two plasmids formed, pDK2 and pDKT2 respectively, each consisted of a complete RP4 replicon in which was an insert of the parent plasmid DNA respectively 40 and 20 kbp in size. The detailed restriction maps of the two plasmids were determined and many of the catabolic genes were located by subcloning and enzyme assay of recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas hosts. The insert in pDK2 contained both operons of the catabolic pathway, the 'upper pathway' operon (xylCAB) and the meta pathway operon (xylDLEGF(I,J,K)H), and a region identified as having the function of the regulator gene xylS. The insert in pDKT2 contained only the upper pathway operon and the regulatory region. Within each of the three coding regions there was great similarity with the same regions on TOL plasmids pWW0 and pWW53-4 apparent (a) by the same order of the genes, (b) by a similar pattern of restriction sites and (c) by hybridization studies. However, the order and orientations of the three coding regions differed from those previously described for both pWW0 and pWW53-4. The significance of these findings to the evolution of TOL plasmids is discussed. PMID:3076182

Shaw, L E; Williams, P A

1988-09-01

299

Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

2010-01-01

300

Resident training in pathology: Expectations and suggestions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this report, we summarized the result of the panel discussion about pathology residency training program. Especially, training atmosphere including laboratories, rotations, evaluation of autopsy, macroscopy, microscopy, and general resident responsibilities were discussed. Obligation of standardization of residency training program was stressed.

Banu B?LEZ?KÇ?; Özge HAN; Gülçin ALTINOK; Murat ALPER; Ata Türker ARIKÖK; ?pek I??k GÖNÜL; Çi?dem IRKKAN; Aydan KILIÇARSLAN; Ayhan ÖZCAN; Elif ÖZER; Berna SAVA?; Sibel ORHUN YAVUZ; Beyhan DEM?RHAN

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A residency program for group practice administrators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bridging the gap between the world of education and the world of work, a residency program offers distinct advantages to both the preceptor and the resident. A view from each of these perspectives is presented here, giving the reader a well-rounded picture of the characteristics of an effective residency program.

Manning FF; Kindrachuk PM

1984-03-01

302

A residency program for group practice administrators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bridging the gap between the world of education and the world of work, a residency program offers distinct advantages to both the preceptor and the resident. A view from each of these perspectives is presented here, giving the reader a well-rounded picture of the characteristics of an effective residency program. PMID:10265884

Manning, F F; Kindrachuk, P M

303

Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of soluble iron from forests to the ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of aerosols and trace gases. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of soluble iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (> 30° N latitude) over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 (13-51 × 103 km2 yr-1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (12-78 Tg CO yr-1). Satellite observations of CO from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. During the major Siberian fire seasons in the summer of 2002 and in the spring of 2003, the model results for CO enhancements due to intense fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These fire emission rates are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. Compared to the dust sources without the atmospheric processing by acidic species, extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (10-60%) to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean. It may imply that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

Ito, A.

2011-02-01

304

Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of soluble iron from forests to the ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of aerosols and trace gases. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of soluble iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (> 30° N latitude) over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–51 × 103 km2 yr?1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (12–78 Tg CO yr?1). Satellite observations of CO from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. During the major Siberian fire seasons in the summer of 2002 and in the spring of 2003, the model results for CO enhancements due to intense fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These fire emission rates are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. Compared to the dust sources without the atmospheric processing by acidic species, extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (10–60%) to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean. It may imply that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

A. Ito

2011-01-01

305

Large aftershocks of the Maule 2010 mega earthquake in Central Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

The very large Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 has been studied in great detail using seismic, geodetic tsunami and geologic data. This event was followed by a long series of aftershocks that have been relocated by several authors. One of the curious characteristics of this mega earthquake is that for the first few months it had very few large aftershocks and that many were not located on the main fault plane of the event. After three years, although there were many small aftershocks, only 22 larger than Mw 6 are listed in the CMT catalogue; the two largest aftershock having a magnitude of 7.1. According to Bath's rule at least one aftershock should have had a magnitude larger than 7.5. These larger aftershocks form a very tenuous network of events that do not cover entire fault surface as is the case of many other large earthquakes. A likely interpretation of our results is that the aftershock series will continue over a long period of time with large aftershocks in the future. The largest aftershocks of 2010 were a large outer rise event at 08 UT, two hours after the main shock of 27 February 2010 and located in the outer rise off the Arauco peninsula; and two large shallow crustal events of Mw 7.1 and 6.8 on 11 March 2010 near the city of Pichilemu. In the last couple of years the aftershock activity has continued and several larger aftershocks have occurred on the main fault of the Maule event. Here we study these aftershocks using relocation techniques and finite source modelling of the far field seismic radiation. Among the aftershocks that we study, three are particularly interesting: these are the events of Mw 7.1 on 2 January 2011 near the southern end of the 2010 rupture, that of Mw 6.8 on 11 February 2011 in the neighbourhood of the hypocenter of the Maule event and that of Mw 7.1 of 25 March 2012 in the northern patch of the main event. These aftershocks were located at different places of the 2010 rupture, on the plate interface close the bottom of the 2010 rupture zone. We compare this series of aftershocks with that of other large Chilean earthquakes of the last 40 years concluding that earthquakes of Mw < 8 tend to occur near the bottom of the plate interface. Ruptures extend towards the trench only for very large events that break the entire plate interface.

Buforn, Elisa; Pro, Carmen; Fuenzalida, Amaya; Ruiz, Sergio; Madariaga, Raul

2013-04-01

306

Antibiotic resistance plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical importance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of plasmids were isolated physically, and most antibiotic resistance is thought to be plasmid mediated. A number of characters (e.g., resistance to erythromycin or methicillin, and production of pigment) are determined by genes that do not give clear indications of either plasmid or chromosomal location. Although the formation of a particular plasmid is probably, even in bacterial terms, a very rare event, once formed such an element can spread rapidly among the bacterial population. The spectacular increase in the incidence of penicillinase-producing hospital strains in the late 1940's could have been due in part to this process. Evidence is stronger, however, for the intercell transfer of recently isolated plasmids coding for resistance to fusidic acid (and penicillinase production), or for neomycin, or for tetracycline resistance. Study of bacterial plasmids can resolve fundamental biochemical problems, and give some insight into the life of the cell at the molecular level. But the immediate application of the study of staphylococcal plasmids may be directed towards improving the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. The most important aspect of future anti-staphylococcal chemotherapy should thus be the limitation of the use of antibiotics, particularly for application to the skin and nose. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

307

Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores.

Benoit, T.G.; Wilson, G.R.; Bull, D.L.; Aronson, A.I. (Department of Agriculture, College Station, TX (USA))

1990-08-01

308

Plasmids of endophytic bacteria as vectors for transformation in plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endophytic microorganisms in general have a rich potential as producers of novel bioactive compounds, as nitrogen fixers, IAA producers, plant toxicity reducers, etc. Endophytic bacteria can also be used as vectors for transferring genes of interest to plants. These plasmid bearers have the advantage of colonizing the plant and rhizosphere with ease. In the present work, plasmids of endophytic bacteria were used as vectors instead of whole organism, for genetic studies. The advantage being transfer of plasmid encoded plant beneficial properties along with genes of interest to the plant. The present study encompasses screening of 27 medicinal plants for the endophytic colonization, in the plants. Amongst the collection of about 50 distinct endophytes, it was observed that most of these endophytes (> 50%) harbour plasmids. A bacterial isolate from Anthacephalus kadamba, Ec 14 has proven to be an ideal candidate for gene transformation in plants. It produces antibacterial proteinaceous compound that is active against plant pathogens. Antibiotic sensitivity and antibiotic peptide production were found to be plasmid born, confirmed by plasmid curing. Plasmid has restriction sites for the enzymes EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, SalI and BamHI.

Chanda V Berde; Priya P Bhosale; Sushama R Chaphalkar

2010-01-01

309

Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

1988-12-01

310

Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Resident doctors (residents) play a significant role in the education of medical students. Morning work rounds provide an optimal venue to assess resident teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of peer observation of resident work rounds, to evaluate resident perceptions of peer observation and to evaluate resident perceptions of peer feedback. METHODS: ? Twenty-four internal medicine residents were simultaneously observed by an attending physician and a peer while teaching during work rounds (between August2008 and May 2009). At year-end, residents received a survey to characterise their attitudes towards peer observation and feedback. RESULTS: Twenty-one residents (87.5%) completed the survey. Half (52.4%) felt that participating in the peer observation study stimulated their interest in teaching during work rounds. Prior to participation in the study, fewer than half (42.9%) felt comfortable being observed by their peers, compared with 71.4 percent after participation (p=0.02). The proportion of residents who felt comfortable giving feedback to peers increased from 26.3 to 65.0percent (p=0.004), and the proportion of residents who felt comfortable receiving feedback from peers increased from 76.2 to 95.2 percent (p=0.02). DISCUSSION: Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching during work rounds is feasible and rewarding for the residents involved. Comfort with regards to being observed by peers, with receiving feedback from peers and with giving feedback to peers significantly increased after the study. Most residents reported changes in their teaching behaviour resulting from feedback. Residents felt that observing a peer teach on work rounds was one of the most useful activities to improve their own teaching on work rounds.

Snydman L; Chandler D; Rencic J; Sung YC

2013-02-01

311

Medical ethics in residency training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be’s and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician’s working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.

