WorldWideScience

Sample records for mega plasmid resident

  1. Transporting Mega-Events to Sustainability: Assessing behaviors and attitudes of tourists and residents to promote sustainable mobility for 2014 Fifa World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes Malhado, Acácia Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The opportunity to host a sport mega-event such as the FIFA World Cup has the aptitude to prosper Brazil, in particular the city of Manaus, in three ways. Firstly, there is the planning phase which involves preparatory activities to receive the FWC such as the infrastructures improvement; secondly, the legacy phase which is accounted by long-term benefits; as it is the case of faster development and improvement of an efficient public transport system that is likely to benefit the daily travel...

  2. Conduction of pEC22, a plasmid coding for MR.EcoT22I, mediated by a resident Tn3-like transposon, Tn5396.

    OpenAIRE

    Elhai, J; Cai, Y.(SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 94025, Menlo Park, California, USA); Wolk, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    pEC22 is a small plasmid that encodes the restriction-modification system MR.EcoT22I. Restriction and functional analysis of the plasmid identified the positions of genes encoding that system. The plasmid is able to be conducted by conjugal plasmids, a process mediated by a transposon contained within pEC22. This cryptic transposon, called Tn5396, was isolated from pEC22 and partially sequenced. The sequence of Tn5396 is for the most part typical of transposons of the Tn3 family and is most s...

  3. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  4. Structure of Haloacetate-Catabolic IncP-1? Plasmid pUO1 and Genetic Mobility of Its Residing Haloacetate-Catabolic Transposon

    OpenAIRE

    Sota, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Haruhiko; Tsuda, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    The self-transmissible plasmid pUO1 from Delftia acidovorans strain B carries two haloacetate-catabolic transposons, TnHad1 and TnHad2, and the mer genes for resistance to mercury. The complete 67,066-bp sequence of pUO1 revealed that the mer genes were also carried by two Tn402/Tn5053-like transposons, Tn4671 and Tn4672, and that the pUO1 backbone regions shared 99% identity to those of the archetype IncP-1? plasmid R751. Comparison of pUO1 with three other IncP-1? plasmids illustrated the i...

  5. Shuttle plasmids for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens.

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, C H; Heefner, D L; Evans, R. J.; B. J. Kopp; Yarus, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Small plasmids which replicate in both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens were made by recombining E. coli plasmid pBR322 with three different small (less than 4 kilobases) plasmids native to C. perfringens. Subsequently, two homologous, though distinct, tetracycline resistance determinants (tet) from other C. perfringens plasmids were cloned into them. Both tet systems made E. coli resistant to at least 5 micrograms of tetracycline per ml when resident on the shuttle plasmids. The ...

  6. Muonium and MEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1986-10-01

    Two types of experiments on muonium are described. The first measures the hyperfine structure interval in muonium, and the second measures the Lamb shift. Another type of experiment is described which searches for the transition (..mu../sup +/e/sup -/)..-->..(..mu../sup -/e/sup +/). The MEGA experiment is then discussed which searches for the reaction ..mu.. ..-->.. e + ..gamma... 13 figs., 3 refs. (LEW)

  7. (O)Mega Split

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, Karim; Goodsell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on the supersymmetry scale, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above the supersymmetry scale barely constrains the model - in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry - and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, ...

  8. Construction and Use of Flow Cytometry Optimized Plasmid-Sensor Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Oregaard, Gunnar; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the stability of plasmids in bacterial populations is traditionally performed by isolating a large number of clones followed by screening for the presence of plasmids by replica transfer to plasmid-selective agar plates. This is often a laborious task, especially when the intrinsic stability of the plasmid is high. The method presented here relies on a phenotypic (green fluorescence protein) marker, which is switched on if the host bacteria loses the residing plasmid. The incorporati...

  9. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart; Raymann, Kasie; Soler, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Many plasmids have been described in Euryarchaeota, one of the three major archaeal phyla, most of them in salt-loving haloarchaea and hyperthermophilic Thermococcales. These plasmids resemble bacterial plasmids in terms of size (from small plasmids encoding only one gene up to large megaplasmids) and replication mechanisms (rolling circle or theta). Some of them are related to viral genomes and form a more or less continuous sequence space including many integrated elements. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota have been useful for designing efficient genetic tools for these microorganisms. In addition, they have also been used to probe the topological state of plasmids in species with or without DNA gyrase and/or reverse gyrase. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota encode both DNA replication proteins recruited from their hosts and novel families of DNA replication proteins. Euryarchaeota form an interesting playground to test evolutionary hypotheses on the origin and evolution of viruses and plasmids, since a robust phylogeny is available for this phylum. Preliminary studies have shown that for different plasmid families, plasmids share a common gene pool and coevolve with their hosts. They are involved in gene transfer, mostly between plasmids and viruses present in closely related species, but rarely between cells from distantly related archaeal lineages. With few exceptions (e.g., plasmids carrying gas vesicle genes), most archaeal plasmids seem to be cryptic. Interestingly, plasmids and viral genomes have been detected in extracellular membrane vesicles produced by Thermococcales, suggesting that these vesicles could be involved in the transfer of viruses and plasmids between cells. PMID:26104461

  10. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to all photovoltaic and concentrator flexible blanket technologies, and can readily accommodate standard multijunction and emerging ultra-lightweight IMM (inverted metamorphic) photovoltaic flexible blanket assemblies, as well as ENTECHs Stretched Lens Array (SLA) and DSSs (Deployable Space Systems) FACT, which allows for cost reduction at the array level.

  11. MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gwyn, Stephen. D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to ...

  12. Plasmid Mediated Chromate Resistance in Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Sultan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic basis and mechanism of chromate resistance in chromate resistant bacteria, conjugal transfer as well as curing of plasmids in these bacteria and its effect on chromium uptake are being investigated. From the effluent of Shafiq Tannery, Kasur, Pakistan, four bacterial strains STCr-1, STCr-2, STCr-3 and STCr-4 which could endure 40 mg mL-1 of potassium chromate in nutrient agar medium were isolated. All of them were gram negative, aerobic and motile rods. One strain STCr-1 was identified as Ochrobactrum species by 16S rRNA gene sequence homology. Each strain harboured a single conjugative plasmid, which conferred resistance to chromate. Maximum plasmid transfer was recorded after 24 h of mating except for plasmid residing in STCr-3 (pSH1322, which transferred maximally after 16 h of mating. The plasmids harboring STCr-1 (pSH1320, STCr-3 (pSH1322 and STCr-4 (pSH1323 manifested highest transfer frequency at donor:recipient ratio 1, while plasmid resident of STCr-2 (pSH1321 preferred donor:recipient ratio 5. Transfer frequency of plasmids pSH1320 and pSH1322 was maximal at 28°C and that of pSH1321 and pSH1323 at 37°C. Optimum pH for plasmid transfer was 8 for these plasmids except pSH1320, which opted for pH 6 or 7. Curing of chromate resistant plasmids from these strains was achieved with SDS at high temperature and curing of plasmid was associated with the loss of chromate resistance phenotype. A comparison of Cr uptake by the parental strains and their cured derivatives revealed that plasmids in these strains express high level resistance to chromate by exerting stringent control on the accumulation/uptake of Cr.

  13. Plasmid segregation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that ensure ordered plasmid segregation prior to cell division. par loci come in two types: those that encode actin-like ATPases and those that encode deviant Walker-type ATPases. ParM, the actin-like ATPase of plasmid R1, forms dynamic filaments that segregate plasmids paired at mid-cell to daughter cells. Like microtubules, ParM filaments exhibit dynamic instability (i.e., catastrophic decay) whose regulation is an important component of the DN...

  14. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  15. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, A J

    1995-01-01

    Among eukaryotes, plasmids have been found in fungi and plants but not in animals. Most plasmids are mitochondrial. In filamentous fungi, plasmids are commonly encountered in isolates from natural populations. Individual populations may show a predominance of one type, but some plasmids have a global distribution, often crossing species boundaries. Surveys have shown that strains can contain more than one type of plasmid and that different types appear to be distributed independently. In cros...

  16. The Mega-journals are coming!

    OpenAIRE

    Frantsvåg, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    Mega-journals er et nytt begrep og en ny realitet innen vitenskapelige tidsskrifter – selv om de i virkeligheten ikke lenger er tidsskrifter, men artikkeldatabaser. Dette startet med PLoS ONE, som i dag er verdens største tidsskrift målt i antall artikler per år – og det vokser stadig. Fortsetter veksten vil PLoS ONE om få år være verdens eneste STM-tidsskrift. Flere mega-journals er nå startet opp – flere begynte/begynner sin virksomhet i år. Disse tidsskriftene vil trolig medføre drastiske ...

  17. UNITY OF MICRO- AND MEGA WORLD ???????? ?????- ? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafiatullina O. A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the arguments of mod-ern physicists, substantiates the position of the proof of the unity of micro and mega world, is the co-evolution of self-organizing dissipative structures, tak-ing into account the impact of micro and mega factors. The author points out on the features of synergy, which using the linearity and nonlinearity in the the-ory expresses the aspects of material unity of the world, linked to the general properties of self-development of complex systems. The universe is seen as a dissipative system with periodically removable elements (elementary dissipative systems

  18. Heat Curing of a Sym Plasmid in a Fast-Growing Rhizobium sp. That Is Able to Nodulate Legumes and the Nonlegume Parasponia sp

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Genes involved in nodulation of both legumes and the nonlegume Parasponia sp., as well as nitrogenase genes, reside on a large plasmid in a fast-growing Rhizobium sp. from Lablab purpureus. This plasmid can be cured by incubation at elevated temperatures and can be mobilized by the P1 group plasmid RP1::Tn501.

  19. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  20. The MEGA Advanced Compton Telescope Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Kanbach, G; Schönfelder, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Zoglauer, A

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy (MEGA) telescope is to improve sensitivity at medium gamma-ray energies (0.4-50 MeV) by at least an order of magnitude over that of COMPTEL. This will be achieved with a new compact design that allows for a very wide field of view, permitting a sensitive all-sky survey and the monitoring of transient and variable sources. The key science objectives for MEGA include the investigation of cosmic high-energy particle accelerators, studies of nucleosynthesis sites using gamma-ray lines, and determination of the large-scale structure of galactic and cosmic diffuse background emission. MEGA records and images gamma-ray events by completely tracking both Compton and pair creation interactions in a tracker of double-sided silicon strip detectors and a calorimeter of CsI crystals able to resolve in three dimensions. We present initial laboratory calibration results from a small prototype MEGA telescope.

  1. Indian manpower for mega nuclear project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "India is supplying critical scientific manpower and high-tech components needed for building a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - an accelerator used in particle physics research - a mega scientific project of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) worth billions of dollars" (1/2 page).

  2. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the successful propagation and long-term continued existence of these extra-chromosomal elements is extensive. Apart from the accessory genetic elements that may provide plasmid-harboring cells a selective advantage, special focus is placed on the mechanisms conjugative plasmids employ to ensure their stable maintenance in the host cell. These importantly include the ability to self-mobilize in a process termed conjugative transfer, which may occur across species barriers. Other plasmid stabilizing mechanisms include the multimer resolution system, active partitioning, and post-segregational-killing of plasmid-free cells. Finally, various molecular adaptations of plasmids to better match the genetic background of their bacterial host cell will be described.

  3. Mega events as a pretext for infrastructural development: the case of the All African Games Athletes Village, Alexandra, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Ashley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of mega events in the Global South has become a symbol of prestige and national pride. From the hosting of international mega events such as the world cup, to regional events like the Commonwealth Games, developing nations are hosting mega events frequently and on a massive scale. Often used as a justification for this escapade in hosting a mega event is the purposed infrastructural legacy that will remain after the event. From the bid documents of the London Olympics to the Delhi Common Wealth Games, the pretext of infrastructural legacy is cited as a legitimate reason for spending the billions of dollars needed for hosting the event. This paper looks at this justification in the context of the All Africa Games which was hosted in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1999. It examines how the legacy infrastructure from this event has been utilised as a social housing development and how the billions of dollars spent on the infrastructural legacy of the games has been used by local residence of the city. The vast majority of the current residence of the All Africa Games Athletes’ Village have little recollection of the Games and do not feel that the housing stock they have received is of significantly better quality than that of other social housing. This points to the contentious claim that developmental infrastructure built through hosting a mega event is of superior quality or brings greater benefit to the end users. That is not to say that hosting a mega event does not have benefits; however, the claim of development through hosting, in the case of Johannesburg, seems disingenuous.

  4. An improved method for including upper size range plasmids in metamobilomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Riber, Leise

    2014-01-01

    Two recently developed isolation methods have shown promise when recovering pure community plasmid DNA (metamobilomes/plasmidomes), which is useful in conducting culture-independent investigations into plasmid ecology. However, both methods employ multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to ensure suitable quantities of plasmid DNA for high-throughput sequencing. This study demonstrates that MDA greatly favors smaller circular DNA elements (10 Kbp). Throughout the study, we used two model plasmids, a 4.4 Kbp cloning vector (pBR322), and a 56 Kbp conjugative plasmid (pKJK10), to represent lower- and upper plasmid size ranges, respectively. Subjecting a mixture of these plasmids to the overall isolation protocol revealed a 34-fold over-amplification of pBR322 after MDA. To address this bias, we propose the addition of an electroelution step that separates different plasmid size ranges prior to MDA in order to reduce size-dependent competition during incubation. Subsequent analyses of metamobilome data from wastewater spiked with the model plasmids showed in silica recovery of pKJK10 to be very poor with the established method and a 1,300-fold overrepresentation of pBR322. Conversely, complete recovery of pKJK10 was enabled with the new modified protocol although considerable care must be taken during electroelution to minimize cross-contamination between samples. For further validation, non-spiked wastewater metamobilomes were mapped to more than 2,500 known plasmid genomes. This displayed an overall recovery of plasmids well into the upper size range (median size: 30 kilobases) with the modified protocol. Analysis of de novo assembled metamobilome data also suggested distinctly better recovery of larger plasmids, as gene functions associated with these plasmids, such as conjugation, was exclusively encoded in the data output generated through the modified protocol. Thus, with the suggested modification, access to a large uncharacterized pool of accessory elements that reside on medium-to-large plasmids has been improved. © 2014 Norman et al.

  5. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration into a Web tool called PlasmidFinder that can be used for replicon sequence analysis of raw, contig group, or completely assembled and closed plasmid sequencing data. The PlasmidFinder database currently consists of 116 replicon sequences that match with at least at 80% nucleotide identity all replicon sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. PlasmidFinder identified a total of 103 replicons and between zero and five different plasmid replicons within each of 49 S. Typhimurium draft genomes tested. The pMLST Web tool was able to subtype genomic sequencing data of plasmids, revealing both known plasmid sequence types (STs) and new alleles and ST variants. In conclusion, testing of the two Web tools using both fully assembled plasmid sequences and WGS-generated draft genomes showed them to be able to detect a broad variety of plasmids that are often associated with antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

  6. Vishal Mega-Mart- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Gupta; Preeti Khatri; Kapil Gulati; Santosh Chauhan

    2010-01-01

    In the background of high consumerism and income of the urban consumers, in recent year, a number of companies have expressed their interest towards retail sector outlets. As a result, numbers of shopping malls have started their operations in metro and urban areas. Pantaloon, big bazaar, Vishal Mega Mart, Reliance Fresh are the best known examples of retail sector outlets in India.Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. Thi...

  7. Psychiatric manifestations associated with mega cisterna magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangi, Swapna; Pandurangi, Aditya; Matkar, Abhay; Shetty, Nithin; Patil, Preetam

    2014-04-01

    The Dandy-Walker variant is a milder form of the Dandy-Walker complex and is characterized by normal-sized posterior fossa, mild vermian hypoplasia, and a cystic lesion that communicates with the fourth ventricle. This syndrome has been described in association with schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, manic episode, psychosis (delusional type), and recurrent catatonia. The authors present two cases of mega cisterna magna associated with mania and catatonic schizophrenia. PMID:24763763

  8. Pavement technology for mega transportation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, J. [John Emery Geotechnical Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper described the use of asphalt and concrete pavement technology for mega projects such as the Duarte Highway in the Dominican Republic, the Colombia Bogota El Dorado International Airport, Highway 407 Express Toll Route north of Toronto, the Cobequid Pass Highway in Nova Scotia and the Fredericton-Moncton Highway in New Brunswick. A mega transportation project is considered to involve more than $100 million in construction costs and use an alternative delivery method such as design-build. It must also include life cycle costing for technology evaluation, fast track construction and total quality management. This paper showed that the durability, flexibility and structural capacity of hot-mix asphalt and PCC concrete make it possible to provide economic, smooth, safe pavements for highways, airports and for heavy traffic conditions under both normal and severe operating environments. In particular, the paper focused on the practical concepts of the pavement technology and the role of contractors in meeting the fast-track technical quality requirements for mega paving projects. The paper emphasized the fact that it is possible to develop sustainable paving projects that integrate transportation infrastructure development with communities and the environment while maintaining safety and performance. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  10. Plasmid-mediated transformation of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuramitsu, H K; Long, C M

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was transformed to erythromycin resistance with streptococcal plasmid pVA736. Transformation frequencies were higher with plasmids reisolated from transformed GS-5 cells relative to plasmid originally derived from S. sanguis Challis.

  11. Characterization of ESBL disseminating plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolund, Alma; Sandegren, Linus

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute a globally increasing problem that contributes to treatment complications and elevated death rates. The extremely successful dissemination by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the latest decades is a result of the combination of mobilization, evolution and horizontal spread of ?-lactamase genes on plasmids. In parallel, spread of these plasmids to particularly well-adapted bacterial clones (outbreak clones) has expanded. In this review we describe ESBL-producing bacteria and the genetic mechanisms for dissemination of ESBL resistance. We describe available methodology for studying plasmids and the importance of including plasmids in epidemiological typing as natural parts of the organisms. Plasmids play a fundamental role in how resistance arises and disseminates. PMID:26135711

  12. Discharge behaviour of MicroMegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge behaviour of MicroMegas detectors with conventional copper strip anode has been investigated. Alpha particles from a mixed nuclide source produce high enough primary ionization that the charge density during gas amplification exceeds the Raether limit. The detector has been adapted such that the pass length of the alphas inside the detector can be varied. The discharges were counted using a discriminator and NIM scaler capacitively coupled to the mesh. We report on the dependence on drift and amplification voltage for a range of operating temperatures and compare with Garfield++ simulations.

  13. The 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a miniaturized selfish genome with optimized functional competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keng-Ming; Liu, Yen-Ting; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni; Sau, Soumitra

    2013-07-01

    The 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a relatively small multi-copy selfish DNA element that resides in the yeast nucleus at a copy number of 40-60 per haploid cell. The plasmid is able to persist in host populations with almost chromosome-like stability with the help of a partitioning system and a copy number control system. The first part of this article describes the properties of the partitioning system comprising two plasmid coded proteins, Rep1 and Rep2, and a partitioning locus STB. Current evidence supports a model in which the Rep-STB system couples plasmid segregation to chromosome segregation by promoting the physical association of plasmid molecules with chromosomes. In the second part, the focus is on the Flp site-specific recombination system housed by the plasmid, which plays a critical role in maintaining steady state plasmid copy number. The Flp system corrects any decrease in plasmid population by promoting plasmid amplification via a recombination induced rolling circle replication mechanism. Appropriate plasmid amplification, without runaway increase in copy number, is ensured by positive and negative regulation of FLP gene expression by plasmid coded proteins and by the control of Flp level/activity through post-translational modification of Flp by the cellular sumoylation system. The Flp system has been successfully utilized to understand mechanisms of site-specific recombination and to bring about directed genetic alterations for addressing fundamental problems in biology and for accomplishing bio-engineering objectives. A particularly interesting, and perhaps less well known and underappreciated, application of Flp in revealing unique DNA topologies required to confer functional competence to DNA-protein machines is discussed. PMID:23541845

  14. Replication and stability of lactococcal plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Seegers, Jozef Franciscus Maria Louis,

    1994-01-01

    Plasmid biology has been an important field of research in both Gram* and Grambacteria for many years, because thorough knowledge of plasmid biology is of eminent importance in the framework of biotechnology. The Gram* lactic acid bacteria carry a wide variety of plasmids and many of the traits, for which these bacteria are used in food manufacturing are plasmiden coded. A majord is advantage of plasmid-associated traits is that these are often unstabled ue to plasmid loss. Zie: Summar...

  15. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms. All known plasmid-encoded par loci specify three components: a cis-acting centromere-like site and two trans-acting proteins that form a nucleoprotein complex at the ...

  16. The Hokuto mega-solar project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroo; Tanaka, Ryo; Shiraki, Toshiyuki [Energy Business Headquarters, NTT FACILITIES INC., Granparktower, 3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Solar generation systems are one of the measures for reducing global warming. An installed capacity target of solar generation systems in our country will be set 4.82 GW in 2010, while the total installed capacity is still 1.92 GW in 2007. About 80% of the systems are mainly residential use and each is very small. Constructions of some large-scale solar generation systems will be expected and intensive development of related technologies are urgent. The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) advertised for consignment research business ''Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) Power Generation Systems'' in 2006. The verification tests are carried out in two sites of Hokuto City, Yamanashi Prefecture and Wakkanai City, Hokkaido. The outlines and the developing targets and some of studying results of the Hokuto mega-solar project (HMSP) are introduced in this paper. (author)

  17. Mini-MegaTORTORA status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Sasyuk, V.; Biryukov, A.; Shearer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, MiniMegaTORTORA, with two variants (MMT-6 based on image intensifiers with fast CCDs and MMT-9 equipped with Andor Neo sCMOSes) now under construction and commissioning at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitifity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously. Hardware and software solutions used for the systems, as well as perspectives of its operation, are also discussed.

  18. Elluminate Article: Revisiting Mega-Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Rubin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2006, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ (Elluminate Support for details on how to download this FREE software. * Revisiting Mega-Universities Gene Rubin and Claudine SchWeber University of Maryland University College

  19. The partitioning and copy number control systems of the selfish yeast plasmid: an optimized molecular design for stable persistence in host cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Ting-Liu,; Sau, Saumitra; Ma, Chien-Hui; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Rowley, Paul A.; Chang, Keng-Ming; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2014-01-01

    The multi-copy 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a resident of the nucleus, is remarkable for its high chromosome-like stability. The plasmid does not appear to contribute to the fitness of the host, nor does it impose a significant metabolic burden on the host at its steady state copy number. The plasmid may be viewed as a highly optimized selfish DNA element whose genome design is devoted entirely towards efficient replication, equal segregation and copy number maintenance. A pa...

  20. Effects of genes exerting growth inhibition and plasmid stability on plasmid maintenance.

    OpenAIRE

    Boe, L.; Gerdes, K; Molin, S

    1987-01-01

    Plasmid stabilization mediated by the parA+ and parB+ genes of the R1 plasmid and the ccd+ and sop+ genes of the F plasmid was tested on a mini-R1 plasmid and a pBR322 plasmid derivative. The mini-R1 plasmid is thought to be unstably inherited owing to a low copy number and to random segregation of the plasmid at cell division, whereas cells harboring the pBR322 derivative used in this work are lost through competition with plasmid-free cells, mainly as a result of the shorter generation time...

  1. Have the “mega-journals” reached the limits to growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A “mega-journal” is a new type of scientific journal that publishes freely accessible articles, which have been peer reviewed for scientific trustworthiness, but leaves it to the readers to decide which articles are of interest and importance to them. In the wake of the phenomenal success of PLOS ONE, several other publishers have recently started mega-journals. This article presents the evolution of mega-journals since 2010 in terms of article publication rates. The fastest growth seems to have ebbed out at around 35,000 annual articles for the 14 journals combined. Acceptance rates are in the range of 50–70%, and speed of publication is around 3–5 months. Common features in mega-journals are alternative impact metrics, easy reusability of figures and data, post-publication discussions and portable reviews from other journals.

  2. Thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, Jean-Marc; Garcia Retegui, Rogelio; Maestri, Sebastian; Wassinger, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents a thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices. This analysis evaluates the thermal cycling of representative devices in order to estimate the expected lifetime. Simulation results based on manufacturer specifications are presented.

  3. Analysis of market areas of mega malls in Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmeci, Vedia; Beygo, Cem

    1998-01-01

    After 1980?s, restructuring of Istanbul has occurred in many fields and the increased number of mega malls is one of the most interesting aspects of the transformation of business facilities. Increase in the number of products as a result of globalization, advantages of the multistore shopping supported by the recreational facilities and increase in the income of the people and car use results in the development of mega malls mostly in the periphery of the city. These shopping facilities have...

  4. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7–9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like plasmids concomitant to phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from host Klebsiella strains, revealed that these plasmids are limited to a predominantly human-associated sub-clade of Klebsiella, suggesting that their host range is very narrow. Conversely, the pGNB2-like plasmids had a much broader host range and appeared to be associated with Klebsiella residing in natural environments. This study suggests that: (A) qnrB-harboring multidrug-resistant pKPN3-like plasmids can endure the rigorous wastewater treatment process and may therefore be disseminated to downstream environments; and (B) that small qnrS-harboring pGNB2-like plasmids are ubiquitous in wastewater treatment facilities and are most likely environmental in origin. PMID:26696974

  5. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to different classes of antibiotics including aminoglycosides, penicillins, macrolides and chloramphenicol. Whether these antibiotic resistance determinants are plasmid-bound and whether these traits can be transferred to other bacteria is under investigation.

  6. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevallos Miguel A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 ?-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The oriV of this plasmid resides within the repC gene and is located close to or inside of a large A+T region. RepC can act as an incompatibility factor, and the last 39 amino acid residues of the carboxy-terminal region of this protein are involved in promoting this phenotype.

  7. IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the re...

  8. High speed BLASTN: an accelerated MegaBLAST search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Ye, Weicai; Zhang, Yongdong; Xu, Yuesheng

    2015-09-18

    Sequence alignment is a long standing problem in bioinformatics. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is one of the most popular and fundamental alignment tools. The explosive growth of biological sequences calls for speedup of sequence alignment tools such as BLAST. To this end, we develop high speed BLASTN (HS-BLASTN), a parallel and fast nucleotide database search tool that accelerates MegaBLAST--the default module of NCBI-BLASTN. HS-BLASTN builds a new lookup table using the FMD-index of the database and employs an accurate and effective seeding method to find short stretches of identities (called seeds) between the query and the database. HS-BLASTN produces the same alignment results as MegaBLAST and its computational speed is much faster than MegaBLAST. Specifically, our experiments conducted on a 12-core server show that HS-BLASTN can be 22 times faster than MegaBLAST and exhibits better parallel performance than MegaBLAST. HS-BLASTN is written in C++ and the related source code is available at https://github.com/chenying2016/queries under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26250111

  9. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andri?an

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  10. Attributes of carbapenemase encoding conjugative plasmid pNDM-SAL from an extensively drug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Chowdhury, Goutam; Ghosh, Amit; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2015-01-01

    A carbapenem resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolate BCH 2406 was isolated from a diarrheal child attending an outpatient unit of B.C. Roy Hospital in Kolkata, India. This isolate was positive for the bla NDM-1 in the PCR assay, which was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. Except for tetracycline, this isolate was resistant to all the tested antimicrobials. The bla NDM-1 was found to be located on a 146.13-kb mega plasmid pNDM-SAL, which could be conjugally transferred into Escherichia coli and other enteric pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa and Shigella flexneri 2a. However, the expression of ?-lactam resistance is not the same in different bacteria. The whole genome sequence of pNDM-SAL was determined and compared with other pNDM plasmids available in public domain. This plasmid is an IncA/C incompatibility type composed of 155 predicted coding sequences and shares homology with plasmids of E. coli pNDM-1_Dok01, Klebsiella pNDM-KN, and Citrobacter pNDM-CIT. In pNDM-SAL, gene cluster containing bla NDM-1 was located between IS26 and IS4321 elements. Between the IS26 element and the bla NDM-1, a truncated ISAba125 insertion sequence was identified. Downstream of the bla NDM-1, other genes, such as ble MBL, trpF, tat, and an ISCR1 element with class 1 integron containing aac(6')-Ib were detected. Another ?-lactacamase gene, bla CMY -4 was found to be inserted in IS1 element within the type IV conjugative transfer loci of the plasmid. This gene cluster had blc and sugE downstream of the bla CMY -4. From our findings, it appears that the strain S. Senftenberg could have acquired the NDM plasmid from the other members of Enterobacteriaceae. Transfer of NDM plasmids poses a danger in the management of infectious diseases. PMID:26441902

  11. Tolerated residence

    OpenAIRE

    Nøhr Shaheen I Dali, Maria Buthaina Liv

    2013-01-01

    Dette projekt omhandler personer på tålt ophold i Danmark, oversat til engelsk som ’individuals on tolerated residence’ i projektet. Ved benyttelsen af Giorgio Agamben og Zygmunt Bauman som primære teoretikere, søger projektet at klargøre hvilke mekanismer der gør sig gældende i en dansk socio-politisk kontekst. Projektet belyser hvorledes disse individer gennemgår en proces hvori rettigheder bliver erstattet af restriktioner, som eksempelvis kommer til udtryk i melde- og opholdspligt i Sandh...

  12. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  13. Design of Perimeter Walls in Tubed Mega Frame Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Niklas; Hammar, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The Tubed Mega Frame is a new concept for constructing high-rise buildings,based on the idea of moving the main bearing system to the perimeter of thebuilding by using a number of large hollow columns, mega tubes, connected byperimeter walls at certain levels. The concept is under development by Tyréns ABand has not yet been implemented in reality. This thesis is part of the ongoing workprocess and has the aim of shedding light on the issues and problems with the newconcept when it comes to t...

  14. The employment and fiscal effects of Michigan's MEGA tax credit program

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates that Michigan's MEGA tax credit program to attract and retain businesses has large employment and fiscal benefits. MEGA provides discretionary tax credits to businesses, with the tax credit tied to the personal income taxes paid by employees on the new or retained jobs. We estimate the economic effects of MEGA using the Upjohn Institute's REMI model, and the research literature on how business location decisions respond to taxes. We estimate the fiscal effects of MEGA bas...

  15. ColE1-Plasmid Production in Escherichia coli: Mathematical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenau, Inga; Lutter, Petra; Baier, Ruth; Schleef, Martin; Bednarz, Hanna; Lara, Alvaro R.; Niehaus, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids have become very important as pharmaceutical gene vectors in the fields of gene therapy and genetic vaccination in the past years. In this study, we present a dynamic model to simulate the ColE1-like plasmid replication control, once for a DH5?-strain carrying a low copy plasmid (DH5?-pSUP 201-3) and once for a DH5?-strain carrying a high copy plasmid (DH5?-pCMV-lacZ) by using ordinary differential equations and the MATLAB software. The model includes the plasmid replication control by two regulatory RNA molecules (RNAI and RNAII) as well as the replication control by uncharged tRNA molecules. To validate the model, experimental data like RNAI- and RNAII concentration, plasmid copy number (PCN), and growth rate for three different time points in the exponential phase were determined. Depending on the sampled time point, the measured RNAI- and RNAII concentrations for DH5?-pSUP 201-3 reside between 6?±?0.7 and 34?±?7 RNAI molecules per cell and 0.44?±?0.1 and 3?±?0.9 RNAII molecules per cell. The determined PCNs averaged between 46?±?26 and 48?±?30 plasmids per cell. The experimentally determined data for DH5?-pCMV-lacZ reside between 345?±?203 and 1086?±?298 RNAI molecules per cell and 22?±?2 and 75?±?10 RNAII molecules per cell with an averaged PCN of 1514?±?1301 and 5806?±?4828 depending on the measured time point. As the model was shown to be consistent with the experimentally determined data, measured at three different time points within the growth of the same strain, we performed predictive simulations concerning the effect of uncharged tRNA molecules on the ColE1-like plasmid replication control. The hypothesis is that these tRNA molecules would have an enhancing effect on the plasmid production. The in silico analysis predicts that uncharged tRNA molecules would indeed increase the plasmid DNA production. PMID:26389114

  16. F plasmid ccd mechanism in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, S.; Jaffé, A; Ogura, T; Mori, H.; Takahashi, H

    1986-01-01

    The ccd mechanism specified by the ccdA and ccdB genes of the mini-F plasmid determines fate of plasmid-free segregants in Escherichia coli (Jaffé et al., J. Bacteriol. 163:841-849, 1985). The killing function in plasmid-free segregants by the ccd mechanism did not affect cell growth of coexisting cells in the same culture. Elongated cells and anucleate cells caused by the ccd mechanism were clearly detected by flow cytometry in cultures of bacterial strains harboring Ccd+ Sop- mini-F plasmid...

  17. Plasmids and phase variation in Xenorhabdus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, M. C.; Boemare, N E

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Xenorhabdus nematophilus (A24, F1, NC116) and strain Dan of Xenorhabdus bovienii were tested to evaluate whether the phase variation observed in these bacteria was in any way connected with plasmids. The plasmid patterns of both phases of A24 and F1 strains were the same, whereas the two NC116 phases had only one band each. No difference was observed between the undigested or digested plasmid patterns of the two phases from the three strains. No plasmid was detected in either...

  18. R Plasmids in Corynebacterium xerosis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, Megumi; Sasatsu, Masanori; Aoki, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids coding for resistance to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline have been found in strains of Corynebacterium xerosis isolated from patients with otitis media.

  19. Conservation of Plasmid Maintenance Functions between Linear and Circular Plasmids in Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip E.; Chaconas, George; Rosa, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi maintains both linear and circular plasmids that appear to be essential for mammalian infection. Recent studies have characterized the circular plasmid regions that confer autonomous replication, but the genetic elements necessary for linear plasmid maintenance have not been experimentally identified. Two vectors derived from linear plasmids lp25 and lp28-1 were constructed and shown to replicate autonomously in B. burgdorferi. These vectors identif...

  20. Start-Up Mega Planning--A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ronald; Forbes, Dylan; Hoskins, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Social Responsibility is becoming a key issue for organizations today. They talk about it and they make social contributions, but how do we know if anything is being achieved? A framework is required and has existed at least since 1992. Roger Kaufman's Mega Planning has slowly gathered momentum in organizations worldwide. For a faster take-up we…

  1. Strategies simulation model for the gas business chain MEGAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEGAS is a simulation model representing fundamental parameters of Corpoven's natural gas and NGL production, handling, processing, transportation and distribution systems in the Venezuelan mid-east, as well as its financial implications. Various strategies regarding development, prices, costs, new business opportunities, production scenarios, demand and energy policies can be evaluated through this model in order to determine, after analyzing the economics results, a set of strategies to follow in the mid and long term. MEGAS could be also used to make risk analysis studies, considering that probabilistic parameters and variables like gas quality, production, demand, plant shutdowns and others are to be represented by their distinctive function. It is possible to set up a probabilistic function for each economic indicator or operating variables with an appropriate experiment design. MEGAS is based on a dynamic simulation language, which facilitates both the real system components representation and the main variables statistical data accumulation. It also allows graphical representation of results and the simulation animation. Demand and price forecasts, new projects, costs and capabilities of the systems are some of the model input data. MEGAS should be considered as a tool that eases the strategic planning of the business, making it possible for the Corporation to foresee changes, both in the domestic and international market, to predict how these changes could affect its business affairs and to visualize different return scenarios

  2. On the Asymptotic Stabilization of a Chemostat Model of Plasmid-Bearing, Plasmid-Free Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Neli S.

    A dynamical model of plasmid-bearing, plasmid-free competition in the chemostat with inhibitory kinetics is studied. Based on a feedback control, an extremum seeking model-based algorithm is designed and applied to maximize the concentration of the plasmid-bearing organisms in real time. Computer simulation is carried out to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  3. The partitioning and copy number control systems of the selfish yeast plasmid: an optimized molecular design for stable persistence in host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Ting-Liu; Sau, Saumitra; Ma, Chien-Hui; Kachroo, Aashiq H; Rowley, Paul A; Chang, Keng-Ming; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2014-10-01

    The multi-copy 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a resident of the nucleus, is remarkable for its high chromosome-like stability. The plasmid does not appear to contribute to the fitness of the host, nor does it impose a significant metabolic burden on the host at its steady state copy number. The plasmid may be viewed as a highly optimized selfish DNA element whose genome design is devoted entirely towards efficient replication, equal segregation and copy number maintenance. A partitioning system comprised of two plasmid coded proteins, Rep1 and Rep2, and a partitioning locus STB is responsible for equal or nearly equal segregation of plasmid molecules to mother and daughter cells. Current evidence supports a model in which the Rep-STB system promotes the physical association of the plasmid with chromosomes and thus plasmid segregation by a hitchhiking mechanism. The Flp site-specific recombination system housed by the plasmid plays a critical role in maintaining steady state plasmid copy number. A decrease in plasmid population due to rare missegregation events is rectified by plasmid amplification via a recombination induced rolling circle replication mechanism. Appropriate plasmid amplification, without runaway increase in copy number, is ensured by positive and negative regulation of FLP gene expression by plasmid coded proteins and by the control of Flp level/activity through host mediated post-translational modification(s) of Flp. The Flp system has been successfully utilized to understand mechanisms of site-specific recombination, to bring about directed genetic alterations for addressing fundamental problems in biology, and as a tool in biotechnological applications. PMID:25541598

  4. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, R M

    1982-02-01

    A procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. A survey of B. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species. PMID:16345935

  5. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens†

    OpenAIRE

    Teather, Ronald M.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. A survey of B. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species.

  6. Reporter Plasmid to Identify Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI lentiviral plasmid can identify the putative cancer stem cell population through the expression of fluorescent or luminescent proteins and has the potential to advance new therapies. The key feature of the plasmid is a reporter system that only detects cells expressing the core stem cell transcription factors Sox2 and Oct4.

  7. Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria

    2012-01-01

    The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible for causing infections both in humans and animals worldwide; these are Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae; ß-lactams are antimicrobials commonly prescribed to treat uncomplicated as well as severe infections caused by these Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram negative and also Gram positive bacteria. In particular, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems found broad application in treatment of infections caused by the aforementioned enteric species. Recently however, increasing levels of resistance to ß-lactams is observed in these key infectious agents as well as in many other previously susceptible species. This phenomenon has become a major public concern. Antimicrobials including ß-lactams have been often used in heavy amounts in farming, not only to treat the diagnosed infections in individual animals but also as prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion. It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams) could be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm animals to humans (farm workers, animal caretakers etc.). It has been therefore speculated whether the plasmids with the bla genes found in Enterobacteriaceae in humans could actually originate from the animal sources. The overall aim of this thesis was to verify if indeed related resistance plasmids can circulate between enteric bacteria from humans and food production animals; and if so, then which of these plasmid species are specifically associated with the epidemic types of blaTEM genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, the association of the plasmid encoded blaTEM genes with transposable elements is also studied in order to get a broader perspective of which MGEs are involved in mobilization and spread of these bla genes in the diverse reservoirs. Finally, an attempt is made to encompass ecological aspects of plasmid driven transmission of resistance among the enteric bacteria. In the first study the relationship between plasmids harbouring blaTEM-52 genes isolated from humans, poultry and also meat products was examined. Twenty- two plasmids from a collection of E. coli and different serovars of S. enterica were characterized. The study delivered molecular evidences that epidemiologically related plasmids circulated in the diverse species of enteric bacteria and between humans and animals, and the possible transmission route could have been contaminated food products like meat. Two types of epidemic plasmids were detected in isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; namely undistinguishable IncI1 blaTEM-52 plasmids were found in human and poultry isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; also undistinguishable IncX1 plasmids were isolated from E. coli and S. enterica from human infections, poultry and meat products (from poultry, broiler and beef). The strains harbouring these plasmids were confirmed not to be clonally related, hence indicating the transmission of the plasmids between the different bacteria from humans and animals rather than isolation of the same bacterial clones from the different reservoirs. With relation to the study I, a range of other observations was made. On majority of the examined plasmids, the blaTEM-52 genes resided on the Tn3-related transposons. Further analysis of the genetic environment o

  8. Plasmid Mediated Salt Tolerance in Root Associated Bacteria from Erigerone linifolious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Yasmin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains (which could tolerate 2-3M NaCl in the growth medium were isolated from the roots of Erigerone linifolious. They were El-1, El-2, El-3 (from histoplane of roots and REl-1, REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 (from the rhizoplane. All bacterial strains were motile rods (except El-2 which were cocci, exhibiting either Gram-negative (El-1, El-2, El-3, REl-1 or Gram-variable (REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 staining. These strains were affiliated with genus Delya (El-1, Vibrio (El-3, REl-1, while four Gram-variable strains shaired characters with Bacillus pumilus. They have wide temperature and pH ranges with different optima. These strains also exhibit multiple salts/osmolytes/heavy metals/antibiotics resistance. Curing of plasmids from four of these strains revealed that salt tolerance and most of the other resistances were plasmid encoded. Plasmids residing in these halo-tolerant strains were conjugative (except pSH1413. Hybridization experiments revealed that one of these plasmids (pSH1414 belonged to IncN group of plasmids.

  9. Microcapitalism and the mega-corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Debra; Yamashita, Keith

    2003-08-01

    More than 100 miles from Bangalore, India, there's a rural area called Kuppam where one in three citizens is illiterate, more than half of the households have no electricity, and there's a high rate of AIDS. It's exactly this challenging atmosphere that prompted Hewlett-Packard to choose Kuppam as one of its first "i-communities" initiatives. Through the program, HP creates public-private partnerships to accelerate economic development through the application of technology while simultaneously opening new markets and developing new products and services. HP brings to these initiatives the management disciplines of a successful technology business. For example, it unearths customer needs using an iterative cycle that involves prototyping products and services and then closely observing residents' experiences with them. It fields a diversely talented team that brings many skills to the initiative, including deep technical ability, management acumen, and market knowledge. It takes a systems approach, simultaneously examining all the elements that must come together to create a working solution to a given problem. It establishes a "leading platform" on which other players--comapnies, nonprofits, and government agencies--can build technologies and applications. Practices like these help ensure that HP's investment yields real, sustainable results for the community in question. But HP also sees returns to its own business. In Kuppam, the company is discovering the need for (and developing) new products like a solar-powered digital camera, with printer, that fits in a backpack. By engaging the community and its leaders and working with them to design valuable new tools and capabilities, HP is gaining the knowledge it needs to be a stronger competitor in other developing regions. PMID:12884667

  10. ROLE OF MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON BRANDING DESTINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Farahani; Habib Honari; Hasan Asadi; Abdul Hamid Zeitoonly; Mohammad Pour Ranjbar

    2011-01-01

    Sporting events to help make creating beautiful scenery and unique areas to tourism. Thepurpose of this study was investigated the role of holding sporting events on destinationsBranding with hosted of mega sports event (Traditional Sport ;hors riding) on branding sportstourism destinations in Golestan province. Data from a questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha = 91%)and interviews were collected. Statistical population of this study was 217 patients (53 expert(cultural heritage; physical education...

  11. The Church Mountain Sturzstrom (Mega-Landslide), Glacier, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.R.; Easterbrook, D.J. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed investigation of an ancient sturzstrom or mega-landslide near Glacier, Washington has revealed it areal extent, approximate volume, age, geomorphology, source area, and possible causes. Stratigraphic and lithologic investigations indicate Church Mountain as the source area; therefore, this mega-landslide has been named the Church Mountain Sturzstrom (CMS). The CMS deposit is approximately 9 km in length, averages about 1 km in width, and has an estimated volume of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] m[sup 3]. Characteristics of the morphology and stratigraphy of the CMS deposit are suggestive of a sturzstrom origin, and may be indicative of sturzstrom elsewhere in the world. The overall stratigraphy of the deposit mimics the stratigraphy of the source area. The deposit is very compact, poorly sorted, matrix supported, and composed of highly angular clasts. Over steepening of the mountain due to glacial erosion may have contributed to the cause of failure, although the age of the CMS is at least 7,000 years younger than deglaciation. Four trees were C[sup 14] dated, yielding ages of about 2,700 B.P. for the CMS. Several other mega-landslides have been identified within 5--30 km of the CMS. The close proximity of these mega-landslides to the CMS suggests the possibility that they may have been triggered by an earthquake, although the ages of the other slides are currently unknown. The age of the CMS correlates approximately with age ranges of co-seismic events occurring along the west coast of Washington, further suggesting the possibility of an earthquake triggering mechanism.

  12. Microlensing in M31; Preliminary lightcurves from MEGA

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Jelte; Sackett, Penny D.; Kuijken, Konrad; Uglesich, Robert; Crotts, Arlin; Sutherland, Will

    2001-01-01

    One of the possible astrophysical solutions to the galactic dark matter problem is the presence of a significant amount of ``dark'' compact objects (MACHOs) in galactic dark matter halos. MEGA (Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda) tries to find proof for or against the presence of compact objects in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) by looking for the microlensing signature that would be induced by these objects. The lightcurves presented here are preli...

  13. Assessment of MEGA BORG impacts on sea turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to assess the impacts of the MEGA BORG oil spill on sea turtles in the path of the oil plume. Aerial surveys were performed to determine the presence of turtles and provide a gross visual assessment of potential impacts. Although extensive efforts were made to capture sea turtles around oil and gas platforms only one loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, was captured. Neither external visual inspection nor laboratory fecal analysis showed evidence of petroleum contamination

  14. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  15. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Andri?an

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological), toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that ...

  16. State of the art: integrating services for mega events

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge R. B., Garay; Gustavo M., Calixto; Alexandre M. De, Oliveira; Marcelo K., Zuffo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and T [...] elecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject; however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to consider requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo; however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrative elements of stadiums as a main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  17. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  18. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  19. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  20. The Political Risk of Oil and Gas Mega Projects : A Descriptive Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veflen, Martin Elton

    2011-01-01

    Two elements can be seen to evolve progressively with globalization: political risk and mega projects. Although a fair amount of research has been carried out in regards to political risk and mega projects as separate units of investigation, few studies have attempted to combine the two. This thesis fills a void in the existing literature by providing a specialized approach to political risk, focusing on political risk of oil and gas mega projects in particular. Drawing on a comprehensive dat...

  1. Mini-F plasmid genes that couple host cell division to plasmid proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, T; Hiraga, S.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanism for stable maintenance of plasmids, besides the replication and partition mechanisms, has been found to be specified by genes of a mini-F plasmid. An oriC plasmid carrying both a mini-F segment necessary for partition [coordinates 46.4-49.4 kilobase pairs (kb) on the F map] and another segment (42.9-43.6 kb), designated ccd (coupled cell division), is more stably maintained than are oriC plasmids carrying only the partition segment; the stability is comparable to that of the paren...

  2. Plasmids of Pseudomonas cepacia strains of diverse origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, E; DeCicco, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from clinical, pharmaceutical-industrial, and environmental origins were analyzed for the presence of plasmid DNA by a modification of the rapid alkaline extraction method of Birnboim (H. C. Birnboim, Methods Enzymol. 100:243-255, 1983). Plasmids were present in 31 strains (84%) from all sources, with no one source showing less than 75% plasmid carriage among its strains. The plasmid profiles indicated that the presence of large plasmids (146 to 222...

  3. High-level plasmid-mediated gentamicin resistance and pheromone response of plasmids present in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiojima, M; Tomita, H; Tanimoto, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Ike, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eleven pheromone-responding plasmids encoding erythromycin or gentamicin resistance were isolated from multiresistant clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The plasmids were classified into six types with respect to their pheromone responses. The three erythromycin resistance plasmids responded to different pheromones. Of the eight gentamicin resistance plasmids, four plasmids responded to same pheromone. Southern hybridization studies showed that the genes involved in regulation of the ph...

  4. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    OpenAIRE

    Charles L. Mader; Michael L. Gittings

    2002-01-01

    Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the t...

  5. MegaPipe astrometry for the New Horizons spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gwyn, Stephen. D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, launched by NASA in 2006, will arrive in the Pluto-Charon system on July 14, 2015. There, it will spend a few hours imaging Pluto and its moons. It will then have a small amount of reserve propellant which will be used to direct the probe on to a second, yet to be discovered object in the Kuiper Belt. Data from the MegaPrime camera on CFHT was used to build a precise, high density astrometric reference frame for both the final approach into the P...

  6. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

    2010-09-15

    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  7. The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  8. Meta, mega e retroanálises correlacionais: comparando dados primários em Psicologia / Correlational meta, mega and retroanalyses: comparing primary data in Psychology / Meta, mega y retroanálisis correlacionales: comparando datos primarios en Psicología

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Igor Reszka, Pinheiro; Roberto Moraes, Cruz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de promover a transformação de informações em conhecimento, este artigo compara as meta-análises com duas de suas variantes, as mega-análises e as retroanálises, técnicas desenvolvidas para a síntese e a equiparação de resultados pouco precisos ou contraditórios. Enquanto as meta-anális [...] es referem-se à síntese dos resultados de diferentes pesquisas primárias, as mega-análises referem-se à síntese dos dados coletados por pesquisas primárias e as retroanálises à recriação e posterior síntese desses mesmos dados. Por meio de uma simulação, o Estudo 1 pareia o viés médio de meta, mega e retroanálises em função de nove diferentes configurações que variam conforme a quantidade de estudos empregados e do tamanho da amostra individual de cada um desses estudos, nas modalidades de dados completos, leve e severa ausência de dados. No Estudo 2, os mesmos dados utilizados na simulação de ausência severa foram empregados para testar a precisão de mega e retroanálises quando se realiza a imputação de dados. Os resultados apontam para uma leve superioridade geral das mega-análises, diferença essa que diminui, até desaparecer, em situações ideais. Abstract in spanish En la tentativa de fomentar la transformación de informaciones en conocimiento, este artículo compara los meta-análisis con dos de sus variantes, los mega-análisis y los retro-análisis, técnicas desarrolladas para la síntesis y la equiparación de resultados poco precisos o contradictorios. Mientras [...] los meta-análisis se refieren a la síntesis de los resultados de distintas investigaciones primarias, los mega-análisis se refieren a la síntesis de los datos recolectados por investigaciones primarias, y los retro-análisis, a una nueva creación y posterior síntesis de esos mismos datos. Por medio de una simulación, el Estudio 01 parea el sesgo medio de meta-, mega- y retro-análisis en función de nueve distintas configuraciones que varían según la cantidad de estudios llevados a cabo y el tamaño de la muestra individual de cada uno de esos estudios, en las modalidades de datos completos, leve y severa ausencia de datos. En el estudio 02, los mismos datos utilizados en la simulación de ausencia severa han sido empleados para testar la precisión de mega- y retro-análisis cuando se lleva a cabo la imputación de datos. Los resultados señalan hacia una leve superioridad general de los mega-análisis. Esa diferencia disminuye, hasta desaparecer, en situaciones ideales Abstract in english In an attempt to promote the transformation of information into knowledge, this article compares meta-analyses with two of its variants, mega-analyses and retro-analyses, techniques developed to summarize and compare results that are not very accurate or contradictory. While meta-analyses refer to t [...] he synthesis of results of different primary researches. mega-analyses refer to the synthesis of results collected by primary researches and retroanalyses, to the recreation and posterior synthesis of that data. Using a simulation, Study 1 pairs the average trends from meta, mega and retroanalyses regarding nine different configurations that vary according to the number of studies used and the size of the individual sample of each of those studies, in the full data, light data and severe lack of data modes. In Study 2, the same data used in the simulation of severe lack of data were used to test the accuracy of mega and retroanalyses when performing data imputation. The results show a slight general superiority of mega-analyses, a difference that fades away in ideal situations.

  9. A Positive Study on the Residents' Tourism Expectation of Shanghai EXPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yun-yao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The attitude, cognition and expectation of residents in certain eventholding destination play a significant role to the success of this mega-event. This research analyzed the expectation of Shangehai residents, as well as the interdependent relationship between residents' expectation and 2010 Shanghai EXPO focusing on 2010 Shanghai EXPO. This study revealed that factor analysis selected 5 tourism expectation factors (infrastructural& environmentalfactor;positive attitude;social phenomenal;economic and price & real estate.Among Shanghai residents' demographic characteristics, except gender, the otherdemographic variables like age,educationallevel, marital level and profession all have obvious differences with the 5expectation factors.multi-regression analysis also revealed that Shanghai residents' expectation has apositive correlation with the active participating attitudes.Inthe end the insufficiency of this study is put forwardand recommendations on the futurestudyare alsogiven.

  10. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; MØller-Jensen, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms. All known plasmid-encoded par loci specify three components: a cis-acting centromere-like site and two trans-acting proteins that form a nucleoprotein complex at the centromere (i.e. the partition complex). The proteins are encoded by two genes in an operon that is autoregulated by the par-encoded proteins. In all cases, the upstream gene encodes an ATPase that is essential for partitioning. Recent cytological analyses indicate that the ATPases function as adaptors between a host-encoded component and the partition complex and thereby tether plasmids and chromosomal origin regions to specific subcellular sites (i.e. the poles or quarter-cell positions). Two types of partitioning ATPases are known: the Walker-type ATPases encoded by the par/sop gene family (type I partitioning loci) and the actin-like ATPase encoded by the par locus of plasmid R1 (type II partitioning locus). A phylogenetic analysis of the large family of Walker type of partitioning ATPases yielded a surprising pattern: most of the plasmid-encoded ATPases clustered into distinct subgroups. Surprisingly, however, the par loci encoding these distinct subgroups have different genetic organizations and thus divide the type I loci into types Ia and Ib. A second surprise was that almost all chromosome-encoded ATPases, including members from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria and Archaea, clustered into one distinct subgroup. The phylogenetic tree is consistent with lateral gene transfer between Bacteria and Archaea. Using database mining with the ParM ATPase of plasmid R1, we identified a new par gene family from enteric bacteria. These type II loci, which encode ATPases of the actin type, have a genetic organization similar to that of type Ib loci. Udgivelsesdato: Aug

  11. Design of Hollow Reinforced Concrete Columns in the Tubed Mega Frame : Dimensionering av ihåliga armerade betongpelare i ”Tubed Mega Frame”

    OpenAIRE

    Tönseth, David; Welchermill, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A new concept for the structural system for tall buildings, called the “Tubed Mega Frame”, has been developed by Tyre?ns AB. The structure consists of several hollow reinforced concrete columns at the perimeter of the building and at certain levels, the columns are tied together with perimeter walls. Together they carry all the vertical and lateral loads. A purpose of the new concept is to eliminate the core in the center of the building which allows utilizing more floor spacing compared with...

  12. Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

  13. MegaPipe astrometry for the New Horizons spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Stephen D J

    2014-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, launched by NASA in 2006, will arrive in the Pluto-Charon system on July 14, 2015. There, it will spend a few hours imaging Pluto and its moons. It will then have a small amount of reserve propellant which will be used to direct the probe on to a second, yet to be discovered object in the Kuiper Belt. Data from the MegaPrime camera on CFHT was used to build a precise, high density astrometric reference frame for both the final approach into the Pluto system and the search for the secondary target. Pluto currently lies in the galactic plane. This is a hindrance in that there are potential problems with confusion. However, it is also a benefit, since it allows the use of the UCAC4 astrometric reference catalog, which is normally too sparse for use with MegaCam images. The astrometric accuracy of the final catalogs, as measured by the residuals, is 0.02 arcseconds.

  14. Incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os «megas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. A. Barbosa

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. estudaram, a incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os megas. Em 875 cardiopatias chagásicas houve 145 casos de megas, ou seja, 16,56%, com predominância do sexo masculino. No branco houve maior incidência (55 de megas do que no mulato (53 e no negro (31 dentre 858 cardiopatias chagásicas. Em 848 cardiopatias chagásicas, 85,78% eram de indivíduos que faleceram entre 21 e 60 anos. O maior número de cardiopatias (120 ou 14,14% e de "megas'' (21 ou 15,78% foi encontrado nos indivíduos entre 36 a 40 anos. Os nossos resultados mostram uma incidência diferente da associação cardiopatia-mega, em comparação da observada em outras regiões do País e em outros países da América do Sul.

  15. Comportamento do peso do coração e do corpo em chagásicos crônicos com e sem "megas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available O peso do coração é menor nos chagásicos com "megas" do que nos falecidos subitamente ou em I.C.C., sendo, porém, maior que nos controles. Já o peso corporal ésemelhante nos chagásicos falecidos subitamente e nos controles, havendo redução moderada no grupo com I.C.C., e rtiais acentuada nos chagásicos com "megas" (redução de 20% em relação aos controles. A relação percentual peso cardíaco/peso corporal é de 1,1% no grupo com I.C.C.; 0,71% no grupo de morte súbita; 0,77% no grupo com "megas"; 0,49% no grupo controle e 0,60% ne grupo de doenças caquetizantes. Com base nas médias dos pesos cardíacos e corporal dos grupos controle, de doenças caquetizantes e de megas, calculou-se que o emagrecimento ocorrido nos megas reduziria o peso cardíaco médio de apenas 6,8%.

  16. Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proteolytically stable fragment of a plasmid replication initiation protein from the thermophile G. stearothermophilus has been biochemically characterized, crystallized and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to space group P212121

  17. Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in uv-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA

  18. Identification of Lactoce Plasmids in Lactococcus lastic subsp. lactis Stains

    OpenAIRE

    Tükel, Ça?la; AKÇEL?K, Mustafa

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encoding lactic acid fermentation ability were investigated in 50 strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis. Acriflavine was used for the elimination of lactose fermentation ability (Lac + ) from wild type strains. Lactose negative (Lac - ) mutants were selected on lactose indicator agar media. Six different lactose plasmids were identified for fifty strains by comparison of plasmid profiles of Lac - and Lac + mutants. The molecular sizes of these lactose plasmids ranged between 26.3 an...

  19. Transfer of IncN plasmids to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, G; Grant, R B

    1982-01-01

    Three of four N plasmids tested were found to be conjugatively transferable from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plasmids in the Pseudomonas transconjugants differed from the plasmids in the donor E. coli with respect to molecular weight, transfer ability, phenotype conferred, and stability. In some cases, the antibiotic and UV resistance genes appeared to integrate into the P. aeruginosa chromosome.

  20. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions.

  1. Mega-mining in Mexico. Structural reforms and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tetreault

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the structural causes of social environmental conflicts around mega-mining in Mexico and describes the emergence and coordination of resistance movements. It argues that neoliberal reforms have facilitated ‘accumulation by dispossession’ on two levels: first, by transferring public resources in the form of mineral reserves and state-run mining companies to the private sector; and second, bydispossessing smallholder farmers and indigenous communities of their land, water and cultural landscapes, in order to allow mining companies to carry out their activities. Furthermore, it argues that some factions of the resistance movements reflect ‘the environmentalism of the poor’ insofar as they seek to maintain natural resources outside of the sphere of the capitalist mode of production. Through a systematic revision of newspaper articles, blogs and scholarly publications, 29 high-profile eco-territorial mining conflicts are identified and a preliminary analysis of these is provided.

  2. Encountering Difference : Nordic privileged migrants in Indian mega-cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulkes, Nicol Marie

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic region is famed for its high standards of welfare and public service, labour market flexibility, education, freedom, trust and not least happiness. From a global perspective, in many ways the region occupies a somewhat elite status at the top of the global social ladder, in spite of the challenges they face in coping with diversity. In stark contrast, India, even with the exponential growth in its economy in recent years, is still home to some of the most poverty stricken regions of the world, with over 90% of the active labour force in unorganized work and without any social protection. The major cities have poor yet improving infrastructure, which, coupled with stark cultural, religious and ideological differences, challenge Nordic privileged migrants’ conceptions of time, space and human interaction. The aim of this chapter is to investigate how Nordic privileged migrants encounter and navigate the social system in the Indian mega-cities Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai. The analysis takes into consideration how Nordic shared values like trust and equality are negotiated in locations where there are stark cultural and environmental differences, investigating how these negotiations affect their daily life and ultimately their freedom, as well as how the outcomes differ among them. The paper is based on the qualitative analysis of 29 interviews and questionnaire data collected from knowledge workers and their partners from Northern Europe, eight of whom were from Finland and eight from Denmark, who have moved to India because of either their own or their partner’s job. The findings indicate that while the Nordic privileged migrants encounter similar challenges in Indian mega-cities, there are both similarities and dissimilarities in the way navigate and negotiate those challenges, possibly as a result of the combination of having shared Nordic values, and possessing different levels of human (economic and cultural), social, and erotic capital (Hakim 2010).

  3. Investigating fusion plasma instabilities in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak using mega electron volt proton emissions (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R. V., E-mail: rvale006@fiu.edu; Boeglin, W. U.; Angulo, A.; Avila, P.; Leon, O.; Lopez, C. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8 ST, CP204, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, James Forrestal Campus, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Cecconello, M.; Klimek, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 20 (Sweden); Allan, S. Y.; Akers, R. J.; Keeling, D. L.; McClements, K. G.; Scannell, R.; Conway, N. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turnyanskiy, M. [ITER Physics Department, EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Jones, O. M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Michael, C. A. [Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    The proton detector (PD) measures 3 MeV proton yield distributions from deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions within the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The PD’s compact four-channel system of collimated and individually oriented silicon detectors probes different regions of the plasma, detecting protons (with gyro radii large enough to be unconfined) leaving the plasma on curved trajectories during neutral beam injection. From first PD data obtained during plasma operation in 2013, proton production rates (up to several hundred kHz and 1 ms time resolution) during sawtooth events were compared to the corresponding MAST neutron camera data. Fitted proton emission profiles in the poloidal plane demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

  4. Decoración de la decadencia: La balaustrada neobarroca como síntoma crítico en la mega ciudad de México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Krieger.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo revisa el uso libre de la balaustrada, un elemento decorativo tradicional cuya presencia en la arquitectura continúa hasta la actualidad, aun en los diferentes contextos culturales de la mega ciudad de México. Esta decoración neobarroca conquistó las fachadas de casi todas los tipos arqu [...] itectónicos y se le utiliza como elemento representativo en todas las clases sociales, desde la residencia de lujo hasta la autoconstrucción. Estos usos, fomentados por la ideología cultural de la posmodernidad, consisten en la negación del valor auténtico de la balaustrada histórica. Es un fenómeno crítico de la sociedad contemporánea que cada vez más remplaza la sustancia original por el producto fake y erosiona el conocimiento de la propia historia por la construcción de mundos ficticios. El ensayo reflexiona sobre los efectos de esta situación para la restauración de monumentos. Abstract in english This essay revises the unlimited uses of the balustrade, a traditional decorative element present until today, even in the different context of the Mexican megalopolis. This neobaroque decoration conquered the façades of almost all architectural types, for a social status, including the luxury resid [...] ential areas and also the self-constructed houses. These uses are based on postmodern cultural ideology and deny the authentic values of the historical balustrade. It is a critical phenomenon of contemporary society, where fake products replace more and more the original substance, and the knowledge of history is substituted by the construction of fictional worlds. The essay deals with the effects of this situation for the restoration of monuments.

  5. Role of Plasmid in Production of Acetobacter Xylinum Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rezaee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetobacter xylinum has the ability to produce cellulotic biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is expected to be used in many industrial or biomedical materials for its unique characteristics. A. xylinum contains a complex system of plasmid DNA molecules. A 44 kilobases (kb plasmid was isolated in wild type of A. xylinum. To improve the cellulose producing ability of A. xylinum, role of the plasmid in production of cellulose was studied. The comparisons between wild type and cured cells of A. xylinum showed that there is considerably difference in cellulose production. In order to study the relationship between plasmid and the rate of cellulose production, bacteria were screened for plasmid profile by a modified method for preparation of plasmid. This method yields high levels of pure plasmid DNA that can be used for common molecular techniques, such as digestion and transformation, with high efficiency.

  6. Enhanced Mission-Enabling Ultra-High Power Solar Array (Mega-ROSA EX) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mega-ROSA-EX is an enhanced, higher stiffness, higher sun-pointing accuracy, higher strength, higher specific power and even larger overall power / deployed size /...

  7. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on best practices for EPC mega-project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Approaches to effective mega-project management were the focus of this conference. Issues concerning cost-overruns, industry initiatives to improve bottom line forecasting and management of costs were examined. In addition, the reduction of delivery risks was discussed. Management of mega-projects and the creation of smaller components were reviewed. Issues concerning contracts, teams and success in mega-projects were also examined along with techniques to improve scheduling and resource management for mega-projects. Various techniques for improving workforce planning were reviewed, in addition to issues concerning increasing supply and improving productivity of trades people and project managers. Issues concerning unions, project contracts and lump sum payments were discussed as well as partnership approaches. In addition, the advantages of, and challenges to modularization were reviewed. The conference featured 9 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on EPC mega-project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The presentations at this conference focused on planning, management and risk mitigation strategies for large scale engineering, procurement and construction projects. Various successful mega-projects in Alberta were reviewed. Issues concerning lump sum contracts, construction, and project workforce planning effects were discussed. Mixed labour agreements were evaluated with reference to mega-project optimization. Various suggestions and improvements for mega-projects were outlined, and issues concerning financing, procurement and construction site management were discussed. Best practices for developing and managing mega-project contracts were evaluated. Various techniques for improving workforce planning were suggested. The conference featured 16 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Changes in medicine: residency

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA.

    2011-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governi...

  10. Mega events, tourism and local development: the case of Torino 2006

    OpenAIRE

    DANSERO, Egidio; PUTTILLI, MATTEO GIROLAMO

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of mega-events such as Olympic Games on tourism development in host territories. In the first part, we adopt a territorialization approach to understand the relationship between the event and the host region.A mega-event is conceived as a great chance to generate new territory as it produces both tangible and intangible legacies that remain after the event ends: renewal of facilities for hospitality and accommodation, better infrastructures, better training for ...

  11. MEGA: A biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sudhir; Nei, Masatoshi; DUDLEY, JOEL; Tamura, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software is a desktop application designed for comparative analysis of homologous gene sequences either from multigene families or from different species with a special emphasis on inferring evolutionary relationships and patterns of DNA and protein evolution. In addition to the tools for statistical analysis of data, MEGA provides many convenient facilities for the assembly of sequence data sets from files or web-based repositories, and it ...

  12. Sustainability as Global Norm: The Greening of Mega-Events in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, A.P.J.; ZHANG, L

    2011-01-01

    This volume explores sports mega-events, their social, political, and cultural characters, the value systems that they inscribe and draw on, the claims they make on us and the claims the organisers make for them, the spatial and ethical relationships they create, and the responses of civil societies to them. Our premise is that sports mega-events are not simply sporting or cultural phenomena. They are also political and economic events, characterised by the generation and projection of symbol...

  13. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

  14. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

  15. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle'' that it is possible to "knock out'' selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free,...

  16. A Resident Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.

    This paper examines the work of resident engineers in a university setting. The need for engineers with industrial experience is established, and the benefits of using resident engineers in training programs are cited. Attributes and problems associated with the practice are studied from the viewpoints of industry, government, universities, and…

  17. Mega Events and innovative mobility system: the Expo transport lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mega events have been defined as a form of “speeding up” for urban system transformation (Boeri 2008 and for the implementation of ground-breaking policies in host cities. This term is even more appropriate if is referred to the construction of pioneering mobility systems. Big events and in particular Expo constitute opportunities for the building up of innovative solution for urban mobility, the diffusion and the testing of new technology and prototypes. This article, starting from a review of international study cases, shows how the construction of mobility systems for International Expo is an occasion of testing and constructing innovative transport infrastructures oriented to the mobility of the future (Richards 2001. The article illustrate this phenomena trough the study of the evolution during the last fifty years of transport planning and design in ten different Expo, describing the main mobility challenges and the proposal for the mobility of the future. The study defines three different cluster of Expo: the first group of Expo is called the “progress and speed” Expo and reflect the general approach of mobility planning in the ‘60 and ‘70 Expo; the second cluster include the ‘80 and ‘90 Expo, that are defined as the “automobile dependence” Expo, in which the innovation for urban public transport was limited by the huge diffusion of cars in these decades. The last cluster are the new millennium Expo: the “zero emission” Expo, where the research for green mobility is the main transport challenge.

  18. Beam shaping in the MegaJoule laser project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) is dedicated to inertial confinement fusion. To perform this type of experiment, 160 square beams are frequency converted and focused onto a target filled with a deuterium tritium mixture. We propose to review how these beams are shaped along their propagation through the LMJ. Going upstream from the target to the laser source, specific optics has been designed to meet the beam shaping requirement. A focusing grating and a pseudo-random phase plate concentrate the energy onto the target. A deformable mirror controls and compensates the spatial phase defect occurring during the propagation through the main slab amplifiers. A liquid crystal cell shapes the beam in order to compensate the gain profile of the main amplifiers. It also protects the growth of damages that take place in the final optics of the chain. At last, a phase mirror generates a square flat top mode from a gaussian beam within a regenerative amplifier. All these optical components have one common principle: they control the phase of the spatial laser field. (authors)

  19. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  20. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process. PMID:6828903

  1. Characterization of ampicillin resistance plasmids from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    OpenAIRE

    Totten, P A; Handsfield, H H; Peters, D.; Holmes, K K; Falkow, S.

    1982-01-01

    Seven strains of Haemophilus ducreyi from diverse geographic origins were analyzed for their plasmid content. All strains were multiply resistant, but only resistance to ampicillin was transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. The H. ducreyi plasmids encoding for ampicillin resistance were 7.4, 5.7, and 3.6 megadaltons and encoded for part or all of TnA, and ampicillin transposon. The relatedness of these plasmids was examined by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA-DNA homolog...

  2. Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovo, M; Morelli, L; Bottazzi, V

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined.

  3. Pathogenomics of the Virulence Plasmids of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Bacterial plasmids are self-replicating, extrachromosomal elements that are key agents of change in microbial populations. They promote the dissemination of a variety of traits, including virulence, enhanced fitness, resistance to antimicrobial agents, and metabolism of rare substances. Escherichia coli, perhaps the most studied of microorganisms, has been found to possess a variety of plasmid types. Included among these are plasmids associated with virulence. Several types of E. col...

  4. Sociobiological Control of Plasmid Copy Number in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Watve, Mukta M.; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G.

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up “cheater” mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy num...

  5. Automated Filtration-Based High-Throughput Plasmid Preparation System

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masayoshi; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Akiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Masaki; Kawai, Jun; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Carninci, Piero; Shibata, Yuko; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    1999-01-01

    Current methods of plasmid preparation do not allow for large capacity automated processing. We have developed an automated high-throughput system that prepares plasmid DNA for large-scale sequencing. This system is based on our previously reported filtration method. In this method, cell harvesting, alkaline lysis, and plasmid purification occur in a single 96-well microtiter plate from which sequence-ready DNA samples are collected. The plates are designed to allow all reagents to be injecte...

  6. Induced plasmid-genome rearrangements in Rhizobium japonicum.

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, J O; Atherly, A G

    1984-01-01

    The P group resistance plasmids RP1 and RP4 were introduced into Rhizobium japonicum by polyethylene-glycol-induced transformation of spheroplasts. After cell wall regeneration, transformants were recovered by selecting for plasmid determinants. Plant nodulation, nitrogen fixation, serological, and bacterial genetics studies revealed that the transformants were derived from the parental strains and possessed the introduced plasmid genetic markers. Agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction enzy...

  7. Plasmid addiction systems: perspectives and applications in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Jens; Klinter, Stefan; Schneider, Cornelia; Voß, Isabella; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnical production processes often operate with plasmid?based expression systems in well?established prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Genetically engineered organisms produce important chemicals, biopolymers, biofuels and high?value proteins like insulin. In those bioprocesses plasmids in recombinant hosts have an essential impact on productivity. Plasmid?free cells lead to losses in the entire product recovery and decre...

  8. Transformation of Rhizobium meliloti 41 with plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, G B; Kálmán, Z

    1982-01-01

    Plasmid pGV1106, a derivative of the wide-host-range plasmid S-a of the W incompatibility group, was introduced into Rhizobium meliloti 41 by plasmid-mediated mobilization to overcome the restriction of foreign DNA. The mobilized plasmid pKK2 differed from the original pGV1106 by an extra piece of DNA of 1.3 kilobase pairs which supposedly originated from pJB3JI used for mobilization. If pKK2 was isolated from R. meliloti 41, it could be successfully reintroduced by transformation. The transf...

  9. Photonic plasmid stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium: A comparison of three unique plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Donald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S. typh-lux using three different plasmids and characterize their respective photonic properties. Results In presence of ampicillin (AMP, S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 plasmids exhibited 100% photon-emitting colonies over a 10-d study period. Photon emitters of S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 without AMP selection decreased over time (P 7 to 1 × 109 CFU, P 0.05; although photonic emissions across a range of bacterial concentrations were not different (1 × 104 to 1 × 106 CFU, P > 0.05. For very low density bacterial concentrations imaged in 96 well plates photonic emissions were positively correlated with bacterial concentration (P 3 to 1 × 105 CFU low to high were different in the 96-well plate format (P Conclusion These data characterize photon stability properties for S. typh-lux transformed with three different photon generating plasmids that may facilitate real-time Salmonella tracking using in vivo or in situ biophotonic paradigms.

  10. Quality Control of Mega Voltage Portal Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) is a system used to verify either the correct positioning of the patient during radiotherapy treatment or the linear accelerator beam parameters. The correct position of the patient corresponds to the position at which the patient was scanned at the CT simulator and according to which the therapy plan was made and optimized. Regarding this, besides the advanced treatment planning system and optimized treatment planning techniques, the day-to-day reproduction of simulated conditions is of great importance for the treatment outcome. Therefore, to verify the patient set-up portal imaging should be applied prior to the first treatment session and repeated according to treatment prescriptions during the treatment. In order to achieve full functionality and precision of the EPID, it must be included in radiotherapy Quality Control (QC) programme. The QC of the Mega Voltage portal imaging system was separated in two parts. In the first, the QC of the detector parameters should be performed. For this purpose, the FC2 and QC3 phantoms should be used, along with the Portal Image Processing System program (PIPSpro) package for data analysis. The second part of the QC of the linear accelerator's portal imaging system should include the QC of the CBCT. In this part a set of predefined manufacturer's tests using two different phantoms, one for the geometry calibration and the other for the image quality evaluation, should be performed. Also, the treatment conditions should be simulated using anthropomorphic phantoms and dose distributions for particular EPID protocols should be measured. Procedures for quality control of the portal imaging system developed and implemented at University Hospital Rijeka are presented in this paper.(author)

  11. Confinement and exhaust in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is now accessing regimes with high normalized confinement relative to international scalings, HH(IPB98(y, 2))>1 at high normalized density, n-bar e>60% of the Greenwald density. Data from MAST H-modes suggest that the aspect ratio dependency of international confinement and L-H threshold scalings may need to be modified to improve predictions for ITER. Access to H-mode on MAST is strongly affected by both the divertor magnetic geometry and fuelling location, with the formation of an edge transport barrier being facilitated by operation near the symmetric, connected double-null configuration and with poloidally localized inboard gas puffing. The ELMs on MAST appear to be Type III in nature, even in the highest performance plasmas and with the maximum available auxiliary heating power. ELM energy losses are less than 4% of stored energy in all regimes so far explored. These Type III ELMs are associated with a reduction in the pedestal density but no significant change in the pedestal temperature or temperature profile, indicating that energy is convected from the pedestal region into the scrape-off layer. Analysis of the energy observed to arrive at the divertor targets indicates that ELM losses are predominantly on the low field side. ELM effluxes are observed up to 20 cm from the plasma edge at the outboard mid-plane and are associated with the radial motion of a feature at an average velocity of 1.2 km s-1

  12. Development of plasmid cloning vectors for Thermus thermophilus HB8: expression of a heterologous, plasmid-borne kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, M W; Fee, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    While several Thermus genes have been cloned and T. thermophilus has been shown to be transformable, molecular genetic studies of these thermophiles have been hampered by the absence of selectable cloning vectors. We have constructed a selectable plasmid by random insertion of a heterologous gene encoding a thermostable kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase activity into a cryptic, multicopy plasmid from T. thermophilus HB8. This plasmid should serve as a suitable starting point for the developmen...

  13. Michaels/Sisson Residence

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhoff, Karin; Myburgh, Janri; Clarke, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Model (1:50) of Michaels/Sisson Residence, Mercer Island, Washington, USA, designed by Miller/Hull Partnership Architects, 1988, built by architecture students, University of Pretoria as a 2nd year project, 2005.

  14. Stress in Family Practice Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Rudner, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    Sources and levels of stress, as well as coping mechanisms, perceived by residents in both years of a two-year family practice residency program in Toronto are described. In addition, differences between first- and second-year residents, and between women and men residents, regardless of year, are examined. Results of the survey indicate that the levels of stress are relatively high throughout the two years of residency training. The three most stressful aspects of being a resident are time p...

  15. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways. Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control plasmid transfer in mixed microbial communities. The fate of plasmids in microbial communities and the extent of bacterial phyla permissive towards plasmid receipt are largely unknown. Historically, methods exploring the underlying genetic and environmental factors of plasmid transfer have been heavily reliant on cultivation and expression of plasmid encoded phenotypes. This has provided an incomplete and potentially cultivation biased image of the extent of plasmid transfer. In this thesis, I investigated the extent of plasmid transfer in microbial communities at an unprecedented level of resolution and not reliant on cultivation. I focused on soil microbial communities. Their potential role as a reservoir for plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes is increasingly suspected to majorly contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant pathogens. More specifically, I examined what fraction of a soil microbial community is permissive to plasmids, identified the phylogenetic identity of this fraction and studied environmental factors that modulate plasmid transfer in soil microbial communities. In order to attain these goals, I developed a high-throughput method that enabled me to evaluate the permissiveness of bacterial communities towards introduced plasmids. This new approach is based on the introduction of fluorescently tagged conjugative plasmids into a soil microbial community in solid-surface filter matings under maximized cell-to-cell contact, followed by quantification of transfer events through advanced fluorescent microscopy, isolation of transconjugants through triple-gated fluorescent activated cell sorting and finally 16S rRNA targeted pyrosequencing of the sorted transconjugal pools. Employing this new method, I was able to map, for the first time, the diversity of all recipients in a soil microbial community for three broad host range model plasmids: RP4, pKJK5, and pIPO2tet. I found that a large fraction of soil the bacteria (up to 1 in 10,000) were able to take up any of these broad host range conjugal plasmids. The transconjugal pools comprised 11 bacterial phyla. This finding indicates that the realized transfer range of broad host range plasmids in environmental microbial communities is much larger than previously assumed. I was able to show abundant plasmid transfer from the Gram negative donor strains to a wide diversity of Gram positive soil bacteria, formerly thought to constitute distinct clusters of gene transfer. Moreover, among the observed transconjugants, I identified a core super-permissive fraction of taxa prone to receive diverse BHR plasmids from diverse donors. This fraction comprised the proteobacterial genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacterium and Burkolderia. These taxa are known to be evolutionary interlinked through chromosomal gene exchange. Hence, I was able to show that the gene pool of microbial communities may be directly interconnected through transfer of BHR plasmids at a so far unrecognized level. The developed method furthermore enabled me to explore how agronomic practices may affect gene transfer in soil microbial communities. I compared bacterial communities extracted from plots subjected to different treatments for their permissiveness towards the model BHR plasmids RP4, pRO101 and pIPO2tet. Periodic manure introduction increased the permissiveness of the community towards these plasmids by up to 100% compared to control treatments. However, the phylogenetic composition of the transconjugal pools remained similar. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Subsequently, I focusedon the

  16. Residence of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Stanimirovi? Mirko; Jovanovi? Goran

    2011-01-01

    Residence of the elderly is analyzed in this work. Experiences of the developed world in this field can be extremely beneficial to the housing policy in Serbia. The elderly are facing serious facility shortages for living compared to the actual demand. The subject-matter of this work is to carry out research into the institutional forms of taking up residence of the elderly in Serbia and France, since France is a welfare state. By analyzing French pattern, some useful recommendations ca...

  17. Variability of IncHI1 plasmids from Salmonella typhi with special reference to Peruvian plasmids encoding resistance to trimethoprim and other antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D. E.; Chumpitaz, J C; Goldstein, F

    1985-01-01

    In spite of extensive DNA homology among IncHI1 plasmids, ApaI and XbaI restriction digests of plasmids from Peruvian Salmonella typhi varied considerably from other IncHI1 plasmids isolated previously. IncHI1 plasmids appear to be undergoing a process of modular evolution, probably by sequential acquisition of resistance determinants.