Murat Civaner; Özlem Sar?kaya; Harun Balc?o?lu

2009-01-01

312

Molecular classification of IncP-9 naphthalene degradation plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large collection of naphthalene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from sites contaminated with coal tar and crude oil was screened for the presence of IncP-9 plasmids. Seventeen strains were found to carry naphthalene catabolic plasmids ranging in size from 83 to 120 kb and were selected for further study. Results of molecular genotyping revealed that 15 strains were closely related to P. putida, one to P. fluorescens, and one to P. aeruginosa. All catabolic plasmids found in these strains, with the exception of pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1, turned out to belong to IncP-9 beta-subgroup. Plasmids pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1 were identified as members of IncP-9 delta-subgroup. One plasmid, pBS2, contains fused replicons of IncP-9beta and IncP-7 groups. RFLP analyses of the naphthalene catabolic plasmids revealed that organisation of the replicon correlates well with the overall plasmid structure. Comparative PCR studies with conserved oligonucleotide primers indicated that genes for key enzymes of naphthalene catabolism are highly conserved among all studied plasmids. Three bacterial strains, P. putida BS202, P. putida BS3701, and P. putida BS3790, were found to have two different salicylate hydroxylase genes one of which has no similarity to the "classic" enzyme encoded by nahG gene. Discovery of a large group of plasmid with unique nahR suggested that the regulatory loop may also represent a variable part of the pathway for catabolism of naphthalene in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

Izmalkova TY; Mavrodi DV; Sokolov SL; Kosheleva IA; Smalla K; Thomas CM; Boronin AM

2006-07-01

313

Molecular classification of IncP-9 naphthalene degradation plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large collection of naphthalene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from sites contaminated with coal tar and crude oil was screened for the presence of IncP-9 plasmids. Seventeen strains were found to carry naphthalene catabolic plasmids ranging in size from 83 to 120 kb and were selected for further study. Results of molecular genotyping revealed that 15 strains were closely related to P. putida, one to P. fluorescens, and one to P. aeruginosa. All catabolic plasmids found in these strains, with the exception of pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1, turned out to belong to IncP-9 beta-subgroup. Plasmids pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1 were identified as members of IncP-9 delta-subgroup. One plasmid, pBS2, contains fused replicons of IncP-9beta and IncP-7 groups. RFLP analyses of the naphthalene catabolic plasmids revealed that organisation of the replicon correlates well with the overall plasmid structure. Comparative PCR studies with conserved oligonucleotide primers indicated that genes for key enzymes of naphthalene catabolism are highly conserved among all studied plasmids. Three bacterial strains, P. putida BS202, P. putida BS3701, and P. putida BS3790, were found to have two different salicylate hydroxylase genes one of which has no similarity to the "classic" enzyme encoded by nahG gene. Discovery of a large group of plasmid with unique nahR suggested that the regulatory loop may also represent a variable part of the pathway for catabolism of naphthalene in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. PMID:16472859

Izmalkova, Tatyana Yu; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Sokolov, Sergey L; Kosheleva, Irina A; Smalla, Kornelia; Thomas, Christopher M; Boronin, Alexander M

2006-02-10

314

Genetic relationships among 527 Gram-negative bacterial plasmids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmids are mosaic in composition with a maintenance "backbone" as well as "accessory" genes obtained via horizontal gene transfer. This horizontal gene transfer complicates the study of their genetic relationships. We describe a method for relating a large number of Gram-negative (GN) bacterial plasmids based on their genetic sequences. Complete coding gene sequences of 527 GN bacterial plasmids were obtained from NCBI. Initial classification of their genetic relationships was accomplished using a computational approach analogous to hybridization of "mixed-genome microarrays." Because of this similarity, the phrase "virtual hybridization" is used to describe this approach. Protein sequences generated from the gene sequences were randomly chosen to serve as "probes" for the virtual arrays, and virtual hybridization for each GN plasmid was achieved using BLASTp. Each resulting intensity matrix was used to generate a distance matrix from which an initial tree was constructed. Relationships were refined for several clusters by identifying conserved proteins within a cluster. Multiple-sequence alignment was applied to the concatenated conserved proteins, and maximum likelihood was used to generate relationships from the results of the alignment. While it is not possible to prove that the genetic relationships among the 527 GN bacterial plasmids obtained in this study are correct, replication of identical results produced in a separate study for a small group of IncA/C plasmids provides evidence that the approach used can correctly predict genetic relationships. In addition, results obtained for clusters of Borrelia plasmids are consistent with the expected exclusivity for plasmids from this genus. Finally, the 527-plasmid tree was used to study the distribution of four common antibiotic resistance genes.

Zhou Y; Call DR; Broschat SL

2012-09-01

315

Genetic relationships among 527 Gram-negative bacterial plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmids are mosaic in composition with a maintenance "backbone" as well as "accessory" genes obtained via horizontal gene transfer. This horizontal gene transfer complicates the study of their genetic relationships. We describe a method for relating a large number of Gram-negative (GN) bacterial plasmids based on their genetic sequences. Complete coding gene sequences of 527 GN bacterial plasmids were obtained from NCBI. Initial classification of their genetic relationships was accomplished using a computational approach analogous to hybridization of "mixed-genome microarrays." Because of this similarity, the phrase "virtual hybridization" is used to describe this approach. Protein sequences generated from the gene sequences were randomly chosen to serve as "probes" for the virtual arrays, and virtual hybridization for each GN plasmid was achieved using BLASTp. Each resulting intensity matrix was used to generate a distance matrix from which an initial tree was constructed. Relationships were refined for several clusters by identifying conserved proteins within a cluster. Multiple-sequence alignment was applied to the concatenated conserved proteins, and maximum likelihood was used to generate relationships from the results of the alignment. While it is not possible to prove that the genetic relationships among the 527 GN bacterial plasmids obtained in this study are correct, replication of identical results produced in a separate study for a small group of IncA/C plasmids provides evidence that the approach used can correctly predict genetic relationships. In addition, results obtained for clusters of Borrelia plasmids are consistent with the expected exclusivity for plasmids from this genus. Finally, the 527-plasmid tree was used to study the distribution of four common antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:22587825

Zhou, Yunyun; Call, Douglas R; Broschat, Shira L

2012-05-12

316

Molecular classification of IncP-9 naphthalene degradation plasmids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large collection of naphthalene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from sites contaminated with coal tar and crude oil was screened for the presence of IncP-9 plasmids. Seventeen strains were found to carry naphthalene catabolic plasmids ranging in size from 83 to 120kb and were selected for further study. Results of molecular genotyping revealed that 15 strains were closely related to P. putida, one to P. fluorescens, and one to P. aeruginosa. All catabolic plasmids found in these strains, with the exception of pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1, turned out to belong to IncP-9 {beta}-subgroup. Plasmids pBS216, pSN11, and p8909N-1 were identified as members of IncP-9 {delta}-subgroup. One plasmid, pBS2, contains fused replicons of IncP-9 {beta} and IncP-7 groups. RFLP analyses of the naphthalene catabolic plasmids revealed that organisation of the replicon correlates well with the overall plasmid structure. Comparative PCR studies with conserved oligonucleotide primers indicated that genes for key enzymes of naphthalene catabolism are highly conserved among all studied plasmids. Three bacterial strains, P. putida BS202, P. putida BS3701, and P. putida BS3790, were found to have two different salicylate hydroxylase genes one of which has no similarity to the 'classic' enzyme encoded by nahG gene. Discovery of a large group of plasmid with unique nahR suggested that the regulatory loop may also represent a variable part of the pathway for catabolism of naphthalene in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

Izmalkova, T.Y.; Mavrodi, D.V.; Sokolov, S.L.; Kosheleva, I.A.; Smalla, K.; Thomas, C.M.; Boronin, A.M. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-07-15

317

Surgical Resident for a Day  

Science.gov (United States)

Students act as surgical residents for the day. Working in teams, they use surgical instruments to complete tasks that are inside of a box, hidden from direct view. They are able to see inside of the box with the help of a âlaparoscopeâ (webcam and flashlight). This engaging activity shows students one application of engineered medical instrumentation and gives them first-hand experience in seeing how form fits function. They also learn that an engineerâs job does not end with a finished product because s/he must train others to use the device correctly.

Techtronics Program

318

Correlation between transgen expression and plasmid DNA loss in mouse liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Transgene expression from plasmid DNA is dependent on the expression efficiency per plasmid and the amount of intranuclear plasmid. In the present study, intranuclear dispositions of two types of plasmid DNAs (i.e. the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmids) that maintain transgene expression in mouse liver were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between transgene expression and plasmid stability in the nucleus was examined. METHODS: First, the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmid DNAs, bearing the mouse secreted alkaline phosphatase (Seap) gene, were administered into mouse liver by the hydrodynamics-based method. Next, various Seap-plasmid DNAs containing different promoters, upstream and downstream sequences, and backbones were injected into mice, and both SEAP expression and plasmid DNA amounts were monitored for 28?days. RESULTS: At the 14- and 28-day time points, the amount of the pCpGfree plasmid DNA was one order of magnitude less than that of the pLIVE plasmid. Meanwhile, the expression efficiency per plasmid was one order of magnitude more efficient for the pCpGfree plasmid DNA. Moreover, the administration of various Seap-plasmid DNAs revealed that negative correlations exist between plasmid stability and SEAP expression level. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that the pCpGfree plasmid is unstable from the viewpoint of quantity and maintains transgene expression by its high expression efficiency and also that transgene expression negatively affects the stability of plasmid DNA.

Togashi R; Harashima H; Kamiya H

2013-06-01

319

Plasmid composition and virulence-associated factors of Yersinia pestis isolates from a plague outbreak at the Paraíba State, Brazil/ Composição plasmidial e fatores associados à virulência em cepas de Yersinia pestis de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cepas patogênicas de Yersinia pestis foram coletadas durante um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba em 1986. Os isolados de Y. pestis foram analisados quanto a presença de fatores associados à virulência e conteúdo plasmidial. Todas as linhagens analisadas foram proficientes na expressão dos antígenos VW e fração 1, além de possuírem capacidade de adsorção de pigmentos e produção de pesticina-fibrinolisina-coagulase. Um perfil plasmidial semelhante compost (more) o por quatro plasmídeos com peso molecular de 60, 44, 14.9, e 6.4 MD foi encontrado em todas as linhagens. A clivagem do DNA plasmidial com a enzima de restrição EcoRI demonstrou o conteúdo plasmidial uniforme dos isolados de Y. pestis. Sete outras linhagens de Y. pestis, isoladas previamente no mesmo local mas em condição endêmica, mostraram o mesmo perfil plasmidial. A falta de diferenças entre os isolados epidêmicos e endêmicos assim como o uso do perfil plasmidial na epidemiologic de Y. pestis e discutida. Abstract in english Pathogenic Yersinia pestis isolates were collected during a plague outbreak at the Paraiba State in 1986. The Y. pestis isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence-associated factors and plasmid content. All strains analysed were proficient in the expression of the VW and fraction 1 antigens, pigment adsorption and pesticin-fibronolysin-coagulase production. A similar plasmid profile composed by four plasmid with molecular weight of 60, 44, 14.9, and 6.4 Mega (more) daltons (MD) was found in all strains. DNA cleavage with EcoRI restriction enzyme further demonstrated the uniform plasmid content of the Y. pestis isolates. Seven additional Y. pestis strains, previously isolated in the same region but in an endemic state, showed the same plasmid fingerprint. The lack of any detectable difference between epidemic and endemic isolates as well as the value of plasmid fingerprints in epidemiology of Y. pestis is discussed.

Leal, Nilma Cintra; Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva de; Ferreira, Luís Carlos de Souza

1989-10-01

320

Computer-assisted radiology resident rotation scheduling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author developed a method for computer-assisted scheduling of resident rotations in which the chief resident determines the most desirable set of rotations for each resident, disregarding specific month assignments except as required or requested, and the computer generates the schedule by assigning months to rotations. The computer uses an efficient search algorithm to find a schedule that satisfies all requirements. The method satisfies training goals, staffing needs, and residents' desires more effectively than manual scheduling. Although fixed staffing levels for every rotation are required, flexibility is achieved through "dummy" assignments of rotations to residents.