  18. Simultaneous infection with three different S. enteritidis strains in a nursing home resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G; Filetici, E; Fantasia, M; Salmaso, S; Ferrari, G; Alessandrini, A; Binkin, N

    1993-07-01

    A culture taken from a nursing home resident as part of a S. enteritidis outbreak was found to have a mixed infection due to three different strains of S. enteritidis. One of the three strains belonged to phage type (PT) 4, one to PT6 and one reacted with phages but did not conform to any typing scheme (RDNC). All three strains had the 38.9 megadaltons (MDa) plasmid found in the isolates from the outbreak-related cases, in addition the PT6 and RDNC strains harboured a 69.9 MDa plasmid. The importance of phage typing and plasmid analysis for S. enteritidis strain characterization and their epidemiologic and bacterial significance are discussed. PMID:8243602

  19. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Millan, A; Peña-Miller, R; Toll-Riera, M; Halbert, Z V; McLean, A R; Cooper, B S; MacLean, R C

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other's effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped. PMID:25302567

  20. A Practical Data Recovery Technique for Long-Term Strain Monitoring of Mega Columns during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical data recovery method is proposed for the strain data lost during the safety monitoring of mega columns. The analytical relations among the measured strains are derived to recover the data lost due to unexpected errors in long-term measurement during construction. The proposed technique is applied to recovery of axial strain data of a mega column in an irregular building structure during construction. The axial strain monitoring using the wireless strain sensing system was carried out for one year and five months between 23 July 2010 and 22 February 2012. During the long-term strain sensing, three different types of measurement errors occurred. Using the recovery technique, the strain data that could not be measured at different intervals in the measurement were successfully recovered. It is confirmed that the problems that may occur during long-term wireless strain sensing of mega columns during construction could be resolved through the proposed recovery method.

  1. Using a custom mega prosthesis to treat hydatidosis of bone: a report of 3 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan MV

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of hydatidosis of bone with pathological fracture were treated by wide resection, custom mega prosthesis replacement, and chemotherapy. Two patients were females and one was male, with a mean age of 47 years (range, 38-55 years. Two of them had a pathological fracture of the proximal femur, and one had a pathological fracture of the distal femur. All patients were treated postoperatively with albendazole 400 mg, twice daily, for 12 weeks. During the mean follow-up period of 4.5 years, no recurrence of Echinococcal infection was noticed. The use of the custom mega prosthesis technique has not been reported elsewhere, and hydatid disease of the bone can now be considered an extended indication for custom mega prosthesis in addition to its application in surgery for tumours and massive trauma.

  2. Membrane electrode gasket assembly (MEGA) technology for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, A.; Giorgi, L.; De Francesco, M.; Silva, R. F.; Lo Presti, R.; Danzi, A.

    A new technology for the production of a membrane electrode gasket assembly (MEGA) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is defined. The MEGA system was prepared by sealing a previously prepared membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a moulded gasket. For this aim, a proprietary silicone based liquid mixture was injected directly into the MEA borders. Gaskets obtained in different shapes and hardness grades are stable in a wide temperature range. The MEGA technology shows several advantages with respect to traditional PEFCs stack assembling systems: effective membrane saving, reduced fabrication time, possibility of quality control and failed elements substitution. This technology was successfully tested at the ENEA laboratories and the results were acquired in laboratory scale, but industrial production appears to be simple and cheap.

  3. Pooling fMRI data: meta-analysis, mega-analysis and multi-center studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi G Costafreda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related fMRI experiments has the potential to significantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results, mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data or multi-site studies which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain mapping and how data-pooling can be used to remediate them are reviewed, with particular attention to power aggregation and mitigation of false positive results. Some recently developed analysis tools for meta- and mega-analysis are also presented, and recommendations for the conduct of valid fMRI data pooling are formulated.

  4. Rapid plasmid DNA isolation from mucoid gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Marx, J L; Schoch, P E; Cunha, B. A.

    1992-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides interfere with the isolation and characterization of plasmid DNA from gram-negative bacteria. To repress capsular polysaccharide production, bacteria were cultured in medium containing bismuth nitrate and sodium salicylate. Rapid removal of other contaminating bacterial surface components was achieved by mild acidic zwitterionic detergent extraction. After treatment, bacterial cells were more readily lysed in alkaline detergents. The resulting plasmid preparations contained...

  5. Plasmid-encoded copper resistance and precipitation by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    OpenAIRE

    Erardi, F X; Failla, M L; Falkinham, J O

    1987-01-01

    A copper-tolerant Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strain was able to remove copper from culture medium by sulfate-dependent precipitation as copper sulfide. Such precipitation of copper sulfide was not observed in a derivative that lacks a 173-kilobase plasmid. In addition, the plasmid-carrying strain has a sulfate-independent copper resistance mechanism.

  6. Phage types and plasmid profiles of Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, R

    1996-01-01

    112 strains of Salmonella enteritidis were tested according to phage typing method and plasmid profile analysis. 66 strains were classified as PT4, 29 strains as PT6 and 17 strains as PT10. The strains were differentiated into 17 groups according to plasmid profiles. PMID:8997698

  7. Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARTONO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Suhartono (2010 Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids. Biodiversitas 11: 59-64. Of major uropathogens, Escherichia coli has been widely known as a main pathogen of UTIs globally and has considerable medical and financial consequences. A strain of UPEC, namely E. coli ST131, confers a large plasmid encoding cephalosporinases (class C ?-lactamase or AmpC that may be disseminated through horizontal transfer among bacterial populations. Therefore, it is worth examining such large plasmids by isolating, purifying, and digesting the plasmid with restriction enzymes. The examination of the large plasmids was conducted by isolating plasmid DNA visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis as well as by PFGE. The relationship of plasmids among isolates was carried out by HpaI restriction enzyme digestion. Of 36 isolates of E. coli ST 131, eight isolates possessed large plasmids, namely isolates 3, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 26 and 30 with the largest molecular size confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and PFGE was ~42kb and ~118kb respectively. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed that isolates 9, 10, 12, 17 and 18 have the common restriction patterns and those isolates might be closely related.

  8. Transfer of plasmid RP1 into chemolithotrophic Thiobacillus neapolitanus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulpa, C F; Roskey, M T; Travis, M T

    1983-01-01

    RP1, a broad-host-range incompatibility group P1 plasmid specifying multiple drug resistances, has been transferred into the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus neapolitanus. The ability of T. neapolitanus to receive, express, and transmit RP1-encoded antibiotic resistances was examined. The data show that this obligate chemolithotroph can accept, replicate, and express heterologous plasmid DNA from a heterotrophic bacterium.

  9. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer ?-Lactams

    OpenAIRE

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Miriagou, Vivi; Bertini, Alessia; Loli, Alexandra; Colinon, Celine; Villa, Laura; Whichard, Jean M.; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction–based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.

  10. Flow Cytometry and Real-Time Quantitative PCR as Tools for Assessing Plasmid Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Tucker, Allison; Norton, Ann; Top, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of a plasmid in the absence of selection for plasmid-borne genes is not guaranteed. However, plasmid persistence can evolve under selective conditions. Studying the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of plasmid persistence is key to understanding how plasmids are maintained under nonselective conditions. Given the current crisis of rapid antibiotic resistance spread by multidrug resistance plasmids, this insight is of high medical relevance. The conventional method for ...

  11. Cyclone Driven Sediment Loads in a Tropical Mega-River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen; Leyland, Julian; Hackney, Christopher; Heasley, Eleanore; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel; Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Best, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the links between environmental change and sediment transport in the mega-rivers that dominate the flux of terrestrial sediment to their deltas and oceans remains a major challenge. Many large river systems display significant seasonality in flow regime, which is affected to a greater or lesser degree by the influence of large tropical storms, which act to increase their variability and thus drive uncertainty in predicting the impacts associated with changes in future flow regimes. Here we demonstrate the significance of tropical storms in driving sediment flux from one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong, to its delta. Data was collected at Kratie, Cambodia; this being the site of the Mekong's final reliable flow gauging station before the Mekong delta. Suspended sediment fluxes were estimated by calibrating acoustic backscatter returns from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to observed suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across a monsoon cycle. The retrieved SSCs were combined with flow velocity estimates to recover the sediment flux. These estimates of flux were then used to build sediment rating curves to predict suspended flux as a function of flow discharge. A hydrological model, VMod, was then used to estimate daily discharge values for the same historical period, but for a scenario in which the effects of tropical storms on the flow regime are isolated. This was achieved by forcing the hydrological model with daily precipitation values that account for precipitation anomalies associated with observed tropical storms. The difference in cumulative sediment transport estimated by combining the two flow discharge scenarios with the constructed sediment rating curves allowed the contribution of tropical storms to the Lower Mekong's suspended sediment transport regime to be isolated. It was found that sediment loads in the Mekong River attenuate downstream from approximately 120 MT in Laos and Thailand to ~80-90 MT in the alluvial floodplain reaches of Cambodia. Furthermore, it is shown that the proportion of flux generated from tropical cyclones increases downstream and dominates (~60%) the flux observed around the confluence of the 3S basin (the Se San, Sre Pok and Se Kong Rivers) which drains the Vietnamese highlands. This implies future changes in cyclone tracks may impact upon sediment delivery to the Mekong delta.

  12. Plasmid stability in immobilized and free recombinant Escherichia coli JM105(pKK223-200): importance of oxygen diffusion, growth rate, and plasmid copy number.

    OpenAIRE

    de Taxis du Poët, P; Arcand, Y; Bernier, R.; Barbotin, J N; Thomas, D.

    1987-01-01

    Stability of the plasmid pKK223-200 in Escherichia coli JM105 was studied for both free and immobilized cells during continuous culture. The relationship between plasmid copy number, xylanase activity, which was coded for by the plasmid, and growth rate and culture conditions involved complex interactions which determined the plasmid stability. Generally, the plasmid stability was enhanced in cultured immobilized cells compared with free-cell cultures. This stability was associated with modif...

  13. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW MicroMEGAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, Atsuhiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    MicroMegas with resistive anode will be used for the NSW upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The resistive electrode is one of key technology for MPGDs to prevent sparks. Large area resistive electrodes for the MM have been developed using two different technology; screen printing and carbon sputtering. Maximum size of each resistive foil is 45cm x 220cm with printed pattern of 425 micron pitch strips. Those technologies are also suitable to mass production. The prototypes of series production model have been produced successfully. We will report the development and production status and test results of the resistive MicroMegas.

  14. Operational Principle and Tuning of the MegaDiscaP Power Converters Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, JM; Garcia Retegui, R; Benedetti, M; Maestri, S; Kloster, W

    2010-01-01

    This technical report presents the regulation system of the MegaDiscaP power converter prototype. This type of converter will be used to power the septum magnet for Booster injection with Linac 4. First, the MegaDiscaP topology and operational principles are introduced. Then, as the system is composed by different stages, a regulation system capable of handling their interconnections with minimum transient response is presented. Its features, behavior and design considerations adopted are accounted for. Finally, a complete documentation of the implemented software is reported.

  15. Mega sporting events: A poisoned chalice or a new dawn for low- and middle-income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mega sporting events in South Africa, which has the largest number of HIV-positive people in the world, and India, with 1.8 million deaths of children under 5 each year and 52 million stunted children, raise questions about the effective and, as importantly, the moral imperative of spending billions of dollars to host a sporting event. From a health perspective, selling alcohol and debt tarnishes further the notion of any intangible benefits of mega events to low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of IncN plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Aurora; Villa, Laura

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Incompatibility group N (IncN) plasmids have been associated with the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and are a major vehicle for the spread of blaVIM-1 in humans and blaCTX-M-1 in animals. A plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) scheme was developed for rapid categorization of IncN plasmids. METHODS: Twelve fully sequenced IncN plasmids available at GenBank were analysed in silico for selecting the loci for the IncN-specific pMLST. A total of 58 plasmids originating from different reservoirs (human, pig, poultry, cattle and horses) and geographic regions (Italy, Greece, Denmark, UK and The Netherlands) were classified by DNA sequencing of the amplicons obtained for the repA, traJ and korA loci. RESULTS: Eleven sequence types (STs) were defined on the basis of allele sequences of the three selected loci. Most plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 (24/27) isolated in different countries from both animals and humans belonged to ST1, suggesting dissemination of an epidemic plasmid through the food chain. Fifteen of 17 plasmids carrying blaVIM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, isolated during a 5year period in Greece were assigned to ST10, suggesting that spread and persistence of this particular IncN-carrying blaVIM-1 lineage in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the use of pMLST as a suitable and rapid method for identification of IncN epidemic plasmid lineages. The recent spread of blaCTX-M-1 among humans and animals seems to be associated with the dissemination of an epidemic IncN plasmid lineage.

  17. An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

  18. Antibiotic resistance and R-plasmids in food chain Salmonella: evidence of plasmid relatedness.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezanson, G. S.; Pauzé, M; Lior, H

    1981-01-01

    A large number of strains (1,783) belonging to 15 Salmonella serovars isolated, in Canada, from the three major links of the human food chain were screened for multiple antibiotic resistance and the presence of R-plasmids. Multiresistant strains occurred among animal feed, livestock, and human isolates at frequencies of 4, 22, and 14%, respectively. Conjugation analysis revealed that 58% of the isolates from feeds, 87% of those from livestock, and 89% of the human strains carried all or part ...

  19. Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores

  20. Bioinformatics-Based Molecular Classification of Arthrobacter Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mih??an, Marius

    2015-12-01

    The omnipresence of Arthrobacter species in polluted and toxic soils indicates their great potential in environmental biotechnologies, but practical applications of these bacteria are scarce mainly due to the availability of useful genetic engineering tools. Although many fully sequenced Arthrobacter genomes have been deposited in GenBank, little is known about the biology of their plasmids, especially the core functions: replication and partition. In this study the available Arthrobacter plasmid sequences were analyzed in order to identify their putative replication origin. At least the oris from the cryptic plasmids pXZ10142, pCG1, and pBL1 appear to work in this genus. Based on ParA homolog sequences, the Arthrobacter specific plasmids were classified into 4 clades. Iteron-like sequences were identified on most of the plasmids, indicating the position of the putative Arthrobacter specific oris. Although attempts were made to identify the core gene set required for plasmid replication in this genus, it was not possible. The plasmid proteomes showed a rather low similarity. PMID:26208384

  1. Sociobiological control of plasmid copy number in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Mukta M; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up "cheater" mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy number could invade the first invader. However, the realized benefit of increasing intra-host fitness was saturating whereas that of inter-host fitness was exponential. As a result, above a threshold, intra-host selection was overcompensated by inter-host selection and the low copy number wild type plasmid could back invade a very high copy number plasmid. This led to a rock-paper-scissor (RPS) like situation that allowed the coexistence of plasmids with varied copy numbers. Furthermore, another type of cheater that had lost the genes required for conjugation but could hitchhike on a conjugal plasmid, could further reduce the advantage of copy-up mutants. These sociobiological interactions may compliment molecular mechanisms of replication regulation in stabilizing the copy numbers. PMID:20195362

  2. Antibiotic resistance plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of plasmids were isolated physically, and most antibiotic resistance is thought to be plasmid mediated. A number of characters (e.g., resistance to erythromycin or methicillin, and production of pigment) are determined by genes that do not give clear indications of either plasmid or chromosomal location. Although the formation of a particular plasmid is probably, even in bacterial terms, a very rare event, once formed such an element can spread rapidly among the bacterial population. The spectacular increase in the incidence of penicillinase-producing hospital strains in the late 1940's could have been due in part to this process. Evidence is stronger, however, for the intercell transfer of recently isolated plasmids coding for resistance to fusidic acid (and penicillinase production), or for neomycin, or for tetracycline resistance. Study of bacterial plasmids can resolve fundamental biochemical problems, and give some insight into the life of the cell at the molecular level. But the immediate application of the study of staphylococcal plasmids may be directed towards improving the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. The most important aspect of future anti-staphylococcal chemotherapy should thus be the limitation of the use of antibiotics, particularly for application to the skin and nose. (U.S.)

  3. Chromosomal targeting of replicating plasmids in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, K N; Swaving, G J; Faber, F; Ab, G; Harder, W; Veenhuis, M; Haima, P

    1992-11-01

    Using an optimized transformation protocol we have studied the possible interactions between transforming plasmid DNA and the Hansenula polymorpha genome. Plasmids consisting only of a pBR322 replicon, an antibiotic resistance marker for Escherichia coli and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU2 gene were shown to replicate autonomously in the yeast at an approximate copy number of 6 (copies per genome equivalent). This autonomous behaviour is probably due to an H. polymorpha replicon-like sequence present on the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene fragment. Plasmids replicated as multimers consisting of monomers connected in a head-to-tail configuration. Two out of nine transformants analysed appeared to contain plasmid multimers in which one of the monomers contained a deletion. Plasmids containing internal or flanking regions of the genomic alcohol oxidase gene were shown to integrate by homologous single or double cross-over recombination. Both single- and multi-copy (two or three) tandem integrations were observed. Targeted integration occurred in 1-22% of the cases and was only observed with plasmids linearized within the genomic sequences, indicating that homologous linear ends are recombinogenic in H. polymorpha. In the cases in which no targeted integration occurred, double-strand breaks were efficiently repaired in a homology-independent way. Repair of double-strand breaks was precise in 50-68% of the cases. Linearization within homologous as well as nonhomologous plasmid regions stimulated transformation frequencies up to 15-fold. PMID:1479359

  4. Plasmid carriage can limit bacteria-phage coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellie; Truman, Julie; Wright, Rosanna; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution with bacteriophages is a major selective force shaping bacterial populations and communities. A variety of both environmental and genetic factors has been shown to influence the mode and tempo of bacteria-phage coevolution. Here, we test the effects that carriage of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, had on antagonistic coevolution between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its phage, SBW25?2. Plasmid carriage limited bacteria-phage coevolution; bacteria evolved lower phage-resistance and phages evolved lower infectivity in plasmid-carrying compared with plasmid-free populations. These differences were not explained by effects of plasmid carriage on the costs of phage resistance mutations. Surprisingly, in the presence of phages, plasmid carriage resulted in the evolution of high frequencies of mucoid bacterial colonies. Mucoidy can provide weak partial resistance against SBW25?2, which may have limited selection for qualitative resistance mutations in our experiments. Taken together, our results suggest that plasmids can have evolutionary consequences for bacteria that go beyond the direct phenotypic effects of their accessory gene cargo. PMID:26268992

  5. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents three college residence-hall projects that reveal the diversity in planning and design ideas available for successfully meeting student needs. Discusses use of unique interior designs and locations, multi-service features, and the use of prefabricated materials to cut building costs are discussed. (GR)

  6. The right hand copy of the nopaline Ti-plasmid 25 bp repeat is required for tumour formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M. D.; Carter, G H; Shaw, C H

    1984-01-01

    At either end of the nopaline Ti-plasmid T-region resides a copy of a 25 bp repeated element. The normal T-DNA endpoint is 1 bp internal of the right copy, with the transcription initiation site of the nopaline synthase (nos) gene being approximately 300 bp away in the same direction. Here we describe results which demonstrate that deletion of any combination of sequences between the nos initiation site and the right copy of the 25 bp repeat does not affect oncogenicity. Thus a mutant retaini...

  7. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  8. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities: Challenges to Expanding Access in Education in Nigeria University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…

  9. Control of the ccd operon in plasmid F.

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, J E; Kline, B C

    1989-01-01

    The F sex factor plasmid of Escherichia coli contains a pair of genes, ccdA and ccdB, whose protein gene products are involved in an unusual feature of plasmid maintenance. The CcdB protein is a cytotoxin that becomes activated when the F plasmid is lost, thereby killing the F- segregant cells. In F+ cells, the CcdA protein protects against the lethal effects of CcdB. In the present study we show that ccdA and ccdB expressions are negatively autoregulated at the level of transcription. Geneti...

  10. Plasmid-determined enzymatic degradation of nylon oligomers.

    OpenAIRE

    Negoro, S.; T. Taniguchi; Kanaoka, M; H Kimura; Okada, H. (Hideho)

    1983-01-01

    The nylon oligomer (6-aminohexanoic acid cyclic dimer) degradation genes on plasmid pOAD2 of Flavobacterium sp. KI72 were cloned into Escherichia coli vector pBR322. The locus of one of the genes, the structural gene of 6-aminohexanoic acid linear oligomer hydrolase, was determined by constructing various deletion plasmids and inserting the lacUV5 promoter fragment of E. coli into the deletion plasmid. Two kinds of repeated sequences (RS-I and RS-II) were detected on pOAD2 by DNA-DNA hybridiz...

  11. Mega-precovery and data mining of near-Earth asteroids and other Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Char, F.; Curelaru, L.; Euronear Team

    2014-07-01

    The vast collection of CCD images and photographic plate archives available from the world-wide archives and telescopes is still insufficiently exploited. Within the EURONEAR project we designed two data mining software with the purpose to search very large collections of archives for images which serendipitously include known asteroids or comets in their field, with the main aims to extend the arc and improve the orbits. In this sense, ''Precovery'' (published in 2008, aiming to search all known NEAs in few archives via IMCCE's SkyBoT server) and ''Mega-Precovery'' (published in 2010, querying the IMCCE's Miriade server) were made available to the community via the EURONEAR website (euronear.imcce.fr). Briefly, Mega-Precovery aims to search one or a few known asteroids or comets in a mega-collection including millions of images from some of the largest observatory archives: ESO (15 instruments served by ESO Archive including VLT), NVO (8 instruments served by U.S. NVO Archive), CADC (11 instruments, including HST and Gemini), plus other important instrument archives: SDSS, CFHTLS, INT-WFC, Subaru-SuprimeCam and AAT-WFI, adding together 39 instruments and 4.3 million images (Mar 2014), and our Mega-Archive is growing. Here we present some of the most important results obtained with our data-mining software and some new planned search options of Mega-Precovery. Particularly, the following capabilities will be added soon: the ING archive (all imaging cameras) will be included and new search options will be made available (such as query by orbital elements and by observations) to be able to target new Solar System objects such as Virtual Impactors, bolides, planetary satellites, TNOs (besides the comets added recently). In order to better characterize the archives, we introduce the ''AOmegaA'' factor (archival etendue) proportional to the AOmega (etendue) and the number of images in an archive. With the aim to enlarge the Mega-Archive database, we invite the observatories (particularly those storing their images online and also those that own plate archives which could be scanned on request) to contact us in order to add their instrument archives (consisting of an ASCII file with telescope pointings in a simple format) to our Mega-Precovery open project. We intend for the future to synchronise our service with the Virtual Observatory.

  12. Genotyping of virulence plasmid from Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2015-08-20

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has caused severe mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp throughout SE Asia and Mexico. The causative agent of AHPND is the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes PirA- and PirB-like binary toxin that caused deterioration in the hepatopancreas of infected shrimp. The genes responsible for the production of this toxin are located in a large plasmid residing within the bacterial cells. We analyzed the plasmid sequence from the whole genome sequences of AHPND-V. parahaemolyticus isolates and identified 2 regions that exhibit a clear geographical variation: a 4243-bp Tn3-like transposon and a 9-bp small sequence repeat (SSR). The Tn3-like transposon was only found in the isolates from Mexico and 2 unspecified Central American countries, but not in SE Asian isolates from China, Vietnam, and Thailand. We developed PCR methods to characterize AHPND-V. parahaemolyticus isolates as either Mexican-type or SE Asian-type based on the presence of the Tn3-like transposon. The SSR is found within the coding region of a hypothetical protein and has either 4, 5, or 6 repeat units. SSRs with 4 repeat units were found in isolates from Vietnam, China, and Thailand. SSRs with 5 repeat units were found in some Vietnamese isolates, and SSRs with 6 repeat units were only found in the Mexican isolates. PMID:26290509

  13. Bacterial Mitosis: ParM of Plasmid R1 Moves Plasmid DNA by an Actin-like Insertional Polymerization Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating in eukaryotic cells. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that plasmid pairing is required for ParM polymerization. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2003

  14. Interdecadal variability of the mega-ENSO-NAO synchronization in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Mega-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), as two principal components of the global air-sea coupling system, may have synchronous or out-synchronous fluctuations during different epochs. Understanding such connection change is instrumental for climate prediction, particularly the decadal prediction. Results in this study show that mega-ENSO has experienced a notable inter-decadal change in its linkage with the winter NAO during the past 56 years: mega-ENSO was significantly correlated with the NAO during 1957-1981 (or synchronous epoch), while such correlation has broken down since 1982 (or out-synchronous epoch). This marked change might be attributed to a sea surface temperature (SST) forcing change in the North Atlantic, based on the observational and numerical evidences in this study. The synchronous epoch is concurrent with the anomalous tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST forcing, whereas the out-synchronous epoch is associated with the anomalous extra-tropical North Atlantic (XNA) SST forcing. Two possible reasons may explain how the synchronous behaviors between mega-ENSO and the NAO were tied to the TNA SST anomaly (SSTA). There is a positive feedback between the TNA SSTA and the NAO-like atmosphere anomalies, which helps to "prolong" the NAO impacts from the developing phase through mature phase of mega-ENSO. Additionally, the TNA SSTA itself may induce a NAO-like atmosphere anomaly. Since 1982, the TNA SSTA has been replaced by the XNA SSTA and the latter primarily favors a NAO-neutral state in the atmosphere, which ends the synchronous epoch.

  15. Detection of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in an isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaenhammer, T. R.; Sutherland, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eight strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were examined for the presence of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, and one, a pig intestinal isolate, showed the presence of a 13.7- and a 6.3-megadalton plasmid. This is the first reported evidence for plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in Lactobacillus acidophilus. The functions of these plasmids are presently unknown.

  16. Construction of three new Gateway® expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victoria L, Alonso; Carla, Ritagliati; Pamela, Cribb; Esteban C, Serra.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag). The TAPtag an [...] d Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX) and an integrative (pTREX) plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX).

  17. Construction of three new Gateway® expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag. The TAPtag and Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX and an integrative (pTREX plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX.

  18. DKK1 eukaryotic expression plasmid and expression product identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, G Y; Lu, K Y; Cui, S F; Xu, L

    2015-01-01

    We constructed the human dickkopf 1 (DKK1) eukaryotic expression plasmid and expressed, purified, and identified its expression product. We extracted cancer cells from cervical cancer tissue, followed by extraction of mRNA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was conducted to obtain DKK1 gene fragments. Using these fragments, we prepared the recombinant plasmid pCMV-HA2/DKK1. The recombinant plasmid was restriction enzyme-digested and sequenced, and using liposome vectors, was transiently transfected into Free-Style 293-F cells (serum-free medium). DKK1 protein was detected by western blotting. The amplification product showed the expected size. Restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant plasmid was PCMV-HA2/DKK1. The expression product was verified properly by western blotting using an anti-DKKI antibody. The successful cloning of the DKKI gene and expression of DKKI protein will be useful for studying the biological activity of tumorigenesis. PMID:26125834

  19. Psychiatric Pharmacy Residency Training*

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Steven C.; Ott, Carol A.; DiPaula, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the psychiatric pharmacist in the care of the mentally ill has continually evolved since the late 1960s and early 1970s. Pharmacists in the field of psychiatric pharmacy work to improve the health, safety, and welfare of those impacted by one or more psychiatric conditions. Specialty residency training programs are accredited to establish minimum training standards and a board-certification process ensures that individuals provide a high level of quality of care. It is the positio...

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  1. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways. Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control pla...

  2. [Isolation and characteristics of plasmid DNA from Lactobacilli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderov, B A; Podgornova, G P; Zhukov, V G

    1987-09-01

    It was shown on a model of 2 collection strains of lactobacilli that their cultivation on a synthetic multicomponent medium with addition of threonine and subsequent exposure of the cells to lysozyme at 0 degrees C and to alkaline solution of sodium dodecylsulfate at 60 degrees C provided highly efficient detection of plasmid DNA in these organisms. Circular molecules of the plasmid DNA of the 7-kv length, their dimer forms and linear molecules were detected in both of the strains. PMID:3124725

  3. Construction of a bioluminescence reporter plasmid for Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bina, Xiaowen R; Miller, Mark A.; Bina, James E.

    2010-01-01

    A Francisella tularensis shuttle vector that constitutively expresses the Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon in type A and type B strains of F. tularensis was constructed. The bioluminescence reporter plasmid was introduced into the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis and used to follow F. tularensis growth in a murine intranasal challenge model in real time by bioluminescence imaging. The results show that the new bioluminescence reporter plasmid represents a useful tool for tularemia rese...

  4. A Biobrick Library for Cloning Custom Eukaryotic Plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Constante; Raik Gr\\xfcnberg; Mark Isalan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks) to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS) and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain th...

  5. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination functions using very short regions of homology. Initial manipulation of the IncFII target plasmids R1 and R1drd19 indicated that the linear targeting DNA should be devoid of all extraneous homologies to. the ...

  6. Plasmid Accumulation Reduces Life Span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón, Alaric A.; Aris, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of multiple pathways. The production and accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) is one pathway that has been proposed to bring about aging in yeast. To test this proposal, we have developed a plasmid-based model system to study the role of DNA episomes in reduction of yeast life span. Recombinant plasmids containing different replication origins, cis-acting partitioning elements, and selectable marker genes were co...

  7. Residence time distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Slurry phase residence time in the SRC-II dissolver is a major process variable affecting the extent of conversion to distillate products. Kinetic studies have shown that overall conversion of vacuum bottoms to lighter hydrocarbons is a zero order process with respect to vacuum bottoms. This implies that although the extent of backmixing is not a critical process variable, slurry phase mean residence time is. Experimental results from the P-99 PDU supported this. Radioactive tracers were injected into the Ft. Lewis dissolver during normal operation to study the residence time distribution of the gas and slurry phases. Results from gas phase radiotracers showed the gas phase to approach plug flow behavior, but with much larger than expected gas holdup. Gas holdup appeared to be 20% of the reactor volume, rather than the 10 to 12% predicted by standard holdup correlations. Slurry phase radiotracer results indicated that the slurry phase was well-backmixed. Experiments with a downcomer designed to enhance direct slurry flow from the top to the bottom of the dissolver showed this to be a viable and controllable device. The high level of gas holdup at Ft. Lewis suggest that standard holdup correlations must be modified to be used with confidence in the design of coal liquefaction reactors. Additional programs to define holdup relationships in high temperature, high pressure coal liquefaction reactors are recommended. 11 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Plasmid Stability in PHA-Producing Recombinant Escherichia coli Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciano Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polyesters synthesized by numerous prokaryotic organisms from renewable carbon sources. In this study, the stability of three plasmids (pBHR68, pBHR71 and pBHR77, containing the PHA biosynthesis genes from Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was investigated in recombinant E. coli JM101 and DH10B cultures performed at 37°C for 96 h. After 72 h of cultivation, cell growth was resumed due to ampicillin depletion, which allowed the recovery of plasmid-free cells. All plasmids showed almost 100% stability for the first 24 h and up to 30-35 generations. The most stable culture, E. coli strain JM101 harboring the plasmid pBHR68, achieved 50% after 110 generations of growth, while, a similar reduction was observed in the other cultures within 60-80 generations. The best performance of the JM101 strain cultures concerning plasmid stability can be attributed to its best adaptability to the environmental conditions and stability of plasmid-host system.

  9. Plasmid-mediated resistance to protein biosynthesis inhibitors in staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Fessler, Andrea T; Hauschild, Tomasz; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Kadlec, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Protein biosynthesis inhibitors (PBIs) represent powerful antimicrobial agents for the control of bacterial infections. In staphylococci, numerous resistance genes are known to be involved in resistance to PBIs, most of which mediate resistance to a specific class/subclass of PBIs, though a few genes do confer a multidrug resistance phenotype-up to five classes/subclasses of PBIs. Plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of PBI resistance among staphylococci, as they primarily carry plasmid-borne PBI resistance genes; however, plasmids also can be vectors for transposon-borne PBI resistance genes. Small plasmids that carry single PBI resistance genes are widespread among staphylococci of human and animal origin. Various mechanisms exist by which they can recombine, form cointegrates, or integrate into chromosomal DNA or larger plasmids. We provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated PBI resistance in staphylococci, with particular reference to the currently known PBI resistance genes, their association with mobile genetic elements, and the recombination/integration processes that control their mobility. PMID:22191528

  10. Challenges to publishing pharmacy resident research projects from the perspectives of residency program directors and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson KL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify barriers to completing and publishing pharmacy residency research projects from the perspective of program directors and former residents.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of pharmacy residency program directors and former post-graduate year one and two residents. Directors of pharmacy residency programs whose residents present their projects at the Western States Conference (n=216 were invited to complete an online survey and asked to forward the survey to former residents of their program in 2009, 2010, or 2011. The survey focused on four broad areas: 1 demographic characteristics of the residency programs, directors, and residents; 2 perceived value of the research project; 3 perceived barriers with various stages of research; and 4 self-identified barriers to successful research project completion and publication.Results: A total of 32 program directors and 98 residents completed the survey. The minority of programs offered formal residency research training. Both groups reported value in the research project as part of residency training. Significantly more directors reported obtaining institutional review board approval and working through the publication process as barriers to the research project (46.7% vs. 22.6% and 73.3% vs. 43.0%, respectively p<0.05 while residents were more likely to report collecting and analyzing the data as barriers (34.4% vs. 13.3% and 39.8% vs. 20.0%, respectively, p<0.05. Both groups self-identified time constraints and limitations in study design or quality of the study as barriers. However, while program directors also indicated lack of resident motivation (65.5%, residents reported lack of mentorship or program structural issues (43.3%. Conclusion: Overall, while both groups found value in the residency research projects, there were barriers identified by both groups. The results of this study may provide areas of opportunity for improving the quality and publication rates of resident research projects.

  11. Remarkable stability of an instability-prone lentiviral vector plasmid in Escherichia coli Stbl3

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Allaf, FA; Tolmachov, OE; Zambetti, LP; Tchetchelnitski, V.; Mehmet, H

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale production of plasmid DNA to prepare therapeutic gene vectors or DNA-based vaccines requires a suitable bacterial host, which can stably maintain the plasmid DNA during industrial cultivation. Plasmid loss during bacterial cell divisions and structural changes in the plasmid DNA can dramatically reduce the yield of the desired recombinant plasmid DNA. While generating an HIV-based gene vector containing a bicistronic expression cassette 5?-Olig2cDNA-IRES-dsRed2-3?, we encountered ...

  12. Strict Regulation of Gene Expression from a High-Copy Plasmid Utilizing a Dual Vector System

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, David F.; Pieribone, Vincent A; Porton, Barbara; Kao, Hung-Teh

    2008-01-01

    High-copy plasmids are useful for producing large quantities of plasmid DNA, but are generally inadequate for tightly regulating gene expression. Attempts to suppress expression of genes on high-copy plasmids often results in residual or “leaky” production of protein. For stringent regulation of gene expression, it is often necessary to excise the gene of interest and subclone it into a low-copy plasmid. Here, we report a dual plasmid technique that enables tight regulation of gene expression...

  13. Antibiogram and Plasmid Profile Analysis of Isolated Poultry Salmonella of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.F.R. Khan; M.B. Rahman; M.S.R. Khan; K.H.M.N.H. Nazir; Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiogram study and plasmid profile analyses were conducted to find out the correlation of the recently isolated Salmonella organisms of Bangladesh. Antibiogram study revealed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Cephalexin and Kanamycin. In the plasmid profile analysis it was observed that out of 4 isolates of Mymensingh district (M1 to M4), 3 isolates showed 3 plasmid bands in each and 1 isolate showed 4 plasmid bands. The estimated size of the plasmid bands of M1, M2...

  14. Hofmeister series salts enhance purification of plasmid DNA by non-ionic detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Lezin, George; Kuehn, Michael R.; Brunelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the standard technique used for plasmid DNA purification, an essential molecular biology procedure. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs) have been used for plasmid DNA purification, but it is unclear whether Hofmeister series salts (HSS) change the solubility and phase separation properties of specific NIDs, enhancing plasmid DNA purification. After scaling-up NID-mediated plasmid DNA isolation, we established that NIDs in HSS solutions minimize plasmid DNA contamination...

  15. IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-10-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  16. IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the ?-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1? plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  17. The Development of a Modified Method for Isolating Plasmids from Exopolysaccharide Producing Lactobacillus Species Using Conventional Plasmid Isolation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATALOLUK, Osman

    2003-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a key element in the dairy industry. The gene products encoded by the plasmids of LAB carry out fermentation. To date, many successful plasmid isolation studies have been conducted with Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Listeria and many strains of LAB. However, since LAB comprise a conglomerate of seven different genera, each with its own physiological and morphological characteristics, and produce a large amount of exopolysaccharide ...

  18. Molluscan mega-hemocyanin: an ancient oxygen carrier tuned by a ~550 kDa polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasewych Myroslaw G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allosteric respiratory protein hemocyanin occurs in gastropods as tubular di-, tri- and multimers of a 35 × 18 nm, ring-like decamer with a collar complex at one opening. The decamer comprises five subunit dimers. The subunit, a 400 kDa polypeptide, is a concatenation of eight paralogous functional units. Their exact topology within the quaternary structure has recently been solved by 3D electron microscopy, providing a molecular model of an entire didecamer (two conjoined decamers. Here we study keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH2 tridecamers to unravel the exact association mode of the third decamer. Moreover, we introduce and describe a more complex type of hemocyanin tridecamer discovered in fresh/brackish-water cerithioid snails (Leptoxis, Melanoides, Terebralia. Results The "typical" KLH2 tridecamer is partially hollow, whereas the cerithioid tridecamer is almost completely filled with material; it was therefore termed "mega-hemocyanin". In both types, the staggering angle between adjoining decamers is 36°. The cerithioid tridecamer comprises two typical decamers based on the canonical 400 kDa subunit, flanking a central "mega-decamer" composed of ten unique ~550 kDa subunits. The additional ~150 kDa per subunit substantially enlarge the internal collar complex. Preliminary oxygen binding measurements indicate a moderate hemocyanin oxygen affinity in Leptoxis (p50 ~9 mmHg, and a very high affinity in Melanoides (~3 mmHg and Terebralia (~2 mmHg. Species-specific and individual variation in the proportions of the two subunit types was also observed, leading to differences in the oligomeric states found in the hemolymph. Conclusions In cerithioid hemocyanin tridecamers ("mega-hemocyanin" the collar complex of the central decamer is substantially enlarged and modified. The preliminary O2 binding curves indicate that there are species-specific functional differences in the cerithioid mega-hemocyanins which might reflect different physiological tolerances of these gill-breathing animals. The observed differential expression of the two subunit types of mega-hemocyanin might allow individual respiratory acclimatization. We hypothesize that mega-hemocyanin is a key character supporting the adaptive radiation and invasive capacity of cerithioid snails.

  19. The centromere-specific histone variant Cse4p (CENP-A) is essential for functional chromatin architecture at the yeast 2-?m circle partitioning locus and promotes equal plasmid segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Hajra, Sujata; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2006-01-01

    The centromere protein A homologue Cse4p is required for kinetochore assembly and faithful chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been regarded as the exquisite hallmark of centromeric chromatin. We demonstrate that Cse4 resides at the partitioning locus STB of the 2-?m plasmid. Cse4p-STB association is absolutely dependent on the plasmid partitioning proteins Rep1p and Rep2p and the integrity of the mitotic spindle. The kinetochore mutation ndc10-1 excludes Cse4p from cen...