Oppenheim BE

1989-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Computer-assisted radiology resident rotation scheduling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author developed a method for computer-assisted scheduling of resident rotations in which the chief resident determines the most desirable set of rotations for each resident, disregarding specific month assignments except as required or requested, and the computer generates the schedule by assigning months to rotations. The computer uses an efficient search algorithm to find a schedule that satisfies all requirements. The method satisfies training goals, staffing needs, and residents' desires more effectively than manual scheduling. Although fixed staffing levels for every rotation are required, flexibility is achieved through "dummy" assignments of rotations to residents. PMID:2917839

Oppenheim, B E

1989-02-01

322

Bronchoscopy Simulation in Anesthesia Resident Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simulation in residency training is becoming more popular but there is limited evidence showing that it can improve a resident’s fund of knowledge, particularly in anesthesiology. We looked at whether a bronchoscopy simulation could improve performance on a thoracic anesthesia knowledge test administered both before and after using the simulator. Fourteen first-year anesthesiology residents completed the study with an average improvement on the test of 28% (p 0.05). We conclude that bronchoscopy simulation is an effective method of educating anesthesiology residents.

John McNeil; John Pawlowski

2013-01-01

323

Mapping of transcripts encoded by the plasmid in Chlamydia trachomatis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mapping of the plasmid-encoded RNA of the intracellular parasite, Chlamydia trachomatis revealed that the upstream control elements are different from those of other Gram-negative bacteria. A tetranucleotide, AYAA was found near the -10 position, in 5 out of 8 upstream sequences described so far. The plasmid also has a developmentally regulated promoter. The chlamydial upstream elements do not function as promoters in E. coli and vice versa. An E. coli promoter-like sequence has been found to occur fortuitously upstream from the plasmid-encoded dnaB gene. Such sequences may be evolutionary relics.

Sriprakash KS; Pearce BJ

1990-09-01

324

Neurocritical Care Training for the Neurosurgery Resident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recent data has associated favorable outcomes in patients who were treated in a “semi-closed” intensive care unit and attended to by a devoted team of neurointensivists as opposed to the neurosurgeons. This has led many to question the need for dedicated critical care education in the neurosurgical residency training program. Our aim was to determine what current neurosurgery residents and program directors/chairman thoughts were on NCC education in neurosurgical resident training, and to discuss possible methods to allow for collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgeons. Methods: Surveys were sent out electronically to all residency programs. Thirty-nine responses from junior residents, 36 responses from senior/chief residents, and eight responses from program directors/chairman were obtained. Results: No statistical difference between the majority responses of the different level residents, and between program directors/chairman and combined resident responses. Conclusions: Clearly, neurosurgery residents of all levels and program directors/chairman value NCC education and see a valuable role for this knowledge in their future. Most residents however do not want to spend an additional year of fellowship training to become certified neurointensivists. We discuss the role of NCC education in residency training and possible solutions to allow collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgical team.

Paul EKaloostian; Jennifer Kim; Howard Yonas

2013-01-01

325

Musculoskeletal examination skills of pediatric residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of our work is to assess musculoskeletal examination skills of pediatric residents. A self-assessment questionnaire with five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree) was used. After completion of questionnaires, the residents were taught proper joint examination techniques. Thereafter, the residents were asked to judge whether they had rated their skills accurately. The session was attended by 25/41 residents (61%). Overall, their reported examination skills were poor with a mean score of 3.0 for PGY1, 2.1 for PGY2, 2.2 for PGY3 and 3.0 for PGY4. After being taught the proper joint examinations techniques, 22% of residents reported they initially overestimated their skills and 5% underestimated their skills. The residents felt most comfortable with the knee exam, least comfortable with the finger and wrist joint exam. Most pediatric residents did not feel they can perform a focused musculoskeletal exam.

Roman Jurencak; Johannes Roth

2011-01-01

326

Removal of endotoxins from plasmid DNA: analysis of aggregative interaction of mobile divalent metal cations with endotoxins and plasmid DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide removal from plasmid DNA-based vaccine remains a very challenging task for bioprocess engineers. This paper examined the potential use and advantages of divalent cation (Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) induced aggregation as a plasmid DNA purification method for lipopolysaccharide removal. Analysis of zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, percentage of aggregation; UV-Vis spectroscopy and electron microscopy were performed to determine the optimal cation for preferential aggregation of lipopolysaccharide over plasmid DNA. The results from the hydrodynamic size analysis showed that the addition of Zn(2+) resulted in the maximum theoretical number of lipopolysaccharide molecules per aggregate particle. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed that plasmid DNA aggregates formed a larger maximum hydrodynamic size when it was treated with Ca(2+) than the other two cations. The K(m) value for lipopolysaccharide-Zn(2+) was substantially low (0.28 M) and considerably large (>2 M) for plasmid DNA-Zn(2+). Scatchard plots for plasmid DNA cations showed positive slopes indicating that there was a minimum concentration of plasmid DNA or cations before a significant aggregation occurred. This work concluded that Zn(2+) had the most preferential aggregative interaction with lipopolysaccharide compared to Mg(2+) and Ca(2+).

Ongkudon CM; Hodges E; Murphy K; Danquah MK

2012-11-01

327

Removal of endotoxins from plasmid DNA: analysis of aggregative interaction of mobile divalent metal cations with endotoxins and plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide removal from plasmid DNA-based vaccine remains a very challenging task for bioprocess engineers. This paper examined the potential use and advantages of divalent cation (Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) induced aggregation as a plasmid DNA purification method for lipopolysaccharide removal. Analysis of zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, percentage of aggregation; UV-Vis spectroscopy and electron microscopy were performed to determine the optimal cation for preferential aggregation of lipopolysaccharide over plasmid DNA. The results from the hydrodynamic size analysis showed that the addition of Zn(2+) resulted in the maximum theoretical number of lipopolysaccharide molecules per aggregate particle. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed that plasmid DNA aggregates formed a larger maximum hydrodynamic size when it was treated with Ca(2+) than the other two cations. The K(m) value for lipopolysaccharide-Zn(2+) was substantially low (0.28 M) and considerably large (>2 M) for plasmid DNA-Zn(2+). Scatchard plots for plasmid DNA cations showed positive slopes indicating that there was a minimum concentration of plasmid DNA or cations before a significant aggregation occurred. This work concluded that Zn(2+) had the most preferential aggregative interaction with lipopolysaccharide compared to Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). PMID:23001922

Ongkudon, Clarence M; Hodges, Emma; Murphy, Kathleen; Danquah, Michael K

2012-09-24

328

Strategic transportation plan: resident survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document reports the detailed results of a survey undertaken in the Greater Vancouver area by the Angus Reid Group to gauge public reaction to the Greater Vancouver Strategic Transportation Plan. It appears that 68 per cent of the resident who have heard of the Plan are in favour of it ; the percentage jumps to 90 per cent approval after discussion of all components. Support for the Plan and willingness to pay for it are closely linked. The main reason for support of the Plan appears to be residents' perception that implementation of it would eliminate traffic congestion. More frequent buses, more direct bus routes, increased fixed rail services like Sky Train, expansion of road and bridge network, addition of turnstiles and ticket checkers to make sure that everyone pays, full accessibility by the disabled, were some of the most strongly supported components along with transportation network improvements. There was also strong support for greater opportunities for the public to voice their opinions on major transportation decisions. The employment of technology such as automated telephone information lines and the Internet to assist people in planning trips around the Greater Vancouver area more efficiently, also received significant support.

NONE

2000-03-01

329

Transposon-mediated mobilization of chromosomally located catabolic operons of the CAM plasmid by TOL plasmid transposon Tn4652 and CAM plasmid transposon Tn3614.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The CAM (camphor degradation) plasmid is integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida PaW-line strains and is not self-transferable as a plasmid via conjugation. Our results show that the mobilization of chromosomally located CAM and the integration of cam-operons into the chromosome of the new Cam+ transconjugants is a recA-independent process mediated by transposons Tn4652 (17 kbp) and Tn3614 (7.2 kbp). Transposon Tn3614 is apparently identical to the left-hand and the right-hand sequences of the TOL plasmid pWW0 transposon Tn4654. The insertion of Tn401 inside the left-hand terminal IR of Tn4652 completely inhibited the mobilization of CAM. According to our data transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 together with CAM plasmid catabolic operons are integrated into the chromosome. We propose that in pseudomonads the transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 play a key role in the evolution and spread of new catabolic plasmids in nature.

Mäe AA; Heinaru AL

1994-04-01

330

Transposon-mediated mobilization of chromosomally located catabolic operons of the CAM plasmid by TOL plasmid transposon Tn4652 and CAM plasmid transposon Tn3614.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CAM (camphor degradation) plasmid is integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida PaW-line strains and is not self-transferable as a plasmid via conjugation. Our results show that the mobilization of chromosomally located CAM and the integration of cam-operons into the chromosome of the new Cam+ transconjugants is a recA-independent process mediated by transposons Tn4652 (17 kbp) and Tn3614 (7.2 kbp). Transposon Tn3614 is apparently identical to the left-hand and the right-hand sequences of the TOL plasmid pWW0 transposon Tn4654. The insertion of Tn401 inside the left-hand terminal IR of Tn4652 completely inhibited the mobilization of CAM. According to our data transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 together with CAM plasmid catabolic operons are integrated into the chromosome. We propose that in pseudomonads the transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 play a key role in the evolution and spread of new catabolic plasmids in nature. PMID:8012608

Mäe, A A; Heinaru, A L

1994-04-01

331

Induction and construct UV protective yeast plasmid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we apply concepts of synthetic biology in combination with conventional methods to assemble different genetic components to construct yeast resistant to UV radiation, and to induce production of anti-UV proteins. This work combines sequences of different promoters, STRESS-proteins, heat shock protein (HSP), kinase proteins, alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH), ribosomal binding sites, fluorescent reporter proteins, terminators, and a synthetic ribosomal switch. The aim of this investigation was to induce an anti-UV proteins, and to construct an anti-UV yeast plasmid to be used for protection of skin cells against UV radiation. This investigation demonstrates induction and construction of anti-UV genes and production of their corresponding proteins. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC # 66348) were exposed to short-wave UV radiation and were then subjected to time-PCR to assess specific gene expression. Proteins were identified using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and LC-MS/MS. Different up-regulated and down-regulated proteins were identified. Highly expressed identified proteins were cloned into S. cerevisiae using a synthetic biology approach. Extracts from UV-induced genetically transformed yeasts were used to protect skin cell cultures (ATCC #2522-CRL) in vitro. Both microscopic analysis and an apoptosis assay showed protection of the skin cell cultures against UV radiation.

Cuero R; McKay DS

2013-07-01

332

[A plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 169 b.p. fragment including the bla gene promoter p3 has been removed from pBR327 plasmid, and the deleted plasmid used for cloning the TaqI/BglII-fragment of the lambda c1857ind- DNA containing promoter pR and gene cI to obtain plasmid pCE119. Cells containing pCE119 produced a high level of beta-lactamase at 42 degrees C, the yield at 42 degrees C being 100 times higher than at 32 degrees C. For cloning and functional assays a pCEZ12 plasmid was constructed, in which promoter pR and repressor cI of lambda phage control the expression of the semi-synthetic beta-galactosidase gene. Yield of beta-galactosidase produced by pCEZ12 at 42 degrees C was ca. 300 times higher than at 32 degrees C.

Kravchenko VV; Iamshchikov VF; Pletnev AG

1985-04-01

333

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Plasmid DNA Adsorption via Hydrophobic Interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims the preparation of magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine), [poly(HEMA-MAPA)] nanoparticles for plasmid DNA separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions. Magnetic nanoparticles will be produced emulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacryl...

Gungunes H.; Uzek R.; Uzun L.; Ozkara S.; ?enel S.; Denizli A.

334

Plasmid diversity in arctic strains of Psychrobacter spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six strains of Psychrobacter spp. isolated from guano of little auks collected on Spitsbergen island (Arctic) carried nine plasmids that were fully sequenced. These replicons (ranging in size from 2917 to 14924 bp) contained either repA (ColE2-type) or repB (iteron-type) replication systems of a relatively narrow host range, limited to Psychrobacter spp. All but one of the plasmids carried predicted mobilization for conjugal transfer systems, encoding relaxases of the MOBQ, MOBV or MOBP families. The plasmids also contained diverse additional genetic load, including a type II restriction-modification system and a gene encoding a putative subunit C of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC)-an antioxidant enzyme and major scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Detailed comparative sequence analyses, extended to all plasmids identified so far in psychrophilic bacteria, distinguished groups of the most ubiquitous replicons, which play a key role in horizontal gene transfer in cold environments.

Dziewit L; Cegielski A; Romaniuk K; Uhrynowski W; Szych A; Niesiobedzki P; Zmuda-Baranowska MJ; Zdanowski MK; Bartosik D

2013-05-01

335

Effect of detergents on pathogenicity plasmids of escherichias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study dealth with effects of cationic detergents miramistin (alkylamidopropyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride), catamine AB (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) and the anionic compound sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the elimination from E. coli cells of plasmids determining the Hly, Ent and, indirectly, Col, F, and R markers of pathogenicity as well as their transfer upon conjugation. At subbacteriostatic concentrations, miramistin and catamine AB were found to suppress the transfer of Hly, Ent, F, and R plasmids during conjugation when applied to the donor, recipient or added to the conjugation medium without, however, eliminating plasmids. This is due to the disruption by detergents of F, J pili and other surface cell structures resulting in diminished ability to conjugate. Anionic SDS eliminated F and R plasmids without affecting Hly, Ent and Col.

Krivoshein YuS; Achkasova YuN; Bryzgunova NI; Sarachan TA; Myshak VI; Miloserdova NA

1988-01-01

336

Effect of detergents on pathogenicity plasmids of escherichias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study dealth with effects of cationic detergents miramistin (alkylamidopropyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride), catamine AB (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) and the anionic compound sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the elimination from E. coli cells of plasmids determining the Hly, Ent and, indirectly, Col, F, and R markers of pathogenicity as well as their transfer upon conjugation. At subbacteriostatic concentrations, miramistin and catamine AB were found to suppress the transfer of Hly, Ent, F, and R plasmids during conjugation when applied to the donor, recipient or added to the conjugation medium without, however, eliminating plasmids. This is due to the disruption by detergents of F, J pili and other surface cell structures resulting in diminished ability to conjugate. Anionic SDS eliminated F and R plasmids without affecting Hly, Ent and Col. PMID:3058793

Krivoshein YuS; Achkasova YuN; Bryzgunova, N I; Sarachan, T A; Myshak, V I; Miloserdova, N A

1988-01-01

337

Characterization of different plasmid-borne dihydropteroate synthases mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmid-borne resistance to sulfonamides was studied in both newly isolated and earlier characterized R plasmids. Two different classes of drug-resistant dihydropteroate synthases were found to be responsible for most cases of plasmid-mediated sulfonamide resistance. The plasmid-coded enzymes could ...

Swedberg, G; Sköld, O

338

Effects of the ccd function of the F plasmid on bacterial growth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ccd segment of the mini F plasmid containing the ccdA and ccdB genes controls the coordination between plasmid proliferation and cell physiology and fate. When the DNA replication of a thermosensitive-replication plasmid carrying the ccd segment of mini F is blocked, plasmid DNA molecules are pr...

Jaffé, A; Ogura, T; Hiraga, S

339

A pathological study on the virulence of Salmonella choleraesuis associated with 50-kilobase plasmid in mice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The virulence of Salmonella choleraesuis associated with 50-kilobase plasmid was assessed by the pathology produced in mice. The strains used in this study were plasmid-contained RF-1, plasmid-cured 31N-1 and plasmid-reintroduced 31N-1-T. Mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with sublethal doses o...

Moriguchi, R.; Kawahara, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Danbara, H.

340

Effect of lipopolysaccharide mutations on recipient ability of Salmonella typhimurium for incompatibility group H plasmids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous investigations of the incompatibility group F, P, and I plasmid systems revealed the important role of the outer membrane components in the conjugal transfer of these plasmids. We have observed variability in transfer frequency of three incompatibility group H plasmids (IncHI1 plasmid R27, ...

Sherburne, C; Taylor, D E

 
 
 
 
341

IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes.

Schlüter A; Krahn I; Kollin F; Bönemann G; Stiens M; Szczepanowski R; Schneiker S; Pühler A

2007-10-01

342

IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the ?-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1? plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes.

Schluter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bonemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Puhler, Alfred

2007-01-01

343

Factors influencing residents' pursuit of urology fellowships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of residents' pursuit of fellowship training by surveying current urology residents and recent graduates. Postgraduate fellowship training of urologists could be an important source of urologic physician-scientists and continued innovation in urologic care. METHODS: A Web-based survey was electronically mailed to urology residents and recent graduates of urologic residency. Variables concerning sex, marital status, debt load, research and clinical exposure, publications, and postgraduate careers were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 71 respondents, 46 (65%) were married and 45% had children/dependents. Of the 69% who applied for fellowship, the "most important" factors influencing the pursuit of fellowship were intellectual appeal (82%), mentors (79%), the desire for an additional point of view for surgical training (58%), and the desire to pursue a career in academics (52%). Forty of those completing a fellowship (87%) versus two of those completing residency alone (13%) would pursue a career in academics. Residents with a mentor were 20 times more likely to pursue a urology fellowship. A shorter residency (5 years), encouragement by a program director, and manuscript publication during residency were also independent predictors. CONCLUSION: Mentorship, a shorter residency, and manuscript publication during residency were independent predictors of pursuing fellowship training. Debt load, age, marital status, and a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine were not significant factors.

Freilich DA; Nguyen HT; Phillips JL

2011-11-01

344

Spread of OXA-48-Encoding Plasmid in Turkey and Beyond ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen carbapenem-resistant, OXA-48-positive enterobacterial isolates recovered from Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, France, and Belgium were analyzed. In most isolates, similar 70-kb plasmids carrying the carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48 were identified. That gene was located within either transposon Tn1999 or transposon Tn1999.2, which was always inserted within the same gene. This work highlights the current plasmid-mediated dissemination of the OXA-48 carbapenemase worldwide.

Carrer, Amelie; Poirel, Laurent; Yilmaz, Mesut; Akan, Ozay Arikan; Feriha, Cilli; Cuzon, Gaelle; Matar, Ghassan; Honderlick, Patrick; Nordmann, Patrice

2010-01-01

345

Plasmid control of recombination of E. coli K12.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recombination proficiency of three recipient strains of Escherichia coli K12 carrying different plasmids was investigated by conjugal mating with Hfr Cavalli. Some plasmids (e.g. R1drd 19, R6K) caused a marked reduction in the yield of recombinants formed in crosses with Hfr but did not reduce the ability of host strains to accept plasmid F104. The effect of plasmids on recombination was host-dependent. In Hfr crosses with AB1157 (R1-19) used as a recipient the linkage between selected and unselected proximal markers of the donor was sharply decreased. Plasmid R1-19 also decreased the yield of recombinants formed by recF, recL, and recB recC sbcA mutants, showed no effect on the recombination proficiency of recB recC sbcB mutant, and increased the recombination proficiency of recB, recB recC sbcB recF, and recB recC sbcB recL mutants. An ATP-dependent exonuclease activity was found in all tested recB recC mutants carrying plasmid R1-19, while this plasmid did not affect the activity of exonuclease I in strain AB1157 and its rec- derivatives. The same plasmid was also found to protect different rec- derivatives of the strain AB1157 against the lethal action of UV light. We suppose that a new ATP-dependent exonuclease determined by R1-19 plays a role in both repair and recombination of the host through the substitution of or competition with the exoV coded for by the genes recB and recC.

Chernin LS; Ovadis MI

1980-01-01

346

Plasmid control of recombination of E. coli K12.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recombination proficiency of three recipient strains of Escherichia coli K12 carrying different plasmids was investigated by conjugal mating with Hfr Cavalli. Some plasmids (e.g. R1drd 19, R6K) caused a marked reduction in the yield of recombinants formed in crosses with Hfr but did not reduce the ability of host strains to accept plasmid F104. The effect of plasmids on recombination was host-dependent. In Hfr crosses with AB1157 (R1-19) used as a recipient the linkage between selected and unselected proximal markers of the donor was sharply decreased. Plasmid R1-19 also decreased the yield of recombinants formed by recF, recL, and recB recC sbcA mutants, showed no effect on the recombination proficiency of recB recC sbcB mutant, and increased the recombination proficiency of recB, recB recC sbcB recF, and recB recC sbcB recL mutants. An ATP-dependent exonuclease activity was found in all tested recB recC mutants carrying plasmid R1-19, while this plasmid did not affect the activity of exonuclease I in strain AB1157 and its rec- derivatives. The same plasmid was also found to protect different rec- derivatives of the strain AB1157 against the lethal action of UV light. We suppose that a new ATP-dependent exonuclease determined by R1-19 plays a role in both repair and recombination of the host through the substitution of or competition with the exoV coded for by the genes recB and recC. PMID:6258017

Chernin, L S; Ovadis, M I

1980-01-01

347

Exogenous isolation of conjugative plasmids from pesticide contaminated soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exogenous plasmid isolation method was used to assess conjugative plasmids conferring pesticide tolerance/multiple metal and antibiotic resistance from contaminated soil using bacteria detached from soil samples as a donor and rifampicin resistant E. coli HMS as a recipient strain on mineral salt agar medium supplemented with ?-HCH, and antibiotics ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Transconjugants were obtained on ampicillin (10 ?g/ml) and tetracycline (20 ?g/ml) amended MSA plates and frequency of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance gene transfer was 7.2 × 10(-6) and 9.2 × 10(-4) transconjugants/recipient, respectively. PCR typing methods were used to assess the presence of plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncP, IncN, IncW, IncQ and rolling circle plasmids of pMV158 type in DNA derived from transconjugants. All transconjugants were PCR amplified for the detection of Inc group plasmids and rolling circle plasmids of pMV158 family in which TM2, 3, 4, 11 and 12 (tet) transconjugants gave PCR products with the IncP-specific primers for both replication and transfer functions (trfA2 (IncP) and oriT (IncP)), while TM 14 (amp) gave an IncP specific PCR product for the replication gene trfA2 (IncP) only. TM15, 16, 18 and 21 (amp) gave a PCR product for the IncW-specific oriT (IncW). Out of 24 transconjugants, only TM 5 (tet) gave a PCR product with the pMV158 specific primer pair for oriT (RC). Our findings indicate that Inc group plasmids and rolling circle plasmids of pMV158 type may be responsible for transferring multiple antibiotic resistance genes among the bacterial soil community.