  20. Alkaline-cell lysis through in-line static mixer reactor for the production of plasmid DNA for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsart, Saethawat; Karnjanasorn, Tanyawat

    2007-02-15

    A state-of-the-art in-line static mixer reactor (ISMR) was invented to lyse E. coli cells and neutralize the cell lysate continuously and efficiently for the extraction of plasmid DNA. It comprised two connected static dynamic mixers, each 0.01 m in diameter and 0.9 m in length, one for lysis and one for neutralization. Cells were lysed using concentrated alkaline with 1% SDS and the lysate was neutralized at feed rates of cell suspension:lysis solution:neutralization solution of 125:250:125, 250:500:250, and 500:1,000:500 mL/min. Distances for the mixtures to reach color homogeneity were dependent on feed rates. The higher the feed rates the shorter the mixing distances and times. However, complete cell lysis and neutralization were independent of color homogeneity. Lysate viscosity and neutralized floc size decreased and floc density increased, as distances and feed rates increased. High plasmid yields were obtained from both lysis and neutralization at feed rate ratios of 125:250:125 and 250:500:250 mL/min within mixing distances mixing performance and plasmid yield were obtained at a high feed rate of 500:1,000: 500 mL/min when residence and reaction times were less than 2 s and from mixing distances > or =0.6 m at all feed rates due to a longer exposure to strong alkali and shear flow. This invention showed excellent performance with scaleable potential for the commercial manufacture of plasmid DNA. PMID:16917953

  1. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  2. POTENTIAL FOR TRANSDUCTION OF PLASMIDS IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT OF PLASMID DONOR CONCENTRATION AND A NATURAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ON TRANSDUCTION IN 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid Rms149 by the generalized transducing phage DS1 was shown to occur during a nine day incubation of environmental test chambers in a freshwater reservoir. Plasmid DNA was transferred from a nonlysogenic plasmid donor to a DS1 lyso...

  3. IncP-1? plasmids of Comamonas sp. and Delftia sp. strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant mediate resistance to and decolorization of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Yvonne; Eikmeyer, Felix; Wibberg, Daniel; Brandis, Gerrit; Karsten, Christina; Krahn, Irene; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Viehöver, Prisca; Barsch, Aiko; Keck, Matthias; Top, Eva M; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The application of toxic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV) in various industrial processes leads to large amounts of dye-contaminated sludges that need to be detoxified. Specific bacteria residing in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to degrade triphenylmethane dyes. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the genetic background of bacterial strains capable of CV degradation. Three bacterial strains isolated from a municipal WWTP harboured IncP-1? plasmids mediating resistance to and decolorization of CV. These isolates were assigned to the genera Comamonas and Delftia. The CV-resistance plasmid pKV29 from Delftia sp. KV29 was completely sequenced. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the accessory regions involved in conferring CV resistance were determined for plasmids pKV11 and pKV36 from the other two isolates. Plasmid pKV29 contains typical IncP-1? backbone modules that are highly similar to those of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids that confer antibiotic resistance, degradative capabilities or mercury resistance. The accessory regions located between the conjugative transfer (tra) and mating pair formation modules (trb) of all three plasmids analysed share common modules and include a triphenylmethane reductase gene, tmr, that is responsible for decolorization of CV. Moreover, these accessory regions encode other enzymes that are dispensable for CV degradation and hence are involved in so-far-unknown metabolic pathways. Analysis of plasmid-mediated degradation of CV in Escherichia coli by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS revealed that leuco crystal violet was the first degradation product. Michler's ketone and 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde appeared as secondary degradation metabolites. Enzymes encoded in the E. coli chromosome seem to be responsible for cleavage of leuco crystal violet. Plasmid-mediated degradation of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV is an option for the biotechnological treatment of sludges contaminated with these dyes. PMID:22653947

  4. A comparison of three mega bank groups’ strategies towards a low carbon economy focusing on activities of their securities companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    This paper analysed Japan’s top three mega bank groups’ activities towards a low carbon economy by focusing on their securities companies. The three groups, namely MUFG, SMFG and MHFG, have enormously influenced, not only in Japan’s economy, but the global economy owing to their sizes. Overall, this paper confirmed that the three mega bank groups have been trying to promote environmental business through their services as leading financial institutions. Moreover, they have utilized not only f...

  5. Parallels in portraits of leadership in mega churches of Gauteng (RSA) and Florida (USA) / Tsietsi John Maloma

    OpenAIRE

    Maloma, Tsietsi John

    2011-01-01

    This thesis, Parallels in portraits of leadership in mega churches of Gauteng (RSA) and Florida (USA), the researcher, studied literature on church leadership with special reference to the leadership of mega churches. He researched issues relating to the nature of church leadership by exploring relevant Bible passages, the lives of certain Bible characters that the Bible presents as good but not perfect leaders, as well as relevant key theological conceptions of leadership. The study accordin...

  6. E-marketing of sports mega-events with specific reference to the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Radikonyana, Paul Shimane

    2013-01-01

    From an analysis of the literature it is apparent that there has been no concerted effort to date to undertake a coherent and integrated assessment of the application of e-marketing in sport mega-events. A strategic evaluation of the e-marketing initiatives implemented since 2000 during national and international mega events, indicates that e-marketing, in most instances, took place in a limited and fragmented manner. However a further analysis of these case studies provides valuable perspect...

  7. Extrachromosomal plasmids in the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaji-Hare, S H; Burger, G; Forget, L; Lang, B F

    1994-05-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA elements were found in field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) 1-5. An isolate of AG-5 (Rh41) contains a 3.6-kbp plasmid (pRS188) which has a similar A+T content to mitochondrial DNA. pRS188 is linear and has knob structures at its ends, as revealed by electron microscopy. Exonuclease digestions show that the linear ends of pRS188 are protected, and remain protected even after proteinase K digestion. pRS188 does not hybridise to nuclear or mitochondrial DNAs of its host isolate (Rh41), to total DNAs of other plasmid-less AG-5 isolates, or to total DNA of plasmid-harbouring isolates belonging to different AGs. Cellular-fractionation experiments suggest that pRS188 is associated with mitochondria, but it remains undecided whether this occurs inside or outside of the organelles. The nucleotide sequence of about 60% of the plasmid has been determined, revealing no open reading frame longer than 91 amino acids, and no known gene or genetic element is detected in the sequence contigs of 300-1572 bp length. Similar studies were performed with the plasmid pRS104 present in an isolate of AG-4 (Rh36), the sequence of which exhibits essentially the same features as pRS188 except that its A+T content resembles that of nuclear DNA. Pathogenicity tests reveal that the isolates Rh41 and R36 are as virulent as the plasmid-less isolates of AG-4 and -5, indicating that the plasmids do not play any role in pathogenicity. PMID:8082188

  8. Strategic place marketing and place branding: 15 years of mega-events in Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    METAXAS, THEODORE; Bati, Aristea; Filippopoulos, Dimitris; Drakos, Kostas; Tzellou, Vagia

    2011-01-01

    Urban tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon but is now being embraced by most European cities, which are using substantial funds to compete for visitors, thus generating new infrastructures for this process. Cities so as to differentiate themselves from their competitors, attempt to manage their image by strategic place marketing approach. This paper explores the implications and significance of being a host city of mega events. The purpose is to identify the perception of Lisbon’s identi...

  9. Computer Arithmetic Algorithms for Mega-Digit Floating Point Numbers' Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah J. Aqel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE standard 754 floating point is the most common representation used for floating point numbers, and many computer arithmetic algorithms are developed for basic operations on this standard. In this study, new computer algorithms are proposed to increase the precision range and to solve some problems that are available while using these algorithms. However, these algorithms provide an optional range of required accuracy (Mega-Digit precision to meet new computer's applications.

  10. Computer Arithmetic Algorithms for Mega-Digit Floating Point Numbers' Precision

    OpenAIRE

    Musbah J. Aqel; Mohammed H. Saleh

    2007-01-01

    IEEE standard 754 floating point is the most common representation used for floating point numbers, and many computer arithmetic algorithms are developed for basic operations on this standard. In this study, new computer algorithms are proposed to increase the precision range and to solve some problems that are available while using these algorithms. However, these algorithms provide an optional range of required accuracy (Mega-Digit precision) to meet new computer's applications.

  11. ADAPTION OF “MEGA EVENT IMPACT SCALE”: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY (2011 ERZURUM 25. WINTER UNIVERSIADE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Y?ld?r?m ?im?ek

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at carrying out validity and reliability studies and the adaption of Turkish version of the scale titled “Mega Event Impact Scale” and developed by Jie ve Yan (2010). The scale, which consists of five-point Likert scale 42 items, was administered to the local audience following 2011 Erzurum 25. Winter Universiade. The subjects of the study were 412 people (55 % male and 45 % female), who were chosen through random sampling method. Explanatory factor analysis, applied to determ...

  12. Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer ROTHFUß; Camilla PERRONE; Rogério MORORÓ

    2012-01-01

    Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The ...

  13. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to the existing literature and studies of large-scale IT projects, empirical data from a mega IT project in mid-sized Danish Bank, Jyske Bank, demonstrates a successful implementation of a highly complex IT platform transition. Linguistic representations and especially extensive use of metaphors by executive management to form and shape the megaproject appeared to have significant impact on guidance of individual and collective action, and thereby presumably one of the important factors...

  14. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; Drake, Nick A

    2015-07-14

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ? 15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ? 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world's greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  15. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: Lessons from Antarctic mega-dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, Alexey; Eberlein, Lutz; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Popov, Sergey; Schroder, Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of glaciological investigations in the mega-dune area located 30 km to the east from Vostok Station (central East Antarctica) implemented during the 58th and 59th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013 and January 2014). Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (?D and ?18O) were measured along the 2-km profile across the mega-dune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and GPR survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by 1 order of magnitude within the distance < 1 km, with the reduced accumulation at the leeward slope of the dune and increased accumulation in the hollow between the dunes. At the same time, the accumulation rate averaged over the length of a dune wave (25 mm w.e.) corresponds well with the value obtained at Vostok Station, which suggests no additional wind-driven snow sublimation in the mega-dunes comparing to the surrounding plateau. The snow isotope content is in negative correlation with the snow accumulation, which could be explained by post-depositional snow modification and/or by enhanced redistribution by wind of winter precipitation comparing to summer precipitation. Using the GPR data, we estimated the dune drift velocity (5.5 ± 1.3 m yr-1). The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 340 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotope content are supposed to drift with the dune, an ice core drilled in the mega-dune area would exhibit the non-climatic 340-yr cycle of these two parameters. We made an attempt to simulate a vertical profile of isotope content with such a non-climatic variability in a virtual ice core, using the data on the dune size and velocity. The obtained results are discussed in terms of real ice core data interpretation.

  16. Improving Customer Satisfaction and Customer Service Levels : Case: Nakumatt Mega City Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Shalotte Salmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the current customer satisfaction and service levels of the Nakumatt mega city Supermarket through an efficient customer satisfaction survey. It is important for a company to work towards satisfying customers’ needs and expectations in order to flourish. The main objective of the study was to discover solutions to improve customer satisfaction and to increase the level of Nakumatt customer services in order to retain and attract new customers. Ano...

  17. Plasmid Profiles of Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella Species Isolated in Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Al-Bahry

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Different Salmonella species (159 strains were isolated from human and non-human sources were exposed to eighteen different antibiotics. 48 strains showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Resistant strains were examined for their R- plasmids contents by glass fines, boiling miniprep and agarose electrophoresis procedures. All but three of the tested strains from chicken contained a plasmid with similar molecular weight (m.w. even though the strains were resistant to different antibiotics. The remaining three strains contained an additional plasmid with a different electrophoretic migration pattern. Many of the plasmids when digested with endonucleases were found to have similar fragments. Out of four plasmids extracted from Salmonella strains isolated from sheep, three contained one type of a plasmid with similar m.w. and fragmentation. Broad diversity was noted in plasmids extracted from Salmonella strains isolated from humans. Endonuclease digestion of plasmids revealed that some plasmids have a common fingerprint pattern.

  18. Formation of inverted dimer plasmids after transformation of yeast with linearized plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunes, S; Botstein, D; Fox, M S

    1984-01-01

    The formation of an inverted dimer plasmid on transformation with linear molecules is formally analogous to the fusion of the daughters of a broken chromosome at their broken ends. In the latter case, this leads to the formation of a dicentric chromosome, which could break at anaphase. Hence the process is cyclic. Similarly, when our linear molecules are modified by the addition of a cloned yeast centromere, dicentric inverted dimers are not obtained. Instead, we obtain monocentric plasmids with partial duplication and deletion that apparently derive from a process of fusion, bridge-breakage, and fusion. This is not surprising, since it is known that dicentric plasmids undergo breakage in yeast (Mann and Davis 1983). However, any apparent similarity of this process to that which occurs with a broken chromosome in maize must be tempered by the special nature of the transformation process. Most significantly, inverted dimers are rare when sonicated carrier DNA is not present during the transformation. This requirement is not understood, but it is a condition that may not be met in a yeast cell harboring a broken chromosome. It is possible that carrier DNA induces a repair process that results in fusion. On the other hand, a property of the transformation process that results in an inhibition of fusion may be overcome by the presence of carrier DNA. Most inverted dimers are apparently formed from an interaction between two input linear molecules. We cannot rule out the possibility that a minor fraction derive from a single molecule. Thus, the fusion of two input molecules is a much more efficient process than a replicative process that could occur with single linear molecule. For a similar fusion process to occur with a broken yeast chromosome, replication would be required. We do not know if a broken yeast chromosome can replicate. Evidence consistent with the presence of a breakage-fusion-bridge process in yeast has been obtained through the formation of dicentric chromosomes via meiotic recombination (Haber et al. 1984). Spores from these meioses sometimes give rise to a clone that is mixed for markers of the chromosome that could have been dicentric. A process of fusion-bridge-breakage could account for the formation of some of these mixed clones. However, the dicentric chromosomes apparently often survive meiotic disjunction and break in the spore's first mitotic anaphase or possibly in a later generation. Thus, the interpretation of the origin of these mixed clones is uncertain. Some aspects of the fusion process are especially intriguing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6397317

  19. A new free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings is developed. The physical model of a mega frame is idealized as a three-dimensional assemblage of stiffened close-thin-walled tubes with continuously distributed mass and stiffness. One-variable functions defined on the nodal lines selected by the analyst are unknown functions (eigenfunctions) employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the model. By a Hamiltonian principle, the governing equations of the free vibration analysis can be obtained, which are a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) of the eigenfunctions with their corresponding boundary conditions. The desired vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration modes (eigenfunctions) can be obtained by numerically solving the system of ODEs with boundary conditions. The free vibration analysis also includes the coupling vibration modes of the collection composed by several nodal lines. The results from the illustration example show that the method is rational and powerful for the free vibration analysis of space-mega-frame systems.

  20. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

  1. Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail a creation of an additional capacity of at least 100,000 MW. The Ultra Mega Power projects, each with a capacity of 4000 megawatts or above, are being developed with an aim to bridge this gap. The UMPPs are seen as an expansion of the MPP (Mega Power Projects projects that the Government of India undertook in the nineties but met with limited success. The Ministry of Power in association with Central Electricity Authority and Power Finance Corporation Ltd. has launched an initiative for development of coal-based UMPP's in India. These projects will be awarded to developers on the basis of competitive bidding.

  2. The effects of the MEGA BORG spill on Gulf of Mexico shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brown shrimp stock model was developed at the NMFS Galveston Laboratory to assess the effects of the MEGA BORG oil spill on the brown shrimp population along the Texas coast. Water and sediment samples from near the MEGA BORG spill area were collected and analyzed by the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group at Texas A ampersand M University. Hydrocarbon concentrations found at the sediment collection stations ranged from 1.38 ug/g to 7.42 ug/g, while concentrations at the water column sampling sites ranged from 0.69 ug/l to 27.39 ug/l. Evaluation of chromatograms and analytical data suggested that sediments from the area contained primarily biogenic hydrocarbons. Only one station had elevated hydrocarbon levels. However, these values were only three to five times higher than the concentrations measured at the other stations. Evaluation of the water samples from the area showed only very low concentration levels of hydrocarbons were present in the water column. A bioassay study was conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Gulf Breeze, Florida. The main conclusion from the bioassay study was that the concentrations of hydrocarbons measured at the field sites where water samples were taken tended to be three orders of magnitude lower than the hydrocarbon concentrations causing toxic responses in mysid and white shrimp. There were no detected effects of the brown shrimp population along the Texas coast from the MEGA BORG oil spill

  3. The MEGA BORG: The value of cooperative damage assessment to trustees, PRPs, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process provides natural resource trustees with a method for restoring publicly owned or managed natural resources and their services that are injured as a result of an oil or chemical release. The NRDA process is simple in concept, but provides significant challenges for natural resource trustees. Although the impacts of marine pollution have been studied for many years, the quantification, economic evaluation, and restoration of these impacts brings up controversial scientific, legal, and economic issues. The 1990 MEGA BORG spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of a cooperative assessment. Within a few days of the spill, the Texas Water Commission and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reached and agreement with the owners of the MEGA BORG under which the owners would fund a preliminary assessment of the environmental impact of the spill. Five projects were funded to determine whether there was sufficient injury to justify the completion of a natural resource damage assessment. The MEGA BORG provides an example of a cooperative and scientifically balanced approach to the initiation of damage assessment activities and illustrates the benefits of a cooperative assessment

  4. Radar scattering of linear dunes and mega-yardangs: Application to Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Paillou, Philippe; Radebaugh, Jani; Wall, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Ku-band (13.8 GHz - 2.2 cm) RADAR instrument onboard the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has revealed the richness of the surface of Titan, as numerous seas, lakes, rivers, cryo-volcanic flows and vast dune fields have been discovered. Linear dunes are a major geomorphological feature present on Titan, covering up to 17% of its surface, mainly in equatorial regions. However, the resolution of the RADAR instrument is not good enough to allow a detailed study of the morphology of these features. In addition, other linear wind-related landforms, such as mega-yardangs (linear wind-abraded ridges formed in cohesive rocks), are likely to present a comparable radar signature that could be confused with the one of dunes. We conducted a comparative study of the radar radiometry of both linear dunes and mega-yardangs, based on representative terrestrial analogues: the linear dunes located in the Great Sand Sea in western Egypt and in the Namib Desert in Namibia, and the mega-yardangs observed in the Lut Desert in easter...

  5. Replicase-based plasmid DNA shows anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has multiple anti-tumor mechanisms. Over the past several decades, there have been numerous attempts to utilize synthetic dsRNA to control tumor growth in animal models and clinical trials. Recently, it became clear that intracellular dsRNA is more effective than extracellular dsRNA on promoting apoptosis and orchestrating adaptive immune responses. To overcome the difficulty in delivering a large dose of synthetic dsRNA into tumors, we propose to deliver a RNA replicase-based plasmid DNA, hypothesizing that the dsRNA generated by the replicase-based plasmid in tumor cells will inhibit tumor growth. The anti-tumor activity of a plasmid (pSIN-?) that encodes the sindbis RNA replicase genes (nsp1-4) was evaluated in mice with model tumors (TC-1 lung cancer cells or B16 melanoma cells) and compared to a traditional pCMV-? plasmid. In cell culture, transfection of tumor cells with pSIN-? generated dsRNA. In mice with model tumors, pSIN-? more effectively delayed tumor growth than pCMV-?, and in some cases, eradicated the tumors. RNA replicase-based plasmid may be exploited to generate intracellular dsRNA to control tumor growth

  6. Prevalence of pSmeSM11a-like plasmids in indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strains isolated in the course of a field release experiment with genetically modified S. meliloti strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stefanie; Stiens, Michael; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plasmid pSmeSM11a, residing in the indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strain SM11 originating from a field in Strassmoos (Bavaria, Germany), was analysed previously at the genomic level. Thirty-seven indigenous S. meliloti strains, originating from two different locations in Germany, were screened for genes identified previously on pSmeSM11a. Seven of these strains harbour accessory plasmids that are very similar to pSmeSM11a. The identified pSmeSM11a-like plasmids are c. 130-150 kb in size and possess nearly identical restriction profiles. Up to 30 genes identified previously on pSmeSM11a could be detected on these plasmids by hybridisation experiments, e.g., the nodulation genes nodP and nodQ, the ethylene level modulation gene acdS and the taurine metabolism gene tauD. A few pSmeSM11a genes were also detected on other plasmids. The reference plasmid pSmeSM11a contains a region that is similar to a segment of S. meliloti strain Rm1021 pSymA. Regions with similarity to pSymA were also detected on the aforementioned seven pSmeSM11a-like plasmids. The specifications of these regions are nearly identical to the one on pSmeSM11a and differ from Rm1021 pSymA as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two further plasmids similar to pSmeSM11a completely lack the pSymA-region. Those strains carrying accessory plasmids that contain the acdS gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase are able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as the sole source of nitrogen, demonstrating functionality of the acdS gene product. About 36% of the analysed plasmids, including three pSmeSM11a-like plasmids, could be transferred to another S. meliloti recipient strain, allowing for their dissemination in S. meliloti populations. PMID:18034835

  7. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: from 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E; Farrell, Katharine N

    2012-01-01

    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed by mega-sites is reflected upon in its entirety. These complexities are associated with uncertainties and unknowns that have to be addressed, as they have an impact on the strategies being developed and applied. We contend that the best that can be hoped for in mega-site management is an acceptable solution for the current state of affairs, with good flexibility to modify strategies as new site conditions, remediation possibilities, community preferences and management objectives develop over time. PMID:21890232

  8. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: From 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E.; Farrell, Katharine N.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed by mega-sites is reflected upon in its entirety. These complexities are associated with uncertainties and unknowns that have to be addressed, as they have an impact on the strategies being developed and applied. We contend that the best that can be hoped for in mega-site management is an acceptable solution for the current state of affairs, with good flexibility to modify strategies as new site conditions, remediation possibilities, community preferences and management objectives develop over time.

  9. Plasmid-determined enzymatic degradation of nylon oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, S; Taniguchi, T; Kanaoka, M; Kimura, H; Okada, H

    1983-07-01

    The nylon oligomer (6-aminohexanoic acid cyclic dimer) degradation genes on plasmid pOAD2 of Flavobacterium sp. KI72 were cloned into Escherichia coli vector pBR322. The locus of one of the genes, the structural gene of 6-aminohexanoic acid linear oligomer hydrolase, was determined by constructing various deletion plasmids and inserting the lacUV5 promoter fragment of E. coli into the deletion plasmid. Two kinds of repeated sequences (RS-I and RS-II) were detected on pOAD2 by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. These repeated sequences appeared five times (RS-I) or twice (RS-II) on pOAD2. One of the RS-II regions and the structural gene of the hydrolase overlapped. PMID:6305910

  10. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyšín, Lud?k; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kate?ina; Št?pán, Václav; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Bugler, Beatrix; Legube, Gaelle; Cafarelli, Pierre; Casta, Romain; Champeaux, Jean Philippe; Sence, Martine; Vlk, Martin; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, Sebastien; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Clustered DNA damage induced by 10, 20 and 30 MeV protons in pBR322 plasmid DNA was investigated. Besides determination of strand breaks, additional lesions were detected using base excision repair enzymes. The plasmid was irradiated in dry form, where indirect radiation effects were almost fully suppressed, and in water solution containing only minimal residual radical scavenger. Simultaneous irradiation of the plasmid DNA in the dry form and in the solution demonstrated the contribution of the indirect effect as prevalent. The damage composition slightly differed when comparing the results for liquid and dry samples. The obtained data were also subjected to analysis concerning different methodological approaches, particularly the influence of irradiation geometry, models used for calculation of strand break yields and interpretation of the strand breaks detected with the enzymes. It was shown that these parameters strongly affect the results. PMID:26007308

  11. Genetic characterization of plasmid pRJ5 of Staphylococcus aureus compared to plasmid pE194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pRJ5, a naturally occurring constitutive macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLS) resistance plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus, was compared to pE194, a plasmid that confers the inducible phenotype. pRJ5 was stable in all strains of S. aureus tested, even under growth at 43O C, which distinguished it from pE194 which was shown to be thermo-sensitive for replication. pRJ5, like pE194, was highly unstable in Bacillus subtilis when the cells were grown in nonselective conditions. Multimeric forms of pRJ5 DNA were detected in the few cells of B. subtilis that retained this plasmid. pE194 was transduced by phages ? 11 and ? 443 at frequencies 400 and 20-fold higher, respectively, than pRJ5. Both plasmids were co-transduced with the plasmid pRJ4. pRJ5 was shown to be compatible with pE194. Therefore they belong to distinct Inc groups. Hybridization studies revealed that pRJ5 shares a 1.35 kb region of homology to pE194, which is limited to the erm gene, conferring MLS resistance. (author)

  12. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining. PMID:23527131

  13. Replication and Maintenance of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into the chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends (telomeres). Upon infection, the phage DNA circularizes via cohesive ends, and then a special phage enzyme of the tyrosine recombinase family, protelomerase, cuts at another site and joins the ends, forming hairpin telomeres of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in the formation of duplicated telomeres. The N15 protelomerase cuts them, generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by a partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike the F centromere, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in the N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lytic development, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. The family of N15-like linear phage-plasmids includes lambdoid phages ?KO2 and pY54, as well as Myoviridae phages ?HAP-1, VHML, VP882, Vp58.5, and vB_VpaM_MAR of marine gamma-proteobacteria. The genomes of these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny control modules, and replication genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor. PMID:26104561

  14. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method for producing recombinant Sindbis viruses.

  15. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    OpenAIRE

    Olson Ken E; Lama Siddhi BC; Henderson Brittney R; Steel J Jordan; Geiss Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J) was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml) of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method ...

  16. Transformation of vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis by plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Heierson, A; Landén, R; Lövgren, A; Dalhammar, G; H. G. Boman

    1987-01-01

    Plasmid DNA-mediated transformation of vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis was studied with the following two plasmids: pBC16 coding for tetracycline resistance and pC194 expressing chloramphenicol resistance. A key step was the induction of competence by treatment of the bacteria with 50 mM Tris hydrochloride buffer (pH 8.9) containing 30% sucrose. Transformation frequency was strongly influenced by culture density during the uptake of DNA and required the presence of polyethylene gly...

  17. Supercoiling, knotting and replication fork reversal in partially replicated plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Olavarrieta, Leticia; Martínez-Robles, María Luisa; Sogo, José; Stasiak, Andrzej Z.; Hernandez, Pablo; Krimer, Dora B.; Schvartzman, Jorge Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    To study the structure of partially replicated plasmids, we cloned the Escherichia coli polar replication terminator TerE in its active orientation at different locations in the ColE1 vector pBR18. The resulting plasmids, pBR18-TerE@StyI and pBR18-TerE@EcoRI, were analyzed by neutral/neutral two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Replication forks stop at the Ter-TUS complex, leading to the accumulation of specific replication intermediates with a mass 1.26 times...

  18. Plasmid-influenced changes in Mycobacterium avium catalase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Pethel, M. L.; Falkinham, J. O.

    1989-01-01

    A virulent Mycobacterium avium strain, LR25, which carries three plasmids (18, 28, and 165 kilobases) and grows at 43 degrees C was compared with its plasmid-free, avirulent segregant, strain LR163, to identify the basis for the latter's inability to grow at 43 degrees C. The failure of mid-log-phase cultures of strain LR163 to grow at 43 degrees C was dependent on the presence of high levels of culture aeration. In addition, highly aerated cultures of strain LR163 failed to grow at 37 degree...

  19. Conjugative plasmids harboring tet(W) and tet(M) involved in the transfer of tetracycline resistance.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Kopejtka, Karel; Volná, Lucie; Bhumibhamon, G.; Chro?áková, Alica; Jirout, Ji?í; Schmitt, H.; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.; Elhottová, Dana

    Santander : International Society for Plasmid Biology, 2012. [International Plasmid Biology Conference 2012. 12.09.2012-16.09.2012, Santander] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : conjugative plasmids harboring * tetracycline resistance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  1. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    OpenAIRE

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D.; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S.; Koenig, George J.; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S.; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident...

  2. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  3. Non-additive costs and interactions alter the competitive dynamics of co-occurring ecologically distinct plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Elise R.; Platt, Thomas G.; Fuqua, Clay; Bever, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids play an important role in shaping bacterial evolution and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. As modular genetic elements that are often conjugative, the selective pressures that act on plasmid-borne genes are distinct from those that act on the chromosome. Many bacteria are co-infected by multiple plasmids that impart niche-specific phenotypes. Thus, in addition to host–plasmid dynamics, interactions between co-infecting plasmids are likely to be important drivers of plasmid p...

  4. [Hybrid plasmid pSD1 containing the immunity region of bacteriophage lambda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikarev, S D; Sineoki?, S P; Stepanov, A I

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid plasmid pSD1 carrying the immunity region of the coliphage lambda and bio operon have been obtained by means of studying the efficiency of transcription DNA fragments in the plasmid RSF2124. The molecular weight of this plasmid is 17.2 Md. The growth inhibition of phage lambdavir has been observed in cells carrying the new hybrid plasma. The properties of the plasmid pSD1 and probable reasons of the growth inhibition of phage lambdavir are discussed. The hybrid plasmid pSD2 carrying genes R, A and J of phage lambda has been constructed on the basis of the plasmid RSF2124. There are cohesive ends in this plasmid which make possible its packing in the phage lambda head. Hybrid plasmid pSD3 carrying genes P and Q of phage lambda has also been constructed. PMID:157906

  5. Structural and functional analysis of a polyoma-related mammalian plasmid (L factor): the enhancer activity and plasmid establishment.

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIMURA, H; Ikeda, Y.; M. Yoshimoto(Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya, Japan); Tamaki, S; Hanada, K.; Kusano, T.; T. Kohda; Saito, H; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    L factor is a unique plasmid DNA which was originally discovered in a subclone (B822) of mouse L cells at a high copy number (more than 5,000 copies/cell). The presence of L factor caused no detectable abnormalities to the plasmid-bearing cells. We determined the total DNA sequence of the L factor I (and a part of L factor II) and compared it with that of polyoma DNA. Both DNA are common to the general construction of DNA frames such as early, late and noncoding regions, suggesting the two to...

  6. Extended Function of Plasmid Partition Genes: the Sop System of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15 Facilitates Late Gene Expression?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravin, Nikolai V.; Rech, Jérôme; Lane, David

    2008-01-01

    The mitotic stability of the linear plasmid-prophage N15 of Escherichia coli depends on a partition system closely related to that of the F plasmid SopABC. The two Sop systems are distinguished mainly by the arrangement of their centromeric SopB-binding sites, clustered in F (sopC) and dispersed in N15 (IR1 to IR4). Because two of the N15 inverted repeat (IR) sites are located close to elements presumed (by analogy with phage ?) to regulate late gene expression during the lytic growth of N15,...

  7. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4?% (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7?% (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  8. Characteristics and restriction analysis of the 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolic plasmid, pSS50.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, S W; Dockendorff, T C; Sayler, G S

    1989-01-01

    The plasmid pSS50 is a 53-kilobase self-transmissible plasmid of broad host range that has been isolated from several Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter species. This plasmid has previously been shown to mediate the mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl to carbon dioxide and water. Physical characterization of this plasmid by restriction analysis indicates that most hexanucleotide cleavage sites are clustered in a 5-kilobase region, leaving large regions without restriction sites. The paucity of rest...

  9. Characterization of a circular plasmid from Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, F W; Johnson, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, was recently shown to contain plasmid DNA. Two plasmid species have been described in strain CT1, a Wisconsin tick isolate: a 9.2-kilobase entity; and a larger, 70-kilobase entity. Characterization of the 9.2-kilobase entity by using DNase I and restriction endonucleases demonstrated that the plasmid is supercoiled and exists as a stable dimer in this strain. The role played by the plasmid in B. burgdorferi is unknown.

  10. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Schrøder, I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two novel plasmids isolated from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum DSM6725 (A. thermophilum), growing optimally at 70degreesC, has been determined. pBAS2 was found to be a 3653 bp plasmid with a GC content of 43%, and the sequence revealed 10 open reading frames (ORFs). The two largest of these, namely Orf21 and Orf41, showed similarity to a Bacillus plasmid recombinase and a Pseudoalteromonas plasmid replication protein, respective...

  11. Presence of Lactose Genes and Insertion Sequences in Plasmids of Minor Species of the Genus Lactococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Bounaix, S.; Benachour, A; Novel, G

    1996-01-01

    The type strains of all known species and biovars of the Lactococcus genus were tested for the presence of plasmids, lactose genes, and insertion sequences cloned from the lactose plasmid of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Only the biovar xylosus of this subspecies is plasmid free. The lactose plasmid is present only in lactose-positive strains except in Lactococcus plantarum. The distribution of insertion sequences varies within the type strains of the Lactococcus genus.

  12. RpoS Regulates a Novel Type of Plasmid DNA Transfer in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanmei; Shi, Chunyu; Yu, Jiafei; Ren, Jingjing; Sun, Dongchang

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is independent of the DNA uptake machinery for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) entry. The one-hit kinetic pattern of plasmid transformation indicates that double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) enters E. coli cells on agar plates. However, DNA uptake and transformation regulation remain unclear in this new type of plasmid transformation. In this study, we developed our previous plasmid transformation system and induced competence at early stationary pha...

  13. Conservation of Plasmid-Encoded Traits among Bean-Nodulating Rhizobium Species

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Susana; Girard, Lourdes; García-de los Santos, Alejandro; Sanjuan-Pinilla, Julio M.; Olivares, José; Sanjuan, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Rhizobium etli type strain CFN42 contains six plasmids. We analyzed the distribution of genetic markers from some of these plasmids in bean-nodulating strains belonging to different species (Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Sinorhizobium fredii). Our results indicate that independent of geographic origin, R. etli strains usually share not only the pSym plasmid but also other plasmids containing symbiosis-related genes, with a similar organi...

  14. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Kyle H. Ramsey; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N.

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector p...

  15. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphog...

  16. Frequency-dependent advantages of plasmid carriage by Pseudomonas in homogeneous and spatially structured environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, RJ; Lilley, AK; Lacey, SJ; Murrell, D; Godfray, HC

    2007-01-01

    The conditions promoting the persistence of a plasmid carrying a trait that may be mutually beneficial to other cells in its vicinity were studied in structured and unstructured environments. A large plasmid encoding mercury resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens was used, and the mercury concentration allowing invasion from rare for both plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free cells was determined for different initial inoculum densities in batch-culture structured (filter surface) and unstructured ...

  17. Flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR as tools for assessing plasmid persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Tucker, Allison; Norton, Ann; Top, Eva M

    2014-09-01

    The maintenance of a plasmid in the absence of selection for plasmid-borne genes is not guaranteed. However, plasmid persistence can evolve under selective conditions. Studying the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of plasmid persistence is key to understanding how plasmids are maintained under nonselective conditions. Given the current crisis of rapid antibiotic resistance spread by multidrug resistance plasmids, this insight is of high medical relevance. The conventional method for monitoring plasmid persistence (i.e., the fraction of plasmid-containing cells in a population over time) is based on cultivation and involves differentiating colonies of plasmid-containing and plasmid-free cells on agar plates. However, this technique is time-consuming and does not easily lend itself to high-throughput applications. Here, we present flow cytometry (FCM) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) as alternative tools for monitoring plasmid persistence. For this, we measured the persistence of a model plasmid, pB10::gfp, in three Pseudomonas hosts and in known mixtures of plasmid-containing and -free cells. We also compared three performance criteria: dynamic range, resolution, and variance. Although not without exceptions, both techniques generated estimates of overall plasmid loss rates that were rather similar to those generated by the conventional plate count (PC) method. They also were able to resolve differences in loss rates between artificial plasmid persistence assays. Finally, we briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each technique and conclude that, overall, both FCM and real-time qPCR are suitable alternatives to cultivation-based methods for routine measurement of plasmid persistence, thereby opening avenues for high-throughput analyses. PMID:24973062

  18. Incidence of Plasmids in Thermus spp. Isolated in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Munster, Michael J.; Munster, Ann P.; Sharp, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-eight strains of Thermus spp. were isolated from thermal sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., and 62.5% showed evidence of plasmid DNA. Attempts to assign function to the plasmid DNA were unsuccessful, and the presence of plasmid DNA could not be correlated with antibiotic or heavy metal resistance. A number of these cryptic plasmids are now being investigated for their potential as vectors for molecular cloning in Thermus spp.

  19. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable? / Mega-eventos esportivos: podem desenvolvimento e legado ser equalitários e sustentáveis? / Sport mega-eventos: pueden ser legados y el desarrollo equitativo y sostenible?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jay, Coakley; Doralice Lange, Souza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Os mega-eventos esportivos (MEE) envolvem lutas para se determinar a definição de legado e as prioridades que guiam os processos de planejamento, financiamento e processos de implementação de resultados. A história mostra que os legados refletem os interesses do capital, e os benefícios são usufruid [...] os principalmente, se não exclusivamente, por interesses empresariais poderosos, por alguns líderes políticos e por organizações que governam o esporte de alto rendimento. Este artigo aborda os desafios enfrentados pelas cidades e países que hospedam MEE e demonstra que legados justos e equalitários e resultados em termos de desenvolvimento são alcançados somente quando as vozes e os interesses da população em geral são ouvidos e considerados como prioridade durante o processo de planejamento, financiamento e implementação. Ele também demonstra que a representação plena no processo de definição e prossecução de legados e a consecução de resultados em termos de desenvolvimento podem ser prejudicados por crenças populares sobre o poder do esporte. Abstract in spanish Los mega-eventos deportivos (DME) implican luchas para determinar la definición del legado y las prioridades que guían los procesos de planificación, financiación financiamiento y ejecución de los resultados. La historia muestra que los legados reflejan los intereses del capital y que los beneficios [...] son disfrutados principalmente, si no exclusivamente por los intereses empresariales poderosos, por algunos líderes políticos y por las organizaciones que dirigen los deportes de alto rendimiento. Este artículo aborda los desafíos que enfrentan las ciudades y los países anfitriones de los DME, y demuestra que legados justos y equitativos y resultados en sentido de desarrollo se logran solamente cuando se considera y se da prioridad a las voces e intereses de la población en general durante el proceso de planificación, financiamiento e implementación. Él también demuestra que la representación plena en el proceso de definición y consecución de los legados y los resultados en sentido de desarrollo pueden ser socavadas por las creencias populares sobre el poder del deporte. Abstract in english Sport mega-events (SMEs) involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, [...] by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  20. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, SØren

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination functions using very short regions of homology. Initial manipulation of the IncFII target plasmids R1 and R1drd19 indicated that the linear targeting DNA should be devoid of all extraneous homologies to. the target molecule for optimal insertion specificity. Indeed, a simple recombination assay proved that in the presence of additional homologous regions in the targeting DNA, strand exchanges occurred exclusively within the longest regions of homology. A versatile panel of vectors was created to facilitate convenient PCR amplification of targeting DNAs containing various combinations of different antibiotic resistance genes and fluorescent markers. The choice of 5' non-homologous extensions in primer pairs used for amplifying the marker cassettes determines the site specificity of the targeting DNA. This methodology is applicable to the modification of all plasmids that replicate in E coli and is not restricted by plasmid size.

  1. Cleavage of double stranded plasmid DNA by lanthanide complexes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rittich, B.; Španová, A.; Falk, Martin; Beneš, Milan J.; Hrubý, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 800, 1-2 (2004), s. 169-173. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/02/1361 Keywords : cleavage * lanthanide complexes * plasmid DNA pBR322 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  2. Deep sequencing reveals complex spurious transcription from transiently transfected plasmids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejepínská, Jana; Malík, Radek; Moravec, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 7, ?. 8 (2012), e43283. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA204/09/0085 Grant ostatní: EMBO(XE) 0001488 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transient plasmid transfection * deep sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  3. A biobrick library for cloning custom eukaryotic plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Marco; Grünberg, Raik; Isalan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks) to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS) and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain the reading frame. We illustrate the collection by building several model contructs, including concatemers of protein binding-site motifs, and a variety of plasmids for eukaryotic stable cloning and chromosomal insertion. For example, in 3 biobrick iterations, we make a cerulean-reporter plasmid for cloning fluorescent protein fusions. Furthermore, we use the collection to implement a recombinase-mediated DNA insertion (RMDI), allowing chromosomal site-directed exchange of genes. By making one recipient stable cell line, many standardised cell lines can subsequently be generated, by fluorescent fusion-gene exchange. We propose that this biobrick collection may be distributed peer-to-peer as a stand-alone library, in addition to its distribution through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://partsregistry.org/). PMID:21901127

  4. Transformation of Streptococcus lactis Protoplasts by Plasmid DNA †

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Jeffery K.; McKay, Larry L.

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol-treated protoplasts prepared from Streptococcus lactis LM3302, a lactose-negative (Lac?) derivative of S. lactis ML3, were transformed to lactose-fermenting ability by a transductionally shortened plasmid (pLM2103) coding for lactose utilization.

  5. Chromatographic purification and sepration of plasmid and lambda phage DNAs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rittich, B.; Španová, A.; Skalníková, M.; Beneš, Milan J.

    Frankfurt am Main : Dechema e. V. Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2002. s. P29. [International Symposium on the Separation of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides /22./. 10.11.2002-13.11.2002, Heidelberg] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK4055109 Keywords : plasmid DNA * lambda phage DNA * separation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Plasmid DNA Adsorption via Hydrophobic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gungunes H.; Uzek R.; Uzun L.; Ozkara S.; ?enel S.; Denizli A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims the preparation of magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-Lphenylalanine), [poly(HEMA-MAPA)] nanoparticles for plasmid DNA separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions. Magnetic nanoparticles will be produced emulsion polymerization of 2- hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine (MAPA) monomers. Nanosized particles including hydrophobic groups stemmed from polymerizable derivative of phenylalanine aminoacid were ...

  7. Plasmids and promoters in corynebacteria and their applications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešvera, Jan; Pátek, Miroslav

    Norfolk : Caister Academic Press, 2008 - (Burkovski, A.), s. 113-154 ISBN 978-1-904455-30-1 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA525/04/0548; GA ?R GA204/06/0330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacteria * plasmid * promoter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Mega-impacts and mantle-melting episodes: tests of possible correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria for recognising the effects of impacts by large-diameter extraterrestrial projectiles (Dp>>10 km) on thin, geothermally active crust must vary fundamentally from those pertaining to impacts on thick, cooler continental crust. Although the bulk of the terrestrial cratering records has been destroyed by both erosion of elevated terrains and plate subduction, or obscured by burial, a search for Precambrian mega-impacts is facilitated by the preservation of their likely secondary effects: mega-earthquake-triggered faults; ensuing diamictites, and the deposits of turbidity currents; microtektites; spherulitic condensates of vaporised asteroid and target materials; and distal tectonic and igeneous effects. Clues to the origin of thermal events are provided by peaks on isotopic-age histograms of precise U-Pb, Ar-Ar, amd Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock ages. These peaks, spatially corroborated by detailed mapping of Precambrian terrains, support an episodic nature of at least certain major Precambrian events and some correlations with impact events. Preliminary time-series analyses of Precambrian events yield values consistent with the Phanerozoic galactic rotation period (250 ± 50 Ma), and the solar system's cross-galactic-plane oscillation period (33 ± 3 Ma). It has been demonstrated that possible correlations between mega-impacts and tectonic/thermal events are capable of being tested through isotopic-age studies of diamictites and spherule units of impaf diamictites and spherule units of impact origin and of rifting and mafic igneous events. 123 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figsThe criteria for recognising the effects of impacts by large-diameter extraterrestrial projectiles (Dp>>10 km) on thin, geothermally active crust must vary fundamentally from those pertaining to impacts on thick, cooler continental crust. Although the bulk of the terrestrial cratering records has been destroyed by both erosion of elevated terrains and plate subduction, or obscured by burial, a search for Precambrian mega-impacts is facilitated by the preservation of their likely secondary effects: mega-earthquake-triggered faults; ensuing diamictites, and the deposits of turbidity currents; microtektites; spherulitic condensates of vaporised asteroid and target materials; and distal tectonic and igeneous effects. Clues to the origin of thermal events are provided by peaks on isotopic-age histograms of precise U-Pb, Ar-Ar, amd Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock ages. These peaks, spatially corroborated by detailed mapping of Precambrian terrains, support an episodic nature of at least certain major Precambrian events and some correlations with impact events. Preliminary time-series analyses of Precambrian events yield values consistent with the Phanerozoic galactic rotation period (250 ± 50 Ma), and the solar system's cross-galactic-plane oscillation period (33 ± 3 Ma). It has been demonstrated that possible correlations between mega-impacts and tectonic/thermal events are capable of being tested through isotopic-age studies of diamictites and spherule units of imp

  9. Usefulness of plasmid profiles for differentiation of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Tacket, C O; Shahid, N; Huq, M. I.; Alim, A R; Cohen, M L.

    1984-01-01

    We studied the plasmid profiles of 136 Shigella isolates in Bangladesh to determine whether plasmid profiles could be used for differentiation of strains for epidemiological studies. Many different plasmid patterns were observed within each species, indicating that many genetically different strains of Shigella are responsible for illness in Bangladesh.

  10. Plasmid Copy Number and Disease Severity in Naturally Occurring Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Last, Anna R.; Roberts, Chrissy h.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Mabey, David C. W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a virulence factor. Plasmid copy number, C. trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity.

  11. Plasmid-determined silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from a silver mine.

    OpenAIRE

    Haefeli, C; Franklin, C.; Hardy, K.

    1984-01-01

    A silver-resistant strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated from a silver mine. It harbored three plasmids, the largest of which (pKK1; molecular weight, 49.4 X 10(6)) specified silver resistance. Plasmid pKK1 was apparently nonconjugative but could be transferred to Pseudomonas putida by mobilization with plasmid R68.45.

  12. Mobilization of a Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, N. A.; Cen, Y H; Chen, H. C.; Plazinski, J; Ridge, R; Rolfe, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    A large Sym plasmid from a fast-growing cowpea Rhizobium species was made mobilizable by cointegration with plasmid pSUP1011, which carries the oriT region of RP4. This mobilizable Sym plasmid was transferred to a number of Rhizobium strains, in which nodulation and nitrogen fixation functions for symbiosis with plants of the cowpea group were expressed.

  13. Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

  14. Seismic Regime in the Vicinity of the 2011 Tohoku Mega Earthquake (Japan, M w = 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, M. V.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake ( M w = 9) is unique due to a combination of its large magnitude and the high level of detail of regional seismic data. The authors analyzed the seismic regime in the vicinity of this event using data from the Japan Meteorological Agency catalog and world databases. It was shown that a regional decrease in b-value and of the number of main shocks took place in the 6-7 years prior to the Tohoku mega earthquake. The space-time area of such changes coincided with the development of precursor effects in this area, as revealed by Lyubushin (Geofiz Prots Biosfera 10:9-35, 2011) from the analysis of microseisms recorded by the broadband seismic network F-net in Japan. The combination of episodes of growth in the number of earthquakes, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the b-value and average depth of the earthquakes, was observed for the foreshock and aftershock sequences of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Some of these anomalies were similar to those observed (also post factum) by Katsumata (Earth Planets Space 63:709-712, 2011), Nanjo et al. (Geophys Res Lett 39, 2012), and Huang and Ding (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1878-1883, 2012), whereas others were not described before. The correlation of the periods of growth in seismic activity with the decrease of the average depth of earthquakes can be explained by the growth of fluid activity and the tendency of a penetration of low density fluids into the upper horizons of the lithosphere. The unexpectedly strong Tohoku mega earthquake with a rather small rupture area caused an unexpectedly high tsunami wave. From here it seems plausible that M9+ earthquakes with a large tsunami could occur in other subduction zones where such cases were suggested before to be impossible.

  15. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  16. GeneGuard: A modular plasmid system designed for biosafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Oliver; Delmans, Mihails; Stan, Guy-Bart; Ellis, Tom

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology applications in biosensing, bioremediation, and biomining envision the use of engineered microbes beyond a contained laboratory. Deployment of such microbes in the environment raises concerns of unchecked cellular proliferation or unwanted spread of synthetic genes. While antibiotic-resistant plasmids are the most utilized vectors for introducing synthetic genes into bacteria, they are also inherently insecure, acting naturally to propagate DNA from one cell to another. To introduce security into bacterial synthetic biology, we here took on the task of completely reformatting plasmids to be dependent on their intended host strain and inherently disadvantageous for others. Using conditional origins of replication, rich-media compatible auxotrophies, and toxin-antitoxin pairs we constructed a mutually dependent host-plasmid platform, called GeneGuard. In this, replication initiators for the R6K or ColE2-P9 origins are provided in trans by a specified host, whose essential thyA or dapA gene is translocated from a genomic to a plasmid location. This reciprocal arrangement is stable for at least 100 generations without antibiotic selection and is compatible for use in LB medium and soil. Toxin genes ? or Kid are also employed in an auxiliary manner to make the vector disadvantageous for strains not expressing their antitoxins. These devices, in isolation and in concert, severely reduce unintentional plasmid propagation in E. coli and B. subtilis and do not disrupt the intended E. coli host's growth dynamics. Our GeneGuard system comprises several versions of modular cargo-ready vectors, along with their requisite genomic integration cassettes, and is demonstrated here as an efficient vector for heavy-metal biosensors. PMID:24847673

  17. Festifavelisation: mega-events, slums and strategic city-staging – the example of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbrink, Malte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events are increasingly often taking place in countries of the Global South. In the socio-spatially deeply fragmented host cities these spectacles encompass extremely transformative urban processes. This paper will consider the festivalisation of Rio de Janeiro in the preparatory phase of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. It focuses on the urban policy in relation to how Rio deals with its favelas. The aim of the article is to critically assess current measures of ‘invisibilisation’, ‘pacification’, ‘beautification’ and ‘touristic staging’ of favelas against the backdrop of the upcoming events.

  18. Characterizing mega-city pollution with TES O3 and CO measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, A.; Sachse, G.; Diskin, G; Eldering, A.; Worden, J; Worden, H; Kulawik, S; M Luo; LI, Q.; Shim, C.; Knapp, D; Montzca, D.; Campos, T.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent tropospheric O3 and CO vertical profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) allow us to characterize mega-city pollution. Outflow from the MCMA occurred predominantly at 600–800 hPa, evident in O3, CO, and NOx enhancements in the in situ observations. We examined O3, CO, and their correlation at 600–800 hPa from TES retrievals, aircraft measurements, and GEOS-Chem ...

  19. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Asiyanbola; S.B. Osoba; S.S. Adewale

    2012-01-01

    Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAG...

  20. Construction Methodology of Tubed Mega Frame Structures in High­ Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Tobias; Yngvesson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    As a response to the ever denser cities, skyscrapers have become yet more popular and are growing more and taller than ever. A new efficient structural system for skyscrapers has been proposed by Tyre?ns AB, called the Tubed Mega Frame. This structural system consists of hollow concrete tubes at the perimeter of the building. Since this structural system has not yet been used in any skyscraper several aspects have still not been studied or investigated. An important aspect having an impact on...

  1. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    OpenAIRE

    X. L. Pan; Yan, P; Tang, J.; J. Z. Ma; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang) from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%), varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean v...

  2. Using a custom mega prosthesis to treat hydatidosis of bone: a report of 3 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan MV; Kumar AK; Sivaseelam A; Iyakutty P; Raja M; Rajagopal TS

    2002-01-01

    Three cases of hydatidosis of bone with pathological fracture were treated by wide resection, custom mega prosthesis replacement, and chemotherapy. Two patients were females and one was male, with a mean age of 47 years (range, 38-55 years). Two of them had a pathological fracture of the proximal femur, and one had a pathological fracture of the distal femur. All patients were treated postoperatively with albendazole 400 mg, twice daily, for 12 weeks. During the mean follow-up period of 4.5 y...

  3. Malaysian Mega Science Framework: The Need for Social Impact and Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zainal A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on issues surrounding wastewater management as part of the National Sustainable Development (2013-2050 under the Malaysian Mega Science Framework. In line with the national priority area of water security, this review will highlight the technical reports compiled by the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM on the challenges of water resource development and wastewater management and treatment. The discussion will dwell on the social impact of pollution in water and wastewater and mitigation plans that need to be put in place to ensure sustainable national development and making water as a National Key Economic Area (NKEA.

  4. Development of a hardened imaging system for the Laser MegaJoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ facility will host inertial confinement fusion experiments in order to achieve ignition by imploding a Deuterium-Tritium microballoon. In this context an X-ray imager is necessary to diagnose the core size and shape of the DT-target in the 10–100?keV band in complement of neutron imaging system. Such a diagnostic will be composed of two parts: an X-ray optical system and a detection assembly. Each element will be affected by the harsh environment created by fusion reactions.

  5. Tunable mega-ampere electron current propagation in solids by dynamic control of lattice melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, D A; Carroll, D C; Gray, R J; Booth, N; Burza, M; Desjarlais, M P; Du, F; Neely, D; Powell, H W; Robinson, A P L; Scott, G G; Yuan, X H; Wahlström, C-G; McKenna, P

    2014-10-31

    The influence of lattice-melt-induced resistivity gradients on the transport of mega-ampere currents of fast electrons in solids is investigated numerically and experimentally using laser-accelerated protons to induce isochoric heating. Tailoring the heating profile enables the resistive magnetic fields which strongly influence the current propagation to be manipulated. This tunable laser-driven process enables important fast electron beam properties, including the beam divergence, profile, and symmetry to be actively tailored, and without recourse to complex target manufacture. PMID:25396375

  6. Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, M.K.; Dr.N.K.Shrama; Dr.Prabhakar Tiwari; Vikas Pandey; Dr.A.N Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP) are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail ...

  7. Analysis of the Organization of Multicopy Linear- and Circular-Plasmid-Carried Open Reading Frames in Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyon, Jason A.; LaVoie, Crystal; Sung, Shian-Ying; Marconi, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization analyses with ORF 1, 2, and 4 probes detected related sequences even in some isolates that were PCR negative. The ORF restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns varied widely even among isolates of the same species. Two-dimensional contour-clamped homogeneous electric field–pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization detected ORF 1-, 2-, and 4-related sequences on linear and circular plasmids. In addition, an ORF 4-related sequence was detected on a previously uncharacterized, circular plasmid that is greater than 70 kb in size. The IR elements originally identified on plasmid cp8.3 of B. afzelii IP21 were also analyzed by Southern hybridization. Related sequences were detected in some but not all B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. These sequences are carried on plasmids in addition to cp8.3 in some isolates. Single-primer PCR analyses demonstrated that in some isolates these sequences exist with IR orientation. The data presented here demonstrate that the IR elements and the ORF 1-, 2-, and 4-related sequences are multicopy and are variable in organization and in genomic location among isolates of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. These analyses provide additional evidence for the highly variable organization of the plasmid component of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato genome. PMID:9488408

  8. Biodistribution of DNA Plasmid Vaccines against HIV-1, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or West Nile Virus Is Similar, without Integration, despite Differing Plasmid Backbones or Gene Inserts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, Rebecca L.; Stein, Judith; Manetz, T. Scott; Duffy, Chris; Nason, Martha; Andrews, Charla; Kong, Wing-pui; Gary J Nabel; Gomez, Phillip L

    2006-01-01

    The Vaccine Research Center has developed a number of vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (HIV-1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus, plus a plasmid cytokine adjuvant—IL-2/Ig) based on a DNA plasmid vaccine platform. To support the clinical development of each of these vaccine candidates, preclinical studies have been performed in mice or rabbits to determine where in the body these plasmid vaccines would biodistribute and how rap...

  9. Expansion of a plasmid classification system for Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the diversity of plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus strains of human, animal, and food origins.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, C.; Garcia-Migura, L.

    2012-01-01

    An expansion of a previously described plasmid classification was performed and used to reveal the plasmid content of a collection of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different origins. rep genes of other genera were detected in Staphylococcus. S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybridizations were performed with 18 representative S. aureus strains, and a high number of plasmids of different sizes and organizations were detected. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Sergey; Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Perkov, Alexey; Ivanov, Evgeny; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Greco, Giuseppe; Shearer, Andy; Sasyuk, Vyacheslav

    Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

  11. Status and perspectives of Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system with high temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Ivanov, E.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Greco, G.; Shearer, A.; Sasyuk, V.

    2013-07-01

    Here we briefly summarize our long period experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. General requirements for hardware for such systems are discussed along with algorithms of real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, the MegaTORTORA, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we are building now at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitivity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously.

  12. Large plasmids of Escherichia coli and Salmonella encode highly diverse arrays of accessory genes on common replicon families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wireman, Joy; Hilliard, Valda C; Summers, Anne O

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are important in evolution and adaptation of host bacteria, yet we lack a comprehensive picture of their own natural variation. We used replicon typing and RFLP analysis to assess diversity and distribution of plasmids in the ECOR, SARA, SARB and SARC reference collections of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Plasmids, especially large (?30 kb) plasmids, are abundant in these collections. Host species and genotype clearly impact plasmid prevalence; plasmids are more abundant in ECOR than SAR, but, within ECOR, subgroup B2 strains have the fewest large plasmids. The majority of large plasmids have unique RFLP patterns, suggesting high variation, even within dominant replicon families IncF and IncI1. We found only four conserved plasmid types within ECOR, none of which are widely distributed. Within SAR, conserved plasmid types are primarily serovar-specific, including a pSLT-like plasmid in 13 Typhimurium strains. Conservation of pSLT contrasts with variability of other plasmids, suggesting evolution of serovar-specific virulence plasmids is distinct from that of most enterobacterial plasmids. We sequenced a conserved serovar Heidelberg plasmid but did not detect virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. Our data illustrate the high degree of natural variation in large plasmids of E. coli and Salmonella, even among plasmids sharing backbone genes. PMID:22939841

  13. Isolation of a novel plasmid from Couchioplanes caeruleus and construction of two plasmid vectors for gene expression in Actinoplanes missouriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Moon-Sun; Fujita, Azusa; Ikawa, Satomi; Hanawa, Keitaro; Yamamura, Hideki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Tezuka, Takeaki; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    To date, no plasmid vector has been developed for the rare actinomycete Actinoplanes missouriensis. Moreover, no small circular plasmid has been reported to exist in the genus Actinoplanes. Here, a novel plasmid, designated pCAZ1, was isolated from Couchioplanes caeruleus subsp. azureus via screening for small circular plasmids in Actinoplanes (57 strains) and Couchioplanes (2 strains). Nucleotide sequencing revealed that pCAZ1 is a 5845-bp circular molecule with a G?+?C content of 67.5%. The pCAZ1 copy number was estimated at 30 per chromosome. pCAZ1 contains seven putative open reading frames, one of which encodes a protein containing three motifs conserved among plasmid-encoded replication proteins that are involved in the rolling-circle mechanism of replication. Detection of single-stranded DNA intermediates in C. caeruleus confirmed that pCAZ1 replicates by this mechanism. The ColE1 origin from pBluescript SK(+) and the oriT sequence with the apramycin resistance gene aac(3)IV from pIJ773 were inserted together into pCAZ1, to construct the Escherichia coli-A. missouriensis shuttle vectors, pCAM1 and pCAM2, in which the foreign DNA fragment was inserted into pCAZ1 in opposite directions. pCAM1 and pCAM2 were successfully transferred to A. missouriensis through the E. coli-mediated conjugative transfer system. The copy numbers of pCAM1 and pCAM2 in A. missouriensis were estimated to be one and four per chromosome, respectively. Thus, these vectors can be used as effective genetic tools for homologous and heterologous gene expression studies in A. missouriensis. PMID:25500016

  14. Escherichia coli dnaT gene function is required for pBR322 plasmid replication but not for R1 plasmid replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, H; Arai, K(+)

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pBR322 was unable to replicate in a temperature-sensitive dnaT1 strain at a nonpermissive temperature, whereas a pBR322-derived plasmid carrying the wild-type dnaT+ gene was able to replicate under the same conditions. In contrast to pBR322, plasmid R1 could replicate in the dnaT1 strain at a nonpermissive temperature. In keeping with this finding, in vitro replication of plasmid R1 did not require DnaT protein.

  15. Studies on the plasmid stability, plasmid copy number and endo(1, 3)(1, 4) b-glucanase production by free and alginate immobilised recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DBY746, containing the plasmid pJG317, was grown in a variety of fermentation modes including batch, serial batch and chemostat culture incorporating a wide range of media types Plasmid pJG317 consists of a 2^-denved yeast episomal plasmid containing the gene which encodes for the bacterial enzyme endo (1,3)(1,4) P-glucanase. The concentration of enzyme produced appears to be proportional to the number of plasmid copies per cell. Specific e...

  16. Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López-Villarejo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number. It is thought that Kis antitoxin levels decrease in these cells and that this acts as the switch that activates the Kid toxin; activated Kid toxin reduces copB-mRNA levels and this increases RepA levels that increases plasmid copy number. In support of this model we now report that: (i the Kis antitoxin levels do decrease in cells containing a mini-R1 plasmid carrying a repA mutation that reduces plasmid copy number; (ii kid-dependent replication rescue is abolished in cells in which the Kis antitoxin levels or the CopB levels are increased. Unexpectedly we found that this coordination significantly increases both the copy number of the repA mutant and of the wt mini-R1 plasmid. This indicates that the coordination between plasmid replication functions and kis-kid system contributes significantly to control plasmid R1 replication.

  17. Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication

    OpenAIRE

    López-Villarejo, Juan; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number. It is thought that Kis antitoxin levels decrease in these cells and that this acts as the switch that activates the Kid toxin; activated Kid toxin reduces copB-mRNA levels and this increases RepA levels that increases plasmid copy number. In support of this model we now repo...

  18. Long-term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10000 soil bacterial cells could receive and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent and was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the tra YALE region from IncFV plasmid pED208.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, B. B.; Frost, L S; Paranchych, W.

    1986-01-01

    The pED208 plasmid is a 90-kilobase conjugative plasmid which is the derepressed form of Fo lac plasmid (IncFV). A 3.3-kilobase HindIII-PstI fragment from the pED208 plasmid was cloned and sequenced and was found to contain four open reading frames which were highly homologous to the traA, traL, traE, and traY gene products of the F plasmid. The pED208 traA propilin protein was 119 amino acids in length, consisting of a leader sequence of 55 amino acids and a mature pilin subunit of 64 residu...

  20. Sym plasmid transfer to various symbiotic mutants of Rhizobium trifolii, R. leguminosarum, and R. meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Djordjevic, M.A.; Zurkowski, W; Shine, J; Rolfe, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Two self-transmissible Sym(biosis) plasmids, one encoding pea-specific nodulation and nitrogen-fixation functions (plasmid pJB5JI) and the other encoding clover-specific nodulation and nitrogen-fixation functions (plasmid pBR1AN) were used to determine whether the symbiotic genes encoded on these plasmids are expressed in various members of the Rhizobiaceae. The host specificity of Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum Sym plasmid-cured strains could be directly determined by the transfer t...

  1. Long- term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent and was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria.

  2. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin; Gerdes, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and parC encoded by the par2 locus of plasmid pB171, ParA formed cytoskeletal-like structures that dynamically relocated over the nucleoid. Simultaneously, the par2 locus distributed plasmids regularly over the nucleoid. We show here that the dynamic ParA patterns are not simple oscillations. Rather, ParA nucleates and polymerizes in between plasmids. When ...

  3. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  4. The mef(E)-Carrying Genetic Element (mega) of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Insertion Sites and Association with Other Genetic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Maria; Camilli, Romina; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the macrolide efflux genetic assembly (mega) element, its genomic locations, and its association with other resistance determinants and genetic elements were investigated in 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates carrying mef(E), of which 1 isolate also carried tet(M) and 4 isolates also carried tet(M) and erm(B). All isolates carried a mega element of similar size and structure that included the operon mef(E)-msr(D) encoding the efflux transport system. Among tetracycline-susc...

  5. Mega-science accelerator projects in China and their impact on economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the rapid development of national economy in China, a number of mega-science projects have been or being constructed. In respect to the large accelerator-based projects, the Beijing Electron-Positron Colliders (BEPC) and its upgrading project BEPC?, the Hefei Light Source (HLS), the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) and its Cooling Storage Rings (HIRFL-CSR) and the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) were successfully constructed and put into operation. The Beijing Radioactive Ion Facility (BRIF) and the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) are under construction. A particle accelerator is an integration of many HI-tech components. In order to reach the scientific goal of an accelerator project, a great deal new technologies need to be developed during its construction and operation and thus speed up technology development and this will positively impact on the economy. In this paper, the mega-science accelerator projects are briefly described and applications of accelerators in the economy are reviewed. The paper emphasizes spin-off of the accelerator technology developed during R and D and construction of the projects. Approaches of collaboration between academia and industry are discussed. With some examples, the benefits experienced in the laboratory-industry collaboration and approach of its economic compact are illustrated. (author)

  6. Research on Mega-Math: Discrete mathematics and computer science for children. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, M.R. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    1995-06-26

    The objective of the subcontract was to provide further research on the approach to mathematics education embodied in the workbook ``This is Mega-Mathematics!`` essentially produced under the subcontract and its preceding informal (alas!) cooperative arrangements. The workbook is now widely and freely distributed on the Internet under the copyright of the Los Alamos National Labs. This research was to consist of: (1) the development and dissemination of materials, (2) experimentation with use of the materials in classroom visits and other events, (3) communication of the ideas embodied in the materials to various forums concerned with mathematics education reform, (4) the development of connections to the computer games industry, (5) the development of new workbook-type materials, (6) publications, (7) the development of connections to Science Museums, (8) the development of uses of the Internet to make MegaMath materials and ideas available through that medium, (9) the stimulation of and coordination with other projects in mathematics education reform. All of these objectives have been accomplished in what should be regarded as one of the most interesting and cost-effective projects ever undertaken in mathematics education, a testimony to the vision and creative imagination of the Los Alamos Labs.

  7. Sustainable Science? Reducing the Carbon Impact of Scientific Mega-Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Ponette-González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists across the globe recognize the importance of reducing carbon emissions to combat climate change.  At the same time, we have increased our carbon footprint through air travel to the growing number of scientific society “mega-meetings” that host thousands of attendees.  Although alternative solutions have been proposed to reduce the environmental impact of annual conferences, these have yet to be evaluated against the business-as-usual scenario.  Here, we use 9 years of annual meeting attendance data from the Ecological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers to assess the efficacy of two additional solutions: 1 alternate large national meetings that require significant air travel with smaller regional meetings that do not; and 2 incorporate geography into the meeting location selection process.  The carbon footprint of annual mega-meetings ranged 3-fold, from 1196-4062 metric tons of CO2.  Results indicate that an alternating schedule of national and regional meetings can reduce conference-related CO2 emissions up to 73%, while improved spatial planning may result in further reductions.  We discuss the benefits and tradeoffs of proposals to green scientific meetings, with a view to spark further debate on how to increase the sustainability of scientific conferences.

  8. Content of Plasmids and Biogenic Amines Identification of Streptococcus thermophilus of Fermented Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids content of nine different S. thermophilus strains of KLDS were identified. The strains KLDS3.0201, KLDS3.0203 and KLDS3.0208 isolated from the commercial yoghurt were free of plasmid. The strains S9, S11, S14 and S16 which were isolated from the traditional fermented milk of china that all contained different plasmids and the strains S10 and S15 were free of plasmid. The plasmids of the S14 were analyzing, plasmid rolling circle replication initiator protein has been sequenced. This part has the same sequence with the LMD-9 plasmid 2. Biogenic Amines were determined by multiplex PCR the related partial genes which were histidine decarboxylase (hdc gene, ornithine decarboxylase (odc gene and tyramine decarboxylase (tdc gene. There was no relative amplification gene in these nine strains. They were safe for the production of the yoghurt.

  9. Asymmetrical Inheritance of Plasmids Depends on Dynamic Cellular Geometry and Volume Exclusion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetrical inheritance of plasmid DNA, as well as other cellular components, has been shown to be involved in replicative aging. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms underlying this important asymmetry. Currently proposed models suggest it is established via diffusion, but differ on whether a diffusion barrier is necessary or not. However, no study so far incorporated key aspects to segregation, such as dynamic morphology changes throughout anaphase or plasmids size. Here, we determine the distinct effects and contributions of individual cellular variability, plasmid volume and moving boundaries in the asymmetric segregation of plasmids. We do this by measuring cellular nuclear geometries and plasmid diffusion rates with confocal microscopy, subsequently incorporating this data into a growing domain stochastic spatial simulator. Our modelling and simulations confirms that plasmid asymmetrical inheritance does not require an active barrier to diffusion, and provides a full analysis on plasmid size effects. PMID:26468952

  10. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    OpenAIRE

    Meindert Slagter

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents (doctors in training to become medical specialists) fulfill an important role in the Dutch healthcare system. They take their share of responsibility for efficient patient care in hospitals, mental healthcare centres, rehabilitation centres and other medical institutions. Medical residents see the period of training for medical specialist as a valuable phase in their lives. It is a phase in which finding a balance between training, work and private life plays an important pa...

  11. Mega-asperity model for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Fukuyama, E.; Aoi, S.

    2011-12-01

    We performed moment tensor inversion of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using regional seismic waveforms, which indicates that the earthquake can be approximated by a point source. We used strong-motion seismograms from a nationwide broadband seismic network of the F-net installed and operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). At each F-net station, a velocity-type strong-motion seismometer is installed at the end of a 30-50 m long vault to record strong motions up to +-2 m/s. We selected five F-net stations with the hypocentral distances more than several hundred kilometers. We used a waveform inversion method that assumes a double-couple focal mechanism for a point source [Nakano et al., 2008, GJI]. Our inversion using the strong-motion seismograms band-pass filtered between 0.006 and 0.02 Hz indicates that the best-fit source location was obtained at 38.25 N, 143.25 E at a depth of 30 km, at which the normalized residual was 0.13. The estimated mechanism and moment magnitude (Mw = 9.0) are consistent with those estimated from global broadband seismographic network data by the global CMT project and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the U.S. Geological Survey. We fitted the omega-square model to amplitude spectra of observed vertical displacement seismograms, which resulted in the corner frequency of around 0.017 Hz. This implies average slip of roughly 70 m over a circular fault with radius of 70 km. These results suggest that a strongly localized asperity (mega asperity) was ruptured during the earthquake. For the northeastern Japan subduction zone, where the old Pacific Sea plate subducts along the Japan Trench, the seismic coupling was believed to be very small. The occurrence of the mega earthquake is apparently not compatible with weak seismic coupling. However, as suggested by Scholz and Small [1997, Geology], the subduction of a large seamount increases the normal stress across the subduction interface, which produces local seismic coupling in decoupled plates. If we consider a subducted seamount as the mega asperity at the source of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the occurrence of the mega earthquake in the decoupled plates is reasonably explained. Asano et al. [2011, EPS] indicated that all the CMT solutions of aftershocks above the source region of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake were characterized by normal faulting. A similar aftershock pattern was observed during the 1994 Java earthquake (Mw7.6). This earthquake occurred in a weakly coupled plate interface and its large slip area was coincident with a well identified seamount in this region. We can find a velocity anomaly near the source region of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the velocity model of Miura et al. [2005, Tectonophyics], which was obtained from a seismic line experiment off-Miyagi perpendicular to the trench. This velocity anomaly may be related with the subduction process of a seamount at this region. Further extensive refraction and reflection seismic surveys along the Japan Trench would contribute to verify our mega-asperity model and to evaluate seismic and tsunami hazards along the Japan Trench.

  12. Gas and Dust Phenomena of Mega-earthquakes and the Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A mega-earthquake suddenly releases a large to extremely large amount of kinetic energy within a few tens to two hundreds seconds and over ten to hundreds kilometer distances in the Earth's crust and on ground surface. It also generates seismic waves that can be received globally and co-seismic ground damages such co-seismic ruptures and landslides. However, such vast, dramatic and devastating kinetic actions in the Earth's crustal rocks and on the ground soils cannot be known or predicted by people at few weeks, days, hours, or minutes before they are happening. Although seismologists can develop and use seismometers to report the locations and magnitudes of earthquakes within minutes of their occurrence, they cannot predict earthquakes at present. Therefore, damage earthquakes have caused and would continue to cause huge disasters, fatalities and injuries to our human beings. This problem may indicate that it is necessary to re-examine the cause of mega-earthquakes in addition to the conventional cause of active fault elastic rebounding. In the last ten years, many mega-earthquakes occurred in China and around the Pacific Ocean and caused many casualties to human beings and devastating disasters to environments. The author will give a brief review on the impacts of the mega-earthquakes happened in recent years. He will then present many gas and dust related phenomena associated with the sudden occurrences of these mega earthquakes. They include the 2001 Kunlunshan Earthquake M8.1, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake M8.0 and the 2010 Yushu Earthquake M7.1 in China, the 2010 Haiti Earthquake M7.0, the 2010 Mexicali Earthquake M7.2, the 2010 Chile Earthquake M8.8, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake M6.3 and the 2011 Japan Earthquake M9.0 around the Pacific Ocean. He will discuss the cause of these gas and dust related phenomena. He will use these phenomena and their common cause to show that the earthquakes were caused the rapid migration and expansion of highly compressed and dense natural (methane) gas suddenly escaped from deep crust traps along deep fault zones. References Yue, ZQ, 2009. The source of energy power directly causing the May 12 Wenchuan Earthquake: Huge extremely pressurized natural gases trapped in deep Longmen Shan faults. News Journal of China Society of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 86 (2009 (2)), 45-50. Yue, ZQ, 2010. Features and mechanism of coseismic surface ruptures by Wenchuan Earthquake. in Rock Stress and Earthquake, edited by Furen Xie, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-60165-8, 761-768. Yue, ZQ, 2013a. Natural gas eruption mechanism for earthquake landslides: illustrated with comparison between Donghekou and Papandayan Rockslide-debris flows. in Earthquake-induced Landslides, K. Ugai et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlage Berlin, Chapter 51: pp. 485-494 Yue ZQ, 2013b. On incorrectness in elastic rebound theory for cause of earthquakes. Paper No. S20-003 of Session S20, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Fracture, June 16-21, Beijing. Yue ZQ, 2013c. On nature of earthquakes with cause of compressed methane gas expansion and migration in crustal rocks, in Proceedings of Fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics in Memory of Karl von Terzaghi (1883-1963), July 10-12, Vienna, edited by C. Hellmich et al, @ASCE, pp. 507-516.

  13. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  14. Transfer of the lambdadv plasmid to new bacterial hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambda dv, which was derived from bacteriophage lambda, replicates autonomously as a plasmid in Escherichia coli and consists of only the immunity region (imm/sup lambda/) and DNA replication genes (O, P) of the ancestral phage. Addition phages (lambda imm21--lambda dv) carry the lambda dv fragment inserted as a tandem duplication in their genome (sequence A imm21 O P imm/sup lambda/ O P R) are formed as recombinants after lambda imm21 infection of strains carrying lambda dv. Addition phages were used to transfer lambda dv to new bacterial hosts. Lambda dv transfer by excision of the lambda dv segment from the addition phage genome requires a bacterial Rec or a phage Red recombination system. Successful transfer is stimulated by uv irradiation of the addition phage before infection. Some properties of the newly transferred lambda dv plasmids are described. (U.S.)

  15. Rapid and Efficient Plasmid Construction by Homologous Recombination in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles; Tan, Guihong

    2015-01-01

    The cloning of DNA fragments is a fundamental aspect of molecular biology. Traditional DNA cloning techniques rely on the ligation of an insert and a linearized plasmid that have been digested with restriction enzymes and the subsequent introduction of the ligated DNA into Escherichia coli for propagation. However, this method is limited by the availability of restriction sites, which often becomes problematic when cloning multiple or large DNA fragments. Furthermore, using traditional methods to clone multiple DNA fragments requires experience and multiple laborious steps. In this protocol, we describe a simple and efficient cloning method that relies on homologous recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assemble multiple DNA fragments, with 30-bp homology regions between the fragments, into one sophisticated construct. This method can easily be extended to clone plasmids for other organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and mammalian cells. PMID:26330622

  16. A Rebeccamycin Analog Provides Plasmid-Encoded Niche Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arnam, Ethan B; Ruzzini, Antonio C; Sit, Clarissa S; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2015-11-18

    Bacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants occupy a highly specialized ecological niche and face the constant existential threat of displacement by another strain of ant-adapted bacteria. As part of a systematic study of the small molecules underlying this fraternal competition, we discovered an analog of the antitumor agent rebeccamycin, a member of the increasingly important indolocarbazole family. While several gene clusters consistent with this molecule's newly reported modification had previously been identified in metagenomic studies, the metabolite itself has been cryptic. The biosynthetic gene cluster for 9-methoxyrebeccamycin is encoded on a plasmid in a manner reminiscent of plasmid-derived peptide antimicrobials that commonly mediate antagonism among closely related Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26535611

  17. Polymerase chain reaction-based gene removal from plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu Vardhan; Khamo, John S; Cho, Ellen; Schornak, Cara; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This data article contains supplementary figures and methods to the research article entitled, "Multiplex gene removal by two-step polymerase chain reactions" (Krishnamurthy et al., Anal. Biochem., 2015, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.03.033), which presents a restriction-enzyme free method to remove multiple DNA segments from plasmids. Restriction-free cloning methods have dramatically improved the flexibility and speed of genetic manipulation compared to conventional assays based on restriction enzyme digestion (Lale and Valla, 2014. DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods, vol. 1116). Here, we show the basic scheme and characterize the success rate for single and multiplex gene removal from plasmids. In addition, we optimize experimental conditions, including the amount of template, multiple primers mixing, and buffers for DpnI treatment, used in the one-pot reaction for multiplex gene removal. PMID:26217766

  18. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Macaluso; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  19. Transfer of chromosomal genes and plasmids in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, A I; Beckman, W

    1987-01-01

    A low frequency of chromosomal gene transfer from Bacillus thuringiensis to Bacillus cereus was detected by cell mating, with a tryptophan marker being the most frequently transferred gene among four that were tested. The process was resistant to DNase and was not mediated by cell filtrates. Among several B. thuringiensis subspecies tested, transfer was best with a derivative of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD1, which lost several plasmids. All of the B. cereus recombinants contained at l...

  20. De Novo Assembly of Plasmids Using Yeast Recombinational Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Molecular cloning is a cornerstone of modern biology laboratories. However, traditional cloning can be time-consuming and problematic. We outline herein a method that utilizes the endogenous gap repair system of yeast cells to clone and assemble DNA constructs. This system is simple, cheap, and requires minimal reagents. It can be used for the assembly of both simple (single DNA fragments) and complex (multiple DNA fragments) constructs into plasmids. PMID:26194707

  1. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyšín, Lud?k; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kate?ina; Št?pán, V.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bugler, B.; Legube, G.; Cafarelli, P.; Casta, R.; Champeaux, J.P.; Sence, M.; Vlk, M.; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, S.; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 3 (2015), s. 343-352. ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-28721S; GA MŠk LD12008; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : proton radiation * DNA plasmid * direct and indirect effects * clustered damage * repair enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.528, year: 2014

  2. Hybrid Mitochondrial Plasmids From Senescence Suppressor Isolates of Neurospora intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed several natural suppressor isolates of the pKalilo-based fungal senescence syndrome of Neurospora intermedia. The pKalilo plasmid did not increase in titer in these isolates. Nor did it show integration "de novo." In at least two of the senescence suppressor isolates, pKalilo had formed stable recombinants with other mitochondrial elements. pKalilo/mtDNA recombination junctions were complete and appeared to have been formed via a nonhomologous recombination mechanism. Further anal...

  3. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  4. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  5. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights, and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species. PMID:26347714

  6. Molecular cloning with bifunctional plasmid vectors in Bacillus subtilis: isolation of a spontaneous mutant of Bacillus subtilis with enhanced transformability for Escherichia coli-propagated chimeric plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroff, G. R.; Pène, J J

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid plasmid DNA cloned in Escherichia coli undergoes deletions when returned to competent Bacillus subtilis, even in defined restriction and modification mutants of strain 168. We have isolated a mutant of B. subtilis MI112 which is stably transformed at high frequency by chimeric plasmid DNA propagated in E. coli.

  7. Physical mapping of TOL plasmids pWWO and pND2 and various R plasmid-TOL derivatives from Pseudomonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrbach, P R; Ward, J; Meulien, P; Broda, P

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of several independently isolated R plasmid-TOL hybrids revealed a wide variation in the amount of TOL DNA they contain. If the formation of the various R plasmid-TOL hybrids involves transposition (which has yet to be rigorously assessed), such transposition does not involve a unique segment of TOL DNA.