Anjum R; Grohmann E; Malik A

2012-02-01

348

Pharmacy residency training in academic medical centers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A survey of U.S. academic medical centers (AMCs) was conducted to identify the most important and challenging issues in pharmacy residency training. METHODS: A questionnaire addressing program characteristics and residency training concerns was sent electronically to pharmacy directors at 130 AMCs that are members or associate members of the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC). Residency coordinators for both pharmacy practice and specialized programs were asked to complete the questionnaire, with input from other pharmacists involved in the residency program. Respondents were asked to rate the importance and degree of challenge for all issues on a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 = least important or least challenging and 5 = most important or most challenging. RESULTS: Responses were received from hospitals representing over 60% of all residency positions offered by UHC member hospitals. Recruitment was rated the most important issue (mean importance score, 4.8) facing residency programs in AMCs, but with over 85% of budgeted positions filled, programs appear to be successful in overcoming this concern. The most challenging issue (mean challenge score, 4.2) was compliance with the evaluation and documentation elements of the ASHP Residency Learning System (RLS), a system often used to meet requirements for pharmacy practice residency accreditation. The completion of resident research requirements was ranked as both an important and a challenging issue (mean importance score, 4.5; mean challenge score, 3.9). CONCLUSION: A survey of AMCs showed that they offered a wide variety of pharmacy residency programs and filled most budgeted resident positions. Resident recruitment, the RLS, and research requirements are the most important and challenging residency concerns facing the respondents.

Hoffman JM; Thomley S; Vermeulen L; Smith KM

2004-12-01

349

Extremes in otolaryngology resident surgical case numbers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Understand (1) significance between minimum, mean, and maximum case numbers for otolaryngology resident surgical procedures; (2) weaknesses of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) resident case log system contributing to inaccurate data/case inflation; and (3) when excessive case load may transform education into service. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey using a national database. SETTING: Academic otolaryngology residency programs. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Review of otolaryngology resident national data reports from ACGME resident case log system performed from 2004 to 2010. Minimum, mean, standard deviation, and maximum values for total number of resident surgeon cases and for specific surgical procedures were compared. Case unbundling, resident data entry habits, and tracked vs untracked Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were reviewed. RESULTS: Mean total number of resident surgeon cases remained constant (1699.5 ± 424.2 to 1772.2 ± 517). Minimum total number of cases ranged from 730 to 811 (approaching 2 standard deviations below the mean). Zero was reported as the minimum case number for some procedures. Maximum for total number of cases increased (3559 to 4857) and surpassed the mean by 4 to 5 standard deviations. Some procedures have maximums greater than 11 standard deviations above the mean. The authors identified untracked CPT codes and variations in resident case log documentation habits. CONCLUSIONS: Large differences between the minimum, mean, and maximum resident surgeon case numbers exist. Establishing minimum case number requirements for otolaryngology residents should be considered. Educational benefit derived from excessive case load is unclear. Critical examination of the ACGME resident case log system and resident documentation habits is needed to improve accuracy of reporting.

Rosenberg TL; Franzese CB

2012-08-01

350

Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude) over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–49 × 103 km2 yr?1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (14–81 Tg CO y?1). Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed from oxidation of SO2) and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. Emission scenarios for IPCC AR5 report (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report) suggest that anthropogenic SO2 emissions are suppressed in the future to improve air quality. In future warmer and drier climate, severe fire years such as 2003 may become more frequent in boreal regions. The fire emission rates estimated in this study are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. The model reveals that extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (20–40 %) to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean, compared to the dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species. These results suggest that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

A. Ito

2011-01-01

351

Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude) over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 (13-49 × 103 km2 yr-1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (14-81 Tg CO y-1). Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed from oxidation of SO2) and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. Emission scenarios for IPCC AR5 report (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report) suggest that anthropogenic SO2 emissions are suppressed in the future to improve air quality. In future warmer and drier climate, severe fire years such as 2003 may become more frequent in boreal regions. The fire emission rates estimated in this study are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. The model reveals that extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (20-40 %) to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean, compared to the dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species. These results suggest that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

Ito, A.

2011-06-01

352

Identification of mucAB-like homologs on two IncT plasmids, R394 and Rts-1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily of lesion-replicating DNA polymerases suggest that they can be broadly divided into four sub-groups comprised of UmuC-like, DinB-like, Rev1-like and Rad30-like proteins. The UmuC-like sub-family is best characterized at the genetic level and sequence analysis of eleven umu orthologs, residing on bacterial chromosomes or on self-transmissible R-plasmids allows further subdivision into five sub-groups (UmuDC, MucAB, ImpAB, RumAB and RulAB) based on amino acid sequence conservation. Some of these orthologs are apparently inactive in situ, but may promote increased mutagenesis and survival when subcloned and expressed from high-copy number plasmids. We were, therefore, interested in devising an assay that would identify umuC-like genes in situ in the absence of a functional assay. To this end, degenerate primers directed towards conserved amino acid regions within the UmuC-like sub-family of DNA polymerases were designed and used to identify mucAB-like operons on the IncT plasmids, R394 and Rts-1.Interestingly, DNA sequence analysis of an approximately 7kb region of R394 identified two LexA-regulated genes immediately downstream of mucAB((R394)) that are similar to the chromosomally-encoded Escherichia coli tus gene and the IncI plasmid-encoded impC gene, respectively. Analysis of the R394 and Rts-1 mucB genes revealed that both contain insertions which result in the expression of a truncated inactive MucB protein. While R394 was unable to restore mutagenesis functions to a DeltaumuDC E. coli strain, Rts-1 surprisingly promoted significant levels of MMS-induced SOS mutagenesis, raising the possibility that Rts-1 encodes another, yet unidentified, umu-like homolog.

Koch WH; Fernández de Henestrosa AR; Woodgate R

2000-12-01

353

Identification of mucAB-like homologs on two IncT plasmids, R394 and Rts-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily of lesion-replicating DNA polymerases suggest that they can be broadly divided into four sub-groups comprised of UmuC-like, DinB-like, Rev1-like and Rad30-like proteins. The UmuC-like sub-family is best characterized at the genetic level and sequence analysis of eleven umu orthologs, residing on bacterial chromosomes or on self-transmissible R-plasmids allows further subdivision into five sub-groups (UmuDC, MucAB, ImpAB, RumAB and RulAB) based on amino acid sequence conservation. Some of these orthologs are apparently inactive in situ, but may promote increased mutagenesis and survival when subcloned and expressed from high-copy number plasmids. We were, therefore, interested in devising an assay that would identify umuC-like genes in situ in the absence of a functional assay. To this end, degenerate primers directed towards conserved amino acid regions within the UmuC-like sub-family of DNA polymerases were designed and used to identify mucAB-like operons on the IncT plasmids, R394 and Rts-1.Interestingly, DNA sequence analysis of an approximately 7kb region of R394 identified two LexA-regulated genes immediately downstream of mucAB((R394)) that are similar to the chromosomally-encoded Escherichia coli tus gene and the IncI plasmid-encoded impC gene, respectively. Analysis of the R394 and Rts-1 mucB genes revealed that both contain insertions which result in the expression of a truncated inactive MucB protein. While R394 was unable to restore mutagenesis functions to a DeltaumuDC E. coli strain, Rts-1 surprisingly promoted significant levels of MMS-induced SOS mutagenesis, raising the possibility that Rts-1 encodes another, yet unidentified, umu-like homolog. PMID:11106794

Koch, W H; Fernández de Henestrosa, A R; Woodgate, R

2000-12-20

354

Enhancing Treatment Outcome of Patients at Risk of Treatment Failure: Meta-Analytic and Mega-Analytic Review of a Psychotherapy Quality Assurance System  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Outcome research has documented worsening among a minority of the patient population (5% to 10%). In this study, we conducted a meta-analytic and mega-analytic review of a psychotherapy quality assurance system intended to enhance outcomes in patients at risk of treatment failure. Method: Original data from six major studies conducted…

Shimokawa, Kenichi; Lambert, Michael J.; Smart, David W.

2010-01-01

355

Plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In plasmid pBR327, a fragment 169 b.p. long including promotor p3 of the bla gene has been deleted. The deletional derivative so obtained (pSP2) has been used to construct a recombinant plasmid bearing a fragment of phage ? DNA with the p/sub R/ promotor and the gene of the temperature-sensitive repressor cI. It has been shown that the plasmid vector so constructed (pCE119) with promotor cR performs repressor-cI-controlled transcription of the bla gene, as a result of which induction for an hour at 420C leads to an almost 100-fold increase in the amount of product of the bla gene as compared with that at 320C. The possibility of the use of plasmid cPE119 for the expression of other genes has been demonstrated for the case of the semisynthetic ?-galactosidase gene of E. coli. In this case, on induction of the cells with recombinant plasmid pCEZ12 for 3 hours at 420C, a 300-fold increase in the amount of active ?-galactosidase, as compared with that at 320C, was observed. It is important to point out that under these conditions (at 420C), at least 99% of the cells containing the plasmid retain the phenotype lacZ+, which indicates the stability of the proposed vector system

1986-01-01

356

Plasmid-encoded lysine decarboxylation in Proteus morganii.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a rule, Proteus morganii does not decarboxylate lysine. However, lysine-positive P. morganii strains have been recently described. We suspected a plasmid origin for this atypical character, and we analyzed 14 strains to study this question. Among these strains, 8 yielded lysine-negative segregants after acridine orange or ethidium bromide treatment, and 10 transferred their lysine-positive character to a recipient P. morganii strain. All of the 14 strains analyzed at least segregated or conjugated. Three lysine-positive transconjugants, in turn, segregated lysine-negative variants after ethidium bromide treatment. The eight wild-type lysine-positive strains that segregated lysine-negative subclones contained a large (35 to 45 megadaltons) plasmid detectable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Similarly, the 10 lysine-positive transconjugants contained a plasmid of the same size, whereas P. morganii 1000, the recipient strain, did not contain any detectable plasmid. The large plasmid clearly disappeared in 9 of 11 lysine-negative segregants analyzed. It is concluded that the lysine-positive character of these P. morganii strains is plasmid encoded, and the taxonomical implications are discussed. PMID:6793621

Cornelis, G; Van Bouchaute, M; Wauters, G

1981-10-01

357

Plasmid-encoded lysine decarboxylation in Proteus morganii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a rule, Proteus morganii does not decarboxylate lysine. However, lysine-positive P. morganii strains have been recently described. We suspected a plasmid origin for this atypical character, and we analyzed 14 strains to study this question. Among these strains, 8 yielded lysine-negative segregants after acridine orange or ethidium bromide treatment, and 10 transferred their lysine-positive character to a recipient P. morganii strain. All of the 14 strains analyzed at least segregated or conjugated. Three lysine-positive transconjugants, in turn, segregated lysine-negative variants after ethidium bromide treatment. The eight wild-type lysine-positive strains that segregated lysine-negative subclones contained a large (35 to 45 megadaltons) plasmid detectable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Similarly, the 10 lysine-positive transconjugants contained a plasmid of the same size, whereas P. morganii 1000, the recipient strain, did not contain any detectable plasmid. The large plasmid clearly disappeared in 9 of 11 lysine-negative segregants analyzed. It is concluded that the lysine-positive character of these P. morganii strains is plasmid encoded, and the taxonomical implications are discussed.