  8. MEGA Node: an implementation of a coarse-grain totally reconfigurable parallel machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M. B.; Burrer, Caroline

    1990-09-01

    The MEGA Node is a loosely coupled highly parallel computer based on transputers. One of its main characteristics is its ability to change the topology of the network using an electronic switch. It covers a range from 128 to 1024 " worker processors" delivering from 550 to 4400 Mflops peak performance. To achieve these performances a hierarchical structure has been adopted. This highly parallel machine is issued from the Esprit I P1085 " Supernode" project. The software has to support a wide spectrum of users going from those who wish to obtain maximum performance from the machine to those who wish to use it as a general purpose multi-user parallel machine. This paper describes the different ways to use the MEGA Node and the software environments provided to satisfy all kind of users. The Helios environment is a good example to explain how an operating system can control this machine particularly the networking management and the fundamental problem of mapping. The MEGA Node has already been used for a wide range of applications like signal/image processing (high and low level) image synthesis scientific and engineering numbercrunching neural network simulation and logic simulation. Only a few of them are discussed in this paper: medical image analysis and vision and ray tracing. 1 Esprit I P1085 project The work done under the Esprit I P1085 project [1] partially funded by CEC was related the development and applications of a low cost high performance multiprocessor machine. The project involved Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE prime contractor) Inmos Thorn-Emi CRL University of Southampton University of Liverpool Aptor University of Grenoble(Imag) and Telmat Informatique. The objectives of the project were to develop a highly parallel architecture based on transputers and associated system software and applications. To achieve this Inmos developed the T800 transputer starting from the T414 and the consortium defined the whole machine architecture. Started in December 1985 this 3 years project led to significant industrial products: the T800 transputer the machine architecture and part of the associated software. SPIE Vol. 1360 Visual Communications and Image Processing ''90 / 109

  9. Exploring antibiotic resistance genes and metal resistance genes in plasmid metagenomes from wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Dong; Li, Li-Guan; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids operate as independent genetic elements in microorganism communities. Through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), they can provide their host microorganisms with important functions such as antibiotic resistance and heavy metal resistance. In this study, six metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from influent, activated sludge (AS) and digested sludge (DS) of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Compared with the metagenomes of the total DNA extracted from the same sectors of the wastewater treatment plant, the plasmid metagenomes had significantly higher annotation rates, indicating that the functional genes on plasmids are commonly shared by those studied microorganisms. Meanwhile, the plasmid metagenomes also encoded many more genes related to defense mechanisms, including ARGs. Searching against an antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) database and a metal resistance genes (MRGs) database revealed a broad-spectrum of antibiotic (323 out of a total 618 subtypes) and MRGs (23 out of a total 23 types) on these plasmid metagenomes. The influent plasmid metagenomes contained many more resistance genes (both ARGs and MRGs) than the AS and the DS metagenomes. Sixteen novel plasmids with a complete circular structure that carried these resistance genes were assembled from the plasmid metagenomes. The results of this study demonstrated that the plasmids in WWTPs could be important reservoirs for resistance genes, and may play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of these genes. PMID:26441947

  10. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ? 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  11. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  12. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene. Detected IncI1 plasmids underwent further plasmid multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: RFLP profiles demonstrated dissemination of blaTEM-52 in Denmark (imported meat from Germany), France, Belgium and the Netherlands from 2000 to 2006 by mainly two different plasmids, one encoding blaTEM-52b (IncX1A, 45 kb) and the other blaTEM-52c (IncI1, 80 kb). In addition, blaTEM-52b was also found to be located on various other plasmids belonging to IncA/C and IncL/M, while blaTEM-52c was found on IncN-like as well as on IncR plasmids. In the majority of cases (n = 21) the blaTEM-52 gene was located on a Tn3 transposon. Seven out of 10 blaTEM-52 plasmids tested in conjugation experiments were shown to be capable of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected, IncX1A and IncN-like. Unlike its predecessor blaTEM-1, the blaTEM-52 gene was not detected on F-type replicons suggesting that this gene evolved on other types of plasmid scaffolds.

  13. Replication and Active Partition of Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 Family: The Line between ICEs and Conjugative Plasmids Is Getting Thinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Poulin, Dominique; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family disseminate multidrug resistance among pathogenic Gammaproteobacteria such as Vibrio cholerae. SXT/R391 ICEs are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome of their host and eventually self-transfer to other bacteria by conjugation. Conjugative transfer of SXT/R391 ICEs involves a transient extrachromosomal circular plasmid-like form that is thought to be the substrate for single-stranded DNA translocation to the recipient cell through the mating pore. This plasmid-like form is thought to be non-replicative and is consequently expected to be highly unstable. We report here that the ICE R391 of Providencia rettgeri is impervious to loss upon cell division. We have investigated the genetic determinants contributing to R391 stability. First, we found that a hipAB-like toxin/antitoxin system improves R391 stability as its deletion resulted in a tenfold increase of R391 loss. Because hipAB is not a conserved feature of SXT/R391 ICEs, we sought for alternative and conserved stabilization mechanisms. We found that conjugation itself does not stabilize R391 as deletion of traG, which abolishes conjugative transfer, did not influence the frequency of loss. However, deletion of either the relaxase-encoding gene traI or the origin of transfer (oriT) led to a dramatic increase of R391 loss correlated with a copy number decrease of its plasmid-like form. This observation suggests that replication initiated at oriT by TraI is essential not only for conjugative transfer but also for stabilization of SXT/R391 ICEs. Finally, we uncovered srpMRC, a conserved locus coding for two proteins distantly related to the type II (actin-type ATPase) parMRC partitioning system of plasmid R1. R391 and plasmid stabilization assays demonstrate that srpMRC is active and contributes to reducing R391 loss. While partitioning systems usually stabilizes low-copy plasmids, srpMRC is the first to be reported that stabilizes a family of ICEs. PMID:26061412

  14. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm2, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  15. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  16. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to the existing literature and studies of large-scale IT projects, empirical data from a mega IT project in mid-sized Danish Bank, Jyske Bank, demonstrates a successful implementation of a highly complex IT platform transition. Linguistic representations and especially extensive use of metaphors by executive management to form and shape the megaproject appeared to have significant impact on guidance of individual and collective action, and thereby presumably one of the important factors for the successful implementation. To learn from this case study, we investigate the use of metaphors in the megaproject and discuss how leading by metaphors are enacted. Our findings are that (1) storytelling with metaphors can act as backbone for communication, (2) metaphors can set direction for technical capabilities, and finally (3) metaphors can be used to emphasize emotional intelligence.

  17. Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej

    2013-04-01

    The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52?). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good conditions for agriculture. Areas of ancient civilizations (Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Greece) always are concentrated near zones of high seismic activity. Catastrophic earthquakes occurred with interval about 200-500 years, and memory of population was limited usually by duration of 2-3 generations, i.e. by interval 50-80 years. The proposed hypothesis of exposed latitudinal zones at the Earth as pulsating geoid may present nowadays basic interest. References. 1.Ben-Zion Y. Earthquake physics and seismic hazard. 8-th Alexander von Humboldt International Conference. EGU Series. Natural Disasters, Global Change, and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites. Cusco. Peru. 2012. P.14. 2.Sun W. Seismic energy distribution in latitude and a possible tidal stress explanation // Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 1992. Vol. 71. P. 205-216. 3.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Latitudinal distribution of earthquakes in the Andes and its peculiarity. Advances in Geosciences. 2009. 22. 139-145. www.adv.geosci.net/22/139/2009/ 4.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Seismicity of the Pacific region: global feature detection. - M.: Janus-K. 2012. 308 p. 5.Veronnet, Alex. Rotation de l'ellipsoide hétérogène et figure exacte de la Terre. Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées. 1912. 6e série, tome 8, p. 331-463.

  18. Lessons from the Twin Mega-Crises: The Financial Meltdown and the BP Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershey H. Friedman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the synchronicity of two mega-crises we are now facing: The BP oil spill and the repercussions of the 2008 financial meltdown. It examines some key common threads in both of these crises. The overarching message is that firms must maintain a culture of social responsibility, must behave in an ethical manner, and must do everything possible to avoid societal harm. The three key lessons to be learned from the twin crises are to consider and mange risk in decision making; minimize conflicts of interest in the hope that executives will then not engage in actions that involve excessive risk to stakeholders; and that government regulation can be beneficial, rather than harmful to business and society – as long as it does not stifle innovation and growth.

  19. Mega Borg oil spill of the Texas coast: An open-water bioremediation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature has developed hydrocarbons as a part of life. Since the origin of life, more than 60,000 organic molecules have evolved that make up protoplasm; a given percentage of these molecules are hydrocarbons. Commercial hydrocarbon deposits are a by-product of this natural process and a continual source of oil in the aquatic environment through seeps. As a result, nature has also evolved a recycling system for the hydrocarbons. This cycle is the basis for a program of bioremediation using microorganisms. Effort has been made to develop mixed cultures capable of a wide range of hydrocarbon metabolism and co-metabolism. The cultures are economically produced in high concentrations as a dry powder with a shelf life of one year. The result is an economical process for the application of bacteria to hydrocarbon pollutants on water and soils. The process of bioremediation to the recent Mega Borg accident will be discussed

  20. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; Nguyen, M. N.; Reid, A. H.; Shen, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Vecchione, T.; Vetter, S. L.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Dürr, H. A.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  1. “Creative obstructions” and more : On cross sectorial mega-event collaboration outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh

    Abstract: ATLAS, Special track 6: Reinventing the local in tourism landscapes “Creative obstructions” and more? On cross sectorial mega-event collaboration outcomesCarina Ren (ren@ccg.aau.dk) & Morten Krogh Petersen (mkp@learning.aau.dk), Aalborg UniversityIn May of 2014, Copenhagen was the host of the yearly Eurovision Song Contest (ESC). In this paper, we discuss how the public-private co-creation set-up of this mega-event can be seen as a network project simultaneously enacting global state competitiveness and local place and identity. According to Cerny (1997), the dynamics of political globalization have altered the roles of the state so that it “is no longer able to act as a decommodifying hierarchy (i.e., taking economic activities out of the market). It must act more and more as a collective commodifying agent – (i.e., putting activities into the market) – and even as a market actor itself (p. 267, italics in the original). Short of cases (in a Danish context at least), which document the varied effects of state competitiveness through the blurring of public and private boundaries, we decided to engage with ESC 2014 to explore its set-up, described by the partners as a containing a number of creative obstructions in order to create “much more than a song contest”. Through fieldwork and collaboration with the public and private ESC partners, we describe how the mega-event linked corporate, municipal, regional and national activities and interests in new ways. Also, the event was to engage the public as co-creators of the week-long event itself but also, importantly, of much longer-lasting and broader outcomes. This was achieved through a number of outreach schemes within tourism, education, industrial development and sustainability in sub-events, collaborating with an unconventional array of actors such as NGOs, schools and a private real estate company hosting the venue. One outcome of this collaboration was the same-sex ‘Wonderful Weddings’ events offered by the municipality in collaboration with Wonderful Copenhagen to celebrate and accommodate for a large Eurovision gay segment. We discuss how in spite of close collaboration, common values such as tolerance and sustainability heralded by all stakeholders became not only a creative but rather an actual obstruction.Through the case of ESC 2014, we point to a number of outcomes of what Cerny and others have described as a development towards the marketization of the state and the state as a ‘marketizer’. We argue that at least in relation to events, the forces of a competition state are not singularly homogenizing, but also lead to increased heterogeneity (Kaspersen & Thorsager 2010). This point may also be transferred to the field of city branding, and challenges the idea that globalization and associated increased competition between cities unequivocally leads to uniformity (see Ooi 2014).ReferenceCerny, P. G. (1997), Paradoxes of the Competition State: The Dynamics of Political Globalization. Government and Opposition, 32: 251–274. doi: 10.1111/j.1477-7053.1997.tb00161.x. Kaspersen, L. B & L. Thorsager (2010): Responding to Globalisation: Changing the State Strategy from Infrastructural Power to Authoritarian Liberal Power. In: M. Böss (ed.) The Nation-State in Transformation: Economic Globalisation, Institutional Mediation and Political Values. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, p.247-267 Ooi, C. S. (2014) The Making of the Copy-cat City: Accreditation Tactics in Place Branding. In P. O. Berg & E. Björner (eds.) Branding Chinese Mega-Cities: Policies, Practices and Positioning. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated, p. 232–248

  2. Mega debris flow deposits on the western Wilkes Land margin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donda, F.; O'Brien, P.E.; De Santis, L.; Rebesco, M.; Brancolini, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    Multichannel seismic data collected off Western Wilkes Land (East Antarctica) reveal the occurrence of mega debris flow deposits on the lower slope and rise that were formed throughout the Miocene. Commonly, debris flow units are separated by thin deposits of well-stratified facies, interpreted as predominantly glaciomarine mixed contouritic and distal turbidite deposits. These units could act as weak layers and could have played a major role in the slope instability. High sedimentation rates, due to large amounts of sediment delivered from a temperate, wet-based ice sheet, constituted a key factor in the sediment failures. The main trigger mechanism would probably have been earthquakes enhanced by isostatic rebound following major ice sheet retreats.

  3. La Organización Mundial de Comercio, los acuerdos mega-regionales y los usos estratégicos del regionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bouzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis de la Ronda Doha, el desarrollo de grandes negociaciones “mega-regionales” y la proliferación de acuerdos preferenciales han avivado los debates sobre la gobernanza del comercio internacional. Mientras que una interpretación benévola sobre estos acuerdos parece estar ganando lugar, en este artículo sostenemos que los atributos del “regionalismo del siglo XXI” son menos novedosos que lo que se insinúa; y que existe una notable continuidad en los incentivos y las características del “nuevo regionalismo” de los noventa y el llamado “regionalismo del siglo XXI”. Afirmamos que aun cuando los componentes discriminatorios de estos regionalismos hayan sido atenuados por el contenido y naturaleza de la agenda regulatoria, el conflicto básico entre las dos modalidades de gobernanza del régimen de comercio internacional sigue vigente.

  4. Enhancing Mutual Respect among Nursing Assistants, Residents, and Residents' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselman, Terry; Noelker, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed nursing assistants (n=40) and nursing facility residents (n=37) regarding ways they experienced respect, disrespect, attachment, and distancing in their relationships with each other. As a result of finding evidence of disrespect, an inservice session on gaining respect as a nursing assistant was presented. (ABL)

  5. The Emotional Intelligence of Resident Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Sophia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Since academic literature indicates that emotional intelligence (EI) is tied to work performance, there is increasing interest in understanding physician EI. We studied the EI of resident physicians in surgery, pediatric, and pathology residency programs at three academic centers to describe the EI profiles of residents in different specialties and determine whether gender differences in resident physician EI profiles mirror those in the general population. 325 residents were electronically...

  6. Residency Application Statements Can Predict Postresidency Training

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Michael; Rathore, Saif S.; Mitchell, S Ray; Eisenberg, John M

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether residency application statements regarding expected career paths are accurate predictors of early postresidency career paths. We evaluated 162 residents who completed a categorical medicine residency at Georgetown University Hospital between 1990 and 1998 to determine if their stated career plans (generalist practice, subspecialization, or undecided) at application predicted activity immediately after residency. Of 130 residents with defined postresidency plans a...

  7. The 2007 Bengkulu Earthquake Series in the Context of Mega-Ruptures off South Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Stein, S.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    We present a seismological and tectonic study of the 2007 Bengkulu series, including an evaluation of the source characteristics of the main three events based on quasi-real time estimators, including the Energy-to-Moment parameter THETA, which suggests a trend towards slowness for the main shock at 11:10 UTC. While the earthquakes took place within the fault area of the great 1833 earthquake, in the probable context of Coulomb stress transfer from the 2004 and 2005 events, the mainshock and its immediate aftershocks define a faulting area significantly smaller than that of the 1833 event, and a preliminary review of plate kinematic models also suggests that the 2007 shock did not release the full strain accumulated since 1833. This is also supported by the seismic moment of the Bengkulu event (5E28 dyn*cm), and by preliminary modeling of the moderate near field tsunami (see Borrero et al., this session). In this context, we address the question of how much slip remains to be released along the 1833 rupture zone and to the South of it, and more generally of the ability for a large, but not gigantic event, to act as a barrier to the propagation of rupture during a future mega-earthquake. Namely, do the 2007 events preclude the future occurrence of a mega-earthquake whose rupture would over-ride the Bengkulu fault area? Historical records in Central and South Peru, as well as the over-riding by the 2004 Sumatra rupture of the 1881 Car Nicobar fault zone, would suggest a "cautiously negative" answer, casting a pessimistic note on far-field tsunami risk for the Southwestern Indian Ocean. ~

  8. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Asiyanbola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAGOS is becoming more difficult and complex. This is reflected in the increasing bumper-to-bumper traffic being experienced in the mega-city of Lagos during 6.30 am – 11.30am morning peak hours and (3.00pm – 7.30 pm evening peak hours. It now seems that traffic congestions are becoming forcefully acceptable excuses for workers being late to work in Lagos metropolis. One approach at solving this problem adopted by the Lagos State Government is traffic management through the establishment of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA. Traffic management could be regarded as a systematic and sustained effort on directing and controlling all traffics on our roads to make them free from negative effects of the transport system. The aim of this research work was to assess the impact of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA with particular reference on the efforts to reduce road traffic problems. Both secondary and primary data sources that were collected in 2008 were used in the study. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.

  9. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Jeremy M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes. These demonstrations underscore the importance of using large phylogenies to uncover important evolutionary patterns and we present a fast and simple method for constructing these phylogenies.

  10. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ?80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments. PMID:26132139

  11. Role of Plasmid of Pseudomonas putida S3A in Nylon 6 Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyam B. Al-Baldawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida S3A was isolated in previous study and selected for its good ability to degrade nylon 6, nylon 66 and nylon 6 film as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Thus, plasmid profile of this bacterium was studied. Results showed that this isolate harbored small plasmid DNA bands. In order to study the role of its plasmid in degradation of nylon 6 film, curing experiment was performed using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and showed that two colonies had lost their ability to degrade nylon 6 film as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Plasmid DNA extraction from one of these colonies indicated the loss of plasmid DNA bands and this referred that the plasmid DNA bands could be responsible for degrading of nylon 6 film in P. putida S3A.

  12. Air-quality measurements in mega-cities: Focus on gaseous organic and particulate pollutants and comparison between two contrasted cities, Paris and Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid and important development of large urban areas ('mega-cities'), especially in developing countries, causes and will cause serious air-quality problems. Pollutant measurements in these cities help to characterize the chemical nature and the quantity of these pollutants and to constrain air-quality models. This paper focuses on measurements of volatile organic compounds and aerosols that have an important impact on air quality. We present a brief review on existing measurements and experimental strategies in mega-cities and then we show results from recent measurement campaigns that took place in two contrasted mega-cities: Paris and Beijing. (authors)

  13. Plasmid transfer between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P; Stephenson, M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possibility of plasmid transfer occurring between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis in infected lepidopterous larvae, Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis were infected with two or more strains of B. thuringiensis and the resulting bacteria from the dead insects were examined for plasmid transfer. Transfer rates of plasmids coding for crystal production and tetracycline resistance were high, reaching levels similar to those obtained in laboratory broth cultures. Tran...

  14. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. PMID:8669391

  15. appR gene product activates transcription of microcin C7 plasmid genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Guerra, L; Moreno, F. (Fernando); San Millán, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Microcin C7 (MccC7) is encoded by Escherichia coli plasmid pMccC7. However, some strains of E. coli K-12 carrying this plasmid do not produce this antibiotic. Here we show that these strains differ in the gene locus appR. This chromosomal gene product controls MccC7 production by activating the transcription of some, but not all, MccC7 plasmid genes.

  16. Isolation of indigenous wastewater bacterial strains capable of mobilizing plasmid pBR325.

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, P; Gealt, M A

    1986-01-01

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from raw wastewater, identified, and characterized with respect to their plasmid content and antibiotic resistance. Several strains possessing both antibiotic resistance and high-molecular-weight plasmid(s) transferred their resistance characteristics to recipient cells during a 25 h coincubation. Eight were characterized (six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae); each produced 10(2) to 10(7) transconjugants per ml by the ...

  17. Epidemiology of PPNG infections in Amsterdam: analysis by auxanographic typing and plasmid characterisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ansink-Schipper, M C; Huikeshoven, M H; Woudstra, R K; van Klingeren, B.; de Koning, G A; Tio, D; Schoonhoven, F J; Coutinho, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    In January 1981 the incidence of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains in Amsterdam had increased to 18% of all new cases of gonorrhoea. Auxanographic typing in combination with plasmid determination of 729 PPNG strains showed that in 1981 the predominant and endemic types were those with the Africa plasmid and transfer factor which were non-requiring and inhibited by phenylalanine. In 1982 proline requiring strains with the Asia plasmid and transfer factor increased af...

  18. Stability of plasmid content in Salmonella wien in late phases of the epidemic history.

    OpenAIRE

    Casalino, M; Comanducci, A; Nicoletti, M.; Maimone, F

    1984-01-01

    Prevalence, genetic characteristics, and EcoRI cleavage analysis of plasmids identified in clinical strains of Salmonella wien isolated in recent years showed that the plasmid content in this serotype has remained uniform and stable over more than a decade and also late in the epidemic history. No correlation between decrease in S. wien isolations and naturally occurring systematic changes in the DNA of its most common FIme plasmid was structurally detectable.

  19. Composite IS1-tetracycline resistance elements in aerobactin-encoding FIme plasmids from epidemic Salmonella wien.

    OpenAIRE

    Casalino, M; Nicoletti, M.; Junakovic, N; Maimone, F

    1988-01-01

    Class B tetracycline resistance determinants have been identified in two aerobactin-encoding FIme plasmids representative of those isolated from epidemic Salmonella wien. Genetic data, restriction enzyme analysis of recombinant and mutant plasmids, and Southern blot hybridizations indicate that in both plasmids the class B determinant so far found and described only on Tn10-like transposons is part of a different genetic element. This composite insertion sequence element is about 7 kilobases ...

  20. Cloning in Streptococcus lactis of plasmid-mediated UV resistance and effect on prophage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmid pIL7 (33 kilobases) from Streptococcus lactis enhances UV resistance and prophage stability. A 5.4-kilobase pIL7 fragment carrying genes coding for both characters was cloned into S. lactis, using plasmid pHV1301 as the cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transferred to three other S. lactis strains by transformation or protoplast fusion. Cloned genes were expressed in all tested strains

  1. Mosaic Structure of a Multiple-Drug-Resistant, Conjugative Plasmid from Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Nirdnoy, Warawadee; Mason, Carl J; Guerry, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Partial sequence analysis of a tet(O) plasmid from a multiple-drug-resistant clinical isolate of Campylobacter jejuni revealed 10 genes or pseudogenes encoding different aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes, transposase-like genes, and multiple unknown genes from a variety of pathogenic and commensal bacteria. The plasmid could be mobilized by a P incompatibility group plasmid into Escherichia coli, where it apparently integrated into the chromosome and expressed high-level resistance to multi...

  2. Plasmid profilling and similarities in identities of probable microbes isolated from crude oil contaminated agricultural soil

    OpenAIRE

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE; Ann Ijeoma OGOAMAKA; Justina Ugochi UDENSI

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid analysis of bacteria isolated from agricultural soil experimentally contaminated with crude oil was carried out and the resultant bands’ depicting the different molecular sizes of the plasmid DNA molecules per isolate was obtained. There was no visible band observed for Klebsiella indicating that the organism lack plasmid DNA that confers degradative ability to it, possibly the gene could be borne on the chromosomal DNA which enabled its persistence in the polluted soil. Molecular cha...

  3. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  4. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Hasman, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. Methods: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene....

  5. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Sørensen, Søren J.; Hansen, Lars H.; Hasman, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene....

  6. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus sanguis (Challis) with Cryptic Plasmids from Streptococcus ferus

    OpenAIRE

    Macrina, Francis L.; Wood, Patricia H.; Jones, Kevin R

    1980-01-01

    By using the basic methodology initially published by Kretschmer et al. (J. Bacteriol. 124:225-231, 1975), we have been able to introduce phenotypically cryptic plasmids from Streptococcus ferus (formerly Streptococcus mutans subsp. ferus) into Streptococcus sanguis by genetic transformation. In this system, the entry of the cryptic plasmids is selected indirectly. This is effected with transforming deoxyribonucleic acid mixtures in which the cryptic plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid is present i...

  7. Quantification Bias Caused by Plasmid DNA Conformation in Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute qu...

  8. Imaging and nanodissection of individual supercoiled plasmids by atomic force microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image supercoiled plasmid DNA deposited on a mica surface in either a hydrated or desiccated state. Hydrated plasmid was precisely cut by the scanning tip at a location determined by the instrument operator. Small pieces of DNA (100-150 nm in length) were excised and deposited adjacent to the dissected plasmid, demonstrating that it is possible to remove and manipulate genomic DNA fragments, unresolvable by light microscopy, from defined chromosom...

  9. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise

    2015-01-01

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer to diverse hosts in pure culture, the extent of their ability to transfer in the complex bacterial communities present in most habitats has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we isolated and characterized transconjugants with a degree of sensitivity not previously realized to investigate the transfer range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.191.

  10. An Improved Method for Including Upper Size Range Plasmids in Metamobilomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Riber, Leise; Luo, Wenting; Li, Li Li; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Two recently developed isolation methods have shown promise when recovering pure community plasmid DNA (metamobilomes/plasmidomes), which is useful in conducting culture-independent investigations into plasmid ecology. However, both methods employ multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to ensure suitable quantities of plasmid DNA for high-throughput sequencing. This study demonstrates that MDA greatly favors smaller circular DNA elements (<10 Kbp), which, in turn, leads to stark underrepresen...

  11. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  12. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study?If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice.This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement. PMID:26517466

  13. Fast and efficient three-step target-specific curing of a virulence plasmid in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcos H; Teplitski, Max

    2015-12-01

    Virulence plasmids borne by serovars of Salmonella enterica carry genes involved in its pathogenicity, as well as other functions. Characterization of phenotypes associated with virulence plasmids requires a system for efficiently curing strains of their virulence plasmids. Here, we developed a 3-step protocol for targeted curing of virulence plasmids. The protocol involves insertion of an I-SecI restriction site linked to an antibiotic resistance gene into the target plasmid using ?-Red mutagenesis, followed by the transformation with a temperature-sensitive auxiliary plasmid which carries I-SecI nuclease expressed from a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Finally, the auxiliary plasmid is removed by incubation at 42 °C and the plasmid-less strains are verified on antibiotic-containing media. This method is fast and very efficient: over 90 % of recovered colonies lacked their virulence plasmid. PMID:26272479

  14. Identification of Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Using a Pgp3 Detection-Based Immunofluorescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhong, Guangming; Ren, Lin; Lu, Chunxue; Li, Zhonggyu; Wu, Yimou

    2015-10-28

    Chlamydia possesses a conserved 7.5 kb plasmid that is known to play an important role in chlamydial pathogenesis, since some chlamydial organisms lacking the plasmid are attenuated. The chlamydial transformation system developed recently required the use of plasmid-free organisms. Thus, the generation and identification of plasmid-free organisms represent a key step in understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. A tricolor immunofluorescence assay for simultaneously detecting the plasmid-encoded Pgp3 and whole organisms plus DNA staining was used to screen C. muridarum organisms selected with novobiocin. PCR was used to detect the plasmid genes. Next-generation sequencing was then used to sequence the genomes of plasmid-free C. muridarum candidates and the parental C. muridarum Nigg strain. We generated five independent clones of plasmid-free C. muridarum organisms by using a combination of novobiocin treatment and screening plaque-purified clones with anti-Pgp3 antibody. The clones were confirmed to lack plasmid genes by PCR analysis. No GlgA protein or glycogen accumulation was detected in cells infected with the plasmid-free clones. More importantly, whole-genome sequencing characterization of the plasmid-free C. muridarum organism and the parental C. muridarum Nigg strain revealed no additional mutations other than loss of the plasmid in the plasmid-free C. muridarum organism. Thus, the Pgp3-based immunofluorescence assay has allowed us to identify authentic plasmid-free organisms that are useful for further investigating chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:26059520

  15. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FP plasmids which enhance spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From work reported here and from previous studies 16 out of 53 (30%) FP plasmids (i.e. those plasmids that promote host chromosome transfer) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are found to protect host cells against UV irradiation. 13 of these UV-protecting FP plasmids were tested to determine their mode of DNA repair and were found to contribute to error-prone repair because of their enhancement of UV-induced mutagenesis and in most instances spontaneous mutagenesis as well. Some of these plasmids were tested for their behaviour in a DNA polymerase I deficient (Pol-) mutant of P. aeruginosa; the remainder could not be tested due to plasmid instability in the Pol- mutant. 11 of these FP plasmids provided wild type level of UV protection to the mutant. 4 of the plasmids tested (FP18, FP103, FP109 and FP111) were able to enhance the mutant's ability to host cell reactivate UV irradiated phage, though not to the level of the Pol+ parent. The presence of FP18 or FP111 in the Pol- mutant did not increase polymerase I-like enzymatic activity. It is concluded that the plasmids do not confer a polymerase activity functionally equivalent to host DNA polymerase I. The implications of the prevalence of FP plasmids in P. aeruginosa which enhance multagenesis are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pediatric diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Uma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The emergence of drug resistance among diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli in the pediatric population is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Material and Methods: Isolation and identification of E. coli strains from stool specimens are carried out according to standard techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disc-diffusion method. Plasmid profiling and conjugation experiments were done to analyze the antibiotic resistance transfer from one bacterium cell to another through plasmid. Results: Out of 170 pediatric diarrheal samples, 105 (61.76% E. coli strains were isolated. About 90% of E. coli strains were resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, imipenem and cotrimoxazole and were sensitive to amikacin. The resistance to antibiotics shows 29 different antibiotic resistance patterns. About 67 (64% strains of E. coli isolates harbored plasmids, and 51 (76.1% of them were able to transfer their plasmids. The plasmid sizes ranged from 1.0 to 25 kb, the most common plasmid of size 4.8 kb being detected in all the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The results of transconjugation show that all the transconjugant colonies were carrying 4.8-kb plasmid and were resistant to ampicillin, imipenem and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: There is an increase in the prevalence of drug resistance among E. coli isolates, and conjugal transfer of plasmids has greatly contributed to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates.

  17. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.

    1991-01-01

    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  18. Functional expression in yeast of the Escherichia coli plasmid gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, J. D.; Eccleshall, T R; Needleman, R B; Federoff, H; Buchferer, B A; Marmur, J

    1980-01-01

    The Escherichia coli R factor-derived chloramphenicol resistance (camr) gene is functionally expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. the gene was introduced by transformation into yeast cells as part of a chimeric plasmid, pYT11-LEU2, constructed in vitro. The plasmide vector consists of the E. coli plasmid pBR325 (carrying the camr gene), the yeast 2-micron DNA plasmid, and the yeast LEU2 structural gene. Yeast cells harboring pYT11-LEU2 acquire resistance to chloramphenicol and cel...

  19. Position effect on expression of dsd genes cloned onto multicopy plasmids.

    OpenAIRE

    Carothers, A M; Heincz, M C; McFall, E

    1980-01-01

    In the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli, which is regulated by positive control, we have fouand a complete lack of trans activation in vivo with multicopy dsd hybrid plasmids. A PLASmid carrying the regulatory gene, dsdC+, did not promote expression of chromosomal dsdCO+A+ loci, nor did a chromosomal dsdC+ gene promote expression of plasmid-borne dsdC delta O+A+ (dsd regulatory gene negative) restriction fragments. However, hybrid plasmids that comprise the entire dsd system (dsd...

  20. Plasmid Transfer between Marine Bacteria in the Aqueous Phase and Biofilms in Reactor Microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Angles, M. L.; Marshall, K C; Goodman, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid transfer of broad-host-range plasmid RP1 from marine Vibrio sp. strain S14 to marine strain SW5 under optimum conditions on the surface of nutrient plates was improved 2 orders of magnitude by using the plasmid transfer process to select an SW5 recipient more efficient than the wild type in receiving and/or maintaining the plasmid. This recipient strain, SW5H, was used to form biofilms under flow conditions on the surfaces of glass beads in reactors. The S142(RP1) donor strain was int...

  1. Reversible entrapment of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid on different chromatographic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Boštjan; ?ernigoj, Urh; Barut, Miloš; Štrancar, Aleš

    2013-10-11

    HPLC based analytical assay is a powerful technique that can be used to efficiently monitor plasmid DNA (pDNA) purity and quantity throughout the entire purification process. Anion exchange monolithic and non-porous particle based stationary phases were used to study the recovery of the different pDNA isoforms from the analytical column. Three differently sized pDNA molecules of 3.0kbp, 5.2kbp and 14.0kbp were used. Plasmid DNA was injected onto columns under the binding conditions and the separation of the isoforms took place by increasing the ionic strength of the elution buffer. While there was no substantial decrease of the recovered supercoiled and linear isoforms of the pDNA with the increase of the plasmid size and with the increase of the flow rate (recoveries in all cases larger than 75%), a pronounced decrease of the oc isoform recovery was observed. The entrapment of the oc pDNA isoform occurred under non-binding conditions as well. The partial oc isoform elution from the column could be achieved by decreasing the flow rate of the elution mobile phase. The results suggested a reversible entrapment of the oc isoform in the restrictions within the pores of the monolithic material as well as within the intra-particle space of the non-porous particles. This phenomenon was observed on both types of the stationary phase morphologies and could only be connected to the size of a void space through which the pDNA needs to migrate. A prediction of reversible pDNA entrapment was successfully estimated with the calculation of Peclet numbers, Pe, which defines the ratio between a convective and diffusive mass transport. PMID:24021834

  2. [Plasmid characteristics of naphthalene and salicylate biodegradation in Pseudomonas putida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharian, R A; Bakunin, K A; Gasparian, N S; Kocharian, Sh M; Arakelov, G M

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work was to study the physico-chemical and biological properties of DNAs of the biodegradation plasmids NAH and SAL. A comparative analysis of the physico-chemical parameters for these DNAs made it possible to detect a number of identical properties in them: the same sedimentation profile for covalently-closed circular DNA forms, 68--70 S; the molecular weight of ca. 50 MD; a roughly equal number of fragments (up to 23) was found when the DNAs of NAH and SAL were restricted by EcoRI endonuclease. The transformation of the plasmidless strain PpGI was done. PMID:6259498

  3. Partition functions of unit-copy plasmids can stabilize the maintenance of plasmid pBR322 at low copy number.

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, S.; FRIEDMAN, S; Ludtke, D

    1986-01-01

    The maintenance of plasmid pBR322 is highly unstable in a polA12 strain of Escherichia coli at 29 degrees C due to severely reduced copy number. Under these conditions, introduction of the par (partition) locus of plasmid P1 or the par (sop) region of F into pBR322 stabilizes it. A region with similar activity was detected in the P7 plasmid. The activity of the P1 par locus was dependent on the P1 parA gene product and was sensitive to par-specified incompatibility.

  4. Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilization by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five actual mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all, but one, the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. Our hypothesis suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes will be followed closely by seismic swarms, inflation, and other indications of a rising magma source.

  5. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner RF Jr; Raimer SS; Kelly BC

    2013-01-01

    Richard F Wagner Jr, Sharon S Raimer, Brent C Kelly Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA Abstract: Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activit...

  6. Instability of multiple drug resistance plasmids in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Threlfall, E. J.; Rowe, B.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmids in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin/kanamycin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim (ACGKSSuTTm), CGKSSuTTm, ACSSuT or CSSuT which had been isolated from poultry in the first 3 months of 1989 have been characterized and compared with plasmids in two strains of R-types ACGKSSuTTm and ASSuTTm isolated from two patients later in the year. With the exception of the human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm, all strains carried two non-conjugative plasmids, one coding for SSu and belonging to incompatibility group Q, and a second coding for multiple resistance and belonging to the FIme incompatibility group. The human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm did not carry the IncQ SSu plasmid but like the poultry isolates, carried a non-conjugative FIme plasmid. Restriction endonuclease digestion with the enzymes EcoR I, Pst I and Hind III demonstrated that the FIme plasmids from strains of different R-types showed a high degree of homology but exhibited numerous fragment size polymorphisms. The restriction digest fingerprint of plasmids in the human isolate of R-type ACGKSSuTTm was indistinguishable from a poultry isolate of the same R-type. Analysis of segregants of one of the poultry isolates of R-type ACGKSSuTTm demonstrated that resistance determinants could be rapidly lost from the FIme plasmid to give rise to a number of R-types and fingerprint patterns. Loss of tetracycline resistance from this plasmid appeared to be correlated with the integration of other plasmid-mediated resistances into the bacterial chromosome. Evidence is presented for the rapid loss of antimicrobial resistance determinants from a multiple resistance plasmid of the FIme incompatibility group in response to withdrawal of antibiotic selective pressure. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2019296

  7. Antibacterial and Plasmid Curing Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal El-Deeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR is a serious health problem and major challenge to global drug discovery programs. Most of the genetic determinants that confer resistance to antibiotics are located on plasmids in bacteria. The present investigation was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial effect and the ability of extra- and intra-cellular extracts of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB to cure plasmid acquiring resistance in certain clinical antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella sp.. Transformation experiments were carried out using clinical isolates as plasmid donor and Escherichia coli strain HB101 (sensitive to the tested antibiotic, as recipient. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of LAB extracts was determined using the microtiter plate method. Plasmid curing activity of LAB extracts was determined by evaluating the inability of bacterial colonies (pre-treated with LAB extract for 18 h to grow in the presence of antibiotics. The physical loss of plasmid DNA in the cured derivatives was further confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAB showed antibacterial effect, inhibited up to 90% of bacterial biofilm formation and cured the pathogenic bacteria from plasmids. The presence of plasmid in transformants was confirmed through electrophoresis and the transformants were also tested for each antibiotic resistance already recorded for the donor isolates. Both extracts (extra-and intra-cellular extracts inhibited the growth of the clinical isolates. Extracellular extracts exceeded 90% inhibition on some isolates. The LAB extract mediated plasmid curing resulted in the subsequent loss of antibiotic (Chl, Dox, Ery, Gm, Kaf, Lin and Pen resistance encoded in the plasmids as revealed by antibiotic resistance profile of cured strains. The extracellular extract of LAB may be a source of anti-plasmid (plasmid borne multiple antibiotic resistance agents of natural origin.

  8. Novel assay to measure the plasmid mobilizing potential of mixed microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Droumpali, Ariadni

    2014-01-01

    Mobilizable plasmids lack necessary genes for complete conjugation and are therefore non-self-transmissible. Instead, they rely on the conjugation system of conjugal plasmids to be horizontally transferred to new recipients. While community permissiveness, the fraction of a mixed microbial community that can receive self-transmissible conjugal plasmids, has been studied, the intrinsic ability of a community to mobilize plasmids that lack conjugation systems is unexplored. Here, we present a novel framework and experimental method to estimate the mobilization potential of mixed communities. We compare the transfer frequency of a mobilizable plasmid to that of a mobilizing and conjugal plasmid measured for a model strain and for the assayed community. With Pseudomonas putida carrying the gfp-tagged mobilizable RSF1010 plasmid as donor strain, we conducted solid surface mating experiments with either a P. putida strain carrying the mobilizing plasmid RP4 or a model bacterial community that was extracted from theinner walls of a domestic shower conduit. Additionally, we estimated the permissiveness of the same community for RP4 using P. putida as donor strain. The permissiveness of the model community for RP4 (at 1.16x10-4 transconjugants per recipient (T/R)) was similar to that previously measured for soil microbial communities. RSF1010 was mobilized by the model community at a frequency of 1.16x10-5 T/R, only one order of magnitude lower than its permissiveness to RP4. This mobilization frequency is unexpectedly high considering that (i) mobilization requires the presence of mobilizing conjugal plasmids within the permissive fraction of the recipients; (ii) in pure culture experiments with P. putida retromobilization of RSF1010 through RP4 only took place in approximately half of the donors receiving the conjugal plasmid in the first step. Further work is needed to establish how plasmid mobilization potential varies within and across microbial communities.

  9. Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D. J.; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L.E.; Guyatt, G. H.; Walter, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed question...

  10. Mining Environmental Plasmids for Synthetic Biology Parts and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Esteban; Benedetti, Ilaria; Hueso, Angeles; De Lorenzo, Víctor

    2015-02-01

    The scientific and technical ambition of contemporary synthetic biology is the engineering of biological objects with a degree of predictability comparable to those made through electric and industrial manufacturing. To this end, biological parts with given specifications are sequence-edited, standardized, and combined into devices, which are assembled into complete systems. This goal, however, faces the customary context dependency of biological ingredients and their amenability to mutation. Biological orthogonality (i.e., the ability to run a function in a fashion minimally influenced by the host) is thus a desirable trait in any deeply engineered construct. Promiscuous conjugative plasmids found in environmental bacteria have evolved precisely to autonomously deploy their encoded activities in a variety of hosts, and thus they become excellent sources of basic building blocks for genetic and metabolic circuits. In this article we review a number of such reusable functions that originated in environmental plasmids and keep their properties and functional parameters in a variety of hosts. The properties encoded in the corresponding sequences include inter alia origins of replication, DNA transfer machineries, toxin-antitoxin systems, antibiotic selection markers, site-specific recombinases, effector-dependent transcriptional regulators (with their cognate promoters), and metabolic genes and operons. Several of these sequences have been standardized as BioBricks and/or as components of the SEVA (Standard European Vector Architecture) collection. Such formatting facilitates their physical composability, which is aimed at designing and deploying complex genetic constructs with new-to-nature properties. PMID:26104565

  11. Mega jardines infantiles: heterotopías para el gobierno de la población infantil en Medellín / Mega-kindergartens: heterotopias for governing the infant population in Medellin / Mega jardins de infância: heterotopias para o governo da população infantil em Medellin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés Klaus, Runge Peña; Sara Carolina, Carrillo David.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No marco de uma política integral de atenção para a infância, durante as últimas administrações a cidade de Medellín realizou um grande investimento em infraestrutura, especificamente para a construção, em lugares estratégicos da cidade, de grandes jardins de infância. Este texto tem como propósito [...] pensar em chave foucaultiana esses espaços como heterotopias, isto é, como espaços para o governo (governamentalidade) da população infantil. No texto se considera que a reestruturação e ressignificação do espaço educativo escolar e das práticas desenvolvidas na sua interioridade não obedecem, principalmente, a uma preocupação pedagógica ou filantrópica que poderia ser interpretada de maneira independente de um contexto histórico e social, nas margens de determinados interesses e relações de poder. Numa primeira parte, seguindo Foucault, se revisa o conceito de heterotopia e se propõe que esses espaços educativos outros -além da sua função educativa e formativa- cumprem um papel governamental em quanto permitem o governo da população infantil ao constituírem-se em lugares estratégicos para a implantação de tecnologias sociais como a prevenção. Abstract in spanish En el marco de una nueva política de atención integral a la infancia, durante las últimas administraciones la ciudad de Medellín ha venido realizando una considerable inversión en infraestructura urbana, específicamente con la creación, en lugares estratégicos de la ciudad, de grandes jardines infan [...] tiles. Este escrito tiene como propósito pensar en clave foucaultiana esos espacios como heterotopías, es decir, como espacios otros para el gobierno (gubernamentalidad) de la población infantil. Partimos así, del presupuesto según el cual la reestructuración y resignificación del espacio educativo escolar y de las prácticas en su interior no obedece a una suerte de preocupación pedagógica y filantrópica que sin más se pueda considerar desligada de un contexto histórico y social y al margen de ciertos intereses y de ciertas relaciones de poder. Para ello, y de la mano de Foucault, en una primera parte se le pasa revista al concepto de heterotopía y a sus particularidades; en la segunda parte, se profundiza en la caracterización de los mega jardines infantiles como heterotopías y se plantea que estos espacios educativos otros -además de su función educativa y formativa- cumplen con un papel gubernamental en el sentido que permiten el gobierno de la población infantil gracias a que se convierten en lugares estratégicos para la implementación de tecnologías sociales como la prevención. Abstract in english Under a new policy of comprehensive child care during the past administrations Medellin has been making a considerable investment in urban infrastructure, specifically the creation in strategic locations in the city, large kindergartens. This paper aims to reflect upon these spaces as key Foucauldia [...] n heterotopias, ie, as other spaces for the government (governmentality) of children. So, we start from the estimation that restructuring and redefining educational space and practices therein are not due to a kind of educational and philanthropic concern that no more can be considered detached from a historical and social context and outside certain interests and certain power relations.

  12. Novel DC ring topology and protection system - a comprehensive solution for mega city power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Maharsi, Mohamed Yassine

    2009-07-01

    The development of mega cities leads to increased load concentration and brings additional challenges to managing the electrical grid while keeping power available for critical loads. Techniques using FACTS devices are being applied to alleviate power management difficulties and to confine faults in their originating areas in order to limit the risk of cascading failures in the grid. The addition of many FACTS devices often results in control and protection coordination difficulties, power oscillations between connected networks, subsynchronous resonance problems, and torsional interactions with nearby generator units. The most effective solution is obtained when the individual AC subsystems representing sources and loads are decoupled so a fault in a given subsystem is not propagated to another subsystem. This solution can be achieved by the deployment of a DC system where power sources and loads are connected to the DC bus through voltage source converters. For a mega city, this would be conceived as a DC ring feeding multiple loads and connected to remote and local power sources. Unfortunately, the lack of fast DC circuit breakers has been one of the key issues affecting extensive applications of DC systems with common DC buses; a DC fault would discharge all the capacitors of the DC bus and cause delays in system recovery and possibly a wide system collapse. In this research, I provide a comprehensive solution to mega city power grid problems by proposing a DC system topology that enables grid expansions without affecting existing protection settings or changing existing AC breaker ratings. I also propose the means for protecting the DC system by designing a fast DC breaker and developing a control algorithm capable of isolating DC faults without blocking converter stations or depleting DC bus capacitors. My contribution is three folds: (1) I modeled and simulated Shanghai power grid and performed a study to identify short circuit and voltage stability problems using data provided by ABB corporate research located in China. I built on the work that had been performed in ABB China by considering different contingencies and I applied solutions using individual FACTS devices such as FCL, SVC-LightRTM, and HVDC-LightRTM. I analyzed the results from each solution in order to assess its merits and limitations in dealing with fault current and voltage stability problems. Then I presented a novel DC ring topology that provides redundancy, better protection against cascading faults, and does not increase short circuit levels. With this topology, adding loads or power sources does not impact system protection or performance. (2) I proposed two novel designs for a DC circuit breaker that is of critical importance to DC applications using multiple converter stations. The proposed designs solve the problem of DC fault clearing without causing significant voltage drops, current oscillations, or shutting down of any converter station connected to the DC bus. The DC breaker rated at a voltage of 320 kV and a current of 3000 A can interrupt DC currents as high as 70 kA within 800 mus. (3) I proposed a novel placement of the DC circuit breakers within the DC ring topology combined with an intelligent protection algorithm that optimizes fault detection and isolation without affecting the rest of the DC system. The protection scheme uses local measurements and special coordination techniques for clearing solid faults and uses differential measurements to identify and isolate high impedance faults.

  13. Stakeholder participation to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. : A case study of the forum for the coal-power plant “Datteln 4” project

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Tassilo; Zakharova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how stakeholder participation should be implemented to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. Thereby societal acceptance is seen as a major contributor to project success in this context and involving society in decision-making and two-way dialogue is recognized as the most  effective to achieve this. Based on this research area, a theoretical framework was proposed for the mega project context including prerequisite, process and outcome criteria...

  14. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, R.M.; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M; Zeng, L.; Zhang, Y

    2008-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "...

  15. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  16. Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

  17. Studies on the drift properties and spatial resolution using a microMEGAS-equipped time projection chamber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosario L Reserva; Dennis C Arogancia; Angelina M Bacala; Khalil Boudjemline; Dan Burke; Paul Colas; Madhu Dixit; Arnaud Giganon; Ioannis Giomataris; Hermogenes C Gooc Jr; Yukihiro Kato; Keisuke Fujii; Hiroyuki Fujishima; Masahiro Habu; Takatoshi Higashi; Makoto Kobayashi; Hirotoshi Kuroiwa; Vincent Lepeltier; Takeshi Matsuda; Osamu Nitoh; Kirsten Sachs; Ronald Dean Settles; Akira Sugiyama; Philippe Rosier; Sachio Matsushita; Keiichi Nakamura; Takashi Watanabe; Atsushi Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Yamaoka; Thomas Zeruerras

    2007-12-01

    R & D studies on the performance as well as on the gas properties of the microMEGAS-based time projection chamber with standard readout were carried out in June 2005 using 4 GeV/c pion beam in a magnetic field from 0 to 1 T at the proton synchrotron beam line at KEK, Japan. Analysis of the electron drift velocity, diffusion constant and point resolution of padrow measurement for MicroMEGAS TPC filled with 95% argon and 5% isobutane gas are presented. The underlying physical mechanism which determines the optimal TPC performance are briefly discussed. Preliminary measurements of gas properties and spatial resolution in close agreement with the analytical calculation and MAGBOLTZ simulation are summarized and presented in this paper.

  18. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...resident's physical, mental, or social condition...appropriate participation of health professionals. ...resident's physical, mental, and psychosocial needs...practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being as required...

  19. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  20. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Karpov; Grigory Beskin; Sergey Bondar; Alexey Perkov; Evgeny Ivanov; Adriano Guarnieri; Corrado Bartolini; Giuseppe Greco; Andy Shearer; Vyacheslav Sasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transfo...

  1. The Water Situation of the Future Mega City "Urumqi" (NW-China) – Resources, Risk, Conservation and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Urumqi is located in the remote center of the Eurasian continent. It is a future mega-city with rapid economic development and high population density in China's western interior. Urumqi's water resource problems are the main research objects in this thesis. Several models have been put forward to predict water demand in Urumqi and useful suggestions have been gathered to reduce water scarcity. In 2010, the average annual water resources of Urumqi were at 939.22 million m³ and the average ...

  2. Impacts of Mega-droughts on Water and Food Security in the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A Paleoclimate Scenario Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Pitois, G.; Ringler, C.; Wang, D.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Spanning over Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is the home of several hundred million people and the "bread basket" for much of South Asia. The flat terrain, fertile soils, and favorable climate of the IGP make it agriculturally productive. However prolonged droughts caused by consecutive monsoon failures can seriously affect crop production and social wellbeing, in particular for the eastern part of the plains where agriculture remains largely rain-fed. Severe droughts were observed in the IGP historically, and recent paleoclimate studies reveal that more severe and long-lasting "mega-droughts" had happened in the distant past. Agricultural losses from major droughts can dramatically affect food systems and increase the vulnerability of resource-poor people given the delicate balance between food supply and demand under growing natural resource scarcity. To estimate the potential impacts of "mega-droughts" on the water and food systems in the IGP, we develop worst-case drought scenarios through inverse modeling of tree-ring-based PDSI reconstruction that covers the period 1300-1899 (A.D.), and analyze these historic mega-drought scenarios using IFPRI's IMPACT global water and food projections model. The base year of the IMPACT model is parameterized using socioeconomic and engineering data that reflect today's water management and infrastructure, agricultural technologies, population, income, and market institutions. The base year simulation is validated against observations to ensure model fidelity. Anticipated changes of the above factors in the future out to 2050 are specified using demographic and economic growth projections and literature data. Model simulation results represent the consequences of mega-droughts in the IGP given technological and socioeconomic conditions of today and in the future. We also explore policy options for increasing the resilience of water and food systems in the IGP, through scenario analysis, and recommendations are made concerning investment in water infrastructure and agricultural technologies, in addition to trade policies.

  3. Along came a mega-event : prospects of competitiveness for a 2010 FIFA World Cup™ host city

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Ernest Thomas

    2013-01-01

    South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ came at a time when countries and cities worldwide were increasingly competing for this sought-after status. The benefits and challenges of such an event have received significant attention from researchers and practitioners alike. No tourism destination is guaranteed long-term competitiveness by being offered the once-off opportunity to host a major international event. This study aimed to determine whether a mega-event would make a greater ...

  4. Antimicrobial endophytic fungal assemblages inhabiting bark of Taxus baccata L. of Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Tayung, K.; Jha, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from inner bark of Taxus baccata L., an important source of potent anticancer drug taxol. Bark samples were collected from two locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India, part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot, during two seasons i.e. monsoon and winter. Altogether 77 fungal strains representing 18 genera were isolated from T. baccata bark during the present investigation. The colonizing frequency was recorded as 38.5% and the fungal community comprised of...

  5. The Ignition of Cylindrical Fusion Targets by Multi-Mega-Ampere GeV Proton Beams below the Alfvén Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2014-11-01

    It is shown that cylindrical deuterium targets can be ignited with multi-mega-ampere GeV proton beams below the Alfvén limit and a small amount of tritium. The proton beams can be generated by discharging a magnetically insulated gigavolt capacitor. Surrounding the thermonuclear microexplosion with a thick layer of liquid hydrogen, heated to a ~ 105 K plasma by the thermalization of the fusion reaction neutrons, most of the energy released can be converted into electric energy by a magnetohydrodynamic generator.

  6. The Role of Mega-events in Country Branding : Case Study on Brand of Ukraine before European Football Championship 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Klonova, Anastasiia

    2012-01-01

    Successful presentation of a country as a brand and positioning its unique image on the global level can give significant opportunities for development and progress of the state in the different areas. This research applies theories on the country branding to estimate impact of mega sport events on the image of state. To accomplish these goal I used case study – formation of brand Ukraine before hosting European Football Championship 2012 (EURO 2012). To investigate  brand strategy of Ukraine...

  7. Localisation and interaction of the protein components of the yeast 2 mu circle plasmid partitioning system suggest a mechanism for plasmid inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Drew, S; Murray, J A

    1998-07-01

    Replicating plasmids are highly unstable in yeast, because they are retained in mother cells. The 2 mu circle plasmid overcomes this maternal inheritance bias by using a partitioning system that involves the plasmid encoded proteins Rep1p and Rep2p, and the cis-acting locus STB. It is thus widely exploited as a cloning vehicle in yeast. However, little is known about the cellular or molecular mechanisms by which effective partitioning is achieved, and models of both free diffusion and plasmid localisation have been proposed. Here we show that Rep1p and Rep2p proteins interact to form homo- and hetero-complexes in vitro. In vivo, Rep1p and Rep2p are shown to be nuclear proteins, exhibiting sub-nuclear concentration in distinct foci. The number of foci appears constant regardless of plasmid copy number and cell ploidy level. Before cell division, the number of foci increases, and we observe approximately equal allocation of foci to mother and daughter cell nuclei. We show that whereas Rep2p expressed alone is found exclusively in the nucleus, Rep1p requires the presence of Rep2p for effective nuclear localisation. High levels of 2 mu plasmid induce a multiple-budded elongated cell phenotype, which we show can be phenocopied by overexpression of both REP1 and REP2 together but not alone. Taken together, these results suggest that Rep1p and Rep2p interact in vivo, and occupy defined nuclear sites that are allocated to both mother and daughter nuclei during division. We propose a model for 2 mum plasmid partitioning based on these results, involving the association of plasmid DNA with specific, segregated subnuclear sites. PMID:9625741

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two novel plasmids isolated from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum DSM6725 (A. thermophilum), growing optimally at 70degreesC, has been determined. pBAS2 was found to be a 3653 bp plasmid with a GC content of 43%, and the sequence revealed 10 open reading frames (ORFs). The two largest of these, namely Orf21 and Orf41, showed similarity to a Bacillus plasmid recombinase and a Pseudoalteromonas plasmid replication protein, respectively. A sequence with homology to double stranded replication origins from rolling circle plasmids was found, but no single stranded intermediates, characteristic of rolling circle replication, were found on Southern blots. The larger plasmid, pBAL, was found to be a 8294 bp plasmid with a GC content of 39%. It revealed 17 ORFs, of which three showed similarity at the amino acid (aa) level to known proteins. Orf22 showed the strongest similarity (33% aa) to replication proteins from large multiresistance Staphylococcal and Lactococcal plasmids, all of which are believed to replicate via a theta-like replication mechanism. Orf32 showed similarity to both DNA repair proteins and DNA polymerases with highest similarity to DNA repair protein from Campylobacter jejuni (25% aa). Orf34 showed similarity to sigma factors with highest similarity (28% aa) to the sporulation specific Sigma factor, Sigma 28(K) from Bacillus thuringiensis.

  9. Conservative integration of bacteriophage Mu DNA into pBR322 plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebart, J C; Ghelardini, P; Paolozzi, L.(INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy)

    1982-01-01

    In order to clarify the first step in Mu integrative recombination, we have infected a bacterial strain harboring the plasmid pBR322 and isolated Mu DNA in a supercoiled form associated with this plasmid. These structures show an association of Mu with PBR322 without any preliminary replication.

  10. Characterization of a plasmid-encoded urease gene cluster found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Orazio, S E; Collins, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid-encoded urease gene clusters found in uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, and Salmonella cubana demonstrated DNA homology, similar positions of restriction endonuclease cleavage sites, and manners of urease expression and therefore represent the same locus. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the plasmid-encoded urease genes are closely related to the Proteus mirabilis urease genes.

  11. Diversification of broad host range plasmids correlates with the presence of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobin; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong; Top, Eva M; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The IncP-1? subgroup is a recently identified phylogenetic clade within IncP-1 plasmids, which plays an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance and degradation of xenobiotic pollutants. Here, four IncP-1? plasmids were exogenously captured from a petroleum-contaminated habitat in China and compared phylogenetically and genomically with previously reported IncP-1? and other IncP-1 plasmids. The IncP-1? plasmids can be clearly subdivided into two subclades, designated as ?-I and ?-II, based on phylogenetic analysis of backbone proteins TraI and TrfA. This was further supported by comparison of concatenated backbone genes. Moreover, the two subclades differed in the transposon types, phenotypes and insertion locations of the accessory elements. The accessory genes on ?-I plasmids were inserted between parA and traC, and harbored ISPa17 and Tn402-like transposon modules, typically carrying antibiotic resistance genes. In contrast, the accessory elements on ?-II plasmids were typically located between trfA and oriV, and contained IS1071, which was commonly inserted within the Tn501-like transposon, typically harboring a cluster of genes encoding mercury resistance and/or catabolic pathways. Our study is one of the first to compare IncP-1 plasmid genomes from China, expands the available collection of IncP-1? plasmids and enhances our understanding of their diversity, biogeography and evolutionary history. PMID:26635412

  12. Effect of Plasmid pIJ1008 from Rhizobium leguminosarum on Symbiotic Function of Rhizobium meliloti

    OpenAIRE

    Bedmar, E. J.; Brewin, N. J.; Phillips, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Plasmid pIJ1008, which carries determinants for uptake hydrogenase (Hup) activity, was transferred from Rhizobium leguminosarum to Rhizobium meliloti without impairing the capacity of the latter species to form root nodules on alfalfa. The plasmid was still present in rhizobia reisolated from the root nodules of 12 different alfalfa cultivars, but only low levels of Hup activity were detected in alfalfa.

  13. ELECTROPORATION AND STABLE MAINTENANCE OF PLASMID DNAS IN A BIOCONTROL STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation efficiencies as high as 1.0 X 10 7 transformants/µg DNA have been reported for Pseudomonads using electroporation protocols established for E. coli with plasmid DNAs prepared from E. coli hosts. We report here a protocol for electroporation of plasmid DNAs into a biocontrol strain of...

  14. Purification of transcriptionally active multimeric plasmid DNA using zwitterionic detergent and carbonate apatite nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Lau Khye; Ling, Chong Siew; Chua, Ming Jang; Abdullah, Syahril; Rosli, Rozita; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2011-10-01

    Plasmid DNA is one of the indispensable components in molecular biology research and a potential biomaterial for gene therapy and DNA vaccination. Both quality and quantity of extracted plasmid DNA are of the great interests in cloning and subsequent expression of genes in vitro and in vivo for basic research and therapeutic interventions. Bacteria with extremely short generation times are the valuable source of plasmid DNA that can be isolated through a number of existing techniques. However, the current methods have some limitations in isolating high quality plasmid DNA since the multimeric plasmid which is believed to be more efficiently transcribed by RNA polymerase than the monomeric form, is almost lost during the extraction process. Recently, we developed a rapid isolation technique for multimeric plasmid based on generation of a 'protein aggregate' using a zwitterionic detergent and alkali. Here we have investigated the roles of different parameters in the whole extraction process to optimise the production of high quality multimeric plasmid DNA. Moreover, we have showed the advantageous effects of nanoparticles to effectively sediment the 'protein aggregate' for smooth elution of multimeric plasmid DNA from it. Finally, quality assessment study has revealed that the isolated multimeric DNA is at least 10 times more transcriptionally active than the monomeric form isolated by the commercially available Qiaget kit. PMID:21419794

  15. Communicating mega-projects in the face of uncertainties: Israeli mass media treatment of the Dead Sea Water Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Cohen-Blankshtain, Galit; Shuali, Yoav; Boykoff, Max

    2015-10-01

    Given the potential for uncertainties to influence mega-projects, this study examines how mega-projects are deliberated in the public arena. The paper traces the strategies used to promote the Dead Sea Water Canal. Findings show that the Dead Sea mega-project was encumbered by ample uncertainties. Treatment of uncertainties in early coverage was dominated by economics and raised primarily by politicians, while more contemporary media discourses have been dominated by ecological uncertainties voiced by environmental non-governmental organizations. This change in uncertainty type is explained by the changing nature of the project and by shifts in societal values over time. The study also reveals that 'uncertainty reduction' and to a lesser degree, 'project cancellation', are still the strategies most often used to address uncertainties. Statistical analysis indicates that although uncertainties and strategies are significantly correlated, there may be other intervening variables that affect this correlation. This research also therefore contributes to wider and ongoing considerations of uncertainty in the public arena through various media representational practices. PMID:24357623

  16. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies. PMID:26138567

  17. MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

  18. Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

  19. Residence Hall Damage: Analysis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Thomas A.

    The problems of residence hall damage and vandalism are examined in this booklet. An analysis and control program is proposed to provide a systematic method of dealing with the problem. A list of basic assumptions held by students and staff on residence hall damage is presented for discussion. Problems created by damage to residence halls are also…

  20. Interpersonal Relationships of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Janet E.; Kruzich, Jean M.

    1990-01-01

    Conducted interviews with 332 intellectually intact residents in 54 nursing homes to study their patterns of interpersonal relationships with staff, other residents, and family and friends outside the home. Results indicated importance of having a close friend for residents' participation in activities, life satisfaction, and nursing home…

  1. Frequency and diversity of small cryptic plasmids in the genus Rahnella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summers David K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rahnella is a widely distributed genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and frequently present on vegetables. Although Rahnella has interesting agro-economical and industrial properties and several strains possess antibiotic resistances and toxin genes which might spread within microbial communities, little is known about plasmids of this genus. Thus, we isolated a number of Rahnella strains and investigated their complements of small plasmids. Results In total 53 strains were investigated and 11 plasmids observed. Seven belonged to the ColE1 family; one was ColE2-like and three shared homology to rolling circle plasmids. One of them belonged to the pC194/pUB110 family and two showed similarity to poorly characterised plasmid groups. The G+C content of two rolling circle plasmids deviated considerably from that of Rahnella, indicating that their usual hosts might belong to other genera. Most ColE1-like plasmids formed a subgroup within the ColE1 family that seems to be fairly specific for Rahnella. Intriguingly, the multimer resolution sites of all ColE1-like plasmids had the same orientation with respect to the origin of replication. This arrangement might be necessary to prevent inappropriate synthesis of a small regulatory RNA that regulates cell division. Although the ColE1-like plasmids did not possess any mobilisation system, they shared large parts with high sequence identity in coding and non-coding regions. In addition, highly homologous regions of plasmids isolated from Rahnella and the chromosomes of Erwinia tasmaniensis and Photorhabdus luminescens could be identified. Conclusions For the genus Rahnella we observed plasmid-containing isolates at a frequency of 19%, which is in the average range for Enterobacteriaceae. These plasmids belonged to diffent groups with members of the ColE1-family most frequently found. Regions of striking sequence homology of plasmids and bacterial chromosomes highlight the importance of plasmids for lateral gene transfer (including chromosomal sequences to distinct genera.

  2. Analysis of replication region of the cryptic plasmid pAG20 from Acetobacter aceti 3620.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretová, Miroslava; Szemes, Tomás; Laco, Juraj; Gronesová, Paulína; Grones, Jozef

    2005-03-01

    The DNA sequence of small cryptic plasmid pAG20 in Acetobacter aceti was determined at 3064 bp with 51.6% GC pairs. The plasmid encoded a 186 amino acid protein which is important for plasmid replication in Gram-negative bacteria except Escherichia coli. Two 21 bp large direct repeat sequence 1 and two 13 bp direct repeat sequence 2 were determined in the regulation region upstream from gene encoded Rep protein. Vector pAG24 with kanamycin gene and two deletion derivatives pAG25 and pAG26 without rep gene from plasmid pAG20 were constructed. Plasmid pAG24 was replicated in a broad host range like E. coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. aceti, Comanomonas spp., Serratia marcescens, and Shigella spp. PMID:15670745

  3. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T

    2012-01-01

    To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles.

  4. Sequence comparisons of plasmids pBJS-O of Spiroplasma citri and pSKU146 of S. kunkelii: implications for plasmid evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Jacqueline

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spiroplasma citri BR3-3X and S. kunkelii CR2-3X cause serious diseases worldwide on citrus and maize species, respectively. S. citri BR3-3X harbors a plasmid, pBJS-Original (pBJS-O, that encodes the spiroplasma adhesion related protein 1 (SARP1, a protein implicated in binding of the pathogen to cells of its leafhopper vector, Circulifer tenellus. The S. kunkelii CR2-3X plasmid, pSKU146, encodes a homolog of SARP1, Sk-ARP1. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of the two pathogens, we hypothesized that the two plasmids are closely related as well. Results The nucleotide sequence of pBJS-O was determined and compared to the sequences of a plasmid from BR3-T (pBJS-T, which is a multiply passaged leafhopper transmissible derivative of BR3-3X, and to known plasmid sequences including that of pSKU146. In addition to arp1, the 13,374 bp pBJS-O sequence putatively contains nine genes, recognized as open reading frames (ORFs. Several pBJS-O ORFs have homologs on pSKU146. However, the sequences flanking soj-like genes on both plasmids were found to be more distant from one another than sequences in any other region. Further, unlike pSKU146, pBJS-O lacks the conserved oriT region characteristic of the IncP group of bacterial plasmids. We were unable to identify a region in pBJS-O resembling a known plasmid origin of transfer. In regions where sequence was available for the plasmid from both BR3-3X and BR3-T, the pBJS-T sequence had a 0.4 kb deletion relative to its progenitor, pBJS-O. Southern blot hybridization of extrachromosomal DNA from various S. citri strains and spiroplasma species to an arp-specific probe and a probe made from the entire plasmid DNA of BR3-3X revealed limited conservation of both sequences in the genus Spiroplasma. Finally, we also report the presence on the BR3-3X chromosome of arp2, an S. citri homolog of arp1 that encodes the predicted protein SARP2. The C-terminal domain of SARP2 is homologous to that of SARP1, but its N-terminal domain is distinct. Conclusion Our data suggest that pBJS is a novel S. citri plasmid that does not belong to any known plasmid incompatibility group. The differences between pBJS-O and pSKU146 suggest that one or more events of recombination have contributed to the divergence of the plasmids of the two sister Spiroplasma species; the plasmid from S. citri itself has diverged slightly during the derivation of S. citri BR3-T from BR3-3X. Our data also show that pBJS-O encodes the putative adhesin SARP1. The presence of traE and mob on pBJS-O suggests a role for the plasmid in spiroplasmal conjugation.

  5. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Microlensing in M31 - The MEGA Survey's Prospects and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, A; Gould, A; Gyuk, G; Sackett, P D; Kuijken, K; Sutherland, W; Widrow, L M

    2000-01-01

    January 2000 completes the first season of intensive, wide-field observations of microlensing and stellar variability in M31 by MEGA (Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda) at the Isaac Newton 2.5m Telescope, the KPNO 4m, and the 1.3m and 2.5m telescopes of MDM Observatory. In preliminary analysis, we detect ~50000 variable objects, including some consistent with microlensing events. We present the level of sensitivity to be reached in our planned three-year program to test for the presence of a significant halo microlensing population in M31, as well as its spatial distribution and mass-function. We also discuss our application of image subtraction to these wide fields and HST WFPC2 Snapshot followup observations to confirm candidates identified from previous years' surveys. We present intermediate results from our smaller-field survey, on the MDM 1.3m and Vatican Advanced Technology 1.8m Telescope, from 1994-1998, wherein we have discovered 8 additional probable microlensing events, over abou...

  7. MegaZ-LRG: A photometric redshift catalogue of one million SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Collister, A A; Blake, C; Cannon, R; Croom, S; Drinkwater, M; Edge, A; Eisenstein, D; Loveday, J; Nichol, R; Pimbblet, K; De Propris, R; Roseboom, I; Ross, N; Schneider, D P; Shanks, T; Wake, D; Collister, Adrian; Lahav, Ofer; Blake, Chris; Cannon, Russell; Croom, Scott; Drinkwater, Michael; Edge, Alastair; Eisenstein, Daniel; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert; Pimbblet, Kevin; Propris, Roberto De; Roseboom, Isaac; Ross, Nic; Schneider, Donald P.; Shanks, Tom; Wake, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the construction of MegaZ-LRG, a photometric redshift catalogue of over one million luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.4 < z < 0.7 with limiting magnitude i < 20. The catalogue is selected from the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The 2dF-SDSS LRG and Quasar (2SLAQ) spectroscopic redshift catalogue of 13,000 intermediate-redshift LRGs provides a photometric redshift training set, allowing use of ANNz, a neural network-based photometric-redshift estimator. The rms photometric redshift accuracy obtained for an evaluation set selected from the 2SLAQ sample is sigma_z = 0.049 averaged over all galaxies, and sigma_z = 0.040 for a brighter subsample (i < 19.0). The catalogue is expected to contain ~5 per cent stellar contamination. The ANNz code is used to compute a refined star/galaxy probability based on a range of photometric parameters; this allows the contamination fraction to be reduced to 2 per cent with negligible loss of genuine galaxies...

  8. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  9. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClements, K. G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-07-15

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  10. Flippige Online-PDFs - Webpublikationen mit Umblätter-Effekt durch das MegaZine3-Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Mattern

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Webdokumente werden in letzter Zeit immer häufiger mit einem Umblätter–Effekt präsentiert. Beliebt ist dies vor allem für Onlineversionen von Printmagazinen, Produktkatalogen und die Postwurfflyer von Super- und Baumärkten. Diese Funktion des Umblätterns wird mit diversen Begriffen Flip Book, Pageflip, … bezeichnet – einige davon sind markenrechtlich geschützt – was es echt schwierig macht, sich googelnder Weise einen raschen Überblick zu solchen Tools zu verschaffen. Wer es dennoch schafft, findet schnell heraus, dass diese Funktion eher im professionellen, hochpreisigen Desktop- und Online-Publishing Bereich angesiedelt ist. Für medienpädagogisch motivierte Projektergebnisse gibt’s wenig Optionen[FN1], die die Eigenverantwortung bei der Onlinepublikation und Onlineverbreitung unterstützen. Daher war ich sehr erfreut, als ich mit MegaZine3 (MZ3 ein Tool gefunden hab, dass einerseits als Basisversion für alle NutzerInnen kostenlos ist (nichteinmal registrierungspflichtig, für Schulen und Unis eine kostenlose EDU–Lizenz ermöglicht (unbegrenzte Seitenanzahl bei Registrierung der Schule und es MZ3 auch als deutschsprachige Version gibt, weil die Entwicklungsfirma in München zu hause ist.

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than $\\sim$130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures ($\\sim$160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant K.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Vaselli, O.; Trupti, G.; Singh, B.; Lashin, Aref; Arifi, Nassir Al

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son-Narmada-Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ˜130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (˜160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°-265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  13. Scandinavian links : Mega bridges/tunnels linking the scandinavian peninsula to the european continent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The European Round Table of Industrialists identified in the 1980ies 14 missing links in the transportation network of the continent. Three of them were found around the Danish island of Zealand. One link is within the nation, the other two are between nations. One link connects heavy economic centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks. They concentrate traffic flows and create strong transport corridors. They are the basis of new regional development regimes.“Ferries connect systems, fixed links unite systems”.

  14. Dolicomegarterias ilíacas.: Presentación de un caso. / Iliac mega-dolicho arteries: Presentation of a case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yariana, Martínez Sánchez; Enélida, Matos Abrahantes; Juliana M, Tarajano Márquez; Jacqueline, Ramos Serpa; José Antonio, Rodríguez González.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías del árbol vascular son comunes. Los aneurismas aislados de las arterias ilíacas son de observación bastante rara. Representan un porcentaje escaso de las distintas estadísticas y a menudo se resalta su aislamiento, precisamente para recordar su rareza. Reportamos un caso masculino, de [...] 74 años de edad, que asistió a consulta por presentar síntomas urinarios. Se le realizó un ultrasonido de abdomen, observándose hidronefrosis renal bilateral moderada, además masas complejas una en cada fosa ilíaca. Se le indicó Tomografía Axial Computarizada de abdomen, donde se confirmó la hidronefrosis renal bilateral y aneurismas de ambas arterias ilíacas. Se completó el estudio con un Angiotac, y se demostró que ambas ilíacas estaban tortuosas y dilatadas (DOLICOMEGARTERIAS). Abstract in english Vascular tree anomalies are common. Iliac arteries isolated aneurisms are very unusual. They represent an scarce percent of the different statistics and their isolation is frequently highlighted, precisely to recollect their rareness.We report the case of a male, 74-years-old patient, assisting the [...] consultation with urinary symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound was made, showing moderated bilateral renal hydronephrosis and also complex masses in each iliac fosse. An abdomen computed axial tomography was indicated, confirming the bilateral renal hydronephrosis and aneurisms in both iliac arteries. The study was completed with an Angiotac and it was demonstrated that both iliac arteries were tortuous and dilated ( Mega-dolicho arteries ).

  15. Dolicomegarterias ilíacas.: Presentación de un caso. Iliac mega-dolicho arteries: Presentation of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariana Martínez Sánchez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías del árbol vascular son comunes. Los aneurismas aislados de las arterias ilíacas son de observación bastante rara. Representan un porcentaje escaso de las distintas estadísticas y a menudo se resalta su aislamiento, precisamente para recordar su rareza. Reportamos un caso masculino, de 74 años de edad, que asistió a consulta por presentar síntomas urinarios. Se le realizó un ultrasonido de abdomen, observándose hidronefrosis renal bilateral moderada, además masas complejas una en cada fosa ilíaca. Se le indicó Tomografía Axial Computarizada de abdomen, donde se confirmó la hidronefrosis renal bilateral y aneurismas de ambas arterias ilíacas. Se completó el estudio con un Angiotac, y se demostró que ambas ilíacas estaban tortuosas y dilatadas (DOLICOMEGARTERIAS.Vascular tree anomalies are common. Iliac arteries isolated aneurisms are very unusual. They represent an scarce percent of the different statistics and their isolation is frequently highlighted, precisely to recollect their rareness.We report the case of a male, 74-years-old patient, assisting the consultation with urinary symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound was made, showing moderated bilateral renal hydronephrosis and also complex masses in each iliac fosse. An abdomen computed axial tomography was indicated, confirming the bilateral renal hydronephrosis and aneurisms in both iliac arteries. The study was completed with an Angiotac and it was demonstrated that both iliac arteries were tortuous and dilated ( Mega-dolicho arteries .

  16. Assessment of injury from the MEGA BORG oil spill: A case of cooperative damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tanker MEGA BORG exploded while lightering about 60 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas on 8 June 1990. The explosion was followed by a spectacular fire and major release of Angolan crude. Up to 5.1 million gallons of the 41 million gallon cargo was lost to the sea or burning over a period of seven days. Vessel interests took responsibility for the spill and employed skimming and dispersive cleanup techniques. It is estimated that approximately 126 gallons ultimately reached shore in western Louisiana. Within a day of the explosion, the Norwegian vessel owner, French cargo owner and the Norwegian vessel insurer entered into discussion with the Texas Water Commission and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration regarding damage assessment options. Within the next two days the owners agreed to fund and participate in a cooperative preliminary assessment of environmental injury. Five projects were funded to determine whether there was sufficient injury to justify the completion of a full natural resource damage assessment: (1) Fate of spilled oil; (2) Effects on shrimp fishery; (3) Effects on marine mammals and turtles; (4) Effects of beach oiling and (5) Effects on recreation. Funds were also provided for report preparation and project management. Several issues of major concern were considered by vessel interests prior to agreement. Many of these issues are common to consideration of cooperative assessments and may be critical importance to future incidents particularly if the damage assessment regulations developed pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act encourage cooperative responses

  17. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  18. Liquid Metal Angiography for Mega Contrast X-ray Visualization of Vascular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Pan, Keqin; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the anatomical vessel networks plays a vital role in physiological or pathological investigations. However, identifying the fine structures of the smallest capillary vessels via conventional imaging ways remains a big challenge. Here, the room temperature liquid metal angiography was proposed for the first time to produce mega contrast X-ray images for multi-scale vasculature mapping. Gallium was used as the room temperature liquid metal contrast agent and perfused into the vessels of in vitro pig hearts and kidneys. We scanned the samples under X-ray and compared the angiograms with those obtained via conventional contrast agent--the iohexol. As quantitatively proved by the gray scale histograms, the contrast of the vessels to the surrounding tissues in the liquid metal angiograms is orders higher than that of the iohexol enhanced images. And the resolution of the angiograms has reached 100{\\mu}m, which means the capillaries can be clearly distinguished in the liquid metal enhanced images. With t...

  19. Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temporal, M., E-mail: mauro.temporal@hotmail.com [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Garbett, W. J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ramis, R. [ETSI Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50??m), and target positioning (20??m) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

  20. Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Garbett, W. J.; Ramis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50 ?m), and target positioning (20 ?m) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

  1. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkden, N. R., E-mail: nrw504@york.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Adamek, J.; Komm, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of AS CR, v. v. i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B. D. [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ?1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  2. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ?1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak

  3. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland in 2008. The collars provided GPS-positions with 1-3-hours intervals hence giving detailed information on the spatial distribution of the animals. The detailed information prompt opportunities to introduce statistical models to enhance the understanding of causal effects on the distribution of the caribou in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland.

  4. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Gilcrease, E. B.; Huang, W. M.; Vujadinovic, M.; Aron, J. K.; Vargas, L. C.; Freeman, S.; Radune, D.; Weidman, J. F.; Dimitrov, G. I.; Khouri, H. M.; Sosa, J. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  5. The large universal Pantoea plasmid LPP-1 plays a major role in biological and ecological diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maayer Pieter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pantoea spp. are frequently isolated from a wide range of ecological niches and have various biological roles, as plant epi- or endophytes, biocontrol agents, plant-growth promoters or as pathogens of both plant and animal hosts. This suggests that members of this genus have undergone extensive genotypic diversification. One means by which this occurs among bacteria is through the acquisition and maintenance of plasmids. Here, we have analyzed and compared the sequences of a large plasmid common to all sequenced Pantoea spp. Results and discussion The Large PantoeaPlasmids (LPP-1 of twenty strains encompassing seven different Pantoea species, including pathogens and endo-/epiphytes of a wide range of plant hosts as well as insect-associated strains, were compared. The LPP-1 plasmid sequences range in size from ~281 to 794 kb and carry between 238 and 750 protein coding sequences (CDS. A core set of 46 proteins, encompassing 2.2% of the total pan-plasmid (2,095 CDS, conserved among all LPP-1 plasmid sequences, includes those required for thiamine and pigment biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that these plasmids have arisen from an ancestral plasmid, which has undergone extensive diversification. Analysis of the proteins encoded on LPP-1 also showed that these plasmids contribute to a wide range of Pantoea phenotypes, including the transport and catabolism of various substrates, inorganic ion assimilation, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, colonization and persistence in the host and environment, pathogenesis and antibiosis. Conclusions LPP-1 is universal to all Pantoea spp. whose genomes have been sequenced to date and is derived from an ancestral plasmid. LPP-1 encodes a large array of proteins that have played a major role in the adaptation of the different Pantoea spp. to their various ecological niches and their specialization as pathogens, biocontrol agents or benign saprophytes found in many diverse environments.