Cornelis G; Van Bouchaute M; Wauters G

1981-10-01

358

Phenotypic stability of trp operon recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recombinant plasmids RSF2124-trp and pSC101-trp were examined for their phenotypic stability in Escherichia coli W3110 and its derivatives under various culture conditions. RSF2124-trp and pSC101-trp were stable in a trpAE1 strain. In an amber mutant of the tryptophan repressor gene, RSF2124-trp was fairly stable, whereas pSC101-trp was unstable. All Trp- segregants from the pSC101-trp carrier had lost the entire plasmid. In a mutant carrying the tnaA mutation, RSF2124-trp was unstable in rich media. Most Trp- segregants that appeared under these conditions were deleted in trp genes as well as in the cI gene on the recombinant plasmid. pSC101-trp in this tnaA mutant was also unstable. All Trp- segregants had lost the plasmid. Studies of enzyme activities revealed that the greater the activity of anthranilate synthase and tryptophan synthase in bacteria, the more segregants tended to appear in the stability test. RSF2124 and pSC101 without the trp gene were completely stable in the same bacteria. The apparent instability of bacteria carrying the recombinant plasmid could be explained by the lower growth rate compared with bacteria carrying only the vector plasmid, resulting in the enrichment of Trp- bacteria during culture. PMID:6999123

Imanaka, T; Tsunekawa, H; Aiba, S

1980-05-01

359

Phenotypic stability of trp operon recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recombinant plasmids RSF2124-trp and pSC101-trp were examined for their phenotypic stability in Escherichia coli W3110 and its derivatives under various culture conditions. RSF2124-trp and pSC101-trp were stable in a trpAE1 strain. In an amber mutant of the tryptophan repressor gene, RSF2124-trp was fairly stable, whereas pSC101-trp was unstable. All Trp- segregants from the pSC101-trp carrier had lost the entire plasmid. In a mutant carrying the tnaA mutation, RSF2124-trp was unstable in rich media. Most Trp- segregants that appeared under these conditions were deleted in trp genes as well as in the cI gene on the recombinant plasmid. pSC101-trp in this tnaA mutant was also unstable. All Trp- segregants had lost the plasmid. Studies of enzyme activities revealed that the greater the activity of anthranilate synthase and tryptophan synthase in bacteria, the more segregants tended to appear in the stability test. RSF2124 and pSC101 without the trp gene were completely stable in the same bacteria. The apparent instability of bacteria carrying the recombinant plasmid could be explained by the lower growth rate compared with bacteria carrying only the vector plasmid, resulting in the enrichment of Trp- bacteria during culture.

Imanaka T; Tsunekawa H; Aiba S

1980-05-01

360

Variable residence time vortex combustor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

Melconian, Jerry O. (76 Beaver Rd., Reading, MA 01867)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Mega-landslides in eastern Tibet: Implications for landscape and river profile evolution, and the interpretation of tectonics from topography  

Science.gov (United States)

Field work within the Yalong and Dadu Rivers, two major tributaries of the Yangtze River that dissect the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, indicates that a high frequency of large, deep-seated landslide events, both modern and ancestral, have led to extensive and prolonged river damming throughout each of these deep river gorges. These observations highlight a strong feedback between hillslope processes and channel morphology that is prevalent throughout this landscape. The eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau is a rapidly evolving landscape adjusting to regional and localized surface uplift, climate changes, and large-scale river re-organization through river capture. The impact of mega-landslides introduces another important influence contributing to the transient state of river profiles in the region, further complicating the interpretation of profiles extracted from topographic data and the application of river incision models. The role of mega-landslides must be considered in trying to understand how river profiles can be used to highlight important aspects of the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the plateau margin. Landslides exert a first order control on river profile and valley morphology, and often lead to the formation of strath terraces and bedrock gorges unrelated to long-term bedrock river incision rates. Profile knick-points are consistently related to stretches of river dominated by boulder deposits delivered to the channel by large landslides. Landslide deposits typically armor the bed and force river channels to steepen and narrow. When particularly large, landslides dam the valley and trigger upstream aggradation. River incision sets the pace of landscape lowering, but in eastern Tibet, landslides appear to be significantly inhibiting river incision. We are currently analyzing samples collected in the field to gather age information for various landslides and gain a better understanding of the impact, past and present, of mega-landslides in eastern Tibet river gorges. We are dating various features related to impoundment, such as lake sediments, fill terraces, in-place landslide boulders, using three quaternary dating methods: cosmogenic radio nuclides (CRN), optical stimulated luminescence (OSL), and carbon 14 (14C). This will help in determining the age, and perhaps duration, of individual landslide dam interruptions. Preliminary data indicates that landslide deposits can linger within the fluvial system, inhibiting bedrock incision, for >40,000 years.

Ouimet, W. B.; Whipple, K. X.

2004-12-01

362

Postgraduate year one pharmacy residency program equivalency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2006, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) charged the Task Force on Residency Equivalency to define the professional experience expected of a clinically mature practitioner that would meet or exceed the knowledge and skills of an accredited postgraduate year one residency-trained pharmacist. In this commentary, the Task Force discusses both the qualitative and quantitative components of documentation by means of a residency equivalency portfolio. The potential roles of academia, pharmacy professional organizations, and employers and the possible barriers to an equivalency process are addressed. This commentary lays the foundation for establishing a residency equivalency process that could promote the growth and development of existing and future residency programs and allow qualified practitioners to demonstrate their capabilities. The ACCP implores invested stakeholders to take an active part in this collaborative effort as the profession transitions toward residency training as a prerequisite for all pharmacists providing direct patient care by 2020.

Jordan CJ; Wall GC; Lobo B; Wilkinson J; Creekmore FM; Sorrells K; Hartis C; Miller S; Uchal L

2009-12-01

363

[Residency in family medicine: problems and solutions.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the problems encountered by residents during training and the solutions they proposed. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Family practice program at Sherbrooke University. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight residents in the Family practice program between 1999 and 2000. METHOD: We used the nominal group technique with four groups of participants. Then we held five 3-hour discussion groups to explore difficulties and solutions in depth. Finally, data were validated with a written questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: At least 20% of respondents confirmed 65 difficulties and 61 solutions. Three major themes emerged: the many demands of the residence program, residents' personal experience of the program, and the lack of time for personal life. CONCLUSION: Publication of these results could help residents develop proactive adaptive strategies to deal with the stress of their training programs. Certain adjustments will be made by the program administration to make it easier for residents to manage their stress.

Boulé R; Girard G

2003-01-01

364

Isolation of large bacterial plasmids and characterization of the P2 incompatibility group plasmids pMG1 and pMG5.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large plasmids from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were routinely and consistently isolated using a procedure which does not require ultracentrifugation but includes steps designed to separate large-plasmid DNA from...

Hansen, J B; Olsen, R H

365

Curing the Plasmid pMC1 from the Poly (?-glutamic Acid) Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 Strain Using Plasmid Incompatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 is a glutamate-independent poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) producing strain which consists of a circular chromosome (3,995,227 bp) and an endogenous plasmid pMC1 (6,758 bp). The study of the function of native plasmid and the genome-size reduction of the B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain requires elimination of the endogenous plasmid. Traditional plasmid-curing procedures using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or acridine orange combined with heat treatment have been shown to be ineffective in this strain. Plasmid incompatibility is an effective method for curing which has been studied before. In our research, the hypothetical Rep protein gene and the origin of replication of the endogenous plasmid were cloned into the temperature-sensitive vector yielding the incompatible plasmid pKSV7-rep-ori. This plasmid was transformed into LL3 by electroporation. The analysis of the strain bearing incompatible plasmids after incubation at 30 °C for 30 generations showed the production of plasmid cured strains. High frequency of elimination was achieved with more than 93 % of detected strains showing to be plasmid-cured. This is the first report describing plasmid cured in a ?-PGA producing strain using this method. The plasmid-cured strains showed an increase of ?-PGA production by 6 % and led to a yield of 4.159 g/l, compared to 3.918 g/l in control and cell growth increased during the early stages of the exponential phase. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization revealed that the ?-PGA produced by plasmid-cured strains and the wild strains were identical in terms of molecular weight. What is more, the further study of plasmid function showed that curing of the endogenous plasmid did not affect its sporulation efficiency. PMID:23873640

Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Jingqiang; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shufang

2013-07-20

366

Mega city traffic emissions in environmental studies: IPCC observations and simulation scheme involving sampling distributions for missing data problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts to develop reliable models to gauge the level of atmospheric pollution in various regions. In particular, it considers the situation in the mega-city of Karachi as a case study. The importance of systematization of observations/experiment and the size of a latest in any implementation programme for successful scientific forecasts requires imputation of missing data. The paper proceeds doing the same. In this regard we will compare the classical and modern estimation techniques. We will then propose a new kind of pseudo random number generator for standard bootstrap confidence interval calculations. In this way we will be able to get reasonable confidence intervals for smaller number of bootstrap samples. Finally, we will develop a model for long term forecasting of annual mean smoke concentration due to traffic in Karachi. (author)

2005-01-01

367

Federal activities -- The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s {open_quotes}Mega-NOPR{close_quotes} and other related events  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on a major effort by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to provide greater access to the nation`s electric power transmission grid. FERC has proposed a rule, commonly called the {open_quotes}Mega-NOPR{close_quotes}, which would require most utilities owning or controlling transmission lines to: (1) file non- discriminatory, open access wholesale transmission tariffs and (2) take transmission service for their own wholesale sales and purchases of electric energy at the filed rate. The proposed rule would also allow recovery of stranded costs associated with transmission access. While the rule would allow greater access to the transmission system by all entities and facilitate competition, there are significant concerns regarding environmental impacts and payment for costs generated by the changes in the system. This paper also reviews California`s recent electric industry restructuring decision and upcoming FERC activities to implement the decision.

Grueneich, D.M. [Grueneich Resource Advocates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

368

On the Strength of the Carbon Nanotube-Based Space Elevator Cable: From Nano- to Mega-Mechanics  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper different deterministic and statistical models, based on new quantized theories proposed by the author, are presented to estimate the strength of a real, thus defective, space elevator cable. The cable, of ~100 megameters in length, is composed by carbon nanotubes, ~100 nanometers long: thus, its design involves from the nano- to the mega-mechanics. The predicted strengths are extensively compared with the experiments and the atomistic simulations on carbon nanotubes available in the literature. All these approaches unequivocally suggest that the megacable strength will be reduced by a factor at least of ~70% with respect to the theoretical nanotube strength, today (erroneously) assumed in the cable design. The reason is the unavoidable presence of defects in a so huge cable. Preliminary in silicon tensile experiments confirm the same finding. The deduced strength reduction is sufficient to pose in doubt the effective realization of the space elevator, that if built as today designed will surely...

Pugno, N M

2006-01-01

369

RLCYC 75?:?a 2 kW electrically calibrated laser calorimeter designed for Laser MegaJoule diagnostics calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

RLCYC 75 is a new electrically calibrated laser calorimeter specially manufactured by Laser Metrology to calibrate energy diagnostics within the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. It consists of an optical cavity cooled by a hydraulic system. The system is designed to provide 1 µm wavelength power laser measurements with uncertainty less than 1% at 2 kW and traceability to the International System of Units (SI). In this paper, the accuracy of RLCYC 75 measurements is studied. More precisely, three points are detailed: instrumentation uncertainty estimation, equivalence between optical and electrical supply and light absorption. To this end, electrical calibration campaigns and power laser measurement campaigns are conducted. Moreover, thermal and optical models are developed. Results show that RLCYC 75 design and instrumentation are efficient enough to reach the goal of relative uncertainty of about 1% at 2 kW. RLCYC 75 will become the 2 kW laser power primary standard for LMJ applications.

Crespy, C.; Villate, D.; Soscia, M.; Coste, F.; Andre, R.

2013-02-01

370

Antecedents and Consequences of Market Orientation: a Brazilian Meta-Analysis and an International Mega-Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Market orientation has emerged as a significant antecedent of organizational performance and is presumed tocontribute to the long-term success of a firm. The growing number of academic studies on market orientationand the mixed findings they have reported complicate the efforts among managers and academics to identify the real antecedents and outcomes of this construct. We have conducted a Brazilian meta-analysis, aggregating a sample size of 4,537 in 27 papers. The findings suggest that the relationship between market orientation and business performance is positive and strong (r = .39). We have also conducted an international mega-analysis, aggregating a sample size of seven meta-analyses on market orientation. The results show that there is a positive, strong and consistent international relationship between market orientation and performance across countries (r = .33).

Valter Afonso Vieira

2010-01-01

371

Use of social media by residency program directors for resident selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Pharmacy residency program directors' attitudes and opinions regarding the use of social media in residency recruitment and selection were studied. METHODS: A 24-item questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, revised, and sent to 996 residency program directors via SurveyMonkey.com. Demographic, social media usage, and opinions on social media data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 454 residency program directors completed the study (response rate, 46.4%). The majority of respondents were women (58.8%), were members of Generation X (75.4%), and worked in a hospital or health system (80%). Most respondents (73%) rated themselves as either nonusers or novice users of social media. Twenty percent indicated that they had viewed a pharmacy residency applicant's social media information. More than half (52%) had encountered e-professionalism issues, including questionable photos and posts revealing unprofessional attitudes, and 89% strongly agreed or agreed that information voluntarily published online was fair game for judgments on character, attitudes, and professionalism. Only 4% of respondents had reviewed applicants' profiles for residency selection decisions. Of those respondents, 52% indicated that the content had no effect on resident selection. Over half of residency program directors were unsure whether they will use social media information for future residency selection decisions. CONCLUSION: Residency program directors from different generations had different views regarding social media information and its use in residency applicant selections. Residency program directors anticipated using social media information to aid in future decisions for resident selection and hiring.

Cain J; Scott DR; Smith K

2010-10-01

372

Problems in the current psychiatry residency training program in Croatia: residents' perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of the current residency training in psychiatry in Croatia using parameters of professional achievements of residents and their subjective evaluations of the residency training that is being offered. 66 residents from 15 Croatian psychiatric hospitals, clinics and wards in general hospitals fulfilled the questionnaire constructed to obtain information about the profile of psychiatry residents in Croatia, parameters of educational quality and evaluation of offered residency training as seen by residents. We interviewed 89% of all residents that had a trainee status in September and October 2006 in Croatia (66 out of 74). Study results indicate that Croatian psychiatry residents are derived from a pool of very good medical students and the majority is engaged in postgraduate studies and research activities and shows high interest in specific psychiatric fields such as psychotherapy and clinical psychiatry. Most of participants are only partially satisfied with the residency training that is being offered and feel that most problems reside from the lack of practical psychotherapy, the inefficiency of the mentorship system and the lack of funding resources. The results of this study revealed the major problems of psychiatry residents in Croatia. Following those results, we will perform the study that would include mentors and supervisors from different Croatian psychiatric centers. That could enable the development of specific interventions with aim to improve current residency training in Croatia.

Kuzman MR; Jovanovi? N; Vidovi? D; Margeti? BA; Mayer N; Zeli? SB; Lasi? D; Nadj S; Simurina AB; Slijepcevi? MK; Bolanca M; Skoci? M; Kati? P; Soski? T; Plestina S

2009-03-01

373

The effects of herbivory by a mega- and mesoherbivore on tree recruitment in sand forest, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herbivory by megaherbivores on woody vegetation in general is well documented; however studies focusing on the individual browsing effects of both mega- and mesoherbivore species on recruitment are scarce. We determined these effects for elephant Loxodonta africana and nyala Tragelaphus angasii in the critically endangered Sand Forest, which is restricted to east southern Africa, and is conserved mainly in small reserves with high herbivore densities. Replicated experimental treatments (400 m(2)) in a single forest patch were used to exclude elephant, or both elephant and nyala. In each treatment, all woody individuals were identified to species and number of stems, diameter and height were recorded. Results of changes after two years are presented. Individual tree and stem densities had increased in absence of nyala and elephant. Seedling recruitment (based on height and diameter) was inhibited by nyala, and by elephant and nyala in combination, thereby preventing recruitment into the sapling stage. Neither nyala or elephant significantly reduced sapling densities. Excluding both elephant and nyala in combination enhanced recruitment of woody species, as seedling densities increased, indicating that forest regeneration is impacted by both mega- and mesoherbivores. The Sand Forest tree community approached an inverse J-shaped curve, with the highest abundance in the smaller size classes. However, the larger characteristic tree species in particular, such as Newtonia hildebrandtii, were missing cohorts in the middle size classes. When setting management goals to conserve habitats of key importance, conservation management plans need to consider the total herbivore assemblage present and the resulting browsing effects on vegetation. Especially in Africa, where the broadest suite of megaherbivores still persists, and which is currently dealing with the 'elephant problem', the individual effects of different herbivore species on recruitment and dynamics of forests and woodlands are important issues which need conclusive answers.

Lagendijk DD; Mackey RL; Page BR; Slotow R

2011-01-01

374

Thioredoxin-like proteins in F and other plasmid systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative plasmid transfers from donor to recipient bacterium. During this process, single-stranded plasmid DNA is actively and specifically transported from the cytoplasm of the donor, through a large membrane-spanning assembly known as the pore complex, and into the cytoplasm of the recipient. In Gram negative bacteria, construction of the pore requires localization of a subset of structural and catalytically active proteins to the bacterial periplasm. Unlike the cytoplasm, the periplasm contains proteins that promote disulfide bond formation within or between cysteine-containing proteins. To ensure proper protein folding and assembly, bacteria employ periplasmic redox systems for thiol oxidation, disulfide bond/sulfenic acid reduction, and disulfide bond isomerization. Recent data suggest that plasmid-based proteins belonging to the disulfide bond formation family play an integral role in the conjugative process by serving as mediators in folding and/or assembly of pore complex proteins. Here we report the identification of 165 thioredoxin-like family members across 89 different plasmid systems. Using phylogenetic analysis, all but nine family members were categorized into thioredoxin-like subfamilies. In addition, we discuss the diversity, conservation, and putative roles of thioredoxin-like proteins in plasmid systems, which include homologs of DsbA, DsbB, DsbC, DsbD, DsbG, and CcmG from Escherichia coli, TlpA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Com1 from Coxiella burnetii, as well as TrbB and TraF from plasmid F, and the absolute conservation of a disulfide isomerase in plasmids containing homologs of the transfer proteins TraH, TraN, and TraU.

Hemmis CW; Schildbach JF

2013-09-01

375

Thioredoxin-like proteins in F and other plasmid systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative plasmid transfers from donor to recipient bacterium. During this process, single-stranded plasmid DNA is actively and specifically transported from the cytoplasm of the donor, through a large membrane-spanning assembly known as the pore complex, and into the cytoplasm of the recipient. In Gram negative bacteria, construction of the pore requires localization of a subset of structural and catalytically active proteins to the bacterial periplasm. Unlike the cytoplasm, the periplasm contains proteins that promote disulfide bond formation within or between cysteine-containing proteins. To ensure proper protein folding and assembly, bacteria employ periplasmic redox systems for thiol oxidation, disulfide bond/sulfenic acid reduction, and disulfide bond isomerization. Recent data suggest that plasmid-based proteins belonging to the disulfide bond formation family play an integral role in the conjugative process by serving as mediators in folding and/or assembly of pore complex proteins. Here we report the identification of 165 thioredoxin-like family members across 89 different plasmid systems. Using phylogenetic analysis, all but nine family members were categorized into thioredoxin-like subfamilies. In addition, we discuss the diversity, conservation, and putative roles of thioredoxin-like proteins in plasmid systems, which include homologs of DsbA, DsbB, DsbC, DsbD, DsbG, and CcmG from Escherichia coli, TlpA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Com1 from Coxiella burnetii, as well as TrbB and TraF from plasmid F, and the absolute conservation of a disulfide isomerase in plasmids containing homologs of the transfer proteins TraH, TraN, and TraU. PMID:23721857

Hemmis, Casey W; Schildbach, Joel F

2013-05-28

376

Experience of cognitively intact residents cohabitating with residents with dementia in long-term care facilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A qualitative research approach was used to explore the life experience of cognitively intact (CI) residents cohabitating with residents with dementia in mixed placement facilities. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 21 CI residents from 6 long-term care facilities in southern Taiwan. Using a semi-structured interview guide, data were analyzed by content analysis. Two themes emerged: emotional diversity and coping. Emotional diversity described the wide range of responses, both positive and negative, expressed by the participants. Coping referred to the CI residents' ability to adapt to behaviors exhibited by the residents with dementia and the environment. Results of this study provide nurses and other health care providers with an understanding of the life experience of CI residents who live among residents with dementia. An understanding can lead to improved quality of life and positive social interactions among CI residents and those with dementia. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(9), 34-41.].

Cheng WY; Hu CJ; Ou-Yang WC; Kaas M; Wang JJ

2013-09-01

377

Radiology resident teaching skills improvement: impact of a resident teacher training program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Teaching is considered an essential competency for residents to achieve during their training. Instruction in teaching skills may assist radiology residents in becoming more effective teachers and increase their overall satisfaction with teaching. The purposes of this study were to survey radiology residents' teaching experiences during residency and to assess perceived benefits following participation in a teaching skills development course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were radiology residents with membership in the American Alliance of Academic Chief Residents in Radiology or the Siemens AUR Radiology Resident Academic Development Program who participated in a 1.5-hour workshop on teaching skills development at the 2010 Association of University Radiologists meeting. Participants completed a self-administered, precourse questionnaire that addressed their current teaching strategies, as well as the prevalence and structure of teaching skills training opportunities at their institutions. A second postcourse questionnaire enabled residents to evaluate the seminar and assessed new knowledge and skill acquisition. RESULTS: Seventy-eight residents completed the precourse and postcourse questionnaires. The vast majority of respondents indicated that they taught medical students (72 of 78 [92.3%]). Approximately 20% of residency programs (17 of 78) provided residents with formal didactic programs on teaching skills. Fewer than half (46.8%) of the resident respondents indicated that they received feedback on their teaching from attending physicians (36 of 77), and only 18% (13 of 78) routinely gave feedback to their own learners. All of the course participants agreed or strongly agreed that this workshop was helpful to them as teachers. CONCLUSIONS: Few residency programs had instituted resident teacher training curricula. A resident teacher training workshop was perceived as beneficial by the residents, and they reported improvement in their teaching skills.

Donovan A

2011-04-01

378

Stability of colicin plasmids in continuous culture: mathematical model and analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteriocin plasmids may be useful in preventing plasmid instability because the bacteriocin they produce selectively kills otherwise identical bacterial cells lacking the plasmid. This capability may allow plasmid-bearing cells to persist despite the problems of growth rate depression and segregational plasmid loss which often lead to displacement by plasmid-free cells.In order to determine the conditions under which bacteriocin plasmids can prevent instability, we develop and analyze a mathematical model for the growth of colicin plasmid-bearing E. coli in continuous culture. Model behavior compares successfully with experimental results of Adams et al. (1979) [1]. Dependence of the system dynamic behavior on key parameters is elucidated and a simple parameter criterion for prevention of plasmid instability is derived. The possibility of instability prevention is found to be extremely sensitive to dilution rate.

Lauffenburger DA

1985-03-01

379

Urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urinary incontinence is a multi-factorial condition that has a high impact on older persons living in nursing homes. While urinary incontinence is common, only a small percentage of nursing home residents have an official diagnosis. Factors influencing urinary incontinence in this population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents and to study the factors associated with urinary incontinence in this population. Residents from six different nursing homes were included in this study. Data on sex, age, medication, comorbid illnesses, urinary incontinence and the use of absorbent pads was collected. Barthel`s Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) was used to estimate residents’ functional levels. Post-voiding residual urine was measured by means of a portable ultrasound. A questionnaire was completed by the nursing staff for each of the residents. In total, 173 residents participated in the study. One hundred and twenty-two residents (69%) were incontinent for urine and 144 used absorbent pads (83%). Fourteen percent of residents used absorbent pads ‘just to make sure’. They did not have a history of urinary incontinence. Low ADL score, dementia and urinary tract infection were significantly associated with incontinence for urine. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing homes is high. Absorbent products are frequently used without a history of urinary incontinence. Physical impairment, dementia and urinary tract infections are significantly associated with urinary incontinence.

Liv Heidi Skotnes; Ragnhild Omli; Ulla Romild; Ove Hellzèn; Esther Kuhry

2012-01-01

380

An Analysis of Resident Assistant Work Motivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identified differences in work motivation factors of resident assistants. Responses indicated that gender, length of experience, and hall assignment have statistically significant effects on work motivation of resident assistants. Suggestions are included for housing professionals on how to maximize the potential motivational…

Bierman, Susan E.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-01-01

382

Mobile technology in radiology resident education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The authors hypothesized that ownership of a mobile electronic device would result in more time spent learning radiology. Current trends in radiology residents' studying habits, their use of electronic and printed radiology learning resources, and how much of the funds allotted to them are being used toward printed vs electronic education tools were assessed in this study. METHODS: A survey study was conducted among radiology residents across the United States from June 13 to July 5, 2011. Program directors listed in the Association of Program Directors in Radiology e-mail list server received an e-mail asking for residents to participate in an online survey. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions and assessed the type of institution, the levels of training of the respondents, and book funds allocated to residents. It also assessed the residents' study habits, access to portable devices, and use of printed and electronic radiology resources. RESULTS: Radiology residents are adopters of new technologies, with 74% owning smart phones and 37% owning tablet devices. Respondents spend nearly an equal amount of time learning radiology from printed textbooks as they do from electronic resources. Eighty-one percent of respondents believe that they would spend more time learning radiology if provided with tablet devices. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable use of online and electronic resources and mobile devices among the current generation of radiology residents. Benefits, such as more study time, may be obtained by radiology programs that incorporate tablet devices into the education of their residents.

Korbage AC; Bedi HS

2012-06-01

383

Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P

2011-01-01

384

[Induced mutagenesis of plasmid and chromosomal genes inserted into plasmid DNA. I. The mutagenic action of radiation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the results of treating plasmid DNA in vitro with mutagens, to obtain mutations both in plasmid genes and chromosomal genes comprised within the plasmid, thus avoiding disorganization characteristic of in vivo mutagenesis. The model system is represented by DNA of RSF2124 responsible for colicine E1 synthesis and resistance to ampicillin. Col- mutants were looked for after exposure to UV- and gamma-irradiation. The lethal effect was estimated as inactivation of the ampicillin resistance marker. After reisolation from mutant transformant of the plasmid DNA, the novel character and resistance to ampicillin proved to retain in the course of subsequent transformations and passages of transformed colonies, suggesting the mutational nature of the changes. Exposure of RSF2124 to short-wave UV-irradiation (lambda = 254 nm) produced a pronounced mutagenic effect: the relative quantity of Col- mutants under optimal conditions of mutagenesis increased about 10 times. In the case of W-reactivation (additional UV-irradiation of C600 wild type cells) of lethal lesions, a 95% reliable increase in mutagenic effect was observed. Significant enhancement of mutagenesis (about 4-fold) was detected when only recipient cells were exposed to low doses of UV (the so-called indirect UV mutagenesis). Thus, with regard to W- and indirect UV mutagenesis, the plasmid DNA behaves like DNA of temperate phages which suggests their evolutionary relationship. Treatment of plasmid DNA with acridine orange prior to UV, only protected from lethal lesions. Gamma-irradiation (60Co) at the dose producing 100-fold inactivation, increased the yield of Col- mutants by one order of magnitude. The presence of RSF2124 plasmid in a cell does not affect its UV sensitivity.

Esipova VV; Vedunova SL; Kriviski? AS

1984-04-01

385

[Induced mutagenesis of plasmid and chromosomal genes inserted into plasmid DNA. I. The mutagenic action of radiation].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the results of treating plasmid DNA in vitro with mutagens, to obtain mutations both in plasmid genes and chromosomal genes comprised within the plasmid, thus avoiding disorganization characteristic of in vivo mutagenesis. The model system is represented by DNA of RSF2124 responsible for colicine E1 synthesis and resistance to ampicillin. Col- mutants were looked for after exposure to UV- and gamma-irradiation. The lethal effect was estimated as inactivation of the ampicillin resistance marker. After reisolation from mutant transformant of the plasmid DNA, the novel character and resistance to ampicillin proved to retain in the course of subsequent transformations and passages of transformed colonies, suggesting the mutational nature of the changes. Exposure of RSF2124 to short-wave UV-irradiation (lambda = 254 nm) produced a pronounced mutagenic effect: the relative quantity of Col- mutants under optimal conditions of mutagenesis increased about 10 times. In the case of W-reactivation (additional UV-irradiation of C600 wild type cells) of lethal lesions, a 95% reliable increase in mutagenic effect was observed. Significant enhancement of mutagenesis (about 4-fold) was detected when only recipient cells were exposed to low doses of UV (the so-called indirect UV mutagenesis). Thus, with regard to W- and indirect UV mutagenesis, the plasmid DNA behaves like DNA of temperate phages which suggests their evolutionary relationship. Treatment of plasmid DNA with acridine orange prior to UV, only protected from lethal lesions. Gamma-irradiation (60Co) at the dose producing 100-fold inactivation, increased the yield of Col- mutants by one order of magnitude. The presence of RSF2124 plasmid in a cell does not affect its UV sensitivity. PMID:6373497

Esipova, V V; Vedunova, S L; Kriviski?, A S

1984-04-01

386

Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

387

Transformation of Acetobacter xylinum with plasmid DNA by electroporation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic analysis of Acetobacter xylinum, a cellulose-synthesizing bacterium, has been limited by lack of a successful transformation method. Transformation of A. xylinum was attempted using two broad-host-range plasmids (pUCD2 and pRK248) and a variety of transformation methods. Methods using CaCl2, freeze/thaw treatments, and polyethylene glycol were unsuccessful. Transformation of a cellulose-negative strain of A. xylinum with plasmid DNA has been achieved with high-voltage electroporation. Electroporation conditions of 25 microF capacitance, 2.5 kV, 400 ohms resistance, and pulse lengths of 6-8 ms were applied to a cell/DNA mixture in a 0.2-cm cuvette. Plasmid pUCD2 transformed at an efficiency of 10(6)-10(7) transformants/micrograms DNA and pRK248 yielded 10(5) transformants/micrograms DNA. The frequency of transformation increased linearly with increasing DNA concentration, while transformation efficiency remained constant. pUCD2 was recovered from transformants following chloramphenicol amplification and observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both plasmids could be reisolated from Escherichia coli after back-transformation with alkaline lysis DNA preparations from Acetobacter transformants. Electro-transformation of A. xylinum with plasmid DNA suggests its potential use for analysis of the A. xylinum genome.

Hall PE; Anderson SM; Johnston DM; Cannon RE

1992-11-01

388

Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. Results We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+dcm+E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAMG205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. Conclusions E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

Guss Adam M; Olson Daniel G; Caiazza Nicky C; Lynd Lee R

2012-01-01