  6. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B isolated from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia outbreaks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 purified isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B were used (Salmah, 2004 for plasmid DNA curing experiment to determine hyaluronidase activity, antibiotic resistance pattern (ARP and mice lethality test (LD50 for their role of pathogenicity. A plasmid curing experiment was carried out by using the intercalating agent; ethidium bromide and rifampicin, where it was found all the plasmids had been cured (plasmidless from Pasteurella multocida. All of these plasmidless isolates maintained their phenotypic characteristics. They showed the same antibiotic resistancepattern as before curing, produced hyaluronidase and possessed lethality activity in mice when injected intraperitoneally(i.p. Based on this observation, the antibiotic resistance, hyaluronidase activity and mice virulence could probably be chromosomal-mediated. Plasmids were detected 100% in all P. multocida isolates with identical profile of 2 plasmids size 3.0 and 5.5 kb. No large plasmids could be detected in all isolates. Since all the isolates appeared to have identicalplasmid profiles, they were subjected to restriction enzyme(RE analysis. From RE analysis results obtained, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA in serotype B isolates are identical. Only 4 of 32 REs were found to cleave these plasmids with identical restriction fingerprints; BglII, HaeIII, RsaI and SspI. From RE analysis results, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA isolates are identical. This plasmid might not played any role in pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, however this information is important for the construction of shuttle vectors in genetic studies of the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic septicaemia(HS.

  7. Identification of DNA homologies among H incompatibility group plasmids by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern transfer hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    WHITELEY, M.; Taylor, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids belonging to the three HI plasmid incompatibility subgroups were characterized by the use of restriction enzymes and Southern transfer hybridization. A diversity of restriction enzyme patterns was noted among the HI subgroups, and a small amount of DNA homology was observed by probing these digests with a nick-translated HI1 plasmid. Within a single subgroup (HI1 and HI2), similar restriction enzyme patterns were noted. Plasmids of all three HI subgroups and the HII group had a guani...

  8. Research by residents: obstacles and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Padmanabhan, Jaya

    2015-02-01

    As the psychiatric field continues to evolve in a world with nascent mobile technology (Hilty et al., 2014), novel neuroscience and genetic research, and new payment and care models (Fried et al., 2014) it is likely that the psychiatry residents learn today will not match what they will be practicing tomorrow. Residents have the opportunity to help shape that future through conducting research today. While the prospect of research can initially seem daunting to the busy resident, here we examine, from psychiatry residents' perspective, the common pitfalls and rewards of research during residency. PMID:25591922

  9. Single cell transfection using plasmid decorated AFM probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eukaryotic cells were individually transfected using commercially available atomic force microscope tips decorated with plasmidic DNA encoding for the fluorescent protein EGFP. In a typical transfection attempt, the tip is forcibly incorporated into the cell thus allowing for the transfer of the genetic material through the cell membrane. A sharp discontinuity, corresponding to the passage of the tip through the cell membrane can be easily detected when monitoring the cellular deformation as a function of the applied force. In order for the transfection to be successful, the tip must reversibly penetrates the membrane without causing disturbance or damage to the cell. Transfection success rate (30%), cell survival, and growth are confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy. This technique provides an alternative tool to the transfection toolbox, allowing the transfection of specific individual cells with minimal disturbance

  10. Immediate Appearance of Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics upon Antibiotic Selection: an Argument for Systematic Resistance Epidemiology?

    OpenAIRE

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J; Wiklendt, Agnieszka; Espedido, Björn; Ginn, Andrew; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    We describe a conjugative plasmid appearing in a bacteremic clone of Escherichia coli immediately upon exposure to the antibiotics for which it encoded resistance. Effective antibiotic choice was made possible by prior screening for this plasmid. Surveillance for transmissible resistance plasmids may be clinically important.

  11. Phenotypic expression of mutations in a wide-host-range R plasmid in Escherichia coli and Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooykaas, P J; den Dulk-Ras, H.; Schilperoort, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Eight different derivatives of R plasmid RP1 with thermosensitive mutations affecting maintenance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were introduce into Rhizobium meliloti. None of the plasmids showed a thermosensitive character in R. meliloti. On the other hand, a certain deletion mutation in RP1 was found to cause plasmid instability in rhizobia and agrobacteria, but not in E. coli.

  12. Phylogeny of Replication Initiator Protein TrfA Reveals a Highly Divergent Clade of Incompatibility Group P1 Plasmids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Drake C.; Lee, Min Woo

    2011-01-01

    Incompatibility group P1 (IncP-1) plasmid diversity was evaluated based on replication initiator protein (TrfA) phylogeny. A new and highly divergent clade was identified. Replication assays indicated that TrfA of recently discovered IncP-1 plasmids from Xylella fastidiosa and Verminephrobacter eiseniae initiated plasmid replication using cognate or heterologous origins of replication.

  13. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  14. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  15. Distribution of Plasmids in Distinct Leptospira Pathogenic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhuo; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhu, Yongzhang; He, Ping; Dong, Ke; Pal, Utpal; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2015-11-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups-pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates-based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological significance might contribute to our understanding of biology and infectivity of pathogenic spirochetes. PMID:26555137

  16. Distribution of Plasmids in Distinct Leptospira Pathogenic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhuo; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhu, Yongzhang; He, Ping; Dong, Ke; Pal, Utpal; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups—pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates—based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological significance might contribute to our understanding of biology and infectivity of pathogenic spirochetes. PMID:26555137

  17. Resident Physicians in Turkey: Results of a Survey of 1069 Residents from 11 Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    AYSAN, Erhan; KÖRO?LU, Gürol; TÜRKEL?, Vildan

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the problems, expectations and objectives of resident physicians in Turkey and to provide a contribution to the development and amendment of the residency program. Background: Residency varies considerably in accordance with factors like teaching staff, the institution and government policies. If characteristics, problems, expectations and objectives of resident physicians are stated and known, development and amendment of residency programs will be both easier and faster...

  18. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  19. Evaluation of Intern, Resident and Patient’s KnowledgeOf their Right Charter in Ahvaz Jundishapur University Educational Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Provisions of law and medical ethics is one of the principles of patient satisfaction. The hospitals are inseparable units of social medicine which provide services for all the people in the community. In addition, educational hospitals are centers for education and the students acquire experience their. Obeying the laws of community medicine and patients' right charter are unavoidable to provide high quality services, health care and treatment. As follow-up regulatory bodies scattered in the annual evaluation of health service providers, this study was necessary.Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been done in order to assess patient & interns & resident’s awareness in 2010. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire based on patients' rights provisions. Sampling has been done randomly based on maximum amount of 433 people.Results: Among 433 people, there were 261 visitors, 103 residents, 69 interns, 181 males (% 48.8. The result show that in average %25.5 of visitors and %14.45 of physicians knew nothing about patients right contents, meanwhile %29.8 of visitors and %61.7 of physicians completely knew it.Conclusion: Considering, Ahvaz Jundishapur educational medical university is one of the first rate universities and Ahvaz is one of the developing mega cities; results could be clear lack of good transferring of information or some other reasons which could be suggestible for other studies.

  20. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk being subject to work planning. Summary of work: Inspired by Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of optimal challenges, an intervention study aimed at introducing a more suitable planning of resident’s learning in terms of optimal allocation of educational patient contacts. The objective was to coordinating residents’ individual competences and learning needs with patient characteristics in order to match each resident with a case (an outpatient or a patient) that meets the learning needs of the resident and thus pose an optimal challenge to the resident. Summary of results: The preliminary results show that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: the daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working relationships in order to meet the health system’s and the patients’ call for continuity in the treatment. Take-home message: The matching of resident and case stimulates optimal learning situations, but cultural and organizational values concerning the doctor-patient continuity are challenged.

  1. p39R861-4, A Type 2?A/C2 Plasmid Carrying a Segment from the A/C1 Plasmid RA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantham, Sashindran; Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The largest plasmid in the strain 39R861, which is used as a plasmid size standard, was recovered by conjugation and sequenced to determine its exact size. Plasmid p39R861-4 transferred at high frequency. Although reported to be the A/C1 plasmid RA1, p39R861-4 is a 155794-bp Type 2?A/C2 plasmid, in which a 39-kb segment, derived from RA1 that includes a relative of the RA1 resistance island, replaces 26.5?kb of the Type 2 backbone. p39R861-4 includes a single copy of IS10 and two resistance islands with a CR2-sul2 region in each of them. The 84?kb of backbone between the resistance islands is inverted relative to other known A/C plasmids and this inversion has arisen through recombination between the CR2-sul2 regions that are inversely oriented. The two resistance islands present before this inversion occurred were one related to but longer than that found in RA1, and one that is a form of the ARI-B island and identical to ARI-B in the A/C2 plasmid R55. They contain genes conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetA(D)), sulfonamides (sul2), and florfenicol and chloramphenicol (floR). The tet(D) determinant is flanked by two IS26 in a transposon-like structure named Tntet(D). Both resistance islands contain remnants of the two ends of the integrative element GIsul2, consistent with the sul2 gene being mobilized by GIsul2 rather than by CR2. PMID:26167918

  2. Construction of an artificial recombinant bicistronic plasmid DNA vaccine against porcine rotavirus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tingting, Cui; Jun, Xiong; Yongzhi, Wang; Xintian, Wen; Xiaobo, Huang; Yong, Huang; Xiaoping, Ma; Zhongkai, Hu; Qin, Zhao; Sanjie, Cao.

    Full Text Available The attenuated Salmonella typhimurium ?4550 strain was used to harbour a reconstructed bicistronic DNA vaccine against porcine rotavirus, which carried the rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) and VP7 genes simultaneously. Using a balanced lethal system, the kanamycin resistance gene of expressi [...] ng eukaryotic plasmids pVAX1 and pVAXD were replaced by the aspartate ?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. The NSP4 cleavage product (259-525) of rotavirus OSU strain and VP7 full-length genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then inserted into the eukaryotic single-expression plasmid, pVAX1-asd, and the eukaryotic dual-expression plasmid, pVAXD-asd, respectively. The recombinant plasmids pVAX1-asd-NSP4, pVAX1-asd-VP7 and pVAXD-asd-NSP4-VP7 were transformed into the attenuated S. typhimurium ?4550 strain by electrotransformation. An indirect immunofluorescence assay of the expressed COS-7 cell suggested that the recombinant S. typhimurium ?4550 strain was constructed successfully. The recombinant S. typhimurium ?4550 strain was orally administered to BALB/c mice. The group immunised with dual-expression plasmids produced a significantly higher level of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and intestinal Immunoglobulin A (IgA) than the group immunised with single-expression plasmids. These results indicated that eukaryotic bicistronic plasmid DNA vaccines could be successfully constructed to enhance humoural, mucosal and cellular immune response against rotavirus infection.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmids controlling resistance to ultraviolet irradiation and enhanced mutability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propagation on resistance plasmides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes to antibiotics determining bacterial cell resistance to ultraviolet irradiation and elevated mutability as well as mechanisms of these processes was studied. It is established that 11 out of 35 investigated plasmids of P. aeruginosa of P-2 incompatibility group increase resistance to the ultraviolet irradiation of P. aeruginosa strains of the initial type with uvr- and pol A mutations. Two pBS12 and pBS31 plasmids studied more detailed protect from lethal effect of methylmethanesulfonate for strains both with Uvr+ and Uvr phenotypes. Under the ultraviolet irradiation frequency of revertant appearance to His+ Trp+ increases in the initial type strains (His- Trp-) containing pBS12 and pBS31 plasmids. Sodium arsenite eliminates completely the protective effect to the ultraviolet irradiation determined with the pBS12 and pBS31 plasmids. It is suggested that the pBS12 and pBS31 plasmids contain genes in its composition which funcitioning during the participation of recA+ of dependent arsenite-sensitive way of dark DNA recovery considerably increases the resistance level of P. aeruginosa cells to the ultraviolet irradiation and their mutability. Wide propagation on resistance plasmids of genes increasing bacteria resistance to the ultraviolet irradiation and their mutability is concluded

  4. Characterization of Mobile Staphylococcus equorum Plasmids Isolated from Fermented Seafood That Confer Lincomycin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Won

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of lincomycin-resistance gene (lnuA)-containing plasmids in Staphylococcus equorum strains isolated from the high-salt-fermented seafood jeotgal were determined. These plasmids, designated pSELNU1–3, are 2638-bp long, have two polymorphic sites, and encode typical elements found in plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism including the replication protein gene (rep), a double-stranded origin of replication, a single-stranded origin of replication, and counter-transcribed RNA sequence, as well as lnuA. Plasmid sequences exhibit over 83% identity to other Staphylococcus plasmids that harbor rep and lnuA genes. Further, three pairs of identified direct repeats may be involved in inter-plasmid recombination. One plasmid, pSELNU1, was successfully transferred to other Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus in vitro. Antibiotic susceptibility of the transconjugants was host-dependent, and transconjugants maintained a lincomycin resistance phenotype in the absence of selective pressure over 60 generations. PMID:26448648

  5. Analysis of a Pool of Small Plasmids from Soil Heterotrophic Cultivable Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Bevivino, Annamaria; Dalmastri, Claudia; Fani, Renato

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the plasmid presence on soil aerobic cultivable heterotrophic bacterial communities was carried out checking a panel of 1,200 isolates, in order to establish the frequency of plasmid presence as well as the degree of plasmid flow between strains affiliated to the same or different taxon. Bacterial communities were isolated from two different sites of a 13-year experimental field with a clay-silt texture. Plasmid molecules were detected at low frequency (27 isolates, 2%) with a size ranging between 2 Kb and 40 Kb. The RAPD analysis performed on the plasmid-harboring isolates and the phylogenetic analysis of the whole community using the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the existence of transfer of the same plasmids between strains belonging to the same species and, in some cases, to different species of the same genus. As it might be expected, even though the viable cells title did not differ significantly between the two samplings, the overall data disclosed an uneven distribution of both species and plasmid-harboring strains. PMID:26464609

  6. TOL plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation in vitro and rhizoremediation of oil compounds in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, Minna M. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: minna.m.jussila@helsinki.fi; Zhao, Ji [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Suominen, Leena [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Lindstroem, Kristina [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids. - Horizontal transfer of degradation plasmids in the oil-contaminated rhizosphere reveals the dynamic nature of the intrinsic biodegradation potential.

  7. TOL plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation in vitro and rhizoremediation of oil compounds in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids. - Horizontal transfer of degradation plasmids in the oil-contaminated rhizosphere reveals the dynamic nature of the intrinsic biodegradation potential

  8. Demonstration of Cotranscription and 1-Methyl-3-Nitroso-Nitroguanidine Induction of a 30-Gene Operon of Borrelia burgdorferi: Evidence that the 32-Kilobase Circular Plasmids Are Prophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongming; Marconi, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The Borrelia genome is comprised of linear and circular elements, including a group of 32-kb circular plasmids (cp32s). Earlier analyses identified a bacteriophage, ?BB-1, that may package cp32s, suggesting that these plasmids are prophages. cp32-8, cp32-9, and cp32-1 (plasmids L, N, and P, respectively) encode virulence factors such as the factor H binding, OspE proteins (BBL39, BBN38, and BBP38). Here the expression patterns of cp32-8 open reading frames (ORFs) in in vitro-cultivated 1-methyl-3-nitroso-nitroguanidine (MNNG)-treated and untreated spirochetes and during infection were assessed. ORFs BBL42 through BBL28, which encode several bacteriophage protein homologs, were found to be cotranscribed and expression was upregulated by MNNG. Immunoblotting revealed that MNNG-induced transcription led to increased protein production. The expression of several genes that reside outside of the BBL42-BBL28 operon was not affected by MNNG. Some of these genes, including OspE (BBL39), appear to represent morons. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR of spirochetes in mouse tissue revealed that although the phage operon was not induced during infection, transcription of BBL23 (previously designated BlyA), a putative holin, was upregulated. This observation indicates that some genes within the operon can be independently transcribed from internal promoters. Additional transcriptional analyses of the operon identified multiple transcriptional start sites and provided evidence for the expression of a homologous operon from other cp32s. The data support the hypothesis put forth by C. Eggers and D. S. Samuels (J. Bacteriol. 181:7308-7313, 1999) that the cp32s are prophages, a finding with broad implications for our understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and Borrelia genome evolution. PMID:16291672

  9. Unique needs of women pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M W

    1982-12-01

    The needs of women residents in hospital pharmacy programs are discussed with respect to the responsibilities of preceptors to help residents prepare for a successful career. Women were a small minority within the profession of pharmacy until recently. More than half of the current hospital pharmacy residents are women, while over 95% of the preceptors of residency training programs are men. Hospital pharmacy preceptors can help meet the unique needs of women residents, so that women pharmacists can achieve the career successes of which they are capable. Preceptors can help women residents make career decisions and develop career goals and strategies. Preceptors should ensure that women residents develop the broad base of knowledge and skills necessary for advancement. Women residents should be encouraged to get involved in pharmacy organizations, and the importance of networking should be stressed. It is important that women residents develop a business style so that they are perceived as confident and competent. Preceptors must recognize that most women will have conflicts in their roles of career woman, wife, and mother. Preceptors can also help women residents by making managerial changes (e.g., offering part-time positions and flexible scheduling) that will facilitate integration of the professional and personal responsibilities of women. PMID:7180857

  10. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  11. Host range of enterococcal vanA plasmids among Gram-positive intestinal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Guido; Freitas, Ana R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The most prevalent type of acquired glycopeptide resistance is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546 located mainly on transferable plasmids in Enterococcus faecium. The limited occurrence in other species could be due to the lack of inter-species transferability and/or stability of Tn1546-containing plasmids in other species. We investigated the in vitro transferability of 14 pre-characterized vanA-containing plasmids hosted by E. faecium (n = 9), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 4) and Enterococcus raffinosus (n = 1) into several enterococcal, lactobacterial, lactococcal and bifidobacterial recipients. METHODS: A filter-mating protocol was harmonized using procedures of seven partner laboratories. Donor strains were mated with three E. faecium recipients, three E. faecalis recipients, a Lactobacillus acidophilus recipient, a Lactococcus lactis recipient and two Bifidobacterium recipients. Transfer rates were calculated per donor and recipient. Transconjugants were confirmed by determining their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Stability of plasmids in the new host was assessed in long-term growth experiments. RESULTS: In total, 282 enterococcal matings and 73 inter-genus matings were performed and evaluated. In summary, intra-species transfer was far more frequent than inter-species transfer, if that was detectable at all. All recipients of the same species behaved similarly. Inter-genus transfer was shown for broad host range control plasmids (pIP501/pAM?1) only. Acquired resistance plasmids remained stable in the new host. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-species transfer of enterococcal vanA plasmids was far more frequent than transfer across species or genus barriers and may thus explain the preferred prevalence of vanA-containing plasmids among E. faecium. A reservoir of vanA plasmids in non-enterococcal intestinal colonizers does not seem to be reasonable.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance-Conferring Plasmids with Similarity to Virulence Plasmids from Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Isolates from Poultry? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W. Florian; McDermott, Patrick F.; Mammel, Mark K.; Zhao, Shaohua; Johnson, Timothy J.; Rasko, David A.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Pedroso, Adriana; Whichard, Jean M.; LeClerc, J. Eugene; White, David G.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica, a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, may be found in any raw food of animal, vegetable, or fruit origin. Salmonella serovars differ in distribution, virulence, and host specificity. Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky, though often found in the food supply, is less commonly isolated from ill humans. The multidrug-resistant isolate S. Kentucky CVM29188, isolated from a chicken breast sample in 2003, contains three plasmids (146,811 bp, 101,461 bp, and 46,121 bp), two of which carry resistance determinants (pCVM29188_146 [strAB and tetRA] and pCVM29188_101 [blaCMY-2 and sugE]). Both resistance plasmids were transferable by conjugation, alone or in combination, to S. Kentucky, Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, and Escherichia coli recipients. pCVM29188_146 shares a highly conserved plasmid backbone of 106 kb (>90% nucleotide identity) with two virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (pAPEC-O1-ColBM and pAPEC-O2-ColV). Shared avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) virulence factors include iutA iucABCD, sitABCD, etsABC, iss, and iroBCDEN. PCR analyses of recent (1997 to 2005) S. Kentucky isolates from food animal, retail meat, and human sources revealed that 172 (60%) contained similar APEC-like plasmid backbones. Notably, though rare in human- and cattle-derived isolates, this plasmid backbone was found at a high frequency (50 to 100%) among S. Kentucky isolates from chickens within the same time span. Ninety-four percent of the APEC-positive isolates showed resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Together, our findings of a resistance-conferring APEC virulence plasmid in a poultry-derived S. Kentucky isolate and of similar resistance/virulence plasmids in most recent S. Kentucky isolates from chickens and, to lesser degree, from humans and cattle highlight the need for additional research in order to examine the prevalence and spread of combined virulence and resistance plasmids in bacteria in agricultural, environmental, and clinical settings. PMID:19648374

  13. Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer ROTHFUß

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The hypothesis suggests that instruments for direct democratic decision making can open up new pathways to support the break-through of the citizens’ will. The paper analyses an interesting case study where two referenda around the same issue closely followed each other: Firstly, a top-down initiated referendum with a tendentious formulation of the question and with strong single-sided media support and, secondly, a referendum initiated by a citizens’ petition. Even though the citizens’ initiative managed to win the referendum, invalidating the previous decisions, a new challenge lies in the lacking motivation of political leaders to implement it. Finally, the case study helps to formulate some proposals for improvement of direct democratic instruments. The main lesson that can be learned from the case study, however, is that our societies are in desperate need for a new “culture of governance in partnership” with the people, the stakeholders and the affected neighbouring societies. Political decision making and planning needs more transparent, fair and honest communication, exchange and mutual respect and learning. Such culture would make societies more liveable and, at the same time, resilient against any sort of crisis.

  14. Increased precipitation drives mega slump development and destabilization of ice-rich permafrost terrain, northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokelj, S. V.; Tunnicliffe, J.; Lacelle, D.; Lantz, T. C.; Chin, K. S.; Fraser, R.

    2015-06-01

    It is anticipated that an increase in rainfall will have significant impacts on the geomorphology of permafrost landscapes. Field observations, remote sensing and historical climate data were used to investigate the drivers, processes and feedbacks that perpetuate the growth of large retrogressive thaw slumps. These "mega slumps" (5-40 ha) are now common in formerly glaciated, fluvially incised, ice-cored terrain of the Peel Plateau, NW Canada. Individual thaw slumps can persist for decades and their enlargement due to ground ice thaw can displace up to 106 m3 of materials from slopes to valley bottoms reconfiguring slope morphology and drainage networks. Analysis of Landsat images (1985-2011) indicate that the number and size of active slumps and debris tongue deposits has increased significantly with the recent intensification of rainfall. The analyses of high resolution climatic and photographic time-series for summers 2010 and 2012 shows strong linkages amongst temperature, precipitation and the downslope sediment flux from active slumps. Ground ice thaw supplies meltwater and sediments to the slump scar zone and drives diurnal pulses of surficial flow. Coherence in the timing of down valley debris tongue deposition and fine-scaled observations of sediment flux indicate that heavy rainfall stimulates major mass flow events. Evacuation of sediments from the slump scar zone can help to maintain a headwall of exposed ground ice, perpetuating slump growth and leading to larger disturbances. The development of debris tongue deposits divert streams and increase thermoerosion to initiate adjacent slumps. We conclude that higher rainfall can intensify thaw slump activity and rapidly alter the slope-sediment cascade in regions of ice-cored glaciogenic deposits.

  15. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 ?g/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 ?g/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  16. Efficient plasmid mobilization by pIP501 in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Langella, P.; Le Loir, Y; Ehrlich, S D; Gruss, A

    1993-01-01

    pIP501 is a streptococcal conjugative plasmid which can be transmitted among numerous gram-positive strains. To identify a minimal mobilization (mob) locus of pIP501, DNA fragments of pIP501 were cloned into nonconjugative target plasmids and tested for mobilization by pIP501. We show that nonmobilizable plasmids containing a specific fragment of pIP501 are transmitted at high frequencies between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains if transfer (tra) functions are provided in trans by a p...

  17. Additional role for the ccd operon of F-plasmid as a transmissible persistence factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Arti; Dewan, Pooja C.; Barua, Bipasha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found on both bacterial plasmids and chromosomes, but in most cases their functional role is unclear. Gene knockouts often yield limited insights into functions of individual TA systems because of their redundancy. The well-characterized F-plasmid–based CcdAB TA system is important for F-plasmid maintenance. We have isolated several point mutants of the toxin CcdB that fail to bind to its cellular target, DNA gyrase, but retain binding to the antitoxin, CcdA. ...

  18. Hairpin plasmid--a novel linear DNA of perfect hairpin structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Y.; Hirai, K; Gunge, N; Hishinuma, F.

    1985-01-01

    The terminal structures of deletion derivatives of linear DNA killer plasmid from yeast were analyzed. The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis harbors two unique double-stranded linear DNA killer plasmids, pGKL1 of 8.9 kb and pGKL2 of 13.4 kb. The killer toxin and the resistance to the killer are coded by pGKL1, while pGKL2 is required for the maintenance of pGKL1 in the cell. When the pGKL plasmids from K. lactis were transferred into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transformation, non-killer transforman...

  19. A palindromic mutation of the linear killer plasmid k2 of yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Wésolowski-Louvel, M; Fukuhara, H

    1990-01-01

    Production of the killer toxin in Kluyveromyces lactis is dependent on the presence of two linear DNA plasmids, k1 and k2. We isolated a non-killer mutant, VM5, with a modified plasmid composition. It had lost k1, but conserved k2, and acquired, in addition, three new DNA species. The new species were found to be rearranged derivatives of the k2 plasmid. One of them, pVM5-1, was made of the left terminal 4720 bp sequence of k2, including the inverted terminal repeat, and was organized as a la...

  20. Surface presentation of Shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigens requires the products of the spa locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, M M; Buysse, J. M.; Oaks, E V

    1992-01-01

    An avirulent, invasion plasmid insertion mutant of Shigella flexneri 5 (pHS1059) was restored to the virulence phenotype by transformation with a partial HindIII library of the wild-type invasion plasmid constructed in pBR322. Western immunoblot analysis of pHS1059 whole-cell lysates revealed that the synthesis of the invasion plasmid antigens VirG, IpaA, IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD was similar to that seen in the corresponding isogenic S. flexneri 5 virulent strain, M90T. IpaB and IpaC, however, we...

  1. Plasmid Transfer into the Homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii by Electroporation and Conjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Strätz, Michael; Sauer, Uwe; Kuhn, Anita; Dürre, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Shuttle vectors (pMS3 and pMS4) which replicated in Escherichia coli and in gram-positive Acetobacterium woodii were constructed by ligating the replication origin of plasmid pAM?1 with the E. coli cloning vector pUC19 and the tetM gene of streptococcal transposon Tn916. Electrotransformation of A. woodii was achieved at frequencies of 4.5 × 103 transformants per ?g of plasmid DNA. For conjugal plasmid transfer, the mobilizable shuttle vector pKV12 was constructed by cloning the tetM gene int...

  2. Diversity and stability of plasmids from glycopeptide resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, H.; Villadsen, A. G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the plasmid variation between a subset of unrelated GRE isolated from pigs in Denmark between 1995 and 2001 (five from each of the years). The isolates were tested with PFGE, plasmid RFLP, and subsequently Southern blotting with an IS1216V probe. Of the 35 isolates, 31 belonged to the same PFGE type (type 1), and the last four belonged to a completely different PFGE type (type II). All 35 isolates contained the same type of large plasmid (approximate size of 150-200 kb)...

  3. A Conjugative 38 kB Plasmid Is Present in Multiple Subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Stenger, Drake C.

    2012-01-01

    A ?38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5) was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51) sequences of X. fastidiosa subs...

  4. Structural basis of cooperative DNA recognition by the plasmid conjugation factor, TraM

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Joyce J W; Lu, Jun; Edwards, Ross A; Frost, Laura S.; Glover, J.N. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids such as F, R1, R100 and pED208, between bacterial cells requires TraM, a plasmid-encoded DNA-binding protein. TraM tetramers bridge the origin of transfer (oriT) to a key component of the conjugative pore, the coupling protein TraD. Here we show that TraM recognizes a high-affinity DNA-binding site, sbmA, as a cooperative dimer of tetramers. The crystal structure of the TraM–sbmA complex from the plasmid pED208 shows that binding cooperativity is me...

  5. Oscillating focus of SopA associated with filamentous structure guides partitioning of F plasmid

    OpenAIRE

    HATANO, TOSHIYUKI; Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Niki, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    The F plasmid is actively partitioned to daughter cells by the sopABC gene. To elucidate the partitioning mechanisms, we simultaneously analysed movements of the plasmid and the SopA ATPase in single living cells. SopA, which is a putative motor protein assembled densely near nucleoid borders and formed a single discrete focus associated with less dense filamentous distribution along the long axis of the cell. The dense SopA focus oscillates between cell poles. The direction of the plasmid mo...

  6. Highly mobile DNA segment of IncI alpha plasmid R64: a clustered inversion region.

    OpenAIRE

    Komano, T; Kubo, A.; Kayanuma, T; Furuichi, T; Nisioka, T

    1986-01-01

    When R64 DNA was digested with EcoRI, two DNA fragments not equimolar to the plasmid DNA were produced. A DNA region including these fragments was cloned (pKK009), and the pKK009 DNA sample was found to be a mixture of six or more DNA species with EcoRI, PstI, and AvaI cleavage sites at different positions, suggesting a complex rearrangement of DNA. When a part of the pKK009 DNA was removed by HindIII digestion, 33 different types of plasmids (pKK010-series plasmids) were obtained out of 58 c...

  7. STABILITY OF PLASMIDS IN 5 STRAINS OF SALMONELLA MAINTAINED IN STAB CULTURE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Bisgaard, M.

    1994-01-01

    Four strains of Salmonella berta and one of Salm. enteritidis were stored as stab cultures in sugar-free agar at 5 degrees, 22 degrees and 30 degrees C and in 15% glycerol at -80 degrees C. The stability of the plasmid profiles in each of the strains was monitored over a period of 2.5 years. Plasmid profiles were stable in all strains stored at -80 degrees C, and only six of 450 colonies examined from strains kept in sugar-free agar at 5 degrees C had lost plasmid molecules. Seventy of 440 colon...

  8. Exclusion of T4 phage by the hok/sok killer locus from plasmid R1.

    OpenAIRE

    Pecota, D C; Wood, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    The hok (host killing) and sok (suppressor of killing) genes (hok/sok) efficiently maintain the low-copy-number plasmid R1. To investigate whether the hok/sok locus evolved as a phage-exclusion mechanism, Escherichia coli cells that contain hok/sok on a pBR322-based plasmid were challenged with T1, T4, T5, T7, and lambda phage. Upon infection with T4, the optical density of cells containing hok/sok on a high-copy-number plasmid continued to increase whereas the optical density for those lacki...

  9. Multicopy Tn10 tet plasmids confer sensitivity to induction of tet gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Moyed, H S; Nguyen, T.T.; Bertrand, K P

    1983-01-01

    We inserted the Tn10 tetracycline resistance determinant (tet) into the multicopy plasmid pACYC177, and we examined the phenotype of Escherichia coli K-12 strains harboring these plasmids. In agreement with others, we find that Tn10 tet exhibits a negative gene dosage effect. Strains carrying multicopy Tn10 tet plasmids are 4- to 12-fold less resistant to tetracycline than are strains with a single copy of Tn10 in the bacterial chromosome. In addition, we find that multicopy tet strains are 3...

  10. Characterization of the Partitioning System of Myxococcus Plasmid pMF1

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xia; Chen, Xiao-jing; Feng, Jing; Zhao, Jing-yi; Li, Yue-zhong

    2011-01-01

    pMF1 is the only autonomously replicating plasmid that has been recently identified in myxobacteria. This study characterized the partitioning (par) system of this plasmid. The fragment that significantly increased the retaining stability of plasmids in Myxococcus cells in the absence of selective antibiotics contained three open reading frames (ORFs) pMF1.21-pMF1.23 (parCAB). The pMF1.22 ORF (parA) is homologous to members of the parA ATPase family, with the highest similarity (56%) to the S...

  11. Identification of citrate utilization transposon Tn3411 from a naturally occurring citrate utilization plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiguro, N.; Sato, G.; Sasakawa, C; Danbara, H; Yoshikawa, M.

    1982-01-01

    We have isolated a new transposon, Tn3411, encoding citrate-utilizing ability, from a naturally occurring citrate utilization (Cit) plasmid, pOH3001. Citrate transposon Tn3411 was transposed from pOH3001 to lambda b519 b515 cI857 S7 (abbreviated lambda bb) phage, and further from the resulting lambda bb:Tn3411 to a vector plasmid, pBR322, in recA-deficient strains. The Cit+ plasmids (pOH2 and pOH3) constructed by the integration of Tn3411 into pBR322 were examined by restriction endonuclease ...

  12. Second generation sequencing for elucidating the diversity of bacteria and plasmids in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Peter Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Soil is considered to one of the most diverse microbial environments on Earth and the study of this diversity has in recent years been revolutionized by amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The focus of this thesis is the use of amplicon pyrosequencing to study not only bacterial diversity but also plasmids diversity in soil. The plasmid group in focus are the broad host range IncP-1 plasmids that were studied by amplicon pyroseqeuncing of the trfA gene encoding the replication initiati...

  13. Identification and mobilization by cointegrate formation of a nodulation plasmid in Rhizobium trifolii.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, D. B.; Ronson, C W

    1982-01-01

    A nodulation plasmid, pRtr-514a, of molecular size 180 megadaltons (Mdal) was identified in Rhizobium trifolii strain NZP514. This plasmid was absent in both spontaneous and heat-cured Nod- derivatives of NZP514, and these strains were unable to induce root hair curling. The ability to nodulate clover was transferred from the wild-type strain to a Nod- derivatives, PN104, with the broad-host-range plasmid R68.45 (39 megadaltons) at a cotransfer frequency of about 4 X 10(-3). Most of the Nod+ ...

  14. Specific structural probing of plasmid-coded ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, C; Rosendahl, G; Dam, M; Powers, T; Douthwaite, S

    1991-01-01

    The preferred method for construction and in vivo expression of mutagenised Escherichia coli ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) is via high copy number plasmids. Transcription of wild-type rRNA from the seven chromosomal rrn operons in strains harbouring plasmid-coded mutant rRNAs leads to a heterogeneous ribosome population, which consequently hinders direct probing of mutant rRNAs. Here, we describe how nonconserved helical regions of plasmid-coded rRNA have been altered in a manner that preserves their s...

  15. Antibiotic resistance and plasmids carriage among Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and thirty-one Escherichia coli isolates from raw chicken meat were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to twelve antibiotics, namely ampicillin 10?g, cefoparazone 30?g, cephradine 30?g, ciprofloxacin 5?g, chloramphenicol 30?g, enrofloxacin 5?g, erythromycin 15?g, kanamycin 30?g, nalidixic acid 30?g, tetracycline 30?g, trimethoprim 5?g, and vancomycin 30?g. The plasmid isolation was carried out according to the method described by Maniatis et al, with modifications as in the protocol provided by Taq Dye Deoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (ABI P/ N 401150). The newly modified method is a mini alkaline-lysis / PGE precipitation procedure and easy to perform on large numbers of samples. The graphical method of relating the logarithm of the molecular weight of a DNA molecule (log C) to its electrophoretic mobility (m) in gels was used to determine the molecular weight of plasmid. Plasmids of known molecular weight from E. coli V517 were used as standards for calibrating the size of plasmid DNA molecules. In this study DNA fragments are referred to as plasmids. In all Escherichia coli isolates resistance to ampicillin (96.2%), cefoperazone (83.3%), cephradine (93.9%), ciprofloxacin (78.0%), chloramphenical (75.6%), enrofloxacin (72.0%), erythromycin (84.0%), kanamycin (50.8%), nalidixic acid (94.7%), tetracycline (90.2%), trimethoprim (94.7%) and vancomycin (100%) was observed (Table I). Plasmid occurrence rates of 81.7% were observed among E. coli isolates from the chicken meat. The number of plasmids ranged from 0 to 8 and the sizes of plasmids ranged from 1.2 MDa to 118.6 MDa. Plasmids were detected in 93.8% of E. coli isolates that were resistant to all 12 antibiotics and in 90.5% of E. coli isolates resistant to 11 antibodies (Table II). Three (2.8%) E. coli isolates harboured 8 plasmids and showed resistant to 12 antibiotics (Table III). The antibiotic resistance among the E. coli isolates in this study was compared and it was found a higher percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin (96.9%), cephradine (94.7%) and trimethoprim (96.3%) had plasmids. It is known that antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria are usually carried in extrachromosomal DNA and therefore it may be concluded that when E. coli contained a high number of plasmids, it possessed a higher resistance to antibiotics

  16. High-frequency elimination of SP02 prophage from Bacillus subtilis by plasmid transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, R; Chiafari, F A; Lovett, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    Transformation of competent Bacillus subtilis lysogenic for SP02 with any of three plasmids (pCM194, pUB110, pAM77) generates drug-resistant transformants of which 5 to 20% have lost the infectivity and immunity associated with the SP02 prophage. Such cured derivatives can be again lysogenized with SP02 and again cured by introduction of a different plasmid. Elimination of the SP02 prophage was not detected when plasmids were introduced by PBS1 transduction or by transformation of protoplasts...

  17. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Kolade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Methods: Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Results: Thirteen junior (first- or second-year resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8, were committed to the team (6.8, resolved conflict (6.7, ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7, participated actively (7.0, and managed resources (6.6. Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4 than with being chief resident (5.8. Conclusion: The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  18. Plasmid patterns of efficient and inefficient strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RBS, Fagundes; EAT, Picoli; UGP, Lana; FH, Valicente.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis harbors genes encoding Cry proteins found in chromosomes or plasmids of different sizes (4-150 Mb). Although the smaller plasmids are more abundant in B. thuringiensis, their specific function is unknown. As for the megaplasmids, their main recognized function is to harbor cry [...] genes, although the sequencing of some of these plasmids indicates the occurrence of other important genes. This work used a new protocol for practical and rapid extraction of plasmid DNA in order to characterize the plasmid patterns of Brazilian strains belonging to Embrapa Milho e Sorgo research center B. thuringiensis bank. We tried to further assess the relationship of plasmid patterns with strains belonging to the same serovars and strains causing 100% and no mortality to Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae. It was possible to characterize 59 strains based on the migration of bands in agarose gel. Strains belonging to the same serovars showed different plasmid sizes (from 1,636 bp to 23,200 bp), with the exception of two strains belonging to serovar galleriae. The strain T09 Bt tolworthi showed a plasmid migration pattern identical to strains belonging to serovar galleriae. Plasmid patterns differed for 46 strains, confirming that this is a useful tool to discriminate specific strains. However, it was not possible to associate the plasmid pattern or the occurrence of particular plasmids with the pathogenicity of a given species towards S. frugiperda larvae.

  19. Linear and Circular Plasmids in Skin and Cerebrospinal Fluid Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Agent of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of the lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from skin and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with erythema migraines and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were examined for presence of linear and circular plasmids. By using two dimensional gel electrophoreses several linear and circular plasmid were identified, each strains contains 5 to 11 plasmid mostly linear, varying in size between 3 to 60 kb pairs, none of the strains has similar plasmid profile. Comparing plasmid profile of Danish isolates with plasmid profile of B. borgdurferi from different geographical area revealed similarity to Swedish isolates. After 42 passage of DK1 strain in BSK-II medium it has lost one 5.5 kb linear plasmid. PCR amplification of total plasmid from seven DK strains with primers designed from conserved region of OspA gene produced fragment with 822 bp similar to size of the primers span in published sequence. Cloning and sequencing of OspA gene from DK1 and DK6 strains has shown similarity between 75 to 95% to different B. burgdorferi. Electron Microscopy analysis of 25 kb plasmid revealed that this plasmid indeed has linear structure. DNA sequence of some fragments of 25 kb linear plasmid has shown similar sequence to eukaryotic viruses specially Vaccinia and Varriola.

  20. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement ...