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Sample records for mega plasmid resident

  1. Sequence-based analysis of pQBR103; a representative of a unique, transfer-proficient mega plasmid resident in the microbial community of sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Adrian; Spiers, Andrew J; Crossman, Lisa C; Ager, Duane; Ciric, Lena; Dow, J Maxwell; Fry, John C; Harris, David; Lilley, Andrew; Oliver, Anna; Parkhill, Julian; Quail, Michael A; Rainey, Paul B; Saunders, Nigel J; Seeger, Kathy; Snyder, Lori AS; Squares, Rob; Thomas, Christopher M; Turner, Sarah L; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Field, Dawn; Bailey, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The plasmid pQBR103 was found within Pseudomonas populations colonizing the leaf and root surfaces of sugar beet plants growing at Wytham, Oxfordshire, UK. At 425 kb it is the largest self-transmissible plasmid yet sequenced from the phytosphere. It is known to enhance the competitive fitness of its host, and parts of the plasmid are known to be actively transcribed in the plant environment. Analysis of the complete sequence of this plasmid predicts a coding sequence (CDS)-rich genome containing 478 CDSs and an exceptional degree of genetic novelty; 80% of predicted coding sequences cannot be ascribed a function and 60% are orphans. Of those to which function could be assigned, 40% bore greatest similarity to sequences from Pseudomonas spp, and the majority of the remainder showed similarity to other c-proteobacterial genera and plasmids. pQBR103 has identifiable regions presumed responsible for replication and partitioning, but despite being tra+ lacks the full complement of any previously described conjugal transfer functions. The DNA sequence provided few insights into the functional significance of plant-induced transcriptional regions, but suggests that 14% of CDSs may be expressed (11 CDSs with functional annotation and 54 without), further highlighting the ecological importance of these novel CDSs. Comparative analysis indicates that pQBR103 shares significant regions of sequence with other plasmids isolated from sugar beet plants grown at the same geographic location. These plasmid sequences indicate there is more novelty in the mobile DNA pool accessible to phytosphere pseudomonas than is currently appreciated or understood. PMID:18043644

  2. Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Martin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, but its exact genetic organization and biochemical synthesis is unknown. Results The complete sequence of the cereulide synthetase (ces gene cluster, which encodes the enzymatic machinery required for the biosynthesis of cereulide, was dissected. The 24 kb ces gene cluster comprises 7 CDSs and includes, besides the typical NRPS genes like a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and two CDSs encoding enzyme modules for the activation and incorporation of monomers in the growing peptide chain, a CDS encoding a putative hydrolase in the upstream region and an ABC transporter in the downstream part. The enzyme modules responsible for incorporation of the hydroxyl acids showed an unusual structure while the modules responsible for the activation of the amino acids Ala and Val showed the typical domain organization of NRPS. The ces gene locus is flanked by genetic regions with high homology to virulence plasmids of B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids. Conclusion The ces gene cluster that is located on a pXO1-like virulence plasmid represents, beside the insecticidal and the anthrax toxins, a third type of B. cereus group toxins encoded on megaplasmids. The ces genes are restricted to emetic toxin producers, but pXO1-like plasmids are also present in emetic-like strains. These data might indicate the presence of an ancient plasmid in B. cereus which has acquired different virulence genes over time. Due to the unusual structure of the hydroxyl acid incorporating enzyme modules of Ces, substantial biochemical efforts will be required to dissect the complete biochemical pathway of cereulide synthesis.

  3. Conduction of pEC22, a plasmid coding for MR.EcoT22I, mediated by a resident Tn3-like transposon, Tn5396.

    OpenAIRE

    Elhai, J; Cai, Y.(SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 94025, Menlo Park, California, USA); Wolk, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    pEC22 is a small plasmid that encodes the restriction-modification system MR.EcoT22I. Restriction and functional analysis of the plasmid identified the positions of genes encoding that system. The plasmid is able to be conducted by conjugal plasmids, a process mediated by a transposon contained within pEC22. This cryptic transposon, called Tn5396, was isolated from pEC22 and partially sequenced. The sequence of Tn5396 is for the most part typical of transposons of the Tn3 family and is most s...

  4. The mega-event syndrome: why so much goes wrong in mega-event planning and what to do about It

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Problem, research strategy, and findings: Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup have become complex and transformative under- takings over the last 30 years, with costs often exceeding USD $10 billion. These events are currently planned and governed in ways that produce adverse effects for cities, regions, and residents. This study identifies a mega-event syndrome, a group of symptoms that occur together and afflict mega-event planning, including overpromising benef...

  5. Structure of Haloacetate-Catabolic IncP-1? Plasmid pUO1 and Genetic Mobility of Its Residing Haloacetate-Catabolic Transposon

    OpenAIRE

    Sota, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Haruhiko; Tsuda, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    The self-transmissible plasmid pUO1 from Delftia acidovorans strain B carries two haloacetate-catabolic transposons, TnHad1 and TnHad2, and the mer genes for resistance to mercury. The complete 67,066-bp sequence of pUO1 revealed that the mer genes were also carried by two Tn402/Tn5053-like transposons, Tn4671 and Tn4672, and that the pUO1 backbone regions shared 99% identity to those of the archetype IncP-1? plasmid R751. Comparison of pUO1 with three other IncP-1? plasmids illustrated the i...

  6. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  7. Spiroplasma plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razin, S; Nur, I; Glaser, G

    1987-06-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA, constituting plasmids or replicative forms of viruses, has been detected in a variety of spiroplasmas, particularly in Spiroplasma citri. Only a few of the S. citri plasmids were characterized by restriction enzyme mapping, and essentially nothing is known on functions encoded by the plasmids. Our studies revealed in S. citri (R8A2) an 8.0-kbp plasmid that differed from previously described plasmids in its restriction map. It was also clonable in pBR322. The plasmid, named pRA1, was found in large quantities as free plasmid in S. citri (R8A2) subclones of low passage level. In subclones of higher passage levels, free plasmid was replaced by plasmid sequences integrated into the spiroplasma chromosome, as revealed by Southern hybridization blots of digested spiroplasmal DNA with nick-translated pRA1 or its recombinant as probes. Significant quantities of integrated plasmid sequences were also observed in S. kunkelii and in Spiroplasma sp. P40. Small quantities of free and/or integrated plasmid DNA were detected in some spiroplasmas serologically and genotypically remote from S. citri. Chromosome-integrated pRA1 sequences were cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmids pUC13 and M13. Hybridization tests and restriction maps of these clones indicated that the integrated plasmid sequences consisted of small repetitive sequences inserted into specific sites on the spiroplasma chromosome. Despite the large number of the inserts they do not appear to affect significantly gene expression in the spiroplasma. Due to the abundance of free and integrated pRA1 in S. citri, nick-translated pRA1 was effective as a DNA probe in detecting small numbers of S. citri in infected periwinkle plants and leafhoppers. PMID:3312107

  8. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids are currently an indispensable molecular tool in life science research and a central asset for the modern biotechnology industry, supporting its mission to produce pharmaceutical proteins, antibodies, vaccines, industrial enzymes, and molecular diagnostics, to name a few key products. Furthermore, plasmids have gradually stepped up in the past 20 years as useful biopharmaceuticals in the context of gene therapy and DNA vaccination interventions. This review provides a concise coverage of the scientific progress that has been made since the emergence of what are called today plasmid biopharmaceuticals. The most relevant topics are discussed to provide researchers with an updated overview of the field. A brief outline of the initial breakthroughs and innovations is followed by a discussion of the motivation behind the medical uses of plasmids in the context of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. The molecular characteristics and rationale underlying the design of plasmid vectors as gene transfer agents are described and a description of the most important methods used to deliver plasmid biopharmaceuticals in vivo (gene gun, electroporation, cationic lipids and polymers, and micro- and nanoparticles) is provided. The major safety issues (integration and autoimmunity) surrounding the use of plasmid biopharmaceuticals is discussed next. Aspects related to the large-scale manufacturing are also covered, and reference is made to the plasmid products that have received marketing authorization as of today. PMID:26104457

  9. (O)Mega Split

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, Karim; Goodsell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on the supersymmetry scale, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above the supersymmetry scale barely constrains the model - in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry - and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, ...

  10. Photon detector for MEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83-MeV photon produced in a ? ? e? decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm2, a directional resolution of 10 degree, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. It will consist of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e+e- pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers will have three drift chamber layers to track the e+e- pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer will have four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons. The inner drift chamber layer in each of the spectrometers includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between the two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. During the past year, efforts have focused primarily on software development, completion of the delay line tests, and development of electronics for the scintillators and delay line read-out. Optical windows were glued onto the light guides required for the third pair spectrometer. In addition, major contributions were made to the development of a proposal to measure the Michel parameter, ?, using the MEGA positron detectors

  11. (O)Mega split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2015-11-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M S , as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M S , which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above M S barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  12. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to all photovoltaic and concentrator flexible blanket technologies, and can readily accommodate standard multijunction and emerging ultra-lightweight IMM (inverted metamorphic) photovoltaic flexible blanket assemblies, as well as ENTECHs Stretched Lens Array (SLA) and DSSs (Deployable Space Systems) FACT, which allows for cost reduction at the array level.

  13. Construction and Use of Flow Cytometry Optimized Plasmid-Sensor Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Oregaard, Gunnar; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the stability of plasmids in bacterial populations is traditionally performed by isolating a large number of clones followed by screening for the presence of plasmids by replica transfer to plasmid-selective agar plates. This is often a laborious task, especially when the intrinsic stability of the plasmid is high. The method presented here relies on a phenotypic (green fluorescence protein) marker, which is switched on if the host bacteria loses the residing plasmid. The incorporati...

  14. MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gwyn, Stephen. D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to ...

  15. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart; Raymann, Kasie; Soler, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Many plasmids have been described in Euryarchaeota, one of the three major archaeal phyla, most of them in salt-loving haloarchaea and hyperthermophilic Thermococcales. These plasmids resemble bacterial plasmids in terms of size (from small plasmids encoding only one gene up to large megaplasmids) and replication mechanisms (rolling circle or theta). Some of them are related to viral genomes and form a more or less continuous sequence space including many integrated elements. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota have been useful for designing efficient genetic tools for these microorganisms. In addition, they have also been used to probe the topological state of plasmids in species with or without DNA gyrase and/or reverse gyrase. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota encode both DNA replication proteins recruited from their hosts and novel families of DNA replication proteins. Euryarchaeota form an interesting playground to test evolutionary hypotheses on the origin and evolution of viruses and plasmids, since a robust phylogeny is available for this phylum. Preliminary studies have shown that for different plasmid families, plasmids share a common gene pool and coevolve with their hosts. They are involved in gene transfer, mostly between plasmids and viruses present in closely related species, but rarely between cells from distantly related archaeal lineages. With few exceptions (e.g., plasmids carrying gas vesicle genes), most archaeal plasmids seem to be cryptic. Interestingly, plasmids and viral genomes have been detected in extracellular membrane vesicles produced by Thermococcales, suggesting that these vesicles could be involved in the transfer of viruses and plasmids between cells. PMID:26104461

  16. Plasmid segregation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that ensure ordered plasmid segregation prior to cell division. par loci come in two types: those that encode actin-like ATPases and those that encode deviant Walker-type ATPases. ParM, the actin-like ATPase of plasmid R1, forms dynamic filaments ...

  17. Manic Episode Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Tayfun; Be?irli, Asl?; Asdemir, Akif; Özsoy, Saliha; E?el, Ertu?rul

    2010-01-01

    Mega cisterna magna is a part of "Dandy-Walker Complex" and it is characterized by the enlargement of the cisterna magna, morphologically intact vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. We report a case of manic attack in a 23-year-old man with mega cisterna magna. The patient was treated with quetiapine 1,000 mg/day and sodium valproate 1,500 mg/day and the symptoms were ameliorated within 2.5 months. In this case, mega cisterna magna and manic symptoms may be found together coincidentally or any ...

  18. Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellie; Guymer, David; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Plasmids drive genomic diversity in bacteria via horizontal gene transfer [1, 2]; nevertheless, explaining their survival in bacterial populations is challenging [3]. Theory predicts that irrespective of their net fitness effects, plasmids should be lost: when parasitic (costs outweigh benefits), plasmids should decline due to purifying selection [4-6], yet under mutualism (benefits outweigh costs), selection favors the capture of beneficial accessory genes by the chromosome and loss of the costly plasmid backbone [4]. While compensatory evolution can enhance plasmid stability within populations [7-15], the propensity for this to occur across the parasitism-mutualism continuum is unknown. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens and its mercury resistance mega-plasmid, pQBR103 [16], across an environment-mediated parasitism-mutualism continuum. Compensatory evolution stabilized plasmids by rapidly ameliorating the cost of plasmid carriage in all environments. Genomic analysis revealed that, in both parasitic and mutualistic treatments, evolution repeatedly targeted the gacA/gacS bacterial two-component global regulatory system while leaving the plasmid sequence intact. Deletion of either gacA or gacS was sufficient to completely ameliorate the cost of plasmid carriage. Mutation of gacA/gacS downregulated the expression of ∼17% of chromosomal and plasmid genes and appears to have relieved the translational demand imposed by the plasmid. Chromosomal capture of mercury resistance accompanied by plasmid loss occurred throughout the experiment but very rarely invaded to high frequency, suggesting that rapid compensatory evolution can limit this process. Compensatory evolution can explain the widespread occurrence of plasmids and allows bacteria to retain horizontally acquired plasmids even in environments where their accessory genes are not immediately useful. PMID:26190075

  19. Plasmid Mediated Chromate Resistance in Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikander Sultan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic basis and mechanism of chromate resistance in chromate resistant bacteria, conjugal transfer as well as curing of plasmids in these bacteria and its effect on chromium uptake are being investigated. From the effluent of Shafiq Tannery, Kasur, Pakistan, four bacterial strains STCr-1, STCr-2, STCr-3 and STCr-4 which could endure 40 mg mL-1 of potassium chromate in nutrient agar medium were isolated. All of them were gram negative, aerobic and motile rods. One strain STCr-1 was identified as Ochrobactrum species by 16S rRNA gene sequence homology. Each strain harboured a single conjugative plasmid, which conferred resistance to chromate. Maximum plasmid transfer was recorded after 24 h of mating except for plasmid residing in STCr-3 (pSH1322, which transferred maximally after 16 h of mating. The plasmids harboring STCr-1 (pSH1320, STCr-3 (pSH1322 and STCr-4 (pSH1323 manifested highest transfer frequency at donor:recipient ratio 1, while plasmid resident of STCr-2 (pSH1321 preferred donor:recipient ratio 5. Transfer frequency of plasmids pSH1320 and pSH1322 was maximal at 28°C and that of pSH1321 and pSH1323 at 37°C. Optimum pH for plasmid transfer was 8 for these plasmids except pSH1320, which opted for pH 6 or 7. Curing of chromate resistant plasmids from these strains was achieved with SDS at high temperature and curing of plasmid was associated with the loss of chromate resistance phenotype. A comparison of Cr uptake by the parental strains and their cured derivatives revealed that plasmids in these strains express high level resistance to chromate by exerting stringent control on the accumulation/uptake of Cr.

  20. The Mega-journals are coming!

    OpenAIRE

    Frantsvåg, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    Mega-journals er et nytt begrep og en ny realitet innen vitenskapelige tidsskrifter – selv om de i virkeligheten ikke lenger er tidsskrifter, men artikkeldatabaser. Dette startet med PLoS ONE, som i dag er verdens største tidsskrift målt i antall artikler per år – og det vokser stadig. Fortsetter veksten vil PLoS ONE om få år være verdens eneste STM-tidsskrift. Flere mega-journals er nå startet opp – flere begynte/begynner sin virksomhet i år. Disse tidsskriftene vil trolig medføre drastiske ...

  1. UNITY OF MICRO- AND MEGA WORLD ???????? ?????- ? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafiatullina O. A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the arguments of mod-ern physicists, substantiates the position of the proof of the unity of micro and mega world, is the co-evolution of self-organizing dissipative structures, tak-ing into account the impact of micro and mega factors. The author points out on the features of synergy, which using the linearity and nonlinearity in the the-ory expresses the aspects of material unity of the world, linked to the general properties of self-development of complex systems. The universe is seen as a dissipative system with periodically removable elements (elementary dissipative systems

  2. Plasmids in Frankia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, P; Simonet, P; Butour, J L; Rosenberg, C; Moiroud, A; Lalonde, M

    1983-07-01

    A method to achieve cell lysis and isolate Frankia sp. plasmid DNA was developed. A screening of Frankia sp. strains belonging to different host compatibility groups (Alnus sp., Elaeagnus sp., Ceanothus sp.) showed that, of 39 strains tested, 4 (strains Cp11, ARgN22d, ArI3, and EUN1f) possessed plasmids ranging in size from 7.1 to 32.2 kilobase pairs as estimated from agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. A total of 11 plasmids were detected. PMID:6863219

  3. The MEGA Advanced Compton Telescope Project

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Kanbach, G; Schönfelder, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Zoglauer, A

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy (MEGA) telescope is to improve sensitivity at medium gamma-ray energies (0.4-50 MeV) by at least an order of magnitude over that of COMPTEL. This will be achieved with a new compact design that allows for a very wide field of view, permitting a sensitive all-sky survey and the monitoring of transient and variable sources. The key science objectives for MEGA include the investigation of cosmic high-energy particle accelerators, studies of nucleosynthesis sites using gamma-ray lines, and determination of the large-scale structure of galactic and cosmic diffuse background emission. MEGA records and images gamma-ray events by completely tracking both Compton and pair creation interactions in a tracker of double-sided silicon strip detectors and a calorimeter of CsI crystals able to resolve in three dimensions. We present initial laboratory calibration results from a small prototype MEGA telescope.

  4. Indian manpower for mega nuclear project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "India is supplying critical scientific manpower and high-tech components needed for building a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - an accelerator used in particle physics research - a mega scientific project of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) worth billions of dollars" (1/2 page).

  5. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, A J

    1995-01-01

    Among eukaryotes, plasmids have been found in fungi and plants but not in animals. Most plasmids are mitochondrial. In filamentous fungi, plasmids are commonly encountered in isolates from natural populations. Individual populations may show a predominance of one type, but some plasmids have a global distribution, often crossing species boundaries. Surveys have shown that strains can contain more than one type of plasmid and that different types appear to be distributed independently. In cros...

  6. Mega events as a pretext for infrastructural development: the case of the All African Games Athletes Village, Alexandra, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Ashley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of mega events in the Global South has become a symbol of prestige and national pride. From the hosting of international mega events such as the world cup, to regional events like the Commonwealth Games, developing nations are hosting mega events frequently and on a massive scale. Often used as a justification for this escapade in hosting a mega event is the purposed infrastructural legacy that will remain after the event. From the bid documents of the London Olympics to the Delhi Common Wealth Games, the pretext of infrastructural legacy is cited as a legitimate reason for spending the billions of dollars needed for hosting the event. This paper looks at this justification in the context of the All Africa Games which was hosted in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1999. It examines how the legacy infrastructure from this event has been utilised as a social housing development and how the billions of dollars spent on the infrastructural legacy of the games has been used by local residence of the city. The vast majority of the current residence of the All Africa Games Athletes’ Village have little recollection of the Games and do not feel that the housing stock they have received is of significantly better quality than that of other social housing. This points to the contentious claim that developmental infrastructure built through hosting a mega event is of superior quality or brings greater benefit to the end users. That is not to say that hosting a mega event does not have benefits; however, the claim of development through hosting, in the case of Johannesburg, seems disingenuous.

  7. Architecture of the MEGA detector trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trigger for the MEGA detector system is based on signals from single, high-energy photons interacting in one of the three MEGA pair spectrometers. The trigger is divided into a fast and a slow stage. The first stage produces a fast output if a specific pattern of detector hits is observed in the scintillators and high-speed wire chambers of a pair spectrometer. The second, slow-stage interrogates drift chamber hit patterns and provides a veto when the pattern fails a minimal requirement for reconstruction of the hits into a pair of circular orbits. The trigger interacts with the photon detector electronics by gating limited sections of the detector during the read-out of an event. This paper describes the two stage trigger system, the photon detector electronics, and the implementation of the trigger outputs to strobe the data acquisition system. The performance of the trigger is compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon detector response. (orig.)

  8. MEGA: A search for the decay ??e?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the rare decay ??e? with a branching ratio sensitivity of ?5x10-13. Production data have been taken during 1992 and 1993, and the detector is working as expected. Following a complete analysis, the present data set should represent an improvement of 12--15 in sensitivity over the previous limit of ??e?. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Pavement technology for mega transportation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, J. [John Emery Geotechnical Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper described the use of asphalt and concrete pavement technology for mega projects such as the Duarte Highway in the Dominican Republic, the Colombia Bogota El Dorado International Airport, Highway 407 Express Toll Route north of Toronto, the Cobequid Pass Highway in Nova Scotia and the Fredericton-Moncton Highway in New Brunswick. A mega transportation project is considered to involve more than $100 million in construction costs and use an alternative delivery method such as design-build. It must also include life cycle costing for technology evaluation, fast track construction and total quality management. This paper showed that the durability, flexibility and structural capacity of hot-mix asphalt and PCC concrete make it possible to provide economic, smooth, safe pavements for highways, airports and for heavy traffic conditions under both normal and severe operating environments. In particular, the paper focused on the practical concepts of the pavement technology and the role of contractors in meeting the fast-track technical quality requirements for mega paving projects. The paper emphasized the fact that it is possible to develop sustainable paving projects that integrate transportation infrastructure development with communities and the environment while maintaining safety and performance. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  11. Heat Curing of a Sym Plasmid in a Fast-Growing Rhizobium sp. That Is Able to Nodulate Legumes and the Nonlegume Parasponia sp

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Genes involved in nodulation of both legumes and the nonlegume Parasponia sp., as well as nitrogenase genes, reside on a large plasmid in a fast-growing Rhizobium sp. from Lablab purpureus. This plasmid can be cured by incubation at elevated temperatures and can be mobilized by the P1 group plasmid RP1::Tn501.

  12. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration into a Web tool called PlasmidFinder that can be used for replicon sequence analysis of raw, contig group, or completely assembled and closed plasmid sequencing data. The PlasmidFinder database currently consists of 116 replicon sequences that match with at least at 80% nucleotide identity all replicon sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. PlasmidFinder identified a total of 103 replicons and between zero and five different plasmid replicons within each of 49 S. Typhimurium draft genomes tested. The pMLST Web tool was able to subtype genomic sequencing data of plasmids, revealing both known plasmid sequence types (STs) and new alleles and ST variants. In conclusion, testing of the two Web tools using both fully assembled plasmid sequences and WGS-generated draft genomes showed them to be able to detect a broad variety of plasmids that are often associated with antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

  13. An improved method for including upper size range plasmids in metamobilomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Riber, Leise

    2014-01-01

    Two recently developed isolation methods have shown promise when recovering pure community plasmid DNA (metamobilomes/plasmidomes), which is useful in conducting culture-independent investigations into plasmid ecology. However, both methods employ multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to ensure suitable quantities of plasmid DNA for high-throughput sequencing. This study demonstrates that MDA greatly favors smaller circular DNA elements (10 Kbp). Throughout the study, we used two model plasmids, a 4.4 Kbp cloning vector (pBR322), and a 56 Kbp conjugative plasmid (pKJK10), to represent lower- and upper plasmid size ranges, respectively. Subjecting a mixture of these plasmids to the overall isolation protocol revealed a 34-fold over-amplification of pBR322 after MDA. To address this bias, we propose the addition of an electroelution step that separates different plasmid size ranges prior to MDA in order to reduce size-dependent competition during incubation. Subsequent analyses of metamobilome data from wastewater spiked with the model plasmids showed in silica recovery of pKJK10 to be very poor with the established method and a 1,300-fold overrepresentation of pBR322. Conversely, complete recovery of pKJK10 was enabled with the new modified protocol although considerable care must be taken during electroelution to minimize cross-contamination between samples. For further validation, non-spiked wastewater metamobilomes were mapped to more than 2,500 known plasmid genomes. This displayed an overall recovery of plasmids well into the upper size range (median size: 30 kilobases) with the modified protocol. Analysis of de novo assembled metamobilome data also suggested distinctly better recovery of larger plasmids, as gene functions associated with these plasmids, such as conjugation, was exclusively encoded in the data output generated through the modified protocol. Thus, with the suggested modification, access to a large uncharacterized pool of accessory elements that reside on medium-to-large plasmids has been improved. © 2014 Norman et al.

  14. Elluminate Article: Revisiting Mega-Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Rubin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2006, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ (Elluminate Support for details on how to download this FREE software. * Revisiting Mega-Universities Gene Rubin and Claudine SchWeber University of Maryland University College

  15. The Hokuto mega-solar project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroo; Tanaka, Ryo; Shiraki, Toshiyuki [Energy Business Headquarters, NTT FACILITIES INC., Granparktower, 3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Solar generation systems are one of the measures for reducing global warming. An installed capacity target of solar generation systems in our country will be set 4.82 GW in 2010, while the total installed capacity is still 1.92 GW in 2007. About 80% of the systems are mainly residential use and each is very small. Constructions of some large-scale solar generation systems will be expected and intensive development of related technologies are urgent. The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) advertised for consignment research business ''Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) Power Generation Systems'' in 2006. The verification tests are carried out in two sites of Hokuto City, Yamanashi Prefecture and Wakkanai City, Hokkaido. The outlines and the developing targets and some of studying results of the Hokuto mega-solar project (HMSP) are introduced in this paper. (author)

  16. Mini-MegaTORTORA status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Sasyuk, V.; Biryukov, A.; Shearer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, MiniMegaTORTORA, with two variants (MMT-6 based on image intensifiers with fast CCDs and MMT-9 equipped with Andor Neo sCMOSes) now under construction and commissioning at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitifity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously. Hardware and software solutions used for the systems, as well as perspectives of its operation, are also discussed.

  17. Plasmid Rolling-Circle Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Masó, J A; MachóN, C; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, L; Espinosa, M; Coll, M; Del Solar, G

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are DNA entities that undergo controlled replication independent of the chromosomal DNA, a crucial step that guarantees the prevalence of the plasmid in its host. DNA replication has to cope with the incapacity of the DNA polymerases to start de novo DNA synthesis, and different replication mechanisms offer diverse solutions to this problem. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is a mechanism adopted by certain plasmids, among other genetic elements, that represents one of the simplest initiation strategies, that is, the nicking by a replication initiator protein on one parental strand to generate the primer for leading-strand initiation and a single priming site for lagging-strand synthesis. All RCR plasmid genomes consist of a number of basic elements: leading strand initiation and control, lagging strand origin, phenotypic determinants, and mobilization, generally in that order of frequency. RCR has been mainly characterized in Gram-positive bacterial plasmids, although it has also been described in Gram-negative bacterial or archaeal plasmids. Here we aim to provide an overview of the RCR plasmids' lifestyle, with emphasis on their characteristic traits, promiscuity, stability, utility as vectors, etc. While RCR is one of the best-characterized plasmid replication mechanisms, there are still many questions left unanswered, which will be pointed out along the way in this review. PMID:26104557

  18. Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating pieces of DNA. This article discusses theta plasmid replication, which is a class of circular plasmid replication that includes ColE1-like origins of replication popular with expression vectors. All modalities of theta plasmid replication initiate synthesis with the leading strand at a predetermined site and complete replication through recruitment of the host's replisome, which extends the leading strand continuously while synthesizing the lagging strand discontinuously. There are clear differences between different modalities of theta plasmid replication in mechanisms of DNA duplex melting and in priming of leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. In some replicons duplex melting depends on transcription, while other replicons rely on plasmid-encoded trans-acting proteins (Reps); primers for leading-strand synthesis can be generated through processing of a transcript or in other replicons by the action of host- or plasmid-encoded primases. None of these processes require DNA breaks. The frequency of replication initiation is tightly regulated to facilitate establishment in permissive hosts and to achieve a steady state. The last section of the article reviews how plasmid copy number is sensed and how this feedback modulates the frequency of replication. PMID:26104556

  19. Have the “mega-journals” reached the limits to growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Björk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A “mega-journal” is a new type of scientific journal that publishes freely accessible articles, which have been peer reviewed for scientific trustworthiness, but leaves it to the readers to decide which articles are of interest and importance to them. In the wake of the phenomenal success of PLOS ONE, several other publishers have recently started mega-journals. This article presents the evolution of mega-journals since 2010 in terms of article publication rates. The fastest growth seems to have ebbed out at around 35,000 annual articles for the 14 journals combined. Acceptance rates are in the range of 50–70%, and speed of publication is around 3–5 months. Common features in mega-journals are alternative impact metrics, easy reusability of figures and data, post-publication discussions and portable reviews from other journals.

  20. ? radiation dosimetry in Mega rad range using sugar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of malonaldehyde under ? irradiation of solid sucrose and aqueous sucrose, fructose and arabinose solutions has been studied in the Mega rad range. Malonaldehyde (MA) concentration was estimated spectrophotometrically after complexing with 2-thio-barbituric acid. The effect of free radical scavengers (KI and N2O) on the yield of MA was investigated. Of the systems studied a 5% aqueous sucrose solution gave a proportional response of MA formation with dose in 0.2 to 5 Mega rad range. A 5% aqueous solution of sucrose prepared from sucrose irradiated in solid state also gave a smooth response of MA yield with dose from 8 to 30 Mega rad. The aqueous and solid sucrose systems together can be conveniently used for dosimetry in the range of 0.2 30 Mega rad. (author)

  1. Thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, Jean-Marc; Garcia Retegui, Rogelio; Maestri, Sebastian; Wassinger, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents a thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices. This analysis evaluates the thermal cycling of representative devices in order to estimate the expected lifetime. Simulation results based on manufacturer specifications are presented.

  2. Transportation planning for mega events: a model of urban change

    OpenAIRE

    Kassens, Eva; Potenske, Karen R.

    2010-01-01

    My study is about opportunities for revolutionary developments in urban transport. Often, we think of transport and urban development as an evolutionary process, yet there exist a few opportunities for cities to revolutionize their transport system within a short timeframe of only 10 years. Prime examples for such opportunities are mega events. Based on my hypothesis that mega event owners exercise a decisive influence on urban and transport planning through the requirements they impose on ci...

  3. Building phylogenetic trees from molecular data with MEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry G

    2013-05-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is sometimes regarded as being an intimidating, complex process that requires expertise and years of experience. In fact, it is a fairly straightforward process that can be learned quickly and applied effectively. This Protocol describes the several steps required to produce a phylogenetic tree from molecular data for novices. In the example illustrated here, the program MEGA is used to implement all those steps, thereby eliminating the need to learn several programs, and to deal with multiple file formats from one step to another (Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 28:2731-2739). The first step, identification of a set of homologous sequences and downloading those sequences, is implemented by MEGA's own browser built on top of the Google Chrome toolkit. For the second step, alignment of those sequences, MEGA offers two different algorithms: ClustalW and MUSCLE. For the third step, construction of a phylogenetic tree from the aligned sequences, MEGA offers many different methods. Here we illustrate the maximum likelihood method, beginning with MEGA's Models feature, which permits selecting the most suitable substitution model. Finally, MEGA provides a powerful and flexible interface for the final step, actually drawing the tree for publication. Here a step-by-step protocol is presented in sufficient detail to allow a novice to start with a sequence of interest and to build a publication-quality tree illustrating the evolution of an appropriate set of homologs of that sequence. MEGA is available for use on PCs and Macs from www.megasoftware.net. PMID:23486614

  4. Hydrodynamics in Holocene Lake Mega-Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchette, Frédéric; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-François; Denamiel, Cléa; Roquin, Claude; Moussa, Abderamane; Marsaleix, Patrick; Duringer, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Holocene Lake Mega-Chad (LMC) was the largest late Quaternary water-body in Africa. The development of this giant paleo-lake is related to a northward shift of the isohyetes interpreted as evidence for an enhanced Monsoon (African Humid Period). Numerous preserved coastal features have been described all around the LMC shore. Such features reveal the main paleo-hydrodynamical tendencies. In the context of a closed water-body like LMC, hydrodynamics are forced mainly by winds. We use a three-dimensional numerical model (SYMPHONIE) to simulate the mean hydrodynamics in LMC under both Harmattan-like (northeasterly trade winds) and Monsoon-like (southwesterly winds) forcings. The northern part of LMC displays coastal features, such as sand spits, that are consistent with the simulations forced by Harmattan-like winds. Geomorphic features related to Monsoon-driven hydrodynamics are not clearly expressed. They could have developed during the early stage of LMC but subsequently reworked. At the time of sand-spit building, Harmattan-like driven hydrodynamics prevailed and related coastal features were preferentially preserved in the sedimentary record.

  5. Tolerated residence

    OpenAIRE

    Nøhr Shaheen I Dali, Maria Buthaina Liv

    2013-01-01

    Dette projekt omhandler personer på tålt ophold i Danmark, oversat til engelsk som ’individuals on tolerated residence’ i projektet. Ved benyttelsen af Giorgio Agamben og Zygmunt Bauman som primære teoretikere, søger projektet at klargøre hvilke mekanismer der gør sig gældende i en dansk socio-politisk kontekst. Projektet belyser hvorledes disse individer gennemgår en proces hvori rettigheder bliver erstattet af restriktioner, som eksempelvis kommer til udtryk i melde- og opholdspligt i Sandh...

  6. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms. All known plasmid-encoded par loci specify three components: a cis-acting centromere-like site and two trans-acting proteins that form a nucleoprotein complex at the ...

  7. Defining a quantitative framework for evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of mega-event projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel quantitative methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of the whole life cycle of a mega-event project: construction and staging the event and post-event site redevelopment and operation. Within the proposed framework, a mathematical model has been developed that takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from use of transportation fuel, energy, water and construction materials used at all stages of the mega-event project. The model is applied to a case study - the London Olympic Park. Three potential post-event site design scenarios of the Park have been developed: Business as Usual (BAU), Commercial World (CW) and High Rise High Density (HRHD). A quantitative summary of results demonstrates that the highest GHG emissions associated with the actual event are almost negligible compared to those associated with the legacy phase. The highest share of emissions in the legacy phase is attributed to embodied emissions from construction materials (almost 50% for the BAU and HRHD scenarios) and emissions resulting from the transportation of residents, visitors and employees to/from the site (almost 60% for the CW scenario). The BAU scenario is the one with the lowest GHG emissions compared to the other scenarios. The results also demonstrate how post-event site design scenarios can be optimised to minimise the GHG emissions. The overall outcomes illustrate how the proposed framework can be used to support decision making process for mega-event projects planning. PMID:26686076

  8. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andri?an

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological, toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that certain organizations, groups or terrorist or extremist sections would get someWeapons of Mass Destruction Systems. Actually, the 11th of September tragedy proves that megaterrorismrepresents the premeditated destruction, the lack of negotiations, of a tactical goal that wasto be accomplished by means of a threat. The mega-terrorism actors do not intend to get themselvesknown to the public, do not require anything, do not see the threat as means or device to reach theirpurpose. The 21 st century mega-terrorism simple logic is materialized in the systemic destroying ofthe enemy, no longer representing a political power or a government, but an entire ‘disobeying’,‘corrupted’, ‘unfaithful’ population indifferent to the mega-terrorist actors’ desires. New dimensionagainst mega-terrorism determines not only a rethinking of how to combat it, but also the realizationof a conceptual legal framework and measures established to materialize the political decision.

  9. High speed BLASTN: an accelerated MegaBLAST search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Ye, Weicai; Zhang, Yongdong; Xu, Yuesheng

    2015-09-18

    Sequence alignment is a long standing problem in bioinformatics. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is one of the most popular and fundamental alignment tools. The explosive growth of biological sequences calls for speedup of sequence alignment tools such as BLAST. To this end, we develop high speed BLASTN (HS-BLASTN), a parallel and fast nucleotide database search tool that accelerates MegaBLAST--the default module of NCBI-BLASTN. HS-BLASTN builds a new lookup table using the FMD-index of the database and employs an accurate and effective seeding method to find short stretches of identities (called seeds) between the query and the database. HS-BLASTN produces the same alignment results as MegaBLAST and its computational speed is much faster than MegaBLAST. Specifically, our experiments conducted on a 12-core server show that HS-BLASTN can be 22 times faster than MegaBLAST and exhibits better parallel performance than MegaBLAST. HS-BLASTN is written in C++ and the related source code is available at https://github.com/chenying2016/queries under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26250111

  10. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  11. Design of Perimeter Walls in Tubed Mega Frame Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Niklas; Hammar, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The Tubed Mega Frame is a new concept for constructing high-rise buildings,based on the idea of moving the main bearing system to the perimeter of thebuilding by using a number of large hollow columns, mega tubes, connected byperimeter walls at certain levels. The concept is under development by Tyréns ABand has not yet been implemented in reality. This thesis is part of the ongoing workprocess and has the aim of shedding light on the issues and problems with the newconcept when it comes to t...

  12. The employment and fiscal effects of Michigan's MEGA tax credit program

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Erickcek, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates that Michigan's MEGA tax credit program to attract and retain businesses has large employment and fiscal benefits. MEGA provides discretionary tax credits to businesses, with the tax credit tied to the personal income taxes paid by employees on the new or retained jobs. We estimate the economic effects of MEGA using the Upjohn Institute's REMI model, and the research literature on how business location decisions respond to taxes. We estimate the fiscal effects of MEGA bas...

  13. Strategies simulation model for the gas business chain MEGAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEGAS is a simulation model representing fundamental parameters of Corpoven's natural gas and NGL production, handling, processing, transportation and distribution systems in the Venezuelan mid-east, as well as its financial implications. Various strategies regarding development, prices, costs, new business opportunities, production scenarios, demand and energy policies can be evaluated through this model in order to determine, after analyzing the economics results, a set of strategies to follow in the mid and long term. MEGAS could be also used to make risk analysis studies, considering that probabilistic parameters and variables like gas quality, production, demand, plant shutdowns and others are to be represented by their distinctive function. It is possible to set up a probabilistic function for each economic indicator or operating variables with an appropriate experiment design. MEGAS is based on a dynamic simulation language, which facilitates both the real system components representation and the main variables statistical data accumulation. It also allows graphical representation of results and the simulation animation. Demand and price forecasts, new projects, costs and capabilities of the systems are some of the model input data. MEGAS should be considered as a tool that eases the strategic planning of the business, making it possible for the Corporation to foresee changes, both in the domestic and international market, to predict how these changes could affect its business affairs and to visualize different return scenarios

  14. Start-Up Mega Planning--A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ronald; Forbes, Dylan; Hoskins, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Social Responsibility is becoming a key issue for organizations today. They talk about it and they make social contributions, but how do we know if anything is being achieved? A framework is required and has existed at least since 1992. Roger Kaufman's Mega Planning has slowly gathered momentum in organizations worldwide. For a faster take-up we…

  15. A plasmid in Legionella pneumophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson, G B; Mikesell, P

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen strains from the six serogroups of Legionella pneumophila were examined for the presence of extrachromosomal genetic elements by a modified cleared lysate procedure, dye-buoyant centrifugation, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Two strains, Atlanta-1 and Atlanta-2 from serogroup II, each contained a plasmid of cryptic function with a molecular weight of ca. 30 megadaltons.

  16. Repair in E. coli of transforming plasmid DNA damaged by psoralen plus near-ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of DNA with psoralen plus near-ultraviolet irradiation gives rise to both monoadducts and cross-links. The authors have examined the repair of plasmid NTP16 DNA treated in this way in vitro and then used to transform E. coli. Monoadducts are found to be potentially lethal, and can be repaired by uvr-dependent and recA-dependent pathways. The presence of a related resident plasmid in the transformed cells can enhance the survival of the incoming damaged NTP16 DNA. This effect is not recA-dependent. Removal of unbound psoralen from the plasmid DNA and exposure to further NUV is known to increase the ratio of cross-links to monoadducts, and the authors demonstrate that such cross-linked plasmid DNA is not readily repaired following transformation. However in the presence of homologous DNA there is evidence for the repair, and hence uptake by the cell, of cross-linked DNA. (Auth.)

  17. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7–9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like plasmids concomitant to phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from host Klebsiella strains, revealed that these plasmids are limited to a predominantly human-associated sub-clade of Klebsiella, suggesting that their host range is very narrow. Conversely, the pGNB2-like plasmids had a much broader host range and appeared to be associated with Klebsiella residing in natural environments. This study suggests that: (A) qnrB-harboring multidrug-resistant pKPN3-like plasmids can endure the rigorous wastewater treatment process and may therefore be disseminated to downstream environments; and (B) that small qnrS-harboring pGNB2-like plasmids are ubiquitous in wastewater treatment facilities and are most likely environmental in origin. PMID:26696974

  18. Characterization of plasmids in bacterial fish pathogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Toranzo, A. E.; Barja, J L; Colwell, R R; Hetrick, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmid profiles of representative fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, Pasteurella piscicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella tarda, and Renibacterium salmoninarum, were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis with four different plasmid detection methods. A combination of two methods was required to detect the plasmids present in these strains and to calculate precisely the molecular weights of the plasmids. Of 38 strains, 28 harbored one or more...

  19. Production of Plasmid DNA as Pharmaceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA require certain quality standards, depending on the intended use of the plasmids. That is, for direct gene transfer into human, GMP Grade is mandatory, however, for GMP production of for example viral vectors (AAV or mRNA etc.), the plasmid DNA used has not to be produced under GMP necessarily. Here we summarize important features of producing plasmid DNA, ensuring the required quality for the intended (pharmaceutical) application. PMID:26072414

  20. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to different classes of antibiotics including aminoglycosides, penicillins, macrolides and chloramphenicol. Whether these antibiotic resistance determinants are plasmid-bound and whether these traits can be transferred to other bacteria is under investigation.

  1. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea; García-Fernández, Aurora; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lund, Ole; Villa, Laura; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft ge...

  2. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevallos Miguel A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 ?-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The oriV of this plasmid resides within the repC gene and is located close to or inside of a large A+T region. RepC can act as an incompatibility factor, and the last 39 amino acid residues of the carboxy-terminal region of this protein are involved in promoting this phenotype.

  3. IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the re...

  4. Microcapitalism and the mega-corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Debra; Yamashita, Keith

    2003-08-01

    More than 100 miles from Bangalore, India, there's a rural area called Kuppam where one in three citizens is illiterate, more than half of the households have no electricity, and there's a high rate of AIDS. It's exactly this challenging atmosphere that prompted Hewlett-Packard to choose Kuppam as one of its first "i-communities" initiatives. Through the program, HP creates public-private partnerships to accelerate economic development through the application of technology while simultaneously opening new markets and developing new products and services. HP brings to these initiatives the management disciplines of a successful technology business. For example, it unearths customer needs using an iterative cycle that involves prototyping products and services and then closely observing residents' experiences with them. It fields a diversely talented team that brings many skills to the initiative, including deep technical ability, management acumen, and market knowledge. It takes a systems approach, simultaneously examining all the elements that must come together to create a working solution to a given problem. It establishes a "leading platform" on which other players--comapnies, nonprofits, and government agencies--can build technologies and applications. Practices like these help ensure that HP's investment yields real, sustainable results for the community in question. But HP also sees returns to its own business. In Kuppam, the company is discovering the need for (and developing) new products like a solar-powered digital camera, with printer, that fits in a backpack. By engaging the community and its leaders and working with them to design valuable new tools and capabilities, HP is gaining the knowledge it needs to be a stronger competitor in other developing regions. PMID:12884667

  5. Attributes of carbapenemase encoding conjugative plasmid pNDM-SAL from an extensively drug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Chowdhury, Goutam; Ghosh, Amit; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2015-01-01

    A carbapenem resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolate BCH 2406 was isolated from a diarrheal child attending an outpatient unit of B.C. Roy Hospital in Kolkata, India. This isolate was positive for the bla NDM-1 in the PCR assay, which was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. Except for tetracycline, this isolate was resistant to all the tested antimicrobials. The bla NDM-1 was found to be located on a 146.13-kb mega plasmid pNDM-SAL, which could be conjugally transferred into Escherichia coli and other enteric pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa and Shigella flexneri 2a. However, the expression of ?-lactam resistance is not the same in different bacteria. The whole genome sequence of pNDM-SAL was determined and compared with other pNDM plasmids available in public domain. This plasmid is an IncA/C incompatibility type composed of 155 predicted coding sequences and shares homology with plasmids of E. coli pNDM-1_Dok01, Klebsiella pNDM-KN, and Citrobacter pNDM-CIT. In pNDM-SAL, gene cluster containing bla NDM-1 was located between IS26 and IS4321 elements. Between the IS26 element and the bla NDM-1, a truncated ISAba125 insertion sequence was identified. Downstream of the bla NDM-1, other genes, such as ble MBL, trpF, tat, and an ISCR1 element with class 1 integron containing aac(6')-Ib were detected. Another ?-lactacamase gene, bla CMY -4 was found to be inserted in IS1 element within the type IV conjugative transfer loci of the plasmid. This gene cluster had blc and sugE downstream of the bla CMY -4. From our findings, it appears that the strain S. Senftenberg could have acquired the NDM plasmid from the other members of Enterobacteriaceae. Transfer of NDM plasmids poses a danger in the management of infectious diseases. PMID:26441902

  6. ROLE OF MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON BRANDING DESTINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Farahani; Habib Honari; Hasan Asadi; Abdul Hamid Zeitoonly; Mohammad Pour Ranjbar

    2011-01-01

    Sporting events to help make creating beautiful scenery and unique areas to tourism. Thepurpose of this study was investigated the role of holding sporting events on destinationsBranding with hosted of mega sports event (Traditional Sport ;hors riding) on branding sportstourism destinations in Golestan province. Data from a questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha = 91%)and interviews were collected. Statistical population of this study was 217 patients (53 expert(cultural heritage; physical education...

  7. Ein Mega-Event für Japan und Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Carolin

    2010-01-01

    Die FIFA-Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft wurde 2002 erstmals von zwei Gastgebern gemeinsam ausgerichtet. Diese Kooperation entsprang jedoch nicht dem Wunsch der beiden Bewerber Südkorea und Japan, sondern es war eine Entscheidung der FIFA. Wie würden die beiden unfreiwilligen Partner mit dieser Situation umgehen? Würde die gemeinsame Gastgeberrolle vielleicht zu einer Chance werden, das gegenseitige Verhältnis zu verbessern? Betrachtet man die Fußballweltmeisterschaft aus der Perspektive der Mega-...

  8. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  9. Assessment of MEGA BORG impacts on sea turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to assess the impacts of the MEGA BORG oil spill on sea turtles in the path of the oil plume. Aerial surveys were performed to determine the presence of turtles and provide a gross visual assessment of potential impacts. Although extensive efforts were made to capture sea turtles around oil and gas platforms only one loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, was captured. Neither external visual inspection nor laboratory fecal analysis showed evidence of petroleum contamination

  10. A study of the decay ? ? e? by the MEGA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the lepton-flavor number non-conserving rare decay ? ? e?. Data- taking is complete, with 450 million events on tape taken over approximately 107 seconds. A small portion of the data sample has been processed through the complete event reconstruction codes to search for the ? ? e? process. No evidence for the ? ? e? decay is observed at a sensitivity of ?7 x 10-11 (90% confidence)

  11. The Mega-Terrorism - The Challenge of the Third Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Andri?an

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the "new face" of terrorism in the twenty-first centuryindicating the transition to mass destruction weapons (nuclear terrorism, chemical, biological), toethnic-religious terrorism, the occurrence of massive gray area phenomena of terrorism and how thisphenomenon became a strategic weapon. Mega-terrorism has been existing, at a conceptual level,ever since the 70’s, when the experts of this phenomenon tried to find a semantic cover for thesituations that ...

  12. State of the art: integrating services for mega events

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge R. B., Garay; Gustavo M., Calixto; Alexandre M. De, Oliveira; Marcelo K., Zuffo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and T [...] elecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject; however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to consider requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo; however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrative elements of stadiums as a main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  13. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  14. Predicción de patrones de navegación en mega-imágenes histopatológicas / Prediction of navigation patterns in histopathological mega-images

    OpenAIRE

    Romo Bucheli, David Edmundo

    2011-01-01

    La microscopía virtual puede mejorar el trabajo rutinario de los laboratorios patológicos modernos. Este objetivo ha sido severamente limitado por la gran cantidad de información contenida en las laminas histopatológicas virtuales. La adopción de técnicas para mejorar la eficiencia durante la navegación de mega-imágenes ha mostrado ser útil para reducir los tiempos de respuesta en sistemas de microscopía virtual. Este trabajo presenta un enfoque novedoso para predecir patrones de navegación e...

  15. Requirements for Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Tilly, Kit; Checroun, Claire; Rosa, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi has multiple linear and circular plasmids that are faithfully replicated and partitioned as the bacterium grows and divides. The low copy number of these replicons implies that active partitioning contributes to plasmid stability. Analyzing the requirements for plasmid replication and partition in B. burgdorferi is complicated by the complexity of the genome and the possibility that products may act in trans. Consequently, we have studied the replication-partition region ...

  16. ColE1-Plasmid Production in Escherichia coli: Mathematical Simulation and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenau, Inga; Lutter, Petra; Baier, Ruth; Schleef, Martin; Bednarz, Hanna; Lara, Alvaro R.; Niehaus, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids have become very important as pharmaceutical gene vectors in the fields of gene therapy and genetic vaccination in the past years. In this study, we present a dynamic model to simulate the ColE1-like plasmid replication control, once for a DH5?-strain carrying a low copy plasmid (DH5?-pSUP 201-3) and once for a DH5?-strain carrying a high copy plasmid (DH5?-pCMV-lacZ) by using ordinary differential equations and the MATLAB software. The model includes the plasmid replication control by two regulatory RNA molecules (RNAI and RNAII) as well as the replication control by uncharged tRNA molecules. To validate the model, experimental data like RNAI- and RNAII concentration, plasmid copy number (PCN), and growth rate for three different time points in the exponential phase were determined. Depending on the sampled time point, the measured RNAI- and RNAII concentrations for DH5?-pSUP 201-3 reside between 6?±?0.7 and 34?±?7 RNAI molecules per cell and 0.44?±?0.1 and 3?±?0.9 RNAII molecules per cell. The determined PCNs averaged between 46?±?26 and 48?±?30 plasmids per cell. The experimentally determined data for DH5?-pCMV-lacZ reside between 345?±?203 and 1086?±?298 RNAI molecules per cell and 22?±?2 and 75?±?10 RNAII molecules per cell with an averaged PCN of 1514?±?1301 and 5806?±?4828 depending on the measured time point. As the model was shown to be consistent with the experimentally determined data, measured at three different time points within the growth of the same strain, we performed predictive simulations concerning the effect of uncharged tRNA molecules on the ColE1-like plasmid replication control. The hypothesis is that these tRNA molecules would have an enhancing effect on the plasmid production. The in silico analysis predicts that uncharged tRNA molecules would indeed increase the plasmid DNA production. PMID:26389114

  17. The Political Risk of Oil and Gas Mega Projects : A Descriptive Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veflen, Martin Elton

    2011-01-01

    Two elements can be seen to evolve progressively with globalization: political risk and mega projects. Although a fair amount of research has been carried out in regards to political risk and mega projects as separate units of investigation, few studies have attempted to combine the two. This thesis fills a void in the existing literature by providing a specialized approach to political risk, focusing on political risk of oil and gas mega projects in particular. Drawing on a comprehensive dat...

  18. Plasmids and phase variation in Xenorhabdus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, M. C.; Boemare, N E

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Xenorhabdus nematophilus (A24, F1, NC116) and strain Dan of Xenorhabdus bovienii were tested to evaluate whether the phase variation observed in these bacteria was in any way connected with plasmids. The plasmid patterns of both phases of A24 and F1 strains were the same, whereas the two NC116 phases had only one band each. No difference was observed between the undigested or digested plasmid patterns of the two phases from the three strains. No plasmid was detected in either...

  19. R Plasmids in Corynebacterium xerosis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, Megumi; Sasatsu, Masanori; Aoki, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids coding for resistance to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline have been found in strains of Corynebacterium xerosis isolated from patients with otitis media.

  20. On the Asymptotic Stabilization of a Chemostat Model of Plasmid-Bearing, Plasmid-Free Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Neli S.

    A dynamical model of plasmid-bearing, plasmid-free competition in the chemostat with inhibitory kinetics is studied. Based on a feedback control, an extremum seeking model-based algorithm is designed and applied to maximize the concentration of the plasmid-bearing organisms in real time. Computer simulation is carried out to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  1. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    OpenAIRE

    Charles L. Mader; Michael L. Gittings

    2002-01-01

    Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the t...

  2. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

    2010-09-15

    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  3. MegaPipe astrometry for the New Horizons spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gwyn, Stephen. D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, launched by NASA in 2006, will arrive in the Pluto-Charon system on July 14, 2015. There, it will spend a few hours imaging Pluto and its moons. It will then have a small amount of reserve propellant which will be used to direct the probe on to a second, yet to be discovered object in the Kuiper Belt. Data from the MegaPrime camera on CFHT was used to build a precise, high density astrometric reference frame for both the final approach into the P...

  4. The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  5. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, R M

    1982-02-01

    A procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. A survey of B. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species. PMID:16345935

  6. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens†

    OpenAIRE

    Teather, Ronald M.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid DNA from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. A survey of B. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species.

  7. Meta, mega e retroanálises correlacionais: comparando dados primários em Psicologia / Correlational meta, mega and retroanalyses: comparing primary data in Psychology / Meta, mega y retroanálisis correlacionales: comparando datos primarios en Psicología

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Igor Reszka, Pinheiro; Roberto Moraes, Cruz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de promover a transformação de informações em conhecimento, este artigo compara as meta-análises com duas de suas variantes, as mega-análises e as retroanálises, técnicas desenvolvidas para a síntese e a equiparação de resultados pouco precisos ou contraditórios. Enquanto as meta-anális [...] es referem-se à síntese dos resultados de diferentes pesquisas primárias, as mega-análises referem-se à síntese dos dados coletados por pesquisas primárias e as retroanálises à recriação e posterior síntese desses mesmos dados. Por meio de uma simulação, o Estudo 1 pareia o viés médio de meta, mega e retroanálises em função de nove diferentes configurações que variam conforme a quantidade de estudos empregados e do tamanho da amostra individual de cada um desses estudos, nas modalidades de dados completos, leve e severa ausência de dados. No Estudo 2, os mesmos dados utilizados na simulação de ausência severa foram empregados para testar a precisão de mega e retroanálises quando se realiza a imputação de dados. Os resultados apontam para uma leve superioridade geral das mega-análises, diferença essa que diminui, até desaparecer, em situações ideais. Abstract in spanish En la tentativa de fomentar la transformación de informaciones en conocimiento, este artículo compara los meta-análisis con dos de sus variantes, los mega-análisis y los retro-análisis, técnicas desarrolladas para la síntesis y la equiparación de resultados poco precisos o contradictorios. Mientras [...] los meta-análisis se refieren a la síntesis de los resultados de distintas investigaciones primarias, los mega-análisis se refieren a la síntesis de los datos recolectados por investigaciones primarias, y los retro-análisis, a una nueva creación y posterior síntesis de esos mismos datos. Por medio de una simulación, el Estudio 01 parea el sesgo medio de meta-, mega- y retro-análisis en función de nueve distintas configuraciones que varían según la cantidad de estudios llevados a cabo y el tamaño de la muestra individual de cada uno de esos estudios, en las modalidades de datos completos, leve y severa ausencia de datos. En el estudio 02, los mismos datos utilizados en la simulación de ausencia severa han sido empleados para testar la precisión de mega- y retro-análisis cuando se lleva a cabo la imputación de datos. Los resultados señalan hacia una leve superioridad general de los mega-análisis. Esa diferencia disminuye, hasta desaparecer, en situaciones ideales Abstract in english In an attempt to promote the transformation of information into knowledge, this article compares meta-analyses with two of its variants, mega-analyses and retro-analyses, techniques developed to summarize and compare results that are not very accurate or contradictory. While meta-analyses refer to t [...] he synthesis of results of different primary researches. mega-analyses refer to the synthesis of results collected by primary researches and retroanalyses, to the recreation and posterior synthesis of that data. Using a simulation, Study 1 pairs the average trends from meta, mega and retroanalyses regarding nine different configurations that vary according to the number of studies used and the size of the individual sample of each of those studies, in the full data, light data and severe lack of data modes. In Study 2, the same data used in the simulation of severe lack of data were used to test the accuracy of mega and retroanalyses when performing data imputation. The results show a slight general superiority of mega-analyses, a difference that fades away in ideal situations.

  8. Design of Hollow Reinforced Concrete Columns in the Tubed Mega Frame : Dimensionering av ihåliga armerade betongpelare i ”Tubed Mega Frame”

    OpenAIRE

    Tönseth, David; Welchermill, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A new concept for the structural system for tall buildings, called the “Tubed Mega Frame”, has been developed by Tyre?ns AB. The structure consists of several hollow reinforced concrete columns at the perimeter of the building and at certain levels, the columns are tied together with perimeter walls. Together they carry all the vertical and lateral loads. A purpose of the new concept is to eliminate the core in the center of the building which allows utilizing more floor spacing compared with...

  9. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  10. Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria

    2012-01-01

    The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible for causing infections both in humans and animals worldwide; these are Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae; ß-lactams are antimicrobials commonly prescribed to treat uncomplicated as well as severe infections caused by these Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram negative and also Gram positive bacteria. In particular, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems found broad application in treatment of infections caused by the aforementioned enteric species. Recently however, increasing levels of resistance to ß-lactams is observed in these key infectious agents as well as in many other previously susceptible species. This phenomenon has become a major public concern. Antimicrobials including ß-lactams have been often used in heavy amounts in farming, not only to treat the diagnosed infections in individual animals but also as prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion. It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams) could be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm animals to humans (farm workers, animal caretakers etc.). It has been therefore speculated whether the plasmids with the bla genes found in Enterobacteriaceae in humans could actually originate from the animal sources. The overall aim of this thesis was to verify if indeed related resistance plasmids can circulate between enteric bacteria from humans and food production animals; and if so, then which of these plasmid species are specifically associated with the epidemic types of blaTEM genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, the association of the plasmid encoded blaTEM genes with transposable elements is also studied in order to get a broader perspective of which MGEs are involved in mobilization and spread of these bla genes in the diverse reservoirs. Finally, an attempt is made to encompass ecological aspects of plasmid driven transmission of resistance among the enteric bacteria. In the first study the relationship between plasmids harbouring blaTEM-52 genes isolated from humans, poultry and also meat products was examined. Twenty- two plasmids from a collection of E. coli and different serovars of S. enterica were characterized. The study delivered molecular evidences that epidemiologically related plasmids circulated in the diverse species of enteric bacteria and between humans and animals, and the possible transmission route could have been contaminated food products like meat. Two types of epidemic plasmids were detected in isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; namely undistinguishable IncI1 blaTEM-52 plasmids were found in human and poultry isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; also undistinguishable IncX1 plasmids were isolated from E. coli and S. enterica from human infections, poultry and meat products (from poultry, broiler and beef). The strains harbouring these plasmids were confirmed not to be clonally related, hence indicating the transmission of the plasmids between the different bacteria from humans and animals rather than isolation of the same bacterial clones from the different reservoirs. With relation to the study I, a range of other observations was made. On majority of the examined plasmids, the blaTEM-52 genes resided on the Tn3-related transposons. Further analysis of the genetic environment o

  11. Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

  12. Performance studies of MicroMegas for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of MicroMegas (MM) has been extensively studied during several test beam campaigns with high energy particle beams at CERN up to the year 2012, and more recently (June 2013) with electron beams at DESY. Main objectives of the tests were to demonstrate that the requirements could be achieved for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, where the MicroMegas will be mounted (along with small-strip Thin Gap Chambers — sTGC) on the New Small Wheel for forward muon detection. The MM layout and operating settings have then been chosen to satisfy the ATLAS upgrade requirements and trigger timing constraints. Results for efficiencies, time resolution and spatial resolution for perpendicular and inclined tracks are presented. Moreover, in ATLAS the MM will operate in a non-uniform magnetic field up to 0.3 T. Dedicated test beam measurements have been carried out in a variable magnetic field between 0 and 1 T. The performance of MM in magnetic fields is also reported along with a comparison to simulations

  13. MegaPipe astrometry for the New Horizons spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Stephen D J

    2014-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft, launched by NASA in 2006, will arrive in the Pluto-Charon system on July 14, 2015. There, it will spend a few hours imaging Pluto and its moons. It will then have a small amount of reserve propellant which will be used to direct the probe on to a second, yet to be discovered object in the Kuiper Belt. Data from the MegaPrime camera on CFHT was used to build a precise, high density astrometric reference frame for both the final approach into the Pluto system and the search for the secondary target. Pluto currently lies in the galactic plane. This is a hindrance in that there are potential problems with confusion. However, it is also a benefit, since it allows the use of the UCAC4 astrometric reference catalog, which is normally too sparse for use with MegaCam images. The astrometric accuracy of the final catalogs, as measured by the residuals, is 0.02 arcseconds.

  14. A Positive Study on the Residents' Tourism Expectation of Shanghai EXPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yun-yao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The attitude, cognition and expectation of residents in certain eventholding destination play a significant role to the success of this mega-event. This research analyzed the expectation of Shangehai residents, as well as the interdependent relationship between residents' expectation and 2010 Shanghai EXPO focusing on 2010 Shanghai EXPO. This study revealed that factor analysis selected 5 tourism expectation factors (infrastructural& environmentalfactor;positive attitude;social phenomenal;economic and price & real estate.Among Shanghai residents' demographic characteristics, except gender, the otherdemographic variables like age,educationallevel, marital level and profession all have obvious differences with the 5expectation factors.multi-regression analysis also revealed that Shanghai residents' expectation has apositive correlation with the active participating attitudes.Inthe end the insufficiency of this study is put forwardand recommendations on the futurestudyare alsogiven.

  15. Incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os «megas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. A. Barbosa

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. estudaram, a incidência da cardiopatia chagásica em 15.000 necrópsias consecutivas e sua associação com os megas. Em 875 cardiopatias chagásicas houve 145 casos de megas, ou seja, 16,56%, com predominância do sexo masculino. No branco houve maior incidência (55 de megas do que no mulato (53 e no negro (31 dentre 858 cardiopatias chagásicas. Em 848 cardiopatias chagásicas, 85,78% eram de indivíduos que faleceram entre 21 e 60 anos. O maior número de cardiopatias (120 ou 14,14% e de "megas'' (21 ou 15,78% foi encontrado nos indivíduos entre 36 a 40 anos. Os nossos resultados mostram uma incidência diferente da associação cardiopatia-mega, em comparação da observada em outras regiões do País e em outros países da América do Sul.

  16. Plasmid Mediated Salt Tolerance in Root Associated Bacteria from Erigerone linifolious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Yasmin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains (which could tolerate 2-3M NaCl in the growth medium were isolated from the roots of Erigerone linifolious. They were El-1, El-2, El-3 (from histoplane of roots and REl-1, REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 (from the rhizoplane. All bacterial strains were motile rods (except El-2 which were cocci, exhibiting either Gram-negative (El-1, El-2, El-3, REl-1 or Gram-variable (REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 staining. These strains were affiliated with genus Delya (El-1, Vibrio (El-3, REl-1, while four Gram-variable strains shaired characters with Bacillus pumilus. They have wide temperature and pH ranges with different optima. These strains also exhibit multiple salts/osmolytes/heavy metals/antibiotics resistance. Curing of plasmids from four of these strains revealed that salt tolerance and most of the other resistances were plasmid encoded. Plasmids residing in these halo-tolerant strains were conjugative (except pSH1413. Hybridization experiments revealed that one of these plasmids (pSH1414 belonged to IncN group of plasmids.

  17. Mega-mining in Mexico. Structural reforms and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tetreault

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the structural causes of social environmental conflicts around mega-mining in Mexico and describes the emergence and coordination of resistance movements. It argues that neoliberal reforms have facilitated ‘accumulation by dispossession’ on two levels: first, by transferring public resources in the form of mineral reserves and state-run mining companies to the private sector; and second, bydispossessing smallholder farmers and indigenous communities of their land, water and cultural landscapes, in order to allow mining companies to carry out their activities. Furthermore, it argues that some factions of the resistance movements reflect ‘the environmentalism of the poor’ insofar as they seek to maintain natural resources outside of the sphere of the capitalist mode of production. Through a systematic revision of newspaper articles, blogs and scholarly publications, 29 high-profile eco-territorial mining conflicts are identified and a preliminary analysis of these is provided.

  18. Paleofluvial mega-canyon beneath the central Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Jonathan L; Siegert, Martin J; Griggs, Jennifer A; Marshall, Shawn J; Spada, Giorgio

    2013-08-30

    Subglacial topography plays an important role in modulating the distribution and flow of basal water. Where topography predates ice sheet inception, it can also reveal insights into former tectonic and geomorphological processes. Although such associations are known in Antarctica, little consideration has been given to them in Greenland, partly because much of the ice sheet bed is thought to be relatively flat and smooth. Here, we present evidence from ice-penetrating radar data for a 750-km-long subglacial canyon in northern Greenland that is likely to have influenced basal water flow from the ice sheet interior to the margin. We suggest that the mega-canyon predates ice sheet inception and will have influenced basal hydrology in Greenland over past glacial cycles. PMID:23990558

  19. Encountering Difference : Nordic privileged migrants in Indian mega-cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulkes, Nicol Marie

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic region is famed for its high standards of welfare and public service, labour market flexibility, education, freedom, trust and not least happiness. From a global perspective, in many ways the region occupies a somewhat elite status at the top of the global social ladder, in spite of the challenges they face in coping with diversity. In stark contrast, India, even with the exponential growth in its economy in recent years, is still home to some of the most poverty stricken regions of the world, with over 90% of the active labour force in unorganized work and without any social protection. The major cities have poor yet improving infrastructure, which, coupled with stark cultural, religious and ideological differences, challenge Nordic privileged migrants’ conceptions of time, space and human interaction. The aim of this chapter is to investigate how Nordic privileged migrants encounter and navigate the social system in the Indian mega-cities Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai. The analysis takes into consideration how Nordic shared values like trust and equality are negotiated in locations where there are stark cultural and environmental differences, investigating how these negotiations affect their daily life and ultimately their freedom, as well as how the outcomes differ among them. The paper is based on the qualitative analysis of 29 interviews and questionnaire data collected from knowledge workers and their partners from Northern Europe, eight of whom were from Finland and eight from Denmark, who have moved to India because of either their own or their partner’s job. The findings indicate that while the Nordic privileged migrants encounter similar challenges in Indian mega-cities, there are both similarities and dissimilarities in the way navigate and negotiate those challenges, possibly as a result of the combination of having shared Nordic values, and possessing different levels of human (economic and cultural), social, and erotic capital (Hakim 2010).

  20. Changes in medicine: residency

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2011-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governi...

  1. Investigating fusion plasma instabilities in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak using mega electron volt proton emissions (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R. V., E-mail: rvale006@fiu.edu; Boeglin, W. U.; Angulo, A.; Avila, P.; Leon, O.; Lopez, C. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8 ST, CP204, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, James Forrestal Campus, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Cecconello, M.; Klimek, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 20 (Sweden); Allan, S. Y.; Akers, R. J.; Keeling, D. L.; McClements, K. G.; Scannell, R.; Conway, N. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turnyanskiy, M. [ITER Physics Department, EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Jones, O. M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Michael, C. A. [Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    The proton detector (PD) measures 3 MeV proton yield distributions from deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions within the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The PD’s compact four-channel system of collimated and individually oriented silicon detectors probes different regions of the plasma, detecting protons (with gyro radii large enough to be unconfined) leaving the plasma on curved trajectories during neutral beam injection. From first PD data obtained during plasma operation in 2013, proton production rates (up to several hundred kHz and 1 ms time resolution) during sawtooth events were compared to the corresponding MAST neutron camera data. Fitted proton emission profiles in the poloidal plane demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

  2. Investigating fusion plasma instabilities in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak using mega electron volt proton emissions (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. V.; Boeglin, W. U.; Darrow, D. S.; Cecconello, M.; Klimek, I.; Allan, S. Y.; Akers, R. J.; Keeling, D. L.; McClements, K. G.; Scannell, R.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Angulo, A.; Avila, P.; Leon, O.; Lopez, C.; Jones, O. M.; Conway, N. J.; Michael, C. A.

    2014-11-01

    The proton detector (PD) measures 3 MeV proton yield distributions from deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions within the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The PD's compact four-channel system of collimated and individually oriented silicon detectors probes different regions of the plasma, detecting protons (with gyro radii large enough to be unconfined) leaving the plasma on curved trajectories during neutral beam injection. From first PD data obtained during plasma operation in 2013, proton production rates (up to several hundred kHz and 1 ms time resolution) during sawtooth events were compared to the corresponding MAST neutron camera data. Fitted proton emission profiles in the poloidal plane demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

  3. Plasmids of Pseudomonas cepacia strains of diverse origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, E; DeCicco, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from clinical, pharmaceutical-industrial, and environmental origins were analyzed for the presence of plasmid DNA by a modification of the rapid alkaline extraction method of Birnboim (H. C. Birnboim, Methods Enzymol. 100:243-255, 1983). Plasmids were present in 31 strains (84%) from all sources, with no one source showing less than 75% plasmid carriage among its strains. The plasmid profiles indicated that the presence of large plasmids (146 to 222...

  4. pB264, a small, mobilizable, temperature sensitive plasmid from Rhodococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Devin H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus have shown an extraordinary capacity for metabolizing recalcitrant organic compounds. One hindrance to the full exploitation of Rhodococcus is the dearth of genetic tools available for strain manipulation. To address this issue, we sought to develop a plasmid-based system for genetic manipulation of a variety of Rhodococcus strains. Results We isolated and sequenced pB264, a 4,970 bp cryptic plasmid from Rhodococcus sp. B264-1 with features of a theta-type replication mechanism. pB264 was nearly identical to pKA22, a previously sequenced but uncharacterized cryptic plasmid. Derivatives of pB264 replicate in a diverse range of Rhodococcus species, showing that this plasmid does not bear the same host range restrictions that have been exhibited by other theta replicating plasmids. Replication or maintenance of pB264 is inhibited at 37°C, making pB264 useful as a suicide vector for genetic manipulation of Rhodococcus. A series of deletions revealed that ca. 1.3 kb from pB264 was sufficient to support replication and stable inheritance of the plasmid. This region includes two open reading frames that encode functions (RepAB that can support replication of pB264 derivatives in trans. Rhodococcus sp. B264-1 will mobilize pB264 into other Rhodococcus species via conjugation, making it possible to genetically modify bacterial strains that are otherwise difficult to transform. The cis-acting element (oriT required for conjugal transfer of pB264 resides within a ca. 0.7 kb region that is distinct from the regions responsible for replication. Conclusion Shuttle vectors derived from pB264 will be useful for genetic studies and strain improvement in Rhodococcus, and will also be useful for studying the processes of theta replication and conjugal transfer among actinomycetes.

  5. Decoración de la decadencia: La balaustrada neobarroca como síntoma crítico en la mega ciudad de México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Krieger.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo revisa el uso libre de la balaustrada, un elemento decorativo tradicional cuya presencia en la arquitectura continúa hasta la actualidad, aun en los diferentes contextos culturales de la mega ciudad de México. Esta decoración neobarroca conquistó las fachadas de casi todas los tipos arqu [...] itectónicos y se le utiliza como elemento representativo en todas las clases sociales, desde la residencia de lujo hasta la autoconstrucción. Estos usos, fomentados por la ideología cultural de la posmodernidad, consisten en la negación del valor auténtico de la balaustrada histórica. Es un fenómeno crítico de la sociedad contemporánea que cada vez más remplaza la sustancia original por el producto fake y erosiona el conocimiento de la propia historia por la construcción de mundos ficticios. El ensayo reflexiona sobre los efectos de esta situación para la restauración de monumentos. Abstract in english This essay revises the unlimited uses of the balustrade, a traditional decorative element present until today, even in the different context of the Mexican megalopolis. This neobaroque decoration conquered the façades of almost all architectural types, for a social status, including the luxury resid [...] ential areas and also the self-constructed houses. These uses are based on postmodern cultural ideology and deny the authentic values of the historical balustrade. It is a critical phenomenon of contemporary society, where fake products replace more and more the original substance, and the knowledge of history is substituted by the construction of fictional worlds. The essay deals with the effects of this situation for the restoration of monuments.

  6. FCC resid processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper narrows the definition of reside processor to those FCC's which run feedstocks containing 1 wt.% or more Conradson carbon residue. With this new definition, the resid survey is revisited to see if any new conclusions can be drawn from the data. The authors break down the numbers and geography of resid processors, feed types, operating variables, and yields. After examining the state of resid processing in the FCC, the paper focuses on the design of cracking catalysts for handling resid feeds. There are important considerations involved in processing resid including high levels of contaminants such as vanadium and nickel, the impact on heat balance, and diffusion effects. Catalysts can be designed to improve the profitability of a resid operation. A clear picture of the roles of zeolite and matrix is presented, along with a discussion of the different types of zeoliters which are commonly used. The paper demonstrates how zeolite and matrix are best combined to meet objectives within a given set of constraints while processing resid

  7. A Resident Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.

    This paper examines the work of resident engineers in a university setting. The need for engineers with industrial experience is established, and the benefits of using resident engineers in training programs are cited. Attributes and problems associated with the practice are studied from the viewpoints of industry, government, universities, and…

  8. Enhanced Mission-Enabling Ultra-High Power Solar Array (Mega-ROSA EX) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mega-ROSA-EX is an enhanced, higher stiffness, higher sun-pointing accuracy, higher strength, higher specific power and even larger overall power / deployed size /...

  9. O'Mega & WHIZARD: Monte Carlo Event Generator Generation For Future Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Thorsten

    2000-01-01

    I describe the optimizing matrix element generator O'Mega and Wolfgang Kilian's event generator generator WHIZARD. These tools cooperate in the automated production of efficient unweighted event generators for linear collider physics.

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on best practices for EPC mega-project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Approaches to effective mega-project management were the focus of this conference. Issues concerning cost-overruns, industry initiatives to improve bottom line forecasting and management of costs were examined. In addition, the reduction of delivery risks was discussed. Management of mega-projects and the creation of smaller components were reviewed. Issues concerning contracts, teams and success in mega-projects were also examined along with techniques to improve scheduling and resource management for mega-projects. Various techniques for improving workforce planning were reviewed, in addition to issues concerning increasing supply and improving productivity of trades people and project managers. Issues concerning unions, project contracts and lump sum payments were discussed as well as partnership approaches. In addition, the advantages of, and challenges to modularization were reviewed. The conference featured 9 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on EPC mega-project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The presentations at this conference focused on planning, management and risk mitigation strategies for large scale engineering, procurement and construction projects. Various successful mega-projects in Alberta were reviewed. Issues concerning lump sum contracts, construction, and project workforce planning effects were discussed. Mixed labour agreements were evaluated with reference to mega-project optimization. Various suggestions and improvements for mega-projects were outlined, and issues concerning financing, procurement and construction site management were discussed. Best practices for developing and managing mega-project contracts were evaluated. Various techniques for improving workforce planning were suggested. The conference featured 16 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  12. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process. PMID:6828903

  13. Mega events, tourism and local development: the case of Torino 2006

    OpenAIRE

    DANSERO, Egidio; PUTTILLI, MATTEO GIROLAMO

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of mega-events such as Olympic Games on tourism development in host territories. In the first part, we adopt a territorialization approach to understand the relationship between the event and the host region.A mega-event is conceived as a great chance to generate new territory as it produces both tangible and intangible legacies that remain after the event ends: renewal of facilities for hospitality and accommodation, better infrastructures, better training for ...

  14. MEGA: A biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sudhir; Nei, Masatoshi; DUDLEY, JOEL; Tamura, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software is a desktop application designed for comparative analysis of homologous gene sequences either from multigene families or from different species with a special emphasis on inferring evolutionary relationships and patterns of DNA and protein evolution. In addition to the tools for statistical analysis of data, MEGA provides many convenient facilities for the assembly of sequence data sets from files or web-based repositories, and it ...

  15. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

  16. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

  17. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  18. [Plasmid resistance to antiseptics. Demonstration of methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyck-Gandre, H; Moulin, G; Cenatiempo, Y

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and mercury chloride was studied for 70 Gram negative strains (56 Enterobacteriaceae and 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) recovered from humans or animals. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on solid agar (replica plating) and in a liquid medium (laser nephelometry). For resistant strains, plasmidic mediation was looked for using conjugation. Isolation of lysates by the miniprep analytic method and physicochemical characterization of plasmids by agar electrophoresis were carried out using conjugative strains. MICs obtained using the two methods differed by one dilution at the most. Both methods yielded reproducible results. Regardless of the origin of strains, a resistant population was identified only for mercury chloride. This resistance was plasmid-mediated and transferred singly or associated with resistance to other antibiotics. PMID:3937134

  19. System modelling and identification of Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic system response model for plasma in Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) has been developed using RZIP. This is a linearized tokamak model. It assumes a constant plasma current distribution and axisymmetry. The plasma and conducting structures are approximated by discrete toroidal current filaments. RZIP generates a state-space model of the system behaviour, with PF coil voltages as inputs and various predicted diagnostic measurements as outputs. A separate SIMULINK model has been developed to represent the MAST plant, power supplies and analogue feedback controller. The RZIP and SIMULINK models were combined to produce a complete system model. This combined model was used to simulate test shots under both vacuum and plasma conditions. The two sets of traces cohere reasonably well, with some difference in attenuation levels. System identification experiments were carried out on the PF coils, with particular attention paid to the vertical field coils, under vacuum conditions. The frequency response behaviour was found using an excitation signal comprising a number of sinusoids. The RZIP model was verified by comparing its predicted response with experimental data

  20. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  1. Beam shaping in the MegaJoule laser project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) is dedicated to inertial confinement fusion. To perform this type of experiment, 160 square beams are frequency converted and focused onto a target filled with a deuterium tritium mixture. We propose to review how these beams are shaped along their propagation through the LMJ. Going upstream from the target to the laser source, specific optics has been designed to meet the beam shaping requirement. A focusing grating and a pseudo-random phase plate concentrate the energy onto the target. A deformable mirror controls and compensates the spatial phase defect occurring during the propagation through the main slab amplifiers. A liquid crystal cell shapes the beam in order to compensate the gain profile of the main amplifiers. It also protects the growth of damages that take place in the final optics of the chain. At last, a phase mirror generates a square flat top mode from a gaussian beam within a regenerative amplifier. All these optical components have one common principle: they control the phase of the spatial laser field. (authors)

  2. Characterizing volunteers in sporting mega events: the case of the Fifa soccer world cup in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andile Mjiand; Surujlal J

    2013-01-01

    Mega sporting events need a number of activities to be properly coordinated if they are to be successful. These events require large numbers of human resources and invariably reliance is heavily on volunteers. Essentially, volunteers form the backbone in accomplishing the mega event logistics. Despite the foregoing, little research has characterized volunteers in sporting mega events from a South African perspective. This study addressed this issue by establishing university students’ importa...

  3. “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance in South African Cities: Framing the Urban Social Sustainability of Mega-Event Driven Development from Below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Fleischer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on field research in two South African host cities of the Men’s Football World Cup 2010 (eThekwini and Johannesburg. The discussed work is part of the research project “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance: The Production of Socio-Spatial Control in the Context of the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. In the context of mega-events, impacts and changes on urban development can vary on a spectrum of festivalisation between opposing poles, either “driven by the event”, or on the other hand where existing configurations of actors and established policies are “driving the event”. By drawing on a theoretical framework which is inspired by an analytical understanding of urban governance, our assumptions are that (a different configurations of governance promote different ways of handling the challenges associated to the hosting and (b that different types of “festivalisation” have different consequences and effects for the lived realities of the residents at a local level. The latter is an arena in which urban governance policies are translated, adapted, renegotiated or rejected. We argue that the bringing together of both spheres (local and metropolitan provides a profound understanding of the process of mega-event implementation and its relation to urban social sustainability.

  4. A novel method of plasmid isolation using laundry detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, P; Yadav, A; Garg, V; Datta, T K; Goswami, S L; De, S

    2011-07-01

    Since the discovery of plasmid, various methods have been developed to isolate plasmid DNA. All the methods have one common and important target of isolating plasmid DNA of high quality and quantity in less time. These methods are not completely safe because of use of toxic chemicals compounds. The developed protocol for plasmid extraction is based on the alkaline lysis method of plasmid preparation (extraction atpH 8.0) with slight modifications. Cell lysis reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate is replaced by lipase enzyme present in laundry detergent. A good plasmid preparation can be made, which is well suited for subsequent molecular biology applications. By taking safety measures on count, contaminants like, RNA and protein can be completely avoided with maximized plasmid yield. The resultant plasmid quality and quantity can be well comparable to other prevalent methods. PMID:21800509

  5. Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in uv-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA

  6. Stress in Family Practice Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Rudner, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    Sources and levels of stress, as well as coping mechanisms, perceived by residents in both years of a two-year family practice residency program in Toronto are described. In addition, differences between first- and second-year residents, and between women and men residents, regardless of year, are examined. Results of the survey indicate that the levels of stress are relatively high throughout the two years of residency training. The three most stressful aspects of being a resident are time p...

  7. Molecular delivery of plasmids for genetic vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazid, Romiza; Tan, Melvin X; Danquah, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid vaccination is a smart gene delivery application mostly achieved through the utilisation of viral or copolymeric systems as surrogated carriers in micro or nano formulations. A common polymeric protocol for plasmid vaccine formulation, which as somewhat been successful, is via the complexation of the DNA molecules with a cationic polymer, and encapsulating in a vehicular carrier polymer. Even though plasmid vaccination research has not witnessed the much anticipated success, due a number of cellular and physicochemical reasons, application of copolymeric carriers with tight functionalities is a promising strategy to optimally deliver the DNA molecules; in view of the available chemistries and physical properties that could be tuned to enable enhanced targeted delivery, uptake and specific transfection. This also enables the targeting of specific epitopes and antigen presenting cells for the treatment of many pathogenic infections and cancer. This paper provides a brief critical review of the current state of plasmid vaccines formulation and molecular delivery with analysis of performance data obtained from clinical trials. PMID:24016267

  8. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    origin regions to specific subcellular sites (i.e. the poles or quarter-cell positions). Two types of partitioning ATPases are known: the Walker-type ATPases encoded by the par/sop gene family (type I partitioning loci) and the actin-like ATPase encoded by the par locus of plasmid R1 (type II...

  9. Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proteolytically stable fragment of a plasmid replication initiation protein from the thermophile G. stearothermophilus has been biochemically characterized, crystallized and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to space group P212121

  10. Quality Control of Mega Voltage Portal Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) is a system used to verify either the correct positioning of the patient during radiotherapy treatment or the linear accelerator beam parameters. The correct position of the patient corresponds to the position at which the patient was scanned at the CT simulator and according to which the therapy plan was made and optimized. Regarding this, besides the advanced treatment planning system and optimized treatment planning techniques, the day-to-day reproduction of simulated conditions is of great importance for the treatment outcome. Therefore, to verify the patient set-up portal imaging should be applied prior to the first treatment session and repeated according to treatment prescriptions during the treatment. In order to achieve full functionality and precision of the EPID, it must be included in radiotherapy Quality Control (QC) programme. The QC of the Mega Voltage portal imaging system was separated in two parts. In the first, the QC of the detector parameters should be performed. For this purpose, the FC2 and QC3 phantoms should be used, along with the Portal Image Processing System program (PIPSpro) package for data analysis. The second part of the QC of the linear accelerator's portal imaging system should include the QC of the CBCT. In this part a set of predefined manufacturer's tests using two different phantoms, one for the geometry calibration and the other for the image quality evaluation, should be performed. Also, the treatment conditions should be simulated using anthropomorphic phantoms and dose distributions for particular EPID protocols should be measured. Procedures for quality control of the portal imaging system developed and implemented at University Hospital Rijeka are presented in this paper.(author)

  11. Confinement and exhaust in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is now accessing regimes with high normalized confinement relative to international scalings, HH(IPB98(y, 2))>1 at high normalized density, n-bar e>60% of the Greenwald density. Data from MAST H-modes suggest that the aspect ratio dependency of international confinement and L-H threshold scalings may need to be modified to improve predictions for ITER. Access to H-mode on MAST is strongly affected by both the divertor magnetic geometry and fuelling location, with the formation of an edge transport barrier being facilitated by operation near the symmetric, connected double-null configuration and with poloidally localized inboard gas puffing. The ELMs on MAST appear to be Type III in nature, even in the highest performance plasmas and with the maximum available auxiliary heating power. ELM energy losses are less than 4% of stored energy in all regimes so far explored. These Type III ELMs are associated with a reduction in the pedestal density but no significant change in the pedestal temperature or temperature profile, indicating that energy is convected from the pedestal region into the scrape-off layer. Analysis of the energy observed to arrive at the divertor targets indicates that ELM losses are predominantly on the low field side. ELM effluxes are observed up to 20 cm from the plasma edge at the outboard mid-plane and are associated with the radial motion of a feature at an average velocity of 1.2 km s-1

  12. The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin Daniel J; Svara Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance represents a significant public health problem. When resistance genes are mobile, being carried on plasmids or phages, their spread can be greatly accelerated. Plasmids in particular have been implicated in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the selective pressures which favour plasmid-carried resistance genes have not been fully established. Here we address this issue with mathematical models of plasmid dynamics in response to differ...

  13. Identification of Lactoce Plasmids in Lactococcus lastic subsp. lactis Stains

    OpenAIRE

    Tükel, Ça?la; AKÇEL?K, Mustafa

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encoding lactic acid fermentation ability were investigated in 50 strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis. Acriflavine was used for the elimination of lactose fermentation ability (Lac + ) from wild type strains. Lactose negative (Lac - ) mutants were selected on lactose indicator agar media. Six different lactose plasmids were identified for fifty strains by comparison of plasmid profiles of Lac - and Lac + mutants. The molecular sizes of these lactose plasmids ranged between 26.3 an...

  14. Characterization of the nodulation plasmid encoded chemoreceptor gene mcpG from Rhizobium leguminosarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bel Kate L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, chemotaxis in Rhizobium has not been well characterized. Methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins are sensory proteins important in chemotaxis of numerous bacteria, but their involvement in Rhizobium chemotaxis is unclear and merits further investigation. Results A putative methyl accepting chemotaxis protein gene (mcpG of Rhizobium leguminosarum VF39SM was isolated and characterized. The gene was found to reside on the nodulation plasmid, pRleVF39d. The predicted mcpG ORF displayed motifs common to known methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, such as two transmembrane domains and high homology to the conserved methylation and signaling domains of well-characterized MCPs. Phenotypic analysis of mcpG mutants using swarm plates did not identify ligands for this putative receptor. Additionally, gene knockouts of mcpG did not affect a mutant strain's ability to compete for nodulation with the wild type. Notably, mcpG was found to be plasmid-encoded in all strains of R. leguminosarum and R. etli examined, though it was found on the nodulation plasmid only in a minority of strains. Conclusions Based on sequence homology R. leguminosarum mcpG gene codes for a methyl accepting chemotaxis protein. The gene is plasmid localized in numerous Rhizobium spp. Although localized to the sym plasmid of VF39SM mcpG does not appear to participate in early nodulation events. A ligand for McpG remains to be found. Apparent McpG orthologs appear in a diverse range of proteobacteria. Identification and characterization of mcpG adds to the family of mcp genes already identified in this organism.

  15. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions.

  16. Transfer of IncN plasmids to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, G; Grant, R B

    1982-01-01

    Three of four N plasmids tested were found to be conjugatively transferable from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plasmids in the Pseudomonas transconjugants differed from the plasmids in the donor E. coli with respect to molecular weight, transfer ability, phenotype conferred, and stability. In some cases, the antibiotic and UV resistance genes appeared to integrate into the P. aeruginosa chromosome.

  17. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions

  18. Identificación de mega?ambientes para potenciar el uso de genotipos superiores de arroz en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Camargo?Buitrago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar tres métodos para identificar mega?ambientes, para optimizar el uso del potencial genético de los cultivares de arroz, durante el proceso de selección, y para hacer recomendaciones sobre siembras comerciales en Panamá. Los datos experimentales fueron obtenidos de los ensayos de productividad de cultivares precoces realizados entre 2006 y 2008. Para lograr la estratificación de los ambientes y definir los mega?ambientes, se utilizaron los métodos del genotipo vencedor mediante el modelo AMMI1, el modelo biplot GGE y el de conglomerado por el método de Ward, complementado con el biplot GGE. Los tres métodos utilizados identificaron dos mega?ambientes, donde los cultivares sobresalientes fueron Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145?05. Hubo una coincidencia de 100% en el agrupamiento del conglomerado x el biplot GGE, mientras que entre conglomerado x AMMI1 y biplot GGE x AMMI1 fue de 95,2%. El genotipo más estable, en ambos mega?ambientes, fue el cultivar Idiap 145?05, lo que indica capacidad de adaptación amplia y específica. La capacidad adaptativa de los genotipos superiores y no las condiciones agroclimáticas de las localidades evaluadas fue responsable de la definición de los mega?ambientes.

  19. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic mega-dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekaykin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of glaciological investigations in the mega-dune area located 30 km to the east from Vostok Station (central East Antarctica implemented during the 58th, 59th and 60th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013–January 2015. Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (δD, δ18O and δ17O were measured along the 2 km profile across the mega-dune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and GPR survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by one order of magnitude within the distance −1. The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 410 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotopic composition are supposed to drift with the dune, an ice core drilled in the mega-dune area would exhibit the non-climatic 410 year cycle of these two parameters. We simulated a vertical profile of snow isotopic composition with such a non-climatic variability, using the data on the dune size and velocity. This artificial profile is then compared with the real vertical profile of snow isotopic composition obtained from a core drilled in the mega-dune area. We note that the two profiles are very similar. The obtained results are discussed in terms of interpretation of data obtained from ice cores drilled beyond the mega-dune areas.

  20. Using a custom mega prosthesis to treat hydatidosis of bone: a report of 3 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan MV

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of hydatidosis of bone with pathological fracture were treated by wide resection, custom mega prosthesis replacement, and chemotherapy. Two patients were females and one was male, with a mean age of 47 years (range, 38-55 years. Two of them had a pathological fracture of the proximal femur, and one had a pathological fracture of the distal femur. All patients were treated postoperatively with albendazole 400 mg, twice daily, for 12 weeks. During the mean follow-up period of 4.5 years, no recurrence of Echinococcal infection was noticed. The use of the custom mega prosthesis technique has not been reported elsewhere, and hydatid disease of the bone can now be considered an extended indication for custom mega prosthesis in addition to its application in surgery for tumours and massive trauma.

  1. A Practical Data Recovery Technique for Long-Term Strain Monitoring of Mega Columns during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical data recovery method is proposed for the strain data lost during the safety monitoring of mega columns. The analytical relations among the measured strains are derived to recover the data lost due to unexpected errors in long-term measurement during construction. The proposed technique is applied to recovery of axial strain data of a mega column in an irregular building structure during construction. The axial strain monitoring using the wireless strain sensing system was carried out for one year and five months between 23 July 2010 and 22 February 2012. During the long-term strain sensing, three different types of measurement errors occurred. Using the recovery technique, the strain data that could not be measured at different intervals in the measurement were successfully recovered. It is confirmed that the problems that may occur during long-term wireless strain sensing of mega columns during construction could be resolved through the proposed recovery method.

  2. Membrane electrode gasket assembly (MEGA) technology for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, A.; Giorgi, L.; De Francesco, M.; Silva, R. F.; Lo Presti, R.; Danzi, A.

    A new technology for the production of a membrane electrode gasket assembly (MEGA) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is defined. The MEGA system was prepared by sealing a previously prepared membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a moulded gasket. For this aim, a proprietary silicone based liquid mixture was injected directly into the MEA borders. Gaskets obtained in different shapes and hardness grades are stable in a wide temperature range. The MEGA technology shows several advantages with respect to traditional PEFCs stack assembling systems: effective membrane saving, reduced fabrication time, possibility of quality control and failed elements substitution. This technology was successfully tested at the ENEA laboratories and the results were acquired in laboratory scale, but industrial production appears to be simple and cheap.

  3. Pooling fMRI data: meta-analysis, mega-analysis and multi-center studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi G Costafreda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related fMRI experiments has the potential to significantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results, mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data or multi-site studies which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain mapping and how data-pooling can be used to remediate them are reviewed, with particular attention to power aggregation and mitigation of false positive results. Some recently developed analysis tools for meta- and mega-analysis are also presented, and recommendations for the conduct of valid fMRI data pooling are formulated.

  4. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  5. Shear viscosity of shocked metals at mega-bar pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    Viscosity of metals at high pressures and temperatures has been one of the most concerned problems in weapon physics and geophysics, e.g., the shear viscosity coefficients of substances in earth's mantle and earth's core at mega-bar pressures are needed for understanding the core mantle convection in deep earth. But the experimental data is very scarce because the conventional measurement methods can hardly be applied to such compression conditions [1]. In this talk, the principle of small-disturbance perturbation method [2] is re-investigated based on both the analytic solution and the numerical solution of the two-dimentional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on front. In numerical solution, the real viscosity, which governs the flow behind the shock front and the perturbation damping feature, and the artificial viscosity, whick controls the numerical oscillation, separately treated. The relation between the viscosity of flow and the damping features of perturbation amplitude is quantitatively established for the loading situations of Sakharov's [3] and a flyer-impact situation with a finite disturbance. The later is the theoretical basis to develop a new experimental method, called the flyer-impact small-disturbance method [4]. In the flyer-impact small-disturbance method, the two-stage light-gas gun is used to launch a metal flyer. When the flyer directly impacts on the wedge-shaped sample with a sinusoidal surface, a two-dimensional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on its front is generated. The amplitude of disturbance and its dependance with propagation distance is measured by use of an electric pin-array probe or a fibre-array probe. Correspondingly, the solution of the flow is given by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations by the finite difference technique to find out the quantative correlations among the amplitude decay, the initial distribution of flow, the amplitude of initial disturbance, the shear viscosity of the flow, and the material's strength. The value of viscosity coefficient is determined by fitting the simulated damping curve to the measured data points. Compared to the small-disturbance method of Sakharov, the present flyer-impact small-disturbance method can generate an initial flow well-described by a reliable theoretical model. In this way, the viscosity of aluminum and iron are studied. It is found that the effective viscosity coefficients of aluminum value at 2000 Pa.s when the shock pressure is from 40 to 100 GPa, and those of iron value at 4000 Pa.s in the pressure range of 100-160G Pa. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10576025 and 10974160).

  6. Cyclone Driven Sediment Loads in a Tropical Mega-River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen; Leyland, Julian; Hackney, Christopher; Heasley, Eleanore; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel; Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Best, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the links between environmental change and sediment transport in the mega-rivers that dominate the flux of terrestrial sediment to their deltas and oceans remains a major challenge. Many large river systems display significant seasonality in flow regime, which is affected to a greater or lesser degree by the influence of large tropical storms, which act to increase their variability and thus drive uncertainty in predicting the impacts associated with changes in future flow regimes. Here we demonstrate the significance of tropical storms in driving sediment flux from one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong, to its delta. Data was collected at Kratie, Cambodia; this being the site of the Mekong's final reliable flow gauging station before the Mekong delta. Suspended sediment fluxes were estimated by calibrating acoustic backscatter returns from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to observed suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across a monsoon cycle. The retrieved SSCs were combined with flow velocity estimates to recover the sediment flux. These estimates of flux were then used to build sediment rating curves to predict suspended flux as a function of flow discharge. A hydrological model, VMod, was then used to estimate daily discharge values for the same historical period, but for a scenario in which the effects of tropical storms on the flow regime are isolated. This was achieved by forcing the hydrological model with daily precipitation values that account for precipitation anomalies associated with observed tropical storms. The difference in cumulative sediment transport estimated by combining the two flow discharge scenarios with the constructed sediment rating curves allowed the contribution of tropical storms to the Lower Mekong's suspended sediment transport regime to be isolated. It was found that sediment loads in the Mekong River attenuate downstream from approximately 120 MT in Laos and Thailand to ~80-90 MT in the alluvial floodplain reaches of Cambodia. Furthermore, it is shown that the proportion of flux generated from tropical cyclones increases downstream and dominates (~60%) the flux observed around the confluence of the 3S basin (the Se San, Sre Pok and Se Kong Rivers) which drains the Vietnamese highlands. This implies future changes in cyclone tracks may impact upon sediment delivery to the Mekong delta.

  7. Ideal MHD stability of the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, M J [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Akers, R J [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Appel, L C [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Buttery, R J [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brickley, C [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conway, N J [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gryaznevich, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hender, T C [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kwon, O J [Department of Physics, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Valovic, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Medvedev, S [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125047 Moscow, Miusskaya 4 (Russian Federation); Patel, A [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Saarelma, S [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Taylor, D [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wilson, H R [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    In this work three techniques that refine the magnetic reconstruction of the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) equilibrium are detailed: kinetic reconstruction, in which the thermal pressure profile is fitted to thermal electron and ion data; bootstrap (BS) reconstruction, in which the edge current profile is modified to be self-consistent with the BS fraction (in the limit that edge current is BS dominated); and fast-particle reconstruction, in which an effective fast-ion pressure component is added, representing ions driven by charge exchange of the thermal ions with injected neutrals. Kinetic reconstructions for some high performance shots suggest normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}, up to 4.95 and BS fractions up to 30%, with internal inductance l{sub i} {approx} 1 and pressure peaking factor p(0)/(p) {approx} 2.2. Full-orbit simulations suggest that up to 25% of the total stored energy in these high performance discharges is in the fast-ion population: addition of effective fast-particle pressures boosts {beta}{sub n} to 5.56. Ideal MHD pressure driven stability thresholds of n = 1, 2 and {infinity} displacements are examined for kinetic and BS reconstructions of four high {beta}{sub n} MAST discharges. Based on kinetic reconstructions it is found that the no-wall instability threshold to external n = 1 displacements is {beta}{sub n} {approx} 5-6, and the with-wall {beta}{sub n} limit 10% higher than the no-wall limit. In comparison, the n = 1 no-wall instability threshold based on BS reconstructions is slightly below ({approx}95%) that determined using kinetic reconstructions. Comparison to the MAST database suggests that MAST is approaching a regime in which passive stabilization is required to prevent ideal disruptions at higher {beta}{sub n}. Finally, vertical stability of an earlier set of MAST discharges is also examined, an estimate of the MAST effective wall for n = 0 modes provided, and the wall radius for marginal stability parameterized as a function of l{sub i} and {kappa}. Together, these provide a measure of proximity to marginal stability.

  8. Role of Plasmid in Production of Acetobacter Xylinum Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rezaee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetobacter xylinum has the ability to produce cellulotic biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is expected to be used in many industrial or biomedical materials for its unique characteristics. A. xylinum contains a complex system of plasmid DNA molecules. A 44 kilobases (kb plasmid was isolated in wild type of A. xylinum. To improve the cellulose producing ability of A. xylinum, role of the plasmid in production of cellulose was studied. The comparisons between wild type and cured cells of A. xylinum showed that there is considerably difference in cellulose production. In order to study the relationship between plasmid and the rate of cellulose production, bacteria were screened for plasmid profile by a modified method for preparation of plasmid. This method yields high levels of pure plasmid DNA that can be used for common molecular techniques, such as digestion and transformation, with high efficiency.

  9. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents three college residence-hall projects that reveal the diversity in planning and design ideas available for successfully meeting student needs. Discusses use of unique interior designs and locations, multi-service features, and the use of prefabricated materials to cut building costs are discussed. (GR)

  10. Operational Principle and Tuning of the MegaDiscaP Power Converters Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, JM; Garcia Retegui, R; Benedetti, M; Maestri, S; Kloster, W

    2010-01-01

    This technical report presents the regulation system of the MegaDiscaP power converter prototype. This type of converter will be used to power the septum magnet for Booster injection with Linac 4. First, the MegaDiscaP topology and operational principles are introduced. Then, as the system is composed by different stages, a regulation system capable of handling their interconnections with minimum transient response is presented. Its features, behavior and design considerations adopted are accounted for. Finally, a complete documentation of the implemented software is reported.

  11. Mega sporting events: A poisoned chalice or a new dawn for low- and middle-income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mega sporting events in South Africa, which has the largest number of HIV-positive people in the world, and India, with 1.8 million deaths of children under 5 each year and 52 million stunted children, raise questions about the effective and, as importantly, the moral imperative of spending billions of dollars to host a sporting event. From a health perspective, selling alcohol and debt tarnishes further the notion of any intangible benefits of mega events to low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW MicroMEGAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, Atsuhiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    MicroMegas with resistive anode will be used for the NSW upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The resistive electrode is one of key technology for MPGDs to prevent sparks. Large area resistive electrodes for the MM have been developed using two different technology; screen printing and carbon sputtering. Maximum size of each resistive foil is 45cm x 220cm with printed pattern of 425 micron pitch strips. Those technologies are also suitable to mass production. The prototypes of series production model have been produced successfully. We will report the development and production status and test results of the resistive MicroMegas.

  13. Plasmid DNA imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced DNA fragment distribution seems to be missing information crucial for understanding of biological impacts of DNA clustered damages. First, the produced DNA fragments may interfere within pathways involved in repair of the clustered damages. Second, measurements of the clustered damages by conventional techniques are negatively affected by limits in fragments' detection. Therefore, our project is aimed to characterization of radiation induced DNA fragment-length distribution by use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this contribution we introduce preliminary tests performed in laboratories of ESTEC (European space research and technology center). Several substrates for DNA plasmid AFM imaging were tested (glass, silicon wafer and mica), as well as fixing methods. The DNA on the substrates was imaged in the air with AFM in tapping mode; we will discuss optimal cantilever and scanning parameters. The AFM images have been started to analyze in order to a) distinguish plasmid forms of different conformation (supercoiled, circular, and linear) according to a level of plasmid DNA damage, since this information can be compared to conventional techniques such as electrophoresis; b) measure lengths of the linear forms. (authors)

  14. Determination of Plasmid Segregational Stability in a Growing Bacterial Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids are extensively used as cloning vectors for a number of genes for academic and commercial purposes. Moreover, attenuated bacteria carrying recombinant plasmids expressing genes with anti-tumor activity have shown promising therapeutic results in animal models of cancer. Equitable plasmid distribution between daughter cells during cell division, i.e., plasmid segregational stability, depends on many factors, including the plasmid copy number, its replication mechanism, the levels of recombinant gene expression, the type of bacterial host, and the metabolic burden associated with all these factors. Plasmid vectors usually code for antibiotic-resistant functions, and, in order to enrich the culture with bacteria containing plasmids, antibiotic selective pressure is commonly used to eliminate plasmid-free segregants from the growing population. However, administration of antibiotics can be inconvenient for many industrial and therapeutic applications. Extensive ongoing research is being carried out to develop stably-inherited plasmid vectors. Here, I present an easy and precise method for determining the kinetics of plasmid loss or maintenance for every ten generations of bacterial growth in culture. PMID:26846807

  15. Psychiatric Pharmacy Residency Training*

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Steven C.; Ott, Carol A.; DiPaula, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the psychiatric pharmacist in the care of the mentally ill has continually evolved since the late 1960s and early 1970s. Pharmacists in the field of psychiatric pharmacy work to improve the health, safety, and welfare of those impacted by one or more psychiatric conditions. Specialty residency training programs are accredited to establish minimum training standards and a board-certification process ensures that individuals provide a high level of quality of care. It is the positio...

  16. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle'' that it is possible to "knock out'' selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free,...

  17. Residence time distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Slurry phase residence time in the SRC-II dissolver is a major process variable affecting the extent of conversion to distillate products. Kinetic studies have shown that overall conversion of vacuum bottoms to lighter hydrocarbons is a zero order process with respect to vacuum bottoms. This implies that although the extent of backmixing is not a critical process variable, slurry phase mean residence time is. Experimental results from the P-99 PDU supported this. Radioactive tracers were injected into the Ft. Lewis dissolver during normal operation to study the residence time distribution of the gas and slurry phases. Results from gas phase radiotracers showed the gas phase to approach plug flow behavior, but with much larger than expected gas holdup. Gas holdup appeared to be 20% of the reactor volume, rather than the 10 to 12% predicted by standard holdup correlations. Slurry phase radiotracer results indicated that the slurry phase was well-backmixed. Experiments with a downcomer designed to enhance direct slurry flow from the top to the bottom of the dissolver showed this to be a viable and controllable device. The high level of gas holdup at Ft. Lewis suggest that standard holdup correlations must be modified to be used with confidence in the design of coal liquefaction reactors. Additional programs to define holdup relationships in high temperature, high pressure coal liquefaction reactors are recommended. 11 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  19. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities: Challenges to Expanding Access in Education in Nigeria University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…

  20. Knowledge Media for Mega-Universities: Scaling up New Technology at the Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, John

    1998-01-01

    Mega-universities (involved in distance teaching) such as Britain's Open University are open to people, places, methods, and ideas. They succeed because of well-designed multimedia materials, personal academic support for learners, efficient logistics, and faculty who conduct research. (SK)

  1. Are there Mega Quanta of Action Playing a Part in Hubble Spheres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    Quanta of action (Planck's, Stoney's, Kittel's etc.) are related to the so-called units determined by universal constants: c - speed of light in vacuum, G - Newtonian gravitational constant and by the respective constant connected with the respective interaction. If we introduce ? - units determined by c, G and ? we obtain also the ?- mega quantum of action. It will be shown that this quantum of action can be disclosed in the Lagrangian used to express the stationary action in General Relativity applied in cosmology in which the cosmological constant ? appears. It will be discussed if this mega quantum is connected with the causally bounded zones in our universe, i.e. with the Hubble spheres. If we introduce Kittel's gravitational units determined by c, G and MG, where MG means the gravitational mass (of ordinary + and dark matter), embedded and causally bounded in a Hubble' sphere then we obtain also a Kittel mega quantum of action. The meaning of both mega quanta will be discussed.

  2. Mega-precovery and data mining of near-Earth asteroids and other Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Char, F.; Curelaru, L.; Euronear Team

    2014-07-01

    The vast collection of CCD images and photographic plate archives available from the world-wide archives and telescopes is still insufficiently exploited. Within the EURONEAR project we designed two data mining software with the purpose to search very large collections of archives for images which serendipitously include known asteroids or comets in their field, with the main aims to extend the arc and improve the orbits. In this sense, ''Precovery'' (published in 2008, aiming to search all known NEAs in few archives via IMCCE's SkyBoT server) and ''Mega-Precovery'' (published in 2010, querying the IMCCE's Miriade server) were made available to the community via the EURONEAR website (euronear.imcce.fr). Briefly, Mega-Precovery aims to search one or a few known asteroids or comets in a mega-collection including millions of images from some of the largest observatory archives: ESO (15 instruments served by ESO Archive including VLT), NVO (8 instruments served by U.S. NVO Archive), CADC (11 instruments, including HST and Gemini), plus other important instrument archives: SDSS, CFHTLS, INT-WFC, Subaru-SuprimeCam and AAT-WFI, adding together 39 instruments and 4.3 million images (Mar 2014), and our Mega-Archive is growing. Here we present some of the most important results obtained with our data-mining software and some new planned search options of Mega-Precovery. Particularly, the following capabilities will be added soon: the ING archive (all imaging cameras) will be included and new search options will be made available (such as query by orbital elements and by observations) to be able to target new Solar System objects such as Virtual Impactors, bolides, planetary satellites, TNOs (besides the comets added recently). In order to better characterize the archives, we introduce the ''AOmegaA'' factor (archival etendue) proportional to the AOmega (etendue) and the number of images in an archive. With the aim to enlarge the Mega-Archive database, we invite the observatories (particularly those storing their images online and also those that own plate archives which could be scanned on request) to contact us in order to add their instrument archives (consisting of an ASCII file with telescope pointings in a simple format) to our Mega-Precovery open project. We intend for the future to synchronise our service with the Virtual Observatory.

  3. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic mega-dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, A.; Eberlein, L.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S.; Scheinert, M.; Schröder, L.; Turkeev, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of glaciological investigations in the mega-dune area located 30 km to the east from Vostok Station (central East Antarctica) implemented during the 58th, 59th and 60th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013-January 2015). Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (?D, ?18O and ?17O) were measured along the 2 km profile across the mega-dune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and GPR survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by one order of magnitude within the distance dune and increased accumulation in the hollow between the dunes. At the same time, the accumulation rate averaged over the length of a dune wave (22 mm we) corresponds well with the value obtained at Vostok Station, which suggests no additional wind-driven snow sublimation in the mega-dunes compared to the surrounding plateau. The snow isotopic composition is in negative correlation with the snow accumulation. Analyzing dxs/?D and 17O-excess/?D slopes, we conclude that the spatial variability of the snow isotopic composition in the mega-dune area could be explained by post-depositional snow modifications. Using the GPR data, we estimated the apparent dune drift velocity (4.6 ± 1.1 m yr-1). The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 410 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotopic composition are supposed to drift with the dune, an ice core drilled in the mega-dune area would exhibit the non-climatic 410 year cycle of these two parameters. We simulated a vertical profile of snow isotopic composition with such a non-climatic variability, using the data on the dune size and velocity. This artificial profile is then compared with the real vertical profile of snow isotopic composition obtained from a core drilled in the mega-dune area. We note that the two profiles are very similar. The obtained results are discussed in terms of interpretation of data obtained from ice cores drilled beyond the mega-dune areas.

  4. Two-minute miniprep method for plasmid DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarczynski, M C; Meyer, W J; Min, J J; Wood, K A; Hellwig, R J

    1994-03-01

    An extremely rapid method, INSTA-PREP, has been developed to prepare plasmid DNA from 1 to 3 mL miniprep Escherichia coli bacterial cultures. Direct extraction of plasmid DNA from E. coli bacterial cells is achieved by a two-phase solution consisting of phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and water or buffer with efficient separation of the phases by centrifugation in the presence of the INSTA-PREP gel barrier material. Processing time, from E. coli culture to usable plasmid DNA, is two minutes or less per sample. Supercoiled plasmid DNA yields ranged from 3 to 10 micrograms per mL of culture depending on plasmid copy number. Plasmid DNAs prepared by INSTA-PREP were analyzed and are suitable for use in molecular biology procedures including restriction digestion, ligation with T4 DNA ligase, bacterial transformation, PCR, cultured cell transfection and T7 DNA polymerase or thermostable DNA polymerase-mediated dideoxynucleotide sequencing. PMID:8185927

  5. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  6. Interdecadal variability of the mega-ENSO-NAO synchronization in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Mega-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), as two principal components of the global air-sea coupling system, may have synchronous or out-synchronous fluctuations during different epochs. Understanding such connection change is instrumental for climate prediction, particularly the decadal prediction. Results in this study show that mega-ENSO has experienced a notable inter-decadal change in its linkage with the winter NAO during the past 56 years: mega-ENSO was significantly correlated with the NAO during 1957-1981 (or synchronous epoch), while such correlation has broken down since 1982 (or out-synchronous epoch). This marked change might be attributed to a sea surface temperature (SST) forcing change in the North Atlantic, based on the observational and numerical evidences in this study. The synchronous epoch is concurrent with the anomalous tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST forcing, whereas the out-synchronous epoch is associated with the anomalous extra-tropical North Atlantic (XNA) SST forcing. Two possible reasons may explain how the synchronous behaviors between mega-ENSO and the NAO were tied to the TNA SST anomaly (SSTA). There is a positive feedback between the TNA SSTA and the NAO-like atmosphere anomalies, which helps to "prolong" the NAO impacts from the developing phase through mature phase of mega-ENSO. Additionally, the TNA SSTA itself may induce a NAO-like atmosphere anomaly. Since 1982, the TNA SSTA has been replaced by the XNA SSTA and the latter primarily favors a NAO-neutral state in the atmosphere, which ends the synchronous epoch.

  7. Pathogenomics of the Virulence Plasmids of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Lisa K. Nolan

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Bacterial plasmids are self-replicating, extrachromosomal elements that are key agents of change in microbial populations. They promote the dissemination of a variety of traits, including virulence, enhanced fitness, resistance to antimicrobial agents, and metabolism of rare substances. Escherichia coli, perhaps the most studied of microorganisms, has been found to possess a variety of plasmid types. Included among these are plasmids associated with virulence. Several types of E. col...

  8. Processes for the production of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Plasmid DNA is currently used in gene therapy and genetic vaccination as a vector system for the delivery of therapeutic genes. Clinical trials as well as future therapeutics demand large amounts of high quality plasmid DNA that fulfils the specifications set by regulatory authorities. This thesis describes the development, analysis, and evaluation of pharmaceutical plasmid DNA production processes comprising cultivation, product isolation, and purification as well as stability assessment dur...

  9. Plasmid-Driven Formation of Influenza Virus-Like Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    We established a plasmid-based system for generating infectious influenza virus-like particles entirely from cloned cDNAs. Human embryonic kidney cells (293T) were transfected with plasmids encoding the influenza A virus structural proteins and with a plasmid encoding an influenza virus-like viral RNA (vRNA) which contained an antisense copy of the cDNA for green fluorescence protein (GFP) flanked by an RNA polymerase I promoter and terminator. Intracellular transcription of the latter constr...

  10. Sociobiological Control of Plasmid Copy Number in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Watve, Mukta M.; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G.

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up “cheater” mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy num...

  11. Automated Filtration-Based High-Throughput Plasmid Preparation System

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masayoshi; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Akiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Masaki; Kawai, Jun; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Carninci, Piero; Shibata, Yuko; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    1999-01-01

    Current methods of plasmid preparation do not allow for large capacity automated processing. We have developed an automated high-throughput system that prepares plasmid DNA for large-scale sequencing. This system is based on our previously reported filtration method. In this method, cell harvesting, alkaline lysis, and plasmid purification occur in a single 96-well microtiter plate from which sequence-ready DNA samples are collected. The plates are designed to allow all reagents to be injecte...

  12. Plasmid addiction systems: perspectives and applications in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Jens; Klinter, Stefan; Schneider, Cornelia; Voß, Isabella; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnical production processes often operate with plasmid?based expression systems in well?established prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Genetically engineered organisms produce important chemicals, biopolymers, biofuels and high?value proteins like insulin. In those bioprocesses plasmids in recombinant hosts have an essential impact on productivity. Plasmid?free cells lead to losses in the entire product recovery and decre...

  13. Plasmids in Listeria monocytogenes in relation to cadmium resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrun, M.; Loulergue, J.; Chaslus-Dancla, E.; Audurier, A.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three unrelated Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from humans, animals, the environment, and food were analyzed for the presence of plasmids. Extrachromosomal DNA was found in 28% of the strains. Plasmid DNA was extracted more frequently from L. monocytogenes serogroup 1 strains (35%) than from serogroup 4 strains (15%). Among strains from food and the environment, 40% and 29%, respectively, harbored plasmids, whereas only 13% of the strains from humans and anima...

  14. Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovo, M; Morelli, L; BOTTAZZI, V.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined.

  15. Challenges to publishing pharmacy resident research projects from the perspectives of residency program directors and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson KL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify barriers to completing and publishing pharmacy residency research projects from the perspective of program directors and former residents.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of pharmacy residency program directors and former post-graduate year one and two residents. Directors of pharmacy residency programs whose residents present their projects at the Western States Conference (n=216 were invited to complete an online survey and asked to forward the survey to former residents of their program in 2009, 2010, or 2011. The survey focused on four broad areas: 1 demographic characteristics of the residency programs, directors, and residents; 2 perceived value of the research project; 3 perceived barriers with various stages of research; and 4 self-identified barriers to successful research project completion and publication.Results: A total of 32 program directors and 98 residents completed the survey. The minority of programs offered formal residency research training. Both groups reported value in the research project as part of residency training. Significantly more directors reported obtaining institutional review board approval and working through the publication process as barriers to the research project (46.7% vs. 22.6% and 73.3% vs. 43.0%, respectively p<0.05 while residents were more likely to report collecting and analyzing the data as barriers (34.4% vs. 13.3% and 39.8% vs. 20.0%, respectively, p<0.05. Both groups self-identified time constraints and limitations in study design or quality of the study as barriers. However, while program directors also indicated lack of resident motivation (65.5%, residents reported lack of mentorship or program structural issues (43.3%. Conclusion: Overall, while both groups found value in the residency research projects, there were barriers identified by both groups. The results of this study may provide areas of opportunity for improving the quality and publication rates of resident research projects.

  16. Photonic plasmid stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium: A comparison of three unique plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Donald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S. typh-lux using three different plasmids and characterize their respective photonic properties. Results In presence of ampicillin (AMP, S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 plasmids exhibited 100% photon-emitting colonies over a 10-d study period. Photon emitters of S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 without AMP selection decreased over time (P 7 to 1 × 109 CFU, P 0.05; although photonic emissions across a range of bacterial concentrations were not different (1 × 104 to 1 × 106 CFU, P > 0.05. For very low density bacterial concentrations imaged in 96 well plates photonic emissions were positively correlated with bacterial concentration (P 3 to 1 × 105 CFU low to high were different in the 96-well plate format (P Conclusion These data characterize photon stability properties for S. typh-lux transformed with three different photon generating plasmids that may facilitate real-time Salmonella tracking using in vivo or in situ biophotonic paradigms.

  17. Impact of plasmid quality on lipoplex-mediated transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Vega, Jonathan; Braak, Bas Ter; Azzoni, Adriano R; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates the impact of quality attributes (impurity content, plasmid charge, and compactness) of plasmid DNA isolated with different purification methodologies on the characteristics of lipoplexes prepared thereof (size, zeta potential, stability) and on their ability to transfect mammalian cells. A 3.7 kb plasmid with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene, Lipofectamine®-based liposomes, and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were used as models. The plasmid was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC)/gel filtration, and with three commercial kits, which combine the use of chaotropic salts with silica membranes/glass fiber fleeces. The HIC-based protocol delivered a plasmid with the smallest hydrodynamic diameter (144 nm) and zeta potential (-46.5 mV), which is virtually free from impurities. When formulated with Lipofectamine®, this plasmid originated the smallest (146 nm), most charged (+13 mV), and most stable lipoplexes. In vitro transfection experiments further showed that these lipoplexes performed better in terms of plasmid uptake (?500,000 vs. ?100,000-200,000 copy number/cell), transfection efficiency (50% vs. 20%-40%), and GFP expression levels (twofold higher) when compared with lipoplexes prepared with plasmids isolated using commercial kits. Overall our observations highlight the potential impact that plasmid purification methodologies can have on the outcome of gene transfer experiments and trials. PMID:23996350

  18. Transformation of Rhizobium meliloti 41 with plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, G B; Kálmán, Z

    1982-01-01

    Plasmid pGV1106, a derivative of the wide-host-range plasmid S-a of the W incompatibility group, was introduced into Rhizobium meliloti 41 by plasmid-mediated mobilization to overcome the restriction of foreign DNA. The mobilized plasmid pKK2 differed from the original pGV1106 by an extra piece of DNA of 1.3 kilobase pairs which supposedly originated from pJB3JI used for mobilization. If pKK2 was isolated from R. meliloti 41, it could be successfully reintroduced by transformation. The transf...

  19. Resident Peritoneal NK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzaga, Rosemary; Matzinger, Polly; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a new population of NK cells that reside in the normal, un-inflamed peritoneal cavity. Phenotypically, they share some similarities with the small population of CD49b negative, CD27 positive immature splenic NK cells, and liver NK cells but differ in their expression of CD62L, TRAIL and EOMES. Functionally, the peritoneal NK cells resemble the immature splenic NK cells in their production of IFN-?, GM-CSF and TNF-? and in the killing of YAC-1 target cells. We also found that ...

  20. Degradative Plasmid and Heavy Metal Resistance Plasmid Naturally Coexist in Phenol and Cyanide Assimilating Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig E.  Deeb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals are known to be powerful inhibitors of xenobiotics biodegradation activities. Alleviation the inhibitory effect of these metals on the phenol biodegradation activities in presence of heavy metals resistant plasmid was investigated. Approach: Combination of genetic systems of degradation of xenobiotic compound and heavy metal resistance was one of the approaches to the creation of polyfunctional strains for bioremediation of soil after co-contamination with organic pollutants and heavy metals. Results: A bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida PhCN (pPhCN1, pPhCN2 had been obtained. This bacterium contained two plasmids, a 120 Kb catabolic plasmid that encode for breakdown of phenol (pPhCN1 and pPhCN2 plasmid (100 Kb that code for cadmium and copper resistant. Cyanide assimilation by this bacterium was encoded by chromosomal genes. The inhibitory effect of cadmium (Cd2+ or copper (Cu2+ on the degradation of phenol and cyanide by P. putida strains PhCN and PhCN1 (contained pPhCN1 were investigated. The resistant strain PhCN showed high ability to degrade phenol and cyanide in presence of Cd2+ or Cu2+ comparing with the sensitive strain PhCN1. In addition, Cd2+ or Cu2+ was also found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on the C23O dioxygenase enzyme activity in the presence of cyanide as a nitrogen source. Conclusion: The presence of heavy metal resistance plasmid alleviated the inhibitory effect of metals on the phenol and cyanide assimilation by resistant strain.

  1. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements facilitates adaptive and evolutionary processes in bacteria. Among the known mobile genetic elements, plasmids can confer their hosts with accessory adaptive traits, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances, or additional metabolic pathways. Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control plasmid transfer in mixed microbial communities. The fate of plasmids in microbial communities and the extent of bacterial phyla permissive towards plasmid receipt are largely unknown. Historically, methods exploring the underlying genetic and environmental factors of plasmid transfer have been heavily reliant on cultivation and expression of plasmid encoded phenotypes. This has provided an incomplete and potentially cultivation biased image of the extent of plasmid transfer. In this thesis, I investigated the extent of plasmid transfer in microbial communities at an unprecedented level of resolution and not reliant on cultivation. I focused on soil microbial communities. Their potential role as a reservoir for plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes is increasingly suspected to majorly contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant pathogens. More specifically, I examined what fraction of a soil microbial community is permissive to plasmids, identified the phylogenetic identity of this fraction and studied environmental factors that modulate plasmid transfer in soil microbial communities. In order to attain these goals, I developed a high-throughput method that enabled me to evaluate the permissiveness of bacterial communities towards introduced plasmids. This new approach is based on the introduction of fluorescently tagged conjugative plasmids into a soil microbial community in solid-surface filter matings under maximized cell-to-cell contact, followed by quantification of transfer events through advanced fluorescent microscopy, isolation of transconjugants through triple-gated fluorescent activated cell sorting and finally 16S rRNA targeted pyrosequencing of the sorted transconjugal pools. Employing this new method, I was able to map, for the first time, the diversity of all recipients in a soil microbial community for three broad host range model plasmids: RP4, pKJK5, and pIPO2tet. I found that a large fraction of soil the bacteria (up to 1 in 10,000) were able to take up any of these broad host range conjugal plasmids. The transconjugal pools comprised 11 bacterial phyla. This finding indicates that the realized transfer range of broad host range plasmids in environmental microbial communities is much larger than previously assumed. I was able to show abundant plasmid transfer from the Gram negative donor strains to a wide diversity of Gram positive soil bacteria, formerly thought to constitute distinct clusters of gene transfer. Moreover, among the observed transconjugants, I identified a core super-permissive fraction of taxa prone to receive diverse BHR plasmids from diverse donors. This fraction comprised the proteobacterial genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacterium and Burkolderia. These taxa are known to be evolutionary interlinked through chromosomal gene exchange. Hence, I was able to show that the gene pool of microbial communities may be directly interconnected through transfer of BHR plasmids at a so far unrecognized level. The developed method furthermore enabled me to explore how agronomic practices may affect gene transfer in soil microbial communities. I compared bacterial communities extracted from plots subjected to different treatments for their permissiveness towards the model BHR plasmids RP4, pRO101 and pIPO2tet. Periodic manure introduction increased the permissiveness of the community towards these plasmids by up to 100% compared to control treatments. However, the phylogenetic composition of the transconjugal pools remained similar. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Subsequently, I focusedon the

  2. Evolving seismogenic plate boundary megathrust and mega-splay faults in subduction zone (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Kitamura, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Kawasaki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the fault mechanism and its relationship to the sesimo-tsunamigenesis is a key of the scientific targets of subduction zone and therefore NantroSEIZE project of IODP and future new drilling project of International Ocean Discovery Program keeps focusing on that. Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Before drilling the really targeted seismogenic fault, we are conducting many exercises of geophysical and geological observations. The core-log-seismic integrated exercise for the exhumed mega-splay fault by drilling was operated for the Nobeoka thrust in the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan. The Nobeoka thrust was once buried in the depth >~10km and suffered maximum temperature >~300 dgree C. As the core recovery is ~99%, perfect correlation between the core and logging data is possible. Thickness of the fault zone is >200 m with a ~50 cm thick central fault core dividing the phyllitic hanging wall and the footwall of broken-melange like cataclasite. A-few-meter-thick discrete damage zones with fault cores are recognized by difference in physical properties and visual deformation textures at several horizons in the fault zone. Host rocks for those damaged zones are completely lithified cataclasites with abundant mineral veins, which record the older and deeper deformation in the maximum depth >10km. Temperature difference between the hanging wall and footwall suggests the displacement along the Nobeoka thrust is >10km, which is almost similar to the mega-splay fault in the Nankai Trough. Geological and physical properties of the Nobeoka thrust suggest an evolving process of the seismogenic mega-splay fault associated with seismogenic up-thrust of the inner wedge of the accretionary prism.

  3. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Jones, Frank A; Swenson, Nathan G; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D; Fang-Sun, I; Wright, S Joseph; Wolf, Amy T; Ye, W; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K; Kress, W John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of phylogenetic diversity in the mega-phylogeny were more consistent, thereby removing a potential source of bias at the plot-level, and demonstrating the value of assessing phylogenetic relationships simultaneously within a mega-phylogeny. An unexpected result of the comparisons among plots based on the mega-phylogeny was that the communities in the ForestGEO plots in general appear to be assemblages of more closely related species than expected by chance, and that differentiation among communities is very low, suggesting deep floristic connections among communities and new avenues for future analyses in community ecology. PMID:25414723

  4. Variability of IncHI1 plasmids from Salmonella typhi with special reference to Peruvian plasmids encoding resistance to trimethoprim and other antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D. E.; Chumpitaz, J C; Goldstein, F

    1985-01-01

    In spite of extensive DNA homology among IncHI1 plasmids, ApaI and XbaI restriction digests of plasmids from Peruvian Salmonella typhi varied considerably from other IncHI1 plasmids isolated previously. IncHI1 plasmids appear to be undergoing a process of modular evolution, probably by sequential acquisition of resistance determinants.

  5. Multilocus sequence typing of IncN plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Aurora; Villa, Laura; Moodley, Arshnee; Hasman, Henrik; Miriagou, Vivi; Guardabassi, Luca; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    different countries from both animals and humans belonged to ST1, suggesting dissemination of an epidemic plasmid through the food chain. Fifteen of 17 plasmids carrying blaVIM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, isolated during a 5year period in Greece were assigned to ST10, suggesting that...

  6. Rapid plasmid DNA isolation from mucoid gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Marx, J L; Schoch, P E; Cunha, B. A.

    1992-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides interfere with the isolation and characterization of plasmid DNA from gram-negative bacteria. To repress capsular polysaccharide production, bacteria were cultured in medium containing bismuth nitrate and sodium salicylate. Rapid removal of other contaminating bacterial surface components was achieved by mild acidic zwitterionic detergent extraction. After treatment, bacterial cells were more readily lysed in alkaline detergents. The resulting plasmid preparations contained...

  7. Plasmid-encoded copper resistance and precipitation by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    OpenAIRE

    Erardi, F X; Failla, M L; Falkinham, J O

    1987-01-01

    A copper-tolerant Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strain was able to remove copper from culture medium by sulfate-dependent precipitation as copper sulfide. Such precipitation of copper sulfide was not observed in a derivative that lacks a 173-kilobase plasmid. In addition, the plasmid-carrying strain has a sulfate-independent copper resistance mechanism.

  8. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer ?-Lactams

    OpenAIRE

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Miriagou, Vivi; Bertini, Alessia; Loli, Alexandra; Colinon, Celine; Villa, Laura; Whichard, Jean M.; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction–based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.

  9. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  10. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Millan, A; Peña-Miller, R; Toll-Riera, M; Halbert, Z V; McLean, A R; Cooper, B S; MacLean, R C

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution, but it is challenging to understand how plasmids persist over the long term because plasmid carriage is costly. Classical models predict that horizontal transfer is necessary for plasmid persistence, but recent work shows that almost half of plasmids are non-transmissible. Here we use a combination of mathematical modelling and experimental evolution to investigate how a costly, non-transmissible plasmid, pNUK73, can be maintained in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compensatory adaptation increases plasmid stability by eliminating the cost of plasmid carriage. However, positive selection for plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance is required to maintain the plasmid by offsetting reductions in plasmid frequency due to segregational loss. Crucially, we show that compensatory adaptation and positive selection reinforce each other's effects. Our study provides a new understanding of how plasmids persist in bacterial populations, and it helps to explain why resistance can be maintained after antibiotic use is stopped. PMID:25302567

  11. Plasmid-associated functions of a stable Flac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, F L; Balbinder, E

    1973-01-01

    Several functions associated with the stable plasmid, FlacS, have been examined. Our results indicate that the sex pili synthesized by Escherichia coli strains carrying FlacS are altered in some manner as evidenced by a very inefficient adsorption of male-specific phages. On the other hand, FlacS-mediated entry exclusion of related plasmids and plasmid incompatibility function(s) appear normal. The presence of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid in E. coli strains harboring FlacS indicates that it is an autonomously replicating plasmid. Based on beta-galactosidase levels and the percentage of covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid, it appears that the stability of the FlacS is not the result of multiple copies of this plasmid. FlacS appears larger than its precursor, F(ts114)lac, in sedimentation through alkaline sucrose gradients. PMID:4569402

  12. Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by cotransfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci. (orig.)

  13. A comparison of three mega bank groups’ strategies towards a low carbon economy focusing on activities of their securities companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    This paper analysed Japan’s top three mega bank groups’ activities towards a low carbon economy by focusing on their securities companies. The three groups, namely MUFG, SMFG and MHFG, have enormously influenced, not only in Japan’s economy, but the global economy owing to their sizes. Overall, this paper confirmed that the three mega bank groups have been trying to promote environmental business through their services as leading financial institutions. Moreover, they have utilized not only f...

  14. Parallels in portraits of leadership in mega churches of Gauteng (RSA) and Florida (USA) / Tsietsi John Maloma

    OpenAIRE

    Maloma, Tsietsi John

    2011-01-01

    This thesis, Parallels in portraits of leadership in mega churches of Gauteng (RSA) and Florida (USA), the researcher, studied literature on church leadership with special reference to the leadership of mega churches. He researched issues relating to the nature of church leadership by exploring relevant Bible passages, the lives of certain Bible characters that the Bible presents as good but not perfect leaders, as well as relevant key theological conceptions of leadership. The study accordin...

  15. E-marketing of sports mega-events with specific reference to the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Radikonyana, Paul Shimane

    2013-01-01

    From an analysis of the literature it is apparent that there has been no concerted effort to date to undertake a coherent and integrated assessment of the application of e-marketing in sport mega-events. A strategic evaluation of the e-marketing initiatives implemented since 2000 during national and international mega events, indicates that e-marketing, in most instances, took place in a limited and fragmented manner. However a further analysis of these case studies provides valuable perspect...

  16. Excess clustering on large scales in the MegaZ DR7 photometric redshift survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2011-06-17

    We observe a large excess of power in the statistical clustering of luminous red galaxies in the photometric SDSS galaxy sample called MegaZ DR7. This is seen over the lowest multipoles in the angular power spectra C_{?} in four equally spaced redshift bins between 0.45?z?0.65. However, it is most prominent in the highest redshift band at ?4? and it emerges at an effective scale k?0.01??h?Mpc(-1). Given that MegaZ DR7 is the largest cosmic volume galaxy survey to date (3.3(Gpch(-1))(3)) this implies an anomaly on the largest physical scales probed by galaxies. Alternatively, this signature could be a consequence of it appearing at the most systematically susceptible redshift. There are several explanations for this excess power that range from systematics to new physics. We test the survey, data, and excess power, as well as possible origins. PMID:21770561

  17. Results from beam tests of MEGA's low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the leading experimental projects at LAMPF has been the MEGA experiment. This is an experiment to search for the rare decay ? ? e? with a sensitivity of 10-13. A prime component of this project has been the design and construction of high-rate, low mass MWPCs for the tracking of positrons from muon decay. With rate capabilities of 2 x 104 e+/mm2/s and a thickness of 3 x 10-4 radiation lengths, these chambers are state-of-the-art cylindrical MWPCs. Cylindrical chambers of this size (0.9 m2) and thinness have never been previously constructed. The MEGA project at LAMPF has recently succeeded in building chambers with these necessary performance characteristics as demonstrated by data taken from muon decays, cosmic rays, and sources

  18. Sample displacement chromatography of plasmid DNA isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ernigoj, Urh; Martinu?, Urška; Cardoso, Sara; Sekirnik, Rok; Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-10-01

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) is a chromatographic technique that utilises different relative binding affinities of components in a sample mixture and has been widely studied in the context of peptide and protein purification. Here, we report a use of SDC to separate plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms under overloading conditions, where supercoiled (sc) isoform acts as a displacer of open circular (oc) or linear isoform. Since displacement is more efficient when mass transfer between stationary and mobile chromatographic phases is not limited by diffusion, we investigated convective interaction media (CIM) monoliths as stationary phases for pDNA isoform separation. CIM monoliths with different hydrophobicities and thus different binding affinities for pDNA (CIM C4 HLD, CIM-histamine and CIM-pyridine) were tested under hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) conditions. SD efficiency for pDNA isoform separation was shown to be dependent on column selectivity for individual isoform, column efficiency and on ammonium sulfate (AS) concentration in loading buffer (binding strength). SD and negative mode elution often operate in parallel, therefore negative mode elution additionally influences the efficiency of the overall purification process. Optimisation of chromatographic conditions achieved 98% sc pDNA homogeneity and a dynamic binding capacity of over 1mg/mL at a relatively low concentration of AS. SDC was successfully implemented for the enrichment of sc pDNA for plasmid vectors of different sizes, and for separation of linear and and sc isoforms, independently of oc:sc isoform ratio, and flow-rate used. This study therefore identifies SDC as a promising new approach to large-scale pDNA purification, which is compatible with continuous, multicolumn chromatography systems, and could therefore be used to increase productivity of pDNA production in the future. PMID:26319374

  19. Flow Cytometry and Real-Time Quantitative PCR as Tools for Assessing Plasmid Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Tucker, Allison; Norton, Ann; Top, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of a plasmid in the absence of selection for plasmid-borne genes is not guaranteed. However, plasmid persistence can evolve under selective conditions. Studying the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of plasmid persistence is key to understanding how plasmids are maintained under nonselective conditions. Given the current crisis of rapid antibiotic resistance spread by multidrug resistance plasmids, this insight is of high medical relevance. The conventional method for ...

  20. Plasmid stability in immobilized and free recombinant Escherichia coli JM105(pKK223-200): importance of oxygen diffusion, growth rate, and plasmid copy number.

    OpenAIRE

    de Taxis du Poët, P; Arcand, Y; Bernier, R.; Barbotin, J N; Thomas, D.

    1987-01-01

    Stability of the plasmid pKK223-200 in Escherichia coli JM105 was studied for both free and immobilized cells during continuous culture. The relationship between plasmid copy number, xylanase activity, which was coded for by the plasmid, and growth rate and culture conditions involved complex interactions which determined the plasmid stability. Generally, the plasmid stability was enhanced in cultured immobilized cells compared with free-cell cultures. This stability was associated with modif...

  1. Antibiotic resistance and R-plasmids in food chain Salmonella: evidence of plasmid relatedness.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezanson, G. S.; Pauzé, M; Lior, H

    1981-01-01

    A large number of strains (1,783) belonging to 15 Salmonella serovars isolated, in Canada, from the three major links of the human food chain were screened for multiple antibiotic resistance and the presence of R-plasmids. Multiresistant strains occurred among animal feed, livestock, and human isolates at frequencies of 4, 22, and 14%, respectively. Conjugation analysis revealed that 58% of the isolates from feeds, 87% of those from livestock, and 89% of the human strains carried all or part ...

  2. Bacterial Mitosis: ParM of Plasmid R1 Moves Plasmid DNA by an Actin-like Insertional Polymerization Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Roepstorff, Peter; Gerdes, Kenn

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...

  3. Strategic place marketing and place branding: 15 years of mega-events in Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    METAXAS, THEODORE; Bati, Aristea; Filippopoulos, Dimitris; Drakos, Kostas; Tzellou, Vagia

    2011-01-01

    Urban tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon but is now being embraced by most European cities, which are using substantial funds to compete for visitors, thus generating new infrastructures for this process. Cities so as to differentiate themselves from their competitors, attempt to manage their image by strategic place marketing approach. This paper explores the implications and significance of being a host city of mega events. The purpose is to identify the perception of Lisbon’s identi...

  4. Embodiment of the urban : relational space in the context of the mega city of Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fokdal, Josefine Orum

    2014-01-01

    China houses multiple rapidly developing megacities and mega-urban regions. These assume an increased degree of complexity due to global influences on local places and reflect changing value systems within society; the megacity of Guangzhou within the Pearl River Delta is no exception. Overcoming the duality between macro mechanisms and micro processes, the analytical approach on ‘the production of space’ bridges the gap between everyday life and the changing mechanisms in urbanizing societie...

  5. Management of juxta articular giant cell tumors around the knee by custom mega prosthetic arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Mayil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juxtaarticular giant cell tumors around the knee are common and pose a special problem of reconstruction after tumor excision. This article analyzes the functional outcome after resection of juxtaarticular giant cell tumors around the knee and replacement by custom mega prosthetic arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-three patients with juxtaarticular giant cell tumors around the knee with mean age of 30.8 years (range 15 to 64 years underwent resection and replacement by custom mega prosthetic arthroplasty during the period 1994 to 2005. Eighty-one patients were males and 62 were females. Fourteen patients were in Enneking Stage 2 while 129 patients were in Stage 3. Distal femur was involved in 87 patients and proximal tibia in 56 patients. Forty patients presented with pathological fracture at the time of diagnosis. The technique of sleeve resection of the quadriceps musculature was followed to achieve local clearance in distal femoral tumors, and for proximal tibial lesions resection of the tumor-bearing part and a medial gastronemius rotation flap was used routinely. The prosthesis used was a rotating hinge custom mega prosthesis manufactured locally. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.4 years (1.5 years to 11 years. Functional results were analyzed using Enneking criteria. Excellent results were obtained in 90 patients (62% and 39 patients had good (27% results. Periprosthetic fracture (8.3% and infection (6.9% were the most common complications followed by aseptic loosening (4.2%. Recurrence of lesion was found in only one patient (0.69% who was managed with wide local excision. Conclusion: Custom mega prosthetic arthroplasty is effective in achieving the desired goals of reconstruction with good functional results and least complications in selected patients.

  6. Pacification & Mega-events in Rio de Janeiro: Urbanization, Public Security & Accumulation by Dispossession

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Rekow

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines how Brazil's latest public security initiative-its highly controversial Police Pacification Campaign (UPP)-is an integral component of a neoliberal political framework that is enacting rapid urbanization projects in and around strategically located favelas (informal settlements or slums) of Rio de Janeiro. Specifically, it evaluates what kinds of economic development initiatives are moving forward, how they are facilitated by the UPP, how they connect to the city's mega-ev...

  7. ADAPTION OF “MEGA EVENT IMPACT SCALE”: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY (2011 ERZURUM 25. WINTER UNIVERSIADE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Y?ld?r?m ?im?ek

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at carrying out validity and reliability studies and the adaption of Turkish version of the scale titled “Mega Event Impact Scale” and developed by Jie ve Yan (2010). The scale, which consists of five-point Likert scale 42 items, was administered to the local audience following 2011 Erzurum 25. Winter Universiade. The subjects of the study were 412 people (55 % male and 45 % female), who were chosen through random sampling method. Explanatory factor analysis, applied to determ...

  8. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; Drake, Nick A

    2015-07-14

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ? 15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ? 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world's greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  9. Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer ROTHFUß; Camilla PERRONE; Rogério MORORÓ

    2012-01-01

    Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The ...

  10. Tunable mega-ampere electron current propagation in solids by dynamic control of lattice melt.

    OpenAIRE

    MacLellan, D. A.; Carroll, D. C.; Gray, R. J.; Booth, N.; Burza, Matthias; Desjarlais, M. P.; Du, F; Neely, D.; Powell, H W; Robinson, A. P. L.; Scott, G. G.; Yuan, X. H.; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; McKenna, P.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of lattice-melt-induced resistivity gradients on the transport of mega-ampere currents of fast electrons in solids is investigated numerically and experimentally using laser-accelerated protons to induce isochoric heating. Tailoring the heating profile enables the resistive magnetic fields which strongly influence the current propagation to be manipulated. This tunable laser-driven process enables important fast electron beam properties, including the beam divergence, profile, a...

  11. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: Lessons from Antarctic mega-dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaykin, Alexey; Eberlein, Lutz; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Popov, Sergey; Schroder, Ludwig

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of glaciological investigations in the mega-dune area located 30 km to the east from Vostok Station (central East Antarctica) implemented during the 58th and 59th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013 and January 2014). Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (?D and ?18O) were measured along the 2-km profile across the mega-dune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and GPR survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by 1 order of magnitude within the distance < 1 km, with the reduced accumulation at the leeward slope of the dune and increased accumulation in the hollow between the dunes. At the same time, the accumulation rate averaged over the length of a dune wave (25 mm w.e.) corresponds well with the value obtained at Vostok Station, which suggests no additional wind-driven snow sublimation in the mega-dunes comparing to the surrounding plateau. The snow isotope content is in negative correlation with the snow accumulation, which could be explained by post-depositional snow modification and/or by enhanced redistribution by wind of winter precipitation comparing to summer precipitation. Using the GPR data, we estimated the dune drift velocity (5.5 ± 1.3 m yr-1). The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 340 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotope content are supposed to drift with the dune, an ice core drilled in the mega-dune area would exhibit the non-climatic 340-yr cycle of these two parameters. We made an attempt to simulate a vertical profile of isotope content with such a non-climatic variability in a virtual ice core, using the data on the dune size and velocity. The obtained results are discussed in terms of real ice core data interpretation.

  12. Patch definition in metapopulation analysis: a graph theory approach to solve the mega-patch problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Siegel, David A; Raimondi, Peter T; Alberto, Filipe

    2014-02-01

    The manner in which patches are delineated in spatially realistic metapopulation models will influence the size, connectivity, and extinction and recolonization dynamics of those patches. Most commonly used patch-definition methods focus on identifying discrete, contiguous patches of habitat from a single temporal observation of species occurrence or from a model of habitat suitability. However, these approaches are not suitable for many metapopulation systems where entire patches may not be fully colonized at a given time. For these metapopulation systems, a single large patch of habitat may actually support multiple, interacting subpopulations. The interactions among these subpopulations will be ignored if the patch is treated as a single unit, a situation we term the "mega-patch problem." Mega-patches are characterized by variable intra-patch synchrony, artificially low inter-patch connectivity, and low extinction rates. One way to detect this problem is by using time series data to calculate demographic synchrony within mega-patches. We present a framework for identifying subpopulations in mega-patches using a combination of spatial autocorrelation and graph theory analyses. We apply our approach to southern California giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests using a new, long-term (27 years), satellite-based data set of giant kelp canopy biomass. We define metapopulation patches using our method as well as several other commonly used patch delineation methodologies and examine the colonization and extinction dynamics of the metapopulation under each approach. We find that the relationships between patch characteristics such as area and connectivity and the demographic processes of colonizations and extinctions vary among the different patch-definition methods. Our spatial-analysis/graph-theoretic framework produces results that match theoretical expectations better than the other methods. This approach can be used to identify subpopulations in metapopulations where the distributions of organisms do not always reflect the distribution of suitable habitat. PMID:24669726

  13. Low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPC's for the MEGA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of MWPCs for the MEGA experiment at LAMPF are described. The chambers are cylindrical, low mass (3 x 10-4 radiation lengths), and are designed to operate at high rates (3 x 104 /mm2/s). Several novel construction techniques have been developed and custom electronics have been designed to help achieve the required performance, which corresponds to that needed at high luminosity colliders. 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. Designing Liner Shipping Feeder Service Networks in the New Era of Mega Containerships

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Olcay

    2013-01-01

    In the new era of mega containerships, global containership liners design their transportation service as Hub-and-Spoke networks to improve the access to local transportation markets and to reduce operational costs by using short-sea connections for low-volume transportation lanes. These connections from the hub ports to the regional ports constitute the feeder network which is serviced by small or medium-sized feeder containerships. This study analyzes general characteristics of feeder servi...

  15. Lake Mega-Chad, a West African Monsoon indicator and tipping element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Simon; Bristow, Charlie; Drake, Nick

    2015-04-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterised by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines and fluvio-lacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ~15 ka, followed by a return to relatively arid conditions. By 11.5 ka Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly non-linear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles since the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the World's greatest single dust source, and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred prior to 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent.

  16. Residents’ Perceptions of Mountain Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carla; Kastenholz, Elisabeth; Abrantes, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses residents’ perceptions of mountain destinations. The aim is to develop a scale for assessing residents’ mountain images. An extensive literature review and insights from an empirical study of 315 residents of the Serra da Estrela in Portugal, the Alps in France, Austria and Switzerland, and the Peaks of Europe in Spain show that mountain images held by local people refer to the dimensions: mystic/sacred, historic-cultural life; health and affective image. Results were ob...

  17. A survey on medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rahimpour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Studying medicine consumption is a significant parameter in the estimation of the health care system of a country. This study evaluates the amount of medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran and indentifies individual factors that influence this consumption.
    Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey of public medicine consumption was directed at random samples that counted 628 persons of fifteen years and older in several public places in the mega cities of Iran. The data were collected through questionnaires administered at the public vaccination department of the Pasteur institute of Iran in Tehran, and in other public places in Esfahan. A multiple regression model was utilized to analyze individual information.
    Results: Our results showed that 59.4% of the respondents were current medicine consumers. Women used medicines less frequently. The rates of medicine consumption among the surveyed population, for daily and weekly-monthly consumption, were 21.8% and 37.6% respectively. In Iran, it emerged that 52.4% of the respondents obtained their medicines, such as acetaminophen antibiotics, and pain-killers, without a prescription.
    Conclusions: the study clearly showed that more than 53% of the medicine consuming persons undertake self treatment. Three factors gender, age and income level are the main factors influencing medicines consumed without physicians’ prescription in the mega cities of Iran.

  18. Radar scattering of linear dunes and mega-yardangs: Application to Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Paillou, Philippe; Radebaugh, Jani; Wall, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Ku-band (13.8 GHz - 2.2 cm) RADAR instrument onboard the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has revealed the richness of the surface of Titan, as numerous seas, lakes, rivers, cryo-volcanic flows and vast dune fields have been discovered. Linear dunes are a major geomorphological feature present on Titan, covering up to 17% of its surface, mainly in equatorial regions. However, the resolution of the RADAR instrument is not good enough to allow a detailed study of the morphology of these features. In addition, other linear wind-related landforms, such as mega-yardangs (linear wind-abraded ridges formed in cohesive rocks), are likely to present a comparable radar signature that could be confused with the one of dunes. We conducted a comparative study of the radar radiometry of both linear dunes and mega-yardangs, based on representative terrestrial analogues: the linear dunes located in the Great Sand Sea in western Egypt and in the Namib Desert in Namibia, and the mega-yardangs observed in the Lut Desert in easter...

  19. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

  20. The effects of the MEGA BORG spill on Gulf of Mexico shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brown shrimp stock model was developed at the NMFS Galveston Laboratory to assess the effects of the MEGA BORG oil spill on the brown shrimp population along the Texas coast. Water and sediment samples from near the MEGA BORG spill area were collected and analyzed by the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group at Texas A ampersand M University. Hydrocarbon concentrations found at the sediment collection stations ranged from 1.38 ug/g to 7.42 ug/g, while concentrations at the water column sampling sites ranged from 0.69 ug/l to 27.39 ug/l. Evaluation of chromatograms and analytical data suggested that sediments from the area contained primarily biogenic hydrocarbons. Only one station had elevated hydrocarbon levels. However, these values were only three to five times higher than the concentrations measured at the other stations. Evaluation of the water samples from the area showed only very low concentration levels of hydrocarbons were present in the water column. A bioassay study was conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Gulf Breeze, Florida. The main conclusion from the bioassay study was that the concentrations of hydrocarbons measured at the field sites where water samples were taken tended to be three orders of magnitude lower than the hydrocarbon concentrations causing toxic responses in mysid and white shrimp. There were no detected effects of the brown shrimp population along the Texas coast from the MEGA BORG oil spill

  1. A new free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings is developed. The physical model of a mega frame is idealized as a three-dimensional assemblage of stiffened close-thin-walled tubes with continuously distributed mass and stiffness. One-variable functions defined on the nodal lines selected by the analyst are unknown functions (eigenfunctions) employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the model. By a Hamiltonian principle, the governing equations of the free vibration analysis can be obtained, which are a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) of the eigenfunctions with their corresponding boundary conditions. The desired vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration modes (eigenfunctions) can be obtained by numerically solving the system of ODEs with boundary conditions. The free vibration analysis also includes the coupling vibration modes of the collection composed by several nodal lines. The results from the illustration example show that the method is rational and powerful for the free vibration analysis of space-mega-frame systems.

  2. Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail a creation of an additional capacity of at least 100,000 MW. The Ultra Mega Power projects, each with a capacity of 4000 megawatts or above, are being developed with an aim to bridge this gap. The UMPPs are seen as an expansion of the MPP (Mega Power Projects projects that the Government of India undertook in the nineties but met with limited success. The Ministry of Power in association with Central Electricity Authority and Power Finance Corporation Ltd. has launched an initiative for development of coal-based UMPP's in India. These projects will be awarded to developers on the basis of competitive bidding.

  3. The MEGA BORG: The value of cooperative damage assessment to trustees, PRPs, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process provides natural resource trustees with a method for restoring publicly owned or managed natural resources and their services that are injured as a result of an oil or chemical release. The NRDA process is simple in concept, but provides significant challenges for natural resource trustees. Although the impacts of marine pollution have been studied for many years, the quantification, economic evaluation, and restoration of these impacts brings up controversial scientific, legal, and economic issues. The 1990 MEGA BORG spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of a cooperative assessment. Within a few days of the spill, the Texas Water Commission and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reached and agreement with the owners of the MEGA BORG under which the owners would fund a preliminary assessment of the environmental impact of the spill. Five projects were funded to determine whether there was sufficient injury to justify the completion of a natural resource damage assessment. The MEGA BORG provides an example of a cooperative and scientifically balanced approach to the initiation of damage assessment activities and illustrates the benefits of a cooperative assessment

  4. Resident training in pathology: From resident's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal KÖSEMEHMETO?LU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many recent studies in the literature have described and commented on “competency based resident training” in pathology. According to this model, competencies are subclassified in 6 main categories: Patient care, medical knowledge, practice based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems based practice. Assessment of competency forms the main component of this model.Under the framework of Ankara Society of Pathology, a working group, composed of 11 residents, 6 of which representing the Training and Research Hospitals of Ministry of Health and the rest representing the university hospitals in Ankara, was established in order to participate in the think-tank about resident training in pathology. A questionnaire, composed of 12 questions, was prepared. According to this questionnaire, the number of trainers in the university hospitals is much higher than in the commercial hospitals. While the total number of cases and cases per resident do not differ between the university and commercial hospitals, microscopes used for the educational purposes are significantly less in the commercial hospitals, that is due to less number of binocular microscopes. The amount of resident training program, which consists of intra and intersectional meetings, are similar in the university and commercial hospitals, however, theoretic lectures are given only in 3 departments. Residents working in the university hospitals have obviously heavier burden than in the commercial hospitals. Lastly, residents generally exclaimed that the time dedicated to the macroscopy training is less sufficient than time used for the microscopy training.The factors affecting the training of resident in pathology are divided into two main groups: 1 Factors directly affecting training (quality of trainer, time dedicated for education, feed back, eg. and 2 Conditions which waste residents' time. For instant, workload which does need qualified staff and increases the burden on residents may be reassigned to medical secretary or pathology assistants; therefore energy of residents can be saved for educational activities. Optimization of physical working conditions, assortment of training programs, rotation in lacking subjects and consultations will enhance the quality of the education of the resident. Feedback assessment of trainer and trainee is an essential part of a training program.In conclusion, an ideal resident from the resident's point of view is the person who is endowed with medical and pathological knowledge, orderly interrelates with staff, professionally communicates with clinicians, manages a laboratory and is trained hard to achieve all the above mentioned competencies.

  5. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    OpenAIRE

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D.; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S.; Koenig, George J.; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S.; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident...

  6. Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores

  7. Bioinformatics-Based Molecular Classification of Arthrobacter Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mih??an, Marius

    2015-12-01

    The omnipresence of Arthrobacter species in polluted and toxic soils indicates their great potential in environmental biotechnologies, but practical applications of these bacteria are scarce mainly due to the availability of useful genetic engineering tools. Although many fully sequenced Arthrobacter genomes have been deposited in GenBank, little is known about the biology of their plasmids, especially the core functions: replication and partition. In this study the available Arthrobacter plasmid sequences were analyzed in order to identify their putative replication origin. At least the oris from the cryptic plasmids pXZ10142, pCG1, and pBL1 appear to work in this genus. Based on ParA homolog sequences, the Arthrobacter specific plasmids were classified into 4 clades. Iteron-like sequences were identified on most of the plasmids, indicating the position of the putative Arthrobacter specific oris. Although attempts were made to identify the core gene set required for plasmid replication in this genus, it was not possible. The plasmid proteomes showed a rather low similarity. PMID:26208384

  8. Chromosomal targeting of replicating plasmids in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, K N; Swaving, G J; Faber, F; Ab, G; Harder, W; Veenhuis, M; Haima, P

    1992-11-01

    Using an optimized transformation protocol we have studied the possible interactions between transforming plasmid DNA and the Hansenula polymorpha genome. Plasmids consisting only of a pBR322 replicon, an antibiotic resistance marker for Escherichia coli and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU2 gene were shown to replicate autonomously in the yeast at an approximate copy number of 6 (copies per genome equivalent). This autonomous behaviour is probably due to an H. polymorpha replicon-like sequence present on the S. cerevisiae LEU2 gene fragment. Plasmids replicated as multimers consisting of monomers connected in a head-to-tail configuration. Two out of nine transformants analysed appeared to contain plasmid multimers in which one of the monomers contained a deletion. Plasmids containing internal or flanking regions of the genomic alcohol oxidase gene were shown to integrate by homologous single or double cross-over recombination. Both single- and multi-copy (two or three) tandem integrations were observed. Targeted integration occurred in 1-22% of the cases and was only observed with plasmids linearized within the genomic sequences, indicating that homologous linear ends are recombinogenic in H. polymorpha. In the cases in which no targeted integration occurred, double-strand breaks were efficiently repaired in a homology-independent way. Repair of double-strand breaks was precise in 50-68% of the cases. Linearization within homologous as well as nonhomologous plasmid regions stimulated transformation frequencies up to 15-fold. PMID:1479359

  9. Sociobiological control of plasmid copy number in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Mukta M; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up "cheater" mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy number could invade the first invader. However, the realized benefit of increasing intra-host fitness was saturating whereas that of inter-host fitness was exponential. As a result, above a threshold, intra-host selection was overcompensated by inter-host selection and the low copy number wild type plasmid could back invade a very high copy number plasmid. This led to a rock-paper-scissor (RPS) like situation that allowed the coexistence of plasmids with varied copy numbers. Furthermore, another type of cheater that had lost the genes required for conjugation but could hitchhike on a conjugal plasmid, could further reduce the advantage of copy-up mutants. These sociobiological interactions may compliment molecular mechanisms of replication regulation in stabilizing the copy numbers. PMID:20195362

  10. Antibiotic resistance plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of plasmids were isolated physically, and most antibiotic resistance is thought to be plasmid mediated. A number of characters (e.g., resistance to erythromycin or methicillin, and production of pigment) are determined by genes that do not give clear indications of either plasmid or chromosomal location. Although the formation of a particular plasmid is probably, even in bacterial terms, a very rare event, once formed such an element can spread rapidly among the bacterial population. The spectacular increase in the incidence of penicillinase-producing hospital strains in the late 1940's could have been due in part to this process. Evidence is stronger, however, for the intercell transfer of recently isolated plasmids coding for resistance to fusidic acid (and penicillinase production), or for neomycin, or for tetracycline resistance. Study of bacterial plasmids can resolve fundamental biochemical problems, and give some insight into the life of the cell at the molecular level. But the immediate application of the study of staphylococcal plasmids may be directed towards improving the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. The most important aspect of future anti-staphylococcal chemotherapy should thus be the limitation of the use of antibiotics, particularly for application to the skin and nose. (U.S.)

  11. Plasmid carriage can limit bacteria-phage coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellie; Truman, Julie; Wright, Rosanna; Spiers, Andrew J; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution with bacteriophages is a major selective force shaping bacterial populations and communities. A variety of both environmental and genetic factors has been shown to influence the mode and tempo of bacteria-phage coevolution. Here, we test the effects that carriage of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, had on antagonistic coevolution between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its phage, SBW25?2. Plasmid carriage limited bacteria-phage coevolution; bacteria evolved lower phage-resistance and phages evolved lower infectivity in plasmid-carrying compared with plasmid-free populations. These differences were not explained by effects of plasmid carriage on the costs of phage resistance mutations. Surprisingly, in the presence of phages, plasmid carriage resulted in the evolution of high frequencies of mucoid bacterial colonies. Mucoidy can provide weak partial resistance against SBW25?2, which may have limited selection for qualitative resistance mutations in our experiments. Taken together, our results suggest that plasmids can have evolutionary consequences for bacteria that go beyond the direct phenotypic effects of their accessory gene cargo. PMID:26268992

  12. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: From 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E.; Farrell, Katharine N.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed by mega-sites is reflected upon in its entirety. These complexities are associated with uncertainties and unknowns that have to be addressed, as they have an impact on the strategies being developed and applied. We contend that the best that can be hoped for in mega-site management is an acceptable solution for the current state of affairs, with good flexibility to modify strategies as new site conditions, remediation possibilities, community preferences and management objectives develop over time.

  13. Interspecific plasmid transfer between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, M. (Inst. de Immunologia y Biologia Microbiana, Velazquez, Madrid, Spain); Lopez, P.; Perez-Urena, M.T.; Lacks, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The streptococcal plasmids pMV158 and pLS1, grown in Streptococcus pneumoniae, were transformed to Bacillus subtilis by DNA-mediated transformation.The plasmids were unchanged in the new host; no deletions were observed in 80 instances of transfer. Hybrid plasmids were produced by recombining the EcoRI fragment of pBD6 that confers Km/sup r/ with EcoRI-cut pLS1, which confers Tc/sup r/. The simple hybrid, pMP2, was transferable to both species and expressed Tc/sup r/ and Km/sup r/ in both. A derivative, pMP5, which contained an insertion in the pBD6 component, expressed a higher level of kanomycin resistance and was more easily selected in S. pneumoniae. Another derivative, pMP3, which contained an additional EcoRI fragment, presumably of pneumococcal chromosomal DNA, could not be transferred to B. subtilis. Previous findings that monomeric plasmid forms could transform S. pneumoniae but not B. subtilis were confirmed using single plasmid preparations. Although plasmids extracted from either species were readily transferred to S. pneumoniae, successive passage in B. subtilis increased the ability of plasmid extracts to transfer the plasmid to a B. subtilis recipient. This adaptation was tentatively ascribed to an enrichment of multimeric forms in extracts of B. subtilis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A review of host ranges exhibited by plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria suggested differences in their ability to use particular host replication functions. (JMT)

  14. Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

  15. The right hand copy of the nopaline Ti-plasmid 25 bp repeat is required for tumour formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M. D.; Carter, G H; Shaw, C H

    1984-01-01

    At either end of the nopaline Ti-plasmid T-region resides a copy of a 25 bp repeated element. The normal T-DNA endpoint is 1 bp internal of the right copy, with the transcription initiation site of the nopaline synthase (nos) gene being approximately 300 bp away in the same direction. Here we describe results which demonstrate that deletion of any combination of sequences between the nos initiation site and the right copy of the 25 bp repeat does not affect oncogenicity. Thus a mutant retaini...

  16. Bacterial Mitosis: ParM of Plasmid R1 Moves Plasmid DNA by an Actin-like Insertional Polymerization Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating in eukaryotic cells. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that plasmid pairing is required for ParM polymerization. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2003

  17. Genotyping of virulence plasmid from Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2015-08-20

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has caused severe mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp throughout SE Asia and Mexico. The causative agent of AHPND is the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes PirA- and PirB-like binary toxin that caused deterioration in the hepatopancreas of infected shrimp. The genes responsible for the production of this toxin are located in a large plasmid residing within the bacterial cells. We analyzed the plasmid sequence from the whole genome sequences of AHPND-V. parahaemolyticus isolates and identified 2 regions that exhibit a clear geographical variation: a 4243-bp Tn3-like transposon and a 9-bp small sequence repeat (SSR). The Tn3-like transposon was only found in the isolates from Mexico and 2 unspecified Central American countries, but not in SE Asian isolates from China, Vietnam, and Thailand. We developed PCR methods to characterize AHPND-V. parahaemolyticus isolates as either Mexican-type or SE Asian-type based on the presence of the Tn3-like transposon. The SSR is found within the coding region of a hypothetical protein and has either 4, 5, or 6 repeat units. SSRs with 4 repeat units were found in isolates from Vietnam, China, and Thailand. SSRs with 5 repeat units were found in some Vietnamese isolates, and SSRs with 6 repeat units were only found in the Mexican isolates. PMID:26290509

  18. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  19. DKK1 eukaryotic expression plasmid and expression product identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, G Y; Lu, K Y; Cui, S F; Xu, L

    2015-01-01

    We constructed the human dickkopf 1 (DKK1) eukaryotic expression plasmid and expressed, purified, and identified its expression product. We extracted cancer cells from cervical cancer tissue, followed by extraction of mRNA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was conducted to obtain DKK1 gene fragments. Using these fragments, we prepared the recombinant plasmid pCMV-HA2/DKK1. The recombinant plasmid was restriction enzyme-digested and sequenced, and using liposome vectors, was transiently transfected into Free-Style 293-F cells (serum-free medium). DKK1 protein was detected by western blotting. The amplification product showed the expected size. Restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant plasmid was PCMV-HA2/DKK1. The expression product was verified properly by western blotting using an anti-DKKI antibody. The successful cloning of the DKKI gene and expression of DKKI protein will be useful for studying the biological activity of tumorigenesis. PMID:26125834

  20. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    activated cell sorting and finally 16S rRNA targeted pyrosequencing of the sorted transconjugal pools. Employing this new method, I was able to map, for the first time, the diversity of all recipients in a soil microbial community for three broad host range model plasmids: RP4, pKJK5, and pIPO2tet. I found...... able to show that the gene pool of microbial communities may be directly interconnected through transfer of BHR plasmids at a so far unrecognized level. The developed method furthermore enabled me to explore how agronomic practices may affect gene transfer in soil microbial communities. I compared...... bacterial communities extracted from plots subjected to different treatments for their permissiveness towards the model BHR plasmids RP4, pRO101 and pIPO2tet. Periodic manure introduction increased the permissiveness of the community towards these plasmids by up to 100% compared to control treatments...

  1. Construction of three new Gateway® expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag. The TAPtag and Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX and an integrative (pTREX plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX.

  2. Construction of three new Gateway® expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victoria L, Alonso; Carla, Ritagliati; Pamela, Cribb; Esteban C, Serra.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag). The TAPtag an [...] d Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX) and an integrative (pTREX) plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX).

  3. Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H in thymine was isolated from the thymine-dependent strain of Escherichia coli 15 SPT bacteria. The specific activity of the plasmid DNA preparations lay in the range from 0.5 to 20 MBq/mg, their relative molecular weight was 1.7 x 106 dalton. Molecular weight, preparation purity, and the degree of damage of the plasmid DNA molecules were examined by UV absorption spectroscopy, by gel electrophoresis, and by electron micrography. The quality of the [thymine-2-14C] plasmid DNA was verified in a diagnostic test for the determination of the anti-dsDNA bonding activity in human serum. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 30 refs

  4. A Biobrick Library for Cloning Custom Eukaryotic Plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Constante; Raik Gr\\xfcnberg; Mark Isalan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks) to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS) and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain th...

  5. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination functions using very short regions of homology. Initial manipulation of the IncFII target plasmids R1 and R1drd19 indicated that the linear targeting DNA should be devoid of all extraneous homologies to. the ...

  6. Plasmid Accumulation Reduces Life Span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón, Alaric A.; Aris, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of multiple pathways. The production and accumulation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) is one pathway that has been proposed to bring about aging in yeast. To test this proposal, we have developed a plasmid-based model system to study the role of DNA episomes in reduction of yeast life span. Recombinant plasmids containing different replication origins, cis-acting partitioning elements, and selectable marker genes were co...

  7. Conjugative transfer of cadmium resistance plasmids in Rhodococcus fascians strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Desomer, J; DHaese, P.; Van Montagu, M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a 138-kilobase plasmid (pD188) correlated with increased resistance to cadmium in Rhodococcus fascians D188. This plasmid could be transferred by a conjugation-like system in matings between R. fascians strains. Transconjugants expressed the cadmium resistance and could be used as donors in subsequent matings. Four other R. fascians strains (NCPPB 1488, NCPPB 1675, NCPPB 2551, and ATCC 12974) could also be used as donors for cadmium resistance in matings. Strain NCPPB 1675 sho...

  8. Construction of a bioluminescence reporter plasmid for Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bina, Xiaowen R.; Miller, Mark A.; Bina, James E.

    2010-01-01

    A Francisella tularensis shuttle vector that constitutively expresses the Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon in type A and type B strains of F. tularensis was constructed. The bioluminescence reporter plasmid was introduced into the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis and used to follow F. tularensis growth in a murine intranasal challenge model in real time by bioluminescence imaging. The results show that the new bioluminescence reporter plasmid represents a useful tool for tularemia rese...

  9. Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

  10. Detection of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in an isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaenhammer, T. R.; Sutherland, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eight strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were examined for the presence of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, and one, a pig intestinal isolate, showed the presence of a 13.7- and a 6.3-megadalton plasmid. This is the first reported evidence for plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in Lactobacillus acidophilus. The functions of these plasmids are presently unknown.

  11. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable? / Mega-eventos esportivos: podem desenvolvimento e legado ser equalitários e sustentáveis? / Sport mega-eventos: pueden ser legados y el desarrollo equitativo y sostenible?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jay, Coakley; Doralice Lange, Souza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Os mega-eventos esportivos (MEE) envolvem lutas para se determinar a definição de legado e as prioridades que guiam os processos de planejamento, financiamento e processos de implementação de resultados. A história mostra que os legados refletem os interesses do capital, e os benefícios são usufruid [...] os principalmente, se não exclusivamente, por interesses empresariais poderosos, por alguns líderes políticos e por organizações que governam o esporte de alto rendimento. Este artigo aborda os desafios enfrentados pelas cidades e países que hospedam MEE e demonstra que legados justos e equalitários e resultados em termos de desenvolvimento são alcançados somente quando as vozes e os interesses da população em geral são ouvidos e considerados como prioridade durante o processo de planejamento, financiamento e implementação. Ele também demonstra que a representação plena no processo de definição e prossecução de legados e a consecução de resultados em termos de desenvolvimento podem ser prejudicados por crenças populares sobre o poder do esporte. Abstract in spanish Los mega-eventos deportivos (DME) implican luchas para determinar la definición del legado y las prioridades que guían los procesos de planificación, financiación financiamiento y ejecución de los resultados. La historia muestra que los legados reflejan los intereses del capital y que los beneficios [...] son disfrutados principalmente, si no exclusivamente por los intereses empresariales poderosos, por algunos líderes políticos y por las organizaciones que dirigen los deportes de alto rendimiento. Este artículo aborda los desafíos que enfrentan las ciudades y los países anfitriones de los DME, y demuestra que legados justos y equitativos y resultados en sentido de desarrollo se logran solamente cuando se considera y se da prioridad a las voces e intereses de la población en general durante el proceso de planificación, financiamiento e implementación. Él también demuestra que la representación plena en el proceso de definición y consecución de los legados y los resultados en sentido de desarrollo pueden ser socavadas por las creencias populares sobre el poder del deporte. Abstract in english Sport mega-events (SMEs) involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, [...] by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  12. Plasmid-free T7-based Escherichia coli expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedner, Gerald; Pfaffenzeller, Irene; Markus, Luchner; Nemecek, Sabine; Grabherr, Reingard; Bayer, Karl

    2010-03-01

    In order to release host cells from plasmid-mediated increases in metabolic load and high gene dosages, we developed a plasmid-free, T7-based E. coli expression system in which the target gene is site-specifically integrated into the genome of the host. With this system, plasmid-loss, a source of instability for conventional expression systems, was eliminated. At the same time, system leakiness, a challenging problem with recombinant systems, was minimized. The efficiency of the T7 RNA polymerase compensates for low gene dosage and provides high rates of recombinant gene expression without fatal consequences to host metabolism. Relative to conventional pET systems, this system permits improved process stability and increases the host cell's capacity for recombinant gene expression, resulting in higher product yields. The stability of the plasmid-free system was proven in chemostat cultivation for 40 generations in a non-induced and for 10 generations in a fully induced state. For this reason plasmid-free systems benefit the development of continuous production processes with E. coli. However, time and effort of the more complex cloning procedure have to be considered in relation to the advantages of plasmid-free systems in upstream-processing. PMID:19891007

  13. Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

  14. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špi?ák, Aleš; Van?k, Ji?í

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about earthquake-triggered magma intrusions or eruptions of submarine volcanoes. The analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence performed in this study offers a tool to address such enigmatic and inaccessible processes. In the past ten years, the Andaman Sea region repeatedly became a site of shallow earthquake swarms that followed distant mega-earthquakes by days to weeks. The MW 9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was followed by two earthquake swarms about 600 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 30 and 35 days, respectively. Earthquakes of one of these seismic episodes, the extensive January 2005 earthquake swarm, migrated laterally at a rate of about 0.25 km per hour during the swarm evolution. The strong Indian Ocean MW 8.6 and 8.2 April 11, 2012 earthquake doublet west of Northern Sumatra was followed by an earthquake swarm approximately 800 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 13 days. All the three swarms that followed the 2004 and 2012 mega-earthquakes occurred beneath distinct seamounts and seafloor ridges. Based on the observations of migration of earthquakes during the swarm and swarm occurrence beneath distinct highs at the seafloor, we conclude that these earthquake swarms probably resulted as a consequence of magma unrest induced by static and/or dynamic stress changes following the distant mega-earthquakes. Repeated occurrence of such a phenomenon suggests that the arc magma reservoirs beneath the Andaman Sea have recently reached some form of criticality and are vulnerable to even small stress changes. The Andaman seafloor could thus become a site of submarine volcanic eruptions in near future and deserves close attention of Earth scientists.

  15. Video and GPS measurements of morphology and swash flow in beach mega- cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, M.; Macmahan, J.; Thornton, E.

    2007-12-01

    The alongshore locations of beach mega-cusps appear to be directly associated with the alongshore positions of surf zone rip channels (Thornton et al., Mar. Geol. 240, 2007). Previous lab and field measurements have detected mean alongshore "counter-currents" that are shoreward of rip channel feeder currents but flow in the opposite direction (Haas et al., JGR 108-C7, 2003; MacMahan et al., draft, 2007). These counter-currents may contribute to the development and persistence of mega-cusps on a beach with rip channel bathymetry. The present analysis uses both video and GPS methods to map the flow patterns and morphology in the region shoreward of several large rip channels in southern Monterey Bay, California. High frequency rectified color images and B/W video pixel time series of the swash and surf zone are analyzed with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) methods to indirectly measure swash flow in the cusps. The accuracy of the video-based estimates is tested against in-situ GPS measurements. The PIV-predicted surface flow field is compared with velocity vectors generated by concurrently deployed, GPS-equipped mini-drifters. Shoreline mapping techniques are applied to time-averaged video images to estimate the corresponding intertidal morphology and compared with in-situ measurements made using a GPS-equipped ATV and personal watercraft. Preliminary results indicate that nearshore counter-currents are intermittently present shoreward of rip channels and suggest that they act together with the alongshore current to influence the evolution and migration of mega-cusps.

  16. Characterizing mega-city pollution with TES O3 and CO measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, A.; Sachse, G.; Diskin, G; Eldering, A.; Worden, J; Worden, H; Kulawik, S; M Luo; LI, Q.; Shim, C.; Knapp, D; Montzca, D.; Campos, T.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent tropospheric O3 and CO vertical profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) allow us to characterize mega-city pollution. Outflow from the MCMA occurred predominantly at 600–800 hPa, evident in O3, CO, and NOx enhancements in the in situ observations. We examined O3, CO, and their correlation at 600–800 hPa from TES retrievals, aircraft measurements, and GEOS-Chem ...

  17. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    OpenAIRE

    X. L. Pan; Yan, P; Tang, J.; J. Z. Ma; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang) from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%), varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean v...

  18. Tunable mega-ampere electron current propagation in solids by dynamic control of lattice melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, D A; Carroll, D C; Gray, R J; Booth, N; Burza, M; Desjarlais, M P; Du, F; Neely, D; Powell, H W; Robinson, A P L; Scott, G G; Yuan, X H; Wahlström, C-G; McKenna, P

    2014-10-31

    The influence of lattice-melt-induced resistivity gradients on the transport of mega-ampere currents of fast electrons in solids is investigated numerically and experimentally using laser-accelerated protons to induce isochoric heating. Tailoring the heating profile enables the resistive magnetic fields which strongly influence the current propagation to be manipulated. This tunable laser-driven process enables important fast electron beam properties, including the beam divergence, profile, and symmetry to be actively tailored, and without recourse to complex target manufacture. PMID:25396375

  19. Prevalência de megas em necrópsias realizadas no triângulo mineiro no período de 1954 a 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre 1708 necrópsias de chagásicos crônicos, de um total de 4690, diagnosticamos 273 megas. Destes o mais freqüente foi o megacólon, seguido pelo megaesôfago, ocupando a associação megacólon e megaesôfago o terceiro lugar. Discutem-se e comparam-se os achados com outros de ordem clinico-epidemiológica e anatomopatológica. Confirmando dados da literatura, nossos achados atuais mostram, que a exemplo do que sucede na cardiopatia chagásica, o megacólon e o megaesôfago predominam no sexo masculino, discutindo-se os fatores que poderiam explicar a razão desse fato.

  20. Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration in repository host rocks (MEGAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the MEGAS project is to understand the consequences of gas generation in repository host rocks. The final objective of this project will be to validate a gas migration model and to confirm our understanding using an in situ gas injection experiment. Within this project INTERA will perform the main modelling work. The SCK/CEN will be responsible for the gas reaction and diffusion the study of the uniaxial flow as well as the in situ experiments. BGS will perform geotechnically based triaxial gas flow experiments. ISMES will perform experiments at higher temperature. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Using a custom mega prosthesis to treat hydatidosis of bone: a report of 3 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan MV; Kumar AK; Sivaseelam A; Iyakutty P; Raja M; Rajagopal TS

    2002-01-01

    Three cases of hydatidosis of bone with pathological fracture were treated by wide resection, custom mega prosthesis replacement, and chemotherapy. Two patients were females and one was male, with a mean age of 47 years (range, 38-55 years). Two of them had a pathological fracture of the proximal femur, and one had a pathological fracture of the distal femur. All patients were treated postoperatively with albendazole 400 mg, twice daily, for 12 weeks. During the mean follow-up period of 4.5 y...

  2. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Asiyanbola; S.B. Osoba; S.S. Adewale

    2012-01-01

    Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAG...

  3. Narrow linewidth picosecond UV pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system that generates 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser consists of a single frequency fiber laser (linewidth laser is operating in a 5-?s/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform-limited spectrum with a very narrow linewidth of individual longitudinal modes. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser-assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). PMID:23572001

  4. Festifavelisation: mega-events, slums and strategic city-staging – the example of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbrink, Malte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events are increasingly often taking place in countries of the Global South. In the socio-spatially deeply fragmented host cities these spectacles encompass extremely transformative urban processes. This paper will consider the festivalisation of Rio de Janeiro in the preparatory phase of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. It focuses on the urban policy in relation to how Rio deals with its favelas. The aim of the article is to critically assess current measures of ‘invisibilisation’, ‘pacification’, ‘beautification’ and ‘touristic staging’ of favelas against the backdrop of the upcoming events.

  5. Development of a hardened imaging system for the Laser MegaJoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ facility will host inertial confinement fusion experiments in order to achieve ignition by imploding a Deuterium-Tritium microballoon. In this context an X-ray imager is necessary to diagnose the core size and shape of the DT-target in the 10–100 keV band in complement of neutron imaging system. Such a diagnostic will be composed of two parts: an X-ray optical system and a detection assembly. Each element will be affected by the harsh environment created by fusion reactions.

  6. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

  7. Malaysian Mega Science Framework: The Need for Social Impact and Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zainal A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on issues surrounding wastewater management as part of the National Sustainable Development (2013-2050 under the Malaysian Mega Science Framework. In line with the national priority area of water security, this review will highlight the technical reports compiled by the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM on the challenges of water resource development and wastewater management and treatment. The discussion will dwell on the social impact of pollution in water and wastewater and mitigation plans that need to be put in place to ensure sustainable national development and making water as a National Key Economic Area (NKEA.

  8. Construction Methodology of Tubed Mega Frame Structures in High­ Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Tobias; Yngvesson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    As a response to the ever denser cities, skyscrapers have become yet more popular and are growing more and taller than ever. A new efficient structural system for skyscrapers has been proposed by Tyre?ns AB, called the Tubed Mega Frame. This structural system consists of hollow concrete tubes at the perimeter of the building. Since this structural system has not yet been used in any skyscraper several aspects have still not been studied or investigated. An important aspect having an impact on...

  9. Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, M.K.; Dr.N.K.Shrama; Dr.Prabhakar Tiwari; Vikas Pandey; Dr.A.N Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP) are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail ...

  10. The Development of a Modified Method for Isolating Plasmids from Exopolysaccharide Producing Lactobacillus Species Using Conventional Plasmid Isolation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    ÇATALOLUK, Osman

    2003-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a key element in the dairy industry. The gene products encoded by the plasmids of LAB carry out fermentation. To date, many successful plasmid isolation studies have been conducted with Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Listeria and many strains of LAB. However, since LAB comprise a conglomerate of seven different genera, each with its own physiological and morphological characteristics, and produce a large amount of exopolysaccharide ...

  11. Antibiogram and Plasmid Profile Analysis of Isolated Poultry Salmonella of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.F.R. Khan; M.B. Rahman; M.S.R. Khan; K.H.M.N.H. Nazir; Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiogram study and plasmid profile analyses were conducted to find out the correlation of the recently isolated Salmonella organisms of Bangladesh. Antibiogram study revealed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Cephalexin and Kanamycin. In the plasmid profile analysis it was observed that out of 4 isolates of Mymensingh district (M1 to M4), 3 isolates showed 3 plasmid bands in each and 1 isolate showed 4 plasmid bands. The estimated size of the plasmid bands of M1, M2...

  12. Strict Regulation of Gene Expression from a High-Copy Plasmid Utilizing a Dual Vector System

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, David F.; Pieribone, Vincent A; Porton, Barbara; Kao, Hung-Teh

    2008-01-01

    High-copy plasmids are useful for producing large quantities of plasmid DNA, but are generally inadequate for tightly regulating gene expression. Attempts to suppress expression of genes on high-copy plasmids often results in residual or “leaky” production of protein. For stringent regulation of gene expression, it is often necessary to excise the gene of interest and subclone it into a low-copy plasmid. Here, we report a dual plasmid technique that enables tight regulation of gene expression...

  13. Hofmeister series salts enhance purification of plasmid DNA by non-ionic detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Lezin, George; Kuehn, Michael R.; Brunelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the standard technique used for plasmid DNA purification, an essential molecular biology procedure. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs) have been used for plasmid DNA purification, but it is unclear whether Hofmeister series salts (HSS) change the solubility and phase separation properties of specific NIDs, enhancing plasmid DNA purification. After scaling-up NID-mediated plasmid DNA isolation, we established that NIDs in HSS solutions minimize plasmid DNA contamination...

  14. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    OpenAIRE

    Meindert Slagter

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents (doctors in training to become medical specialists) fulfill an important role in the Dutch healthcare system. They take their share of responsibility for efficient patient care in hospitals, mental healthcare centres, rehabilitation centres and other medical institutions. Medical residents see the period of training for medical specialist as a valuable phase in their lives. It is a phase in which finding a balance between training, work and private life plays an important pa...

  15. Abortion training in residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, C

    1994-01-01

    Following the expanded legalization of abortion in 1973, obstetrics/gynecology residency programs began to include training in these techniques. Due to a lack of specific requirements, however, many programs have never offered this training. Because most abortions are provided in freestanding clinics rather than in hospitals, many residents have not had an opportunity to learn abortion techniques. Since the 1970s, the number of residency programs that offer or require abortion training has decreased; currently, only about 12% of US obstetrics/gynecology residency programs require it. The development of collaborative programs where gynecology residents can go to learn abortion outside the hospital is one way to improve the proportion of residents who are trained. Training physicians from other specialties and midlevel clinicians is also being used to increase the number of abortion providers. New requirements specifying that obstetrics/gynecology training programs must include training in abortion techniques are under consideration. If adopted, these requirements may improve access to safe abortion for US women. PMID:7806758

  16. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  17. Molecular characterisation of the Chlamydia pecorum plasmid from porcine, ovine, bovine, and koala strains indicates plasmid-strain co-evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jelocnik, Martina; Bachmann, Nathan L.; Seth-Smith, Helena; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly stable, evolutionarily conserved, small, non-integrative plasmids are commonly found in members of the Chlamydiaceae and, in some species, these plasmids have been strongly linked to virulence. To date, evidence for such a plasmid in Chlamydia pecorum has been ambiguous. In a recent comparative genomic study of porcine, ovine, bovine, and koala C. pecorum isolates, we identified plasmids (pCpec) in a pig and three koala strains, respectively. Screening of further porcine, o...

  18. Curing the plasmid pMC1 from the poly (?-glutamic acid) producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain using plasmid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Jingqiang; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shufang

    2013-09-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 is a glutamate-independent poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) producing strain which consists of a circular chromosome (3,995,227 bp) and an endogenous plasmid pMC1 (6,758 bp). The study of the function of native plasmid and the genome-size reduction of the B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain requires elimination of the endogenous plasmid. Traditional plasmid-curing procedures using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or acridine orange combined with heat treatment have been shown to be ineffective in this strain. Plasmid incompatibility is an effective method for curing which has been studied before. In our research, the hypothetical Rep protein gene and the origin of replication of the endogenous plasmid were cloned into the temperature-sensitive vector yielding the incompatible plasmid pKSV7-rep-ori. This plasmid was transformed into LL3 by electroporation. The analysis of the strain bearing incompatible plasmids after incubation at 30 °C for 30 generations showed the production of plasmid cured strains. High frequency of elimination was achieved with more than 93 % of detected strains showing to be plasmid-cured. This is the first report describing plasmid cured in a ?-PGA producing strain using this method. The plasmid-cured strains showed an increase of ?-PGA production by 6 % and led to a yield of 4.159 g/l, compared to 3.918 g/l in control and cell growth increased during the early stages of the exponential phase. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization revealed that the ?-PGA produced by plasmid-cured strains and the wild strains were identical in terms of molecular weight. What is more, the further study of plasmid function showed that curing of the endogenous plasmid did not affect its sporulation efficiency. PMID:23873640

  19. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Sergey; Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Perkov, Alexey; Ivanov, Evgeny; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Greco, Giuseppe; Shearer, Andy; Sasyuk, Vyacheslav

    Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

  20. Status and perspectives of Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system with high temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Ivanov, E.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Greco, G.; Shearer, A.; Sasyuk, V.

    2013-07-01

    Here we briefly summarize our long period experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. General requirements for hardware for such systems are discussed along with algorithms of real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, the MegaTORTORA, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain) and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan) we are building now at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitivity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously.

  1. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karpov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

  2. IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-10-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  3. IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the ?-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1? plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  4. Residency training in aesthetic surgery: maximizing the residents' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, W K; Rapaport, D P; Payne, W; Shons, A R; Krizek, T J

    1998-06-01

    Plastic surgery residency programs often rely on a residents' aesthetic clinic to help train residents in aesthetic surgery. The television media may be used to help boost interest in such clinics. We report our experience with a local television station in helping to produce a "health segment" broadcast that chronicled the experience of an aesthetic patient in the residents' aesthetic clinic. As a result of this broadcast, approximately 150 people responded by telephone and subsequently attended a series of seminars designed to screen patients and educate the audience about the aesthetic clinic. A total of 121 patients (112 women and 9 men) signed up for personal consultations. The age distribution and requested procedures are presented. From the data, we conclude that there is a healthy demand for reduced-fee plastic surgery procedures performed by residents in plastic surgery. The number and variety of cases generated are sufficiently diverse to provide a well-rounded operative experience. The pursuit of media coverage of a not-for-profit clinic has the potential for generating large patient volume. Such efforts, although very attractive, are not without their own risks, which must be taken into consideration before engaging the media in the public interest arena. PMID:9623845

  5. Extrachromosomal plasmids in the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaji-Hare, S H; Burger, G; Forget, L; Lang, B F

    1994-05-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA elements were found in field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) 1-5. An isolate of AG-5 (Rh41) contains a 3.6-kbp plasmid (pRS188) which has a similar A+T content to mitochondrial DNA. pRS188 is linear and has knob structures at its ends, as revealed by electron microscopy. Exonuclease digestions show that the linear ends of pRS188 are protected, and remain protected even after proteinase K digestion. pRS188 does not hybridise to nuclear or mitochondrial DNAs of its host isolate (Rh41), to total DNAs of other plasmid-less AG-5 isolates, or to total DNA of plasmid-harbouring isolates belonging to different AGs. Cellular-fractionation experiments suggest that pRS188 is associated with mitochondria, but it remains undecided whether this occurs inside or outside of the organelles. The nucleotide sequence of about 60% of the plasmid has been determined, revealing no open reading frame longer than 91 amino acids, and no known gene or genetic element is detected in the sequence contigs of 300-1572 bp length. Similar studies were performed with the plasmid pRS104 present in an isolate of AG-4 (Rh36), the sequence of which exhibits essentially the same features as pRS188 except that its A+T content resembles that of nuclear DNA. Pathogenicity tests reveal that the isolates Rh41 and R36 are as virulent as the plasmid-less isolates of AG-4 and -5, indicating that the plasmids do not play any role in pathogenicity. PMID:8082188

  6. Alkaline-cell lysis through in-line static mixer reactor for the production of plasmid DNA for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsart, Saethawat; Karnjanasorn, Tanyawat

    2007-02-15

    A state-of-the-art in-line static mixer reactor (ISMR) was invented to lyse E. coli cells and neutralize the cell lysate continuously and efficiently for the extraction of plasmid DNA. It comprised two connected static dynamic mixers, each 0.01 m in diameter and 0.9 m in length, one for lysis and one for neutralization. Cells were lysed using concentrated alkaline with 1% SDS and the lysate was neutralized at feed rates of cell suspension:lysis solution:neutralization solution of 125:250:125, 250:500:250, and 500:1,000:500 mL/min. Distances for the mixtures to reach color homogeneity were dependent on feed rates. The higher the feed rates the shorter the mixing distances and times. However, complete cell lysis and neutralization were independent of color homogeneity. Lysate viscosity and neutralized floc size decreased and floc density increased, as distances and feed rates increased. High plasmid yields were obtained from both lysis and neutralization at feed rate ratios of 125:250:125 and 250:500:250 mL/min within mixing distances mixing performance and plasmid yield were obtained at a high feed rate of 500:1,000: 500 mL/min when residence and reaction times were less than 2 s and from mixing distances > or =0.6 m at all feed rates due to a longer exposure to strong alkali and shear flow. This invention showed excellent performance with scaleable potential for the commercial manufacture of plasmid DNA. PMID:16917953

  7. POTENTIAL FOR TRANSDUCTION OF PLASMIDS IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT OF PLASMID DONOR CONCENTRATION AND A NATURAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ON TRANSDUCTION IN 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid Rms149 by the generalized transducing phage DS1 was shown to occur during a nine day incubation of environmental test chambers in a freshwater reservoir. Plasmid DNA was transferred from a nonlysogenic plasmid donor to a DS1 lyso...

  8. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  9. The mef(E)-Carrying Genetic Element (mega) of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Insertion Sites and Association with Other Genetic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Maria; Camilli, Romina; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the macrolide efflux genetic assembly (mega) element, its genomic locations, and its association with other resistance determinants and genetic elements were investigated in 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates carrying mef(E), of which 1 isolate also carried tet(M) and 4 isolates also carried tet(M) and erm(B). All isolates carried a mega element of similar size and structure that included the operon mef(E)-msr(D) encoding the efflux transport system. Among tetracycline-susc...

  10. Irradiation uniformity at the Laser MegaJoule facility in the context of the shock ignition scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, B; Garbett, Warren J.; Ramis Abril, Rafael; Weber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The use of the Laser MegaJoule facility within the shock ignition scheme has been considered. In the first part of the study, one-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations were performed for an inertial confinement fusion capsule in the context of the shock ignition scheme providing the energy gain and an estimation of the increase of the peak power due to the reduction of the photon penetration expected during the high-intensity spike pulse. In the second part, we considered a Laser MegaJoule co...

  11. Research on Mega-Math: Discrete mathematics and computer science for children. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, M.R. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    1995-06-26

    The objective of the subcontract was to provide further research on the approach to mathematics education embodied in the workbook ``This is Mega-Mathematics!`` essentially produced under the subcontract and its preceding informal (alas!) cooperative arrangements. The workbook is now widely and freely distributed on the Internet under the copyright of the Los Alamos National Labs. This research was to consist of: (1) the development and dissemination of materials, (2) experimentation with use of the materials in classroom visits and other events, (3) communication of the ideas embodied in the materials to various forums concerned with mathematics education reform, (4) the development of connections to the computer games industry, (5) the development of new workbook-type materials, (6) publications, (7) the development of connections to Science Museums, (8) the development of uses of the Internet to make MegaMath materials and ideas available through that medium, (9) the stimulation of and coordination with other projects in mathematics education reform. All of these objectives have been accomplished in what should be regarded as one of the most interesting and cost-effective projects ever undertaken in mathematics education, a testimony to the vision and creative imagination of the Los Alamos Labs.

  12. Natural hazards mapping of mega sea waves on the NW coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy; Dalal, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Some boulder fields were deposited by the sea waves during winter storms or by paleo tsunami mega waves and most of these boulders were uprooted from the marine platform and distributed within 90 m of the shoreline, are found up to 4 m above present mean sea level. The objective of this work is defining systematic characterisation of the high-energy depositional contexts working by storms or paleo tsunami deposit, and to reconstruct the history of mega block deposition along the study area, depends upon extensive field surveying and geomorphic mapping by using GIS and GPS techniques as well as statistical analysis of boulders in order to determine both extreme events using the significant wave height and period of maximum observed storms and historical tsunamis along the study area, as well as geomorphic hazard mapping and samples dating. The results show that both possible processes (storm and tsunami waves) can deposit these boulders, it attested at Alexandria for example by the archaeological excavations and historical sources. Tsunami waves and storms cause the displacement of huge boulders from sea bottom and submersible marine terraces (platforms) to the beach due to its major power and ability of carving and graving it is also capable of pulling other boulders from the land and redeposit it on the beach or coastline.

  13. Mega-science accelerator projects in China and their impact on economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the rapid development of national economy in China, a number of mega-science projects have been or being constructed. In respect to the large accelerator-based projects, the Beijing Electron-Positron Colliders (BEPC) and its upgrading project BEPC?, the Hefei Light Source (HLS), the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) and its Cooling Storage Rings (HIRFL-CSR) and the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) were successfully constructed and put into operation. The Beijing Radioactive Ion Facility (BRIF) and the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) are under construction. A particle accelerator is an integration of many HI-tech components. In order to reach the scientific goal of an accelerator project, a great deal new technologies need to be developed during its construction and operation and thus speed up technology development and this will positively impact on the economy. In this paper, the mega-science accelerator projects are briefly described and applications of accelerators in the economy are reviewed. The paper emphasizes spin-off of the accelerator technology developed during R and D and construction of the projects. Approaches of collaboration between academia and industry are discussed. With some examples, the benefits experienced in the laboratory-industry collaboration and approach of its economic compact are illustrated. (author)

  14. Prevalência de megas em necrópsias realizadas no triângulo mineiro no período de 1954 a 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre 1708 necrópsias de chagásicos crônicos, de um total de 4690, diagnosticamos 273 megas. Destes o mais freqüente foi o megacólon, seguido pelo megaesôfago, ocupando a associação megacólon e megaesôfago o terceiro lugar. Discutem-se e comparam-se os achados com outros de ordem clinico-epidemiológica e anatomopatológica. Confirmando dados da literatura, nossos achados atuais mostram, que a exemplo do que sucede na cardiopatia chagásica, o megacólon e o megaesôfago predominam no sexo masculino, discutindo-se os fatores que poderiam explicar a razão desse fato.One thousand seven hundred and eight chronic chagasic post-mortem examinations studied from a total of4690 autopsies perfomed at our Institution. Two hundred and seventy-three chagasic had megas. Megacolon was the most frequent, followed by megaesophagus. Megacolon associated with megaesophagus was, the third mostcommom finding. Our data are discussed and compared with the literature. Megacolon and megaesophagus were more prevalent in man, as shown by other workers. Higher parasitemia perhaps could explain this finding.

  15. Nonblocking Clos networks of multiple ROADM rings for mega data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Ye, Tong; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-11-01

    Optical networks have been introduced to meet the bandwidth requirement of mega data centers (DC). Most existing approaches are neither scalable to face the massive growth of DCs, nor contention-free enough to provide full bisection bandwidth. To solve this problem, we propose two symmetric network structures: ring-MEMS-ring (RMR) network and MEMS-ring-MEMS (MRM) network based on classical Clos theory. New strategies are introduced to overcome the additional wavelength constraints that did not exist in the traditional Clos network. Two structures that followed the strategies can enable high scalability and nonblocking property simultaneously. The one-to-one correspondence of the RMR and MRM structures to a Clos is verified and the nonblocking conditions are given along with the routing algorithms. Compared to a typical folded-Clos network, both structures are more readily scalable to future mega data centers with 51200 racks while reducing number of long cables significantly. We show that the MRM network is more cost-effective than the RMR network, since the MRM network does not need tunable lasers to achieve nonblocking routing. PMID:26561124

  16. Sustainable Science? Reducing the Carbon Impact of Scientific Mega-Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Ponette-González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists across the globe recognize the importance of reducing carbon emissions to combat climate change.  At the same time, we have increased our carbon footprint through air travel to the growing number of scientific society “mega-meetings” that host thousands of attendees.  Although alternative solutions have been proposed to reduce the environmental impact of annual conferences, these have yet to be evaluated against the business-as-usual scenario.  Here, we use 9 years of annual meeting attendance data from the Ecological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers to assess the efficacy of two additional solutions: 1 alternate large national meetings that require significant air travel with smaller regional meetings that do not; and 2 incorporate geography into the meeting location selection process.  The carbon footprint of annual mega-meetings ranged 3-fold, from 1196-4062 metric tons of CO2.  Results indicate that an alternating schedule of national and regional meetings can reduce conference-related CO2 emissions up to 73%, while improved spatial planning may result in further reductions.  We discuss the benefits and tradeoffs of proposals to green scientific meetings, with a view to spark further debate on how to increase the sustainability of scientific conferences.

  17. Siberian Forest Fire Emissions of Carbon Monoxide for Years of Large and Mega Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to boreal forest fires, but the variation in amount of biomass burned is quite high. This paper discusses issues of the representation of boreal fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM), with a focus on large and mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emissions in the high Northern Hemisphere (> 30°N latitude) over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 which results in corresponding variation in annual CO emissions. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of smoke plumes from the large fires. Satellite observation of CO from MOPITT is used to evaluate the model performances in simulating temporal and spatial variations in the fire emissions. The model results of CO are in good agreement with MOPITT observations, especially during the major Siberian forest fire months in the summer of 2002 and in the spring of 2003. The model results of CO during the large and mega fire months are largely robust to changes in spatial and temporal resolutions of CTM, with deviations from the high resolution run of less than 10% in monthly averages over eastern Siberia even for coarse resolutions with monthly averaged emission rates.

  18. Wide and fast. Status update on FAVOR project and MegaTORTORA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Bondar, S.; Perkov, A.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.

    Here we briefly summarize our long period experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. General requirements for hardware for such systems are discussed along with algorithms of real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, the MegaTORTORA, whose 6-channel prototype (MiniMegaTORTORA) is at a final stages of commissioning now at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with sub-second temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able to reconfigure itself, in a fractions of second, to follow-up mode which has better sensitivity and provides us with multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients simultaneously. Hardware and software solutions used for the prototype (including a ways to rapidly re-point separate channels, process non-poissonian data from image intensifier+CCD combination, etc), as well as perspectives of its operation, are also discussed.

  19. Mega Microforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the trends and current status of library use of microforms for the preservation and dissemination of research materials. A sampling of topics available on microform is provided, and a directory of the publishers mentioned is included. (CLB)

  20. Gas and Dust Phenomena of Mega-earthquakes and the Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A mega-earthquake suddenly releases a large to extremely large amount of kinetic energy within a few tens to two hundreds seconds and over ten to hundreds kilometer distances in the Earth's crust and on ground surface. It also generates seismic waves that can be received globally and co-seismic ground damages such co-seismic ruptures and landslides. However, such vast, dramatic and devastating kinetic actions in the Earth's crustal rocks and on the ground soils cannot be known or predicted by people at few weeks, days, hours, or minutes before they are happening. Although seismologists can develop and use seismometers to report the locations and magnitudes of earthquakes within minutes of their occurrence, they cannot predict earthquakes at present. Therefore, damage earthquakes have caused and would continue to cause huge disasters, fatalities and injuries to our human beings. This problem may indicate that it is necessary to re-examine the cause of mega-earthquakes in addition to the conventional cause of active fault elastic rebounding. In the last ten years, many mega-earthquakes occurred in China and around the Pacific Ocean and caused many casualties to human beings and devastating disasters to environments. The author will give a brief review on the impacts of the mega-earthquakes happened in recent years. He will then present many gas and dust related phenomena associated with the sudden occurrences of these mega earthquakes. They include the 2001 Kunlunshan Earthquake M8.1, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake M8.0 and the 2010 Yushu Earthquake M7.1 in China, the 2010 Haiti Earthquake M7.0, the 2010 Mexicali Earthquake M7.2, the 2010 Chile Earthquake M8.8, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake M6.3 and the 2011 Japan Earthquake M9.0 around the Pacific Ocean. He will discuss the cause of these gas and dust related phenomena. He will use these phenomena and their common cause to show that the earthquakes were caused the rapid migration and expansion of highly compressed and dense natural (methane) gas suddenly escaped from deep crust traps along deep fault zones. References Yue, ZQ, 2009. The source of energy power directly causing the May 12 Wenchuan Earthquake: Huge extremely pressurized natural gases trapped in deep Longmen Shan faults. News Journal of China Society of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 86 (2009 (2)), 45-50. Yue, ZQ, 2010. Features and mechanism of coseismic surface ruptures by Wenchuan Earthquake. in Rock Stress and Earthquake, edited by Furen Xie, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-60165-8, 761-768. Yue, ZQ, 2013a. Natural gas eruption mechanism for earthquake landslides: illustrated with comparison between Donghekou and Papandayan Rockslide-debris flows. in Earthquake-induced Landslides, K. Ugai et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlage Berlin, Chapter 51: pp. 485-494 Yue ZQ, 2013b. On incorrectness in elastic rebound theory for cause of earthquakes. Paper No. S20-003 of Session S20, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Fracture, June 16-21, Beijing. Yue ZQ, 2013c. On nature of earthquakes with cause of compressed methane gas expansion and migration in crustal rocks, in Proceedings of Fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics in Memory of Karl von Terzaghi (1883-1963), July 10-12, Vienna, edited by C. Hellmich et al, @ASCE, pp. 507-516.

  1. Mega-asperity model for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H.; Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Fukuyama, E.; Aoi, S.

    2011-12-01

    We performed moment tensor inversion of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using regional seismic waveforms, which indicates that the earthquake can be approximated by a point source. We used strong-motion seismograms from a nationwide broadband seismic network of the F-net installed and operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). At each F-net station, a velocity-type strong-motion seismometer is installed at the end of a 30-50 m long vault to record strong motions up to +-2 m/s. We selected five F-net stations with the hypocentral distances more than several hundred kilometers. We used a waveform inversion method that assumes a double-couple focal mechanism for a point source [Nakano et al., 2008, GJI]. Our inversion using the strong-motion seismograms band-pass filtered between 0.006 and 0.02 Hz indicates that the best-fit source location was obtained at 38.25 N, 143.25 E at a depth of 30 km, at which the normalized residual was 0.13. The estimated mechanism and moment magnitude (Mw = 9.0) are consistent with those estimated from global broadband seismographic network data by the global CMT project and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the U.S. Geological Survey. We fitted the omega-square model to amplitude spectra of observed vertical displacement seismograms, which resulted in the corner frequency of around 0.017 Hz. This implies average slip of roughly 70 m over a circular fault with radius of 70 km. These results suggest that a strongly localized asperity (mega asperity) was ruptured during the earthquake. For the northeastern Japan subduction zone, where the old Pacific Sea plate subducts along the Japan Trench, the seismic coupling was believed to be very small. The occurrence of the mega earthquake is apparently not compatible with weak seismic coupling. However, as suggested by Scholz and Small [1997, Geology], the subduction of a large seamount increases the normal stress across the subduction interface, which produces local seismic coupling in decoupled plates. If we consider a subducted seamount as the mega asperity at the source of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the occurrence of the mega earthquake in the decoupled plates is reasonably explained. Asano et al. [2011, EPS] indicated that all the CMT solutions of aftershocks above the source region of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake were characterized by normal faulting. A similar aftershock pattern was observed during the 1994 Java earthquake (Mw7.6). This earthquake occurred in a weakly coupled plate interface and its large slip area was coincident with a well identified seamount in this region. We can find a velocity anomaly near the source region of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the velocity model of Miura et al. [2005, Tectonophyics], which was obtained from a seismic line experiment off-Miyagi perpendicular to the trench. This velocity anomaly may be related with the subduction process of a seamount at this region. Further extensive refraction and reflection seismic surveys along the Japan Trench would contribute to verify our mega-asperity model and to evaluate seismic and tsunami hazards along the Japan Trench.

  2. Depression in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R C; Teresi, J A; Butin, D N

    1992-05-01

    Although their extent remains unclear, major and minor depressions are widespread in the nursing home population. This statement appears intuitively to be correct when consideration is given to the inactivity, decline in functional competence, loss of personal autonomy, and unavoidable confrontation with the process of death and dying that are associated with nursing home placement. In addition, some nursing home residents have had previous episodes of depression or are admitted to the facility already dysthymic or with other chronic forms of the illness. Such circumstances provide a favorable culture for the development and persistence of depressive illness. When the high frequency of other psychiatric disorders among nursing home residents is factored in, it is not surprising that long-term health care facilities have come to be regarded as de facto psychiatric hospitals. Nursing homes largely lack the treatment resources of psychiatric hospitals, however. Nursing home physicians are often unprepared to make psychiatric diagnoses, and a perfunctory annual psychiatric evaluation is insufficient to manage the complex depression syndromes of nursing home residents. Because nursing home psychiatrists typically work on a consultation basis, recommendations are not necessarily acted upon by the primary physicians. The consequences of undiagnosed and untreated depression are substantial. From the psychiatric perspective, the possibility that depression increases the risk for eventual development of permanent dementia highlights the importance of early identification for cases of reversible dementia. From the rehabilitation point of view, persistent depression among individuals with physical dependency following a catastrophic illness is associated with failure to improve in physical functioning. Depression can probably be linked to increased medical morbidity in nursing home residents, a relationship that also has been suggested for elderly medical inpatients. If so, the use of nursing time and other health-care facility services would be greater for depressed than nondepressed residents, and financial costs would be higher as well. Finally, recent data point to increased mortality in nursing home residents with major depressive disorder. It is apparent that depression in long-term care facilities is a condition with doubtful prognosis and negative medical, social, and financial consequences. The highest costs of all may be paid by nursing home residents who experience the unrelieved suffering of depressive illness. Only epidemiologic research using standard diagnostic criteria and direct resident assessment will adequately establish the magnitude of the need for intervention among depressed residents in long-term care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1600481

  3. A type Ib plasmid segregation machinery of the Advenella kashmirensis plasmid pBTK445.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Bomba

    2011-03-01

    pBTK445 is a newly described large (?60Kb), low-copy number, conjugative plasmid indigenous to the sulfur-chemolithoautotroph Advenella kashmirensis. Based on its minimal replication region, a shuttle vector, pBTKS was constructed which can be used for diverse Alcaligenaceae members. The construct was found to be stably maintained both in the native host as well as in Escherichia coli in the absence of selective pressure which indicated that pBTKS harbors the stabilizing system of pBTK445, that are commonly coded by low-copy-number plasmids. Deletion analyzes of pBTKS confirmed the essentiality of parA (encoding a Walker-type ATPase of 214 amino acids) and the downstream located small parB (encoding an 85 amino acid protein having no sequence homolog in the database) in the faithful partitioning of pBTK445. A 1075bp PCR product, containing parA, parB and an upstream sequence having nine 11bp direct repeats (parS site) was found to comprise the partition functions of pBTK445, stabilizing both low-copy or high-copy number homologous and heterologous replicons in diverse hosts. The incompatibility determinant and the par promoter, P(par) were both found to be present within a 191bp iterated sequence present upstream of parA. ParB was found to regulate the expression of the Par proteins from P(par). The presence of a typical Walker-type ATPase motif in ParA, a short phylogenetically unrelated ParB, that acts as a repressor of P(par), and location of the iterated parS site upstream of parA, confirm that the active partition system of pBTK445 belongs to the type Ib. PMID:21192970

  4. IncP-1? plasmids of Comamonas sp. and Delftia sp. strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant mediate resistance to and decolorization of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Yvonne; Eikmeyer, Felix; Wibberg, Daniel; Brandis, Gerrit; Karsten, Christina; Krahn, Irene; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Viehöver, Prisca; Barsch, Aiko; Keck, Matthias; Top, Eva M; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The application of toxic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV) in various industrial processes leads to large amounts of dye-contaminated sludges that need to be detoxified. Specific bacteria residing in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to degrade triphenylmethane dyes. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the genetic background of bacterial strains capable of CV degradation. Three bacterial strains isolated from a municipal WWTP harboured IncP-1? plasmids mediating resistance to and decolorization of CV. These isolates were assigned to the genera Comamonas and Delftia. The CV-resistance plasmid pKV29 from Delftia sp. KV29 was completely sequenced. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the accessory regions involved in conferring CV resistance were determined for plasmids pKV11 and pKV36 from the other two isolates. Plasmid pKV29 contains typical IncP-1? backbone modules that are highly similar to those of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids that confer antibiotic resistance, degradative capabilities or mercury resistance. The accessory regions located between the conjugative transfer (tra) and mating pair formation modules (trb) of all three plasmids analysed share common modules and include a triphenylmethane reductase gene, tmr, that is responsible for decolorization of CV. Moreover, these accessory regions encode other enzymes that are dispensable for CV degradation and hence are involved in so-far-unknown metabolic pathways. Analysis of plasmid-mediated degradation of CV in Escherichia coli by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS revealed that leuco crystal violet was the first degradation product. Michler's ketone and 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde appeared as secondary degradation metabolites. Enzymes encoded in the E. coli chromosome seem to be responsible for cleavage of leuco crystal violet. Plasmid-mediated degradation of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV is an option for the biotechnological treatment of sludges contaminated with these dyes. PMID:22653947

  5. Replicase-based plasmid DNA shows anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has multiple anti-tumor mechanisms. Over the past several decades, there have been numerous attempts to utilize synthetic dsRNA to control tumor growth in animal models and clinical trials. Recently, it became clear that intracellular dsRNA is more effective than extracellular dsRNA on promoting apoptosis and orchestrating adaptive immune responses. To overcome the difficulty in delivering a large dose of synthetic dsRNA into tumors, we propose to deliver a RNA replicase-based plasmid DNA, hypothesizing that the dsRNA generated by the replicase-based plasmid in tumor cells will inhibit tumor growth. The anti-tumor activity of a plasmid (pSIN-?) that encodes the sindbis RNA replicase genes (nsp1-4) was evaluated in mice with model tumors (TC-1 lung cancer cells or B16 melanoma cells) and compared to a traditional pCMV-? plasmid. In cell culture, transfection of tumor cells with pSIN-? generated dsRNA. In mice with model tumors, pSIN-? more effectively delayed tumor growth than pCMV-?, and in some cases, eradicated the tumors. RNA replicase-based plasmid may be exploited to generate intracellular dsRNA to control tumor growth

  6. Plasmid Profiles of Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella Species Isolated in Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Al-Bahry

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Different Salmonella species (159 strains were isolated from human and non-human sources were exposed to eighteen different antibiotics. 48 strains showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Resistant strains were examined for their R- plasmids contents by glass fines, boiling miniprep and agarose electrophoresis procedures. All but three of the tested strains from chicken contained a plasmid with similar molecular weight (m.w. even though the strains were resistant to different antibiotics. The remaining three strains contained an additional plasmid with a different electrophoretic migration pattern. Many of the plasmids when digested with endonucleases were found to have similar fragments. Out of four plasmids extracted from Salmonella strains isolated from sheep, three contained one type of a plasmid with similar m.w. and fragmentation. Broad diversity was noted in plasmids extracted from Salmonella strains isolated from humans. Endonuclease digestion of plasmids revealed that some plasmids have a common fingerprint pattern.

  7. The conjugative plasmid of a bean-nodulating Sinorhizobium fredii strain is assembled from sequences of two Rhizobium plasmids and the chromosome of a Sinorhizobium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Susana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bean-nodulating Rhizobium etli originated in Mesoamerica, while soybean-nodulating Sinorhizobium fredii evolved in East Asia. S. fredii strains, such as GR64, have been isolated from bean nodules in Spain, suggesting the occurrence of conjugative transfer events between introduced and native strains. In R. etli CFN42, transfer of the symbiotic plasmid (pRet42d requires cointegration with the endogenous self-transmissible plasmid pRet42a. Aiming at further understanding the generation of diversity among bean nodulating strains, we analyzed the plasmids of S. fredii GR64: pSfr64a and pSfr64b (symbiotic plasmid. Results The conjugative transfer of the plasmids of strain GR64 was analyzed. Plasmid pSfr64a was self-transmissible, and required for transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. We sequenced pSfr64a, finding 166 ORFs. pSfr64a showed three large segments of different evolutionary origins; the first one presented 38 ORFs that were highly similar to genes located on the chromosome of Sinorhizobium strain NGR234; the second one harbored 51 ORFs with highest similarity to genes from pRet42d, including the replication, but not the symbiosis genes. Accordingly, pSfr64a was incompatible with the R. etli CFN42 symbiotic plasmid, but did not contribute to symbiosis. The third segment contained 36 ORFs with highest similarity to genes localized on pRet42a, 20 of them involved in conjugative transfer. Plasmid pRet42a was unable to substitute pSfr64a for induction of pSym transfer, and its own transfer was significantly diminished in GR64 background. The symbiotic plasmid pSfr64b was found to differ from typical R. etli symbiotic plasmids. Conclusions S. fredii GR64 contains a chimeric transmissible plasmid, with segments from two R. etli plasmids and a S. fredii chromosome, and a symbiotic plasmid different from the one usually found in R. etli bv phaseoli. We infer that these plasmids originated through the transfer of a symbiotic-conjugative-plasmid cointegrate from R. etli to a S. fredii strain, and at least two recombination events among the R. etli plasmids and the S. fredii genome. As in R. etli CFN42, the S. fredii GR64 transmissible plasmid is required for the conjugative transfer of the symbiotic plasmid. In spite of the similarity in the conjugation related genes, the transfer process of these plasmids shows a host-specific behaviour.

  8. [Plasmid P85 from Azospirillum brasilense SP245: study of the circle of possible hosts and incompatibility with plasmids from Azospirillum brasilense SP7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of the stable inheritance of the plasmid p85 mobilized derivatives from Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 in the cells of the bacterial genera Rizobiaceae (Agrobacterium tumfaciens) and Pseudomonadaceae (Pseudomonas putida) has been shown. The plasmid p85 participates in coding for the physiologically active products (the plant hormones). It is not inherited by the Escherichia coli strains. For the first time the incompatibility of azospirillium plasmids has been demonstrated on the example of the plasmid p85 from Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and the plasmid p115 from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. PMID:1298886

  9. Enhancing Mutual Respect among Nursing Assistants, Residents, and Residents' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselman, Terry; Noelker, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed nursing assistants (n=40) and nursing facility residents (n=37) regarding ways they experienced respect, disrespect, attachment, and distancing in their relationships with each other. As a result of finding evidence of disrespect, an inservice session on gaining respect as a nursing assistant was presented. (ABL)

  10. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyšín, Lud?k; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kate?ina; Št?pán, Václav; Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Bugler, Beatrix; Legube, Gaelle; Cafarelli, Pierre; Casta, Romain; Champeaux, Jean Philippe; Sence, Martine; Vlk, Martin; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, Sebastien; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Clustered DNA damage induced by 10, 20 and 30 MeV protons in pBR322 plasmid DNA was investigated. Besides determination of strand breaks, additional lesions were detected using base excision repair enzymes. The plasmid was irradiated in dry form, where indirect radiation effects were almost fully suppressed, and in water solution containing only minimal residual radical scavenger. Simultaneous irradiation of the plasmid DNA in the dry form and in the solution demonstrated the contribution of the indirect effect as prevalent. The damage composition slightly differed when comparing the results for liquid and dry samples. The obtained data were also subjected to analysis concerning different methodological approaches, particularly the influence of irradiation geometry, models used for calculation of strand break yields and interpretation of the strand breaks detected with the enzymes. It was shown that these parameters strongly affect the results. PMID:26007308

  11. Genetic characterization of plasmid pRJ5 of Staphylococcus aureus compared to plasmid pE194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pRJ5, a naturally occurring constitutive macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLS) resistance plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus, was compared to pE194, a plasmid that confers the inducible phenotype. pRJ5 was stable in all strains of S. aureus tested, even under growth at 43O C, which distinguished it from pE194 which was shown to be thermo-sensitive for replication. pRJ5, like pE194, was highly unstable in Bacillus subtilis when the cells were grown in nonselective conditions. Multimeric forms of pRJ5 DNA were detected in the few cells of B. subtilis that retained this plasmid. pE194 was transduced by phages φ 11 and φ 443 at frequencies 400 and 20-fold higher, respectively, than pRJ5. Both plasmids were co-transduced with the plasmid pRJ4. pRJ5 was shown to be compatible with pE194. Therefore they belong to distinct Inc groups. Hybridization studies revealed that pRJ5 shares a 1.35 kb region of homology to pE194, which is limited to the erm gene, conferring MLS resistance. (author)

  12. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin; Gerdes, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and parC encoded by the par2 locus of plasmid pB171, ParA formed cytoskeletal-like structures that dynamically relocated over the nucleoid. Simultaneously......, the par2 locus distributed plasmids regularly over the nucleoid. We show here that the dynamic ParA patterns are not simple oscillations. Rather, ParA nucleates and polymerizes in between plasmids. When a ParA assembly reaches a plasmid, the assembly reaction reverses into disassembly. Strikingly...

  13. Infectious alphavirus production from a simple plasmid transfection+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a new method for producing infectious double subgenomic alphaviruses from plasmids transfected into mammalian cells. A double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE3'2J was transcribed from a cytomegalovirus PolII promoter, which results in the production of infectious virus. Transfection of as little as 125 ng of plasmid is able to produce 1 × 108 plaque forming units/ml (PFU/ml of infectious virus 48 hours post-transfection. This system represents a more efficient method for producing recombinant Sindbis viruses.

  14. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining. PMID:23527131

  15. MEGA Node: an implementation of a coarse-grain totally reconfigurable parallel machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M. B.; Burrer, Caroline

    1990-09-01

    The MEGA Node is a loosely coupled highly parallel computer based on transputers. One of its main characteristics is its ability to change the topology of the network using an electronic switch. It covers a range from 128 to 1024 " worker processors" delivering from 550 to 4400 Mflops peak performance. To achieve these performances a hierarchical structure has been adopted. This highly parallel machine is issued from the Esprit I P1085 " Supernode" project. The software has to support a wide spectrum of users going from those who wish to obtain maximum performance from the machine to those who wish to use it as a general purpose multi-user parallel machine. This paper describes the different ways to use the MEGA Node and the software environments provided to satisfy all kind of users. The Helios environment is a good example to explain how an operating system can control this machine particularly the networking management and the fundamental problem of mapping. The MEGA Node has already been used for a wide range of applications like signal/image processing (high and low level) image synthesis scientific and engineering numbercrunching neural network simulation and logic simulation. Only a few of them are discussed in this paper: medical image analysis and vision and ray tracing. 1 Esprit I P1085 project The work done under the Esprit I P1085 project [1] partially funded by CEC was related the development and applications of a low cost high performance multiprocessor machine. The project involved Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE prime contractor) Inmos Thorn-Emi CRL University of Southampton University of Liverpool Aptor University of Grenoble(Imag) and Telmat Informatique. The objectives of the project were to develop a highly parallel architecture based on transputers and associated system software and applications. To achieve this Inmos developed the T800 transputer starting from the T414 and the consortium defined the whole machine architecture. Started in December 1985 this 3 years project led to significant industrial products: the T800 transputer the machine architecture and part of the associated software. SPIE Vol. 1360 Visual Communications and Image Processing ''90 / 109

  16. Mega-prizes in medicine: big cash awards may stimulate useful and rapid therapeutic innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Following Horrobin's suggestion of 1986, I argue that offering very large prizes (tens of millions of US dollars, or more) for solving specific therapeutic problems, would be an excellent strategy for promoting the rapid development of effective new treatments. The two mainstream ways of paying for medical research are funding the process with grants or funding the outcome via patent protection. When grants are used to fund the process of research the result tends to be 'pure' science, guided by intrinsic scientific objectives. Practical results, such as useful therapeutic advances, are a by-product. Patent-seeking research, by contrast, is more focused on technology than science. It seeks practical results; and aims to pay for itself (and make a profit) in the long term by generating a patentable product or procedure. Prize-seeking research is subject to different incentives and applicable to different situations than either process-funded or patent-seeking research. Prize seeking researchers have a strong incentive to solve the specified problem as rapidly as possible, but the problem may be solved using old ideas that are scientifically mundane or unpatentable technologies and methods. Prizes therefore seem to generate solutions which are incremental extensions, new applications or novel combinations of already-existing technologies. The main use of mega-prizes in medicine would be to accelerate therapeutic progress in stagnant fields of research and to address urgent problems. For example, medical charities focused on specific diseases should consider accumulating their resources until they can offer a mega-prize for solving a clinical problem of special concern to their patients. Prize money should be big enough to pay for the research and development, the evaluation of the new treatment in a clinical trial, and with a large profit left-over to compensate for the intrinsic risk of competing. Sufficiently large amounts of money, and the prestige and publicity derived from winning a mega-prize, could rapidly mobilize research efforts to discover a whole range of scientifically un-glamorous but clinically-useful therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:17052861

  17. Prevalence of pSmeSM11a-like plasmids in indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strains isolated in the course of a field release experiment with genetically modified S. meliloti strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stefanie; Stiens, Michael; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plasmid pSmeSM11a, residing in the indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strain SM11 originating from a field in Strassmoos (Bavaria, Germany), was analysed previously at the genomic level. Thirty-seven indigenous S. meliloti strains, originating from two different locations in Germany, were screened for genes identified previously on pSmeSM11a. Seven of these strains harbour accessory plasmids that are very similar to pSmeSM11a. The identified pSmeSM11a-like plasmids are c. 130-150 kb in size and possess nearly identical restriction profiles. Up to 30 genes identified previously on pSmeSM11a could be detected on these plasmids by hybridisation experiments, e.g., the nodulation genes nodP and nodQ, the ethylene level modulation gene acdS and the taurine metabolism gene tauD. A few pSmeSM11a genes were also detected on other plasmids. The reference plasmid pSmeSM11a contains a region that is similar to a segment of S. meliloti strain Rm1021 pSymA. Regions with similarity to pSymA were also detected on the aforementioned seven pSmeSM11a-like plasmids. The specifications of these regions are nearly identical to the one on pSmeSM11a and differ from Rm1021 pSymA as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two further plasmids similar to pSmeSM11a completely lack the pSymA-region. Those strains carrying accessory plasmids that contain the acdS gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase are able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as the sole source of nitrogen, demonstrating functionality of the acdS gene product. About 36% of the analysed plasmids, including three pSmeSM11a-like plasmids, could be transferred to another S. meliloti recipient strain, allowing for their dissemination in S. meliloti populations. PMID:18034835

  18. From Residency to Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    The residency training experience is the perfect environment for learning. The university/institution patient population provides a never-ending supply of patients with unique management challenges. Resources abound that allow the discovery of knowledge about similar situations. Senior teachers provide counseling and help direct appropriate care. Periodic testing and evaluations identify deficiencies, which can be corrected with future study. What happens, however, when the resident graduates? Do they possess all the knowledge they'll need for the rest of their career? Will medical discovery stand still limiting the need for future study?If initial certification establishes that the physician has the skills and knowledge to function as an independent physician and surgeon, how do we assure the public that plastic surgeons will practice lifelong learning and remain safe throughout their career? Enter Maintenance of Certification (MOC). In an ideal world, MOC would provide many of the same tools as residency training: identification of gaps in knowledge, resources to correct those deficiencies, overall assessment of knowledge, feedback about communication skills and professionalism, and methods to evaluate and improve one's practice.This article discusses the need; for education and self-assessment that extends beyond residency training and a commitment to lifelong learning. The American Board of Plastic Surgery MOC program is described to demonstrate how it helps the diplomate reach the goal of continuous practice improvement. PMID:26517466

  19. The Emotional Intelligence of Resident Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Sophia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Since academic literature indicates that emotional intelligence (EI) is tied to work performance, there is increasing interest in understanding physician EI. We studied the EI of resident physicians in surgery, pediatric, and pathology residency programs at three academic centers to describe the EI profiles of residents in different specialties and determine whether gender differences in resident physician EI profiles mirror those in the general population. 325 residents were electronically...

  20. Genetic Characterization of ExPEC-Like Virulence Plasmids among a Subset of NMEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Bryon A; West, Aaron C; Mangiamele, Paul; Barbieri, Nicolle; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; Li, Ganwu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is one of the most common causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis in the US and elsewhere resulting in mortality or neurologic deficits in survivors. Large plasmids have been shown experimentally to increase the virulence of NMEC in the rat model of neonatal meningitis. Here, 9 ExPEC-like plasmids were isolated from NMEC and sequenced to identify the core and accessory plasmid genes of ExPEC-like virulence plasmids in NMEC and create an expanded plasmid phylogeny. Results showed sequenced virulence plasmids carry a strongly conserved core of genes with predicted functions in five distinct categories including: virulence, metabolism, plasmid stability, mobile elements, and unknown genes. The major functions of virulence-associated and plasmid core genes serve to increase in vivo fitness by adding multiple iron uptake systems to the genetic repertoire to facilitate NMEC's survival in the host's low iron environment, and systems to enhance bacterial resistance to host innate immunity. Phylogenetic analysis based on these core plasmid genes showed that at least two lineages of ExPEC-like plasmids could be discerned. Further, virulence plasmids from Avian Pathogenic E. coli and NMEC plasmids could not be differentiated based solely on the genes of the core plasmid genome. PMID:26800268

  1. [Effect of integrating the pJFF350 vector into the 85-MDa plasmid of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 on bacterial flagellation and mobility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Borisov, I V; Shelud'ko, A V

    2001-02-01

    Results of genetic analysis of three derivatives of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 (strains BK570, SK051, and SK248) carrying cointegrates of plasmids 85-MDa and pJFF350 (the vector for omegon mutagenesis), which manifest abnormalities in flagellation and motility, are presented. It was shown for the first time that the integration of the suicide vector into one of Azospirillum resident plasmids is accompanied by the formation of various fusion products and changes in flagellation and motility of these bacteria, such as the loss of the polar (Fla) and lateral (Laf) flagella in SK051; inactivation of Fla and Laf in SK248; and Fla-dependent acceleration of expansion in semiliquid media in BK570. PMID:11253424

  2. Phage type conversion in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis caused by the introduction of a resistance plasmid of incompatibility group X (IncX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Platt, D. J.; Olsen, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    10 typing phages used (phages 3, 5 and 7). Where the conversion resulted in a change to a defined phage type, both the new and original PTs belonged to the same, previously described, evolutionary lines. Enteritidis PTs 1, 4 and 8, commonly associated with poultry world-wide, were converted to PTs 21......, 11 and 13). Acquisition of the plasmid by these strains did not result in the loss of any resident plasmids but resulted in phage type conversion in 8 of the 10 strains (PT1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 9b, 10 and 11). The observed changes in phage type were found to result from the loss of sensitivity to 3 of the...

  3. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, S P; Brown, G; Centurion, M; Chase, T F; Coffee, R; Corbett, J; Eichner, J P; Frisch, J C; Fry, A R; Gühr, M; Hartmann, N; Hast, C; Hettel, R; Jobe, R K; Jongewaard, E N; Lewandowski, J R; Li, R K; Lindenberg, A M; Makasyuk, I; May, J E; McCormick, D; Nguyen, M N; Reid, A H; Shen, X; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Vecchione, T; Vetter, S L; Wu, J; Yang, J; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability. PMID:26233391

  4. La Organización Mundial de Comercio, los acuerdos mega-regionales y los usos estratégicos del regionalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bouzas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis de la Ronda Doha, el desarrollo de grandes negociaciones “mega-regionales” y la proliferación de acuerdos preferenciales han avivado los debates sobre la gobernanza del comercio internacional. Mientras que una interpretación benévola sobre estos acuerdos parece estar ganando lugar, en este artículo sostenemos que los atributos del “regionalismo del siglo XXI” son menos novedosos que lo que se insinúa; y que existe una notable continuidad en los incentivos y las características del “nuevo regionalismo” de los noventa y el llamado “regionalismo del siglo XXI”. Afirmamos que aun cuando los componentes discriminatorios de estos regionalismos hayan sido atenuados por el contenido y naturaleza de la agenda regulatoria, el conflicto básico entre las dos modalidades de gobernanza del régimen de comercio internacional sigue vigente.

  5. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  6. Mega Borg oil spill of the Texas coast: An open-water bioremediation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature has developed hydrocarbons as a part of life. Since the origin of life, more than 60,000 organic molecules have evolved that make up protoplasm; a given percentage of these molecules are hydrocarbons. Commercial hydrocarbon deposits are a by-product of this natural process and a continual source of oil in the aquatic environment through seeps. As a result, nature has also evolved a recycling system for the hydrocarbons. This cycle is the basis for a program of bioremediation using microorganisms. Effort has been made to develop mixed cultures capable of a wide range of hydrocarbon metabolism and co-metabolism. The cultures are economically produced in high concentrations as a dry powder with a shelf life of one year. The result is an economical process for the application of bacteria to hydrocarbon pollutants on water and soils. The process of bioremediation to the recent Mega Borg accident will be discussed

  7. Locked on course: Hydro-Quebec's commitment to mega-projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large organizations often escalate their commitments to mega-project development, even after evidence becomes available of adverse environmental consequences or lack of economic feasibility. This escalation of commitment transcends both sectorial and national boundaries. Preeminent examples include controversial nuclear projects in the US, hydroelectric projects like the Three Gorges Dam in China, and transport projects like the Chunnel and the Concorde. In this article, the authors examine the experience of Hydro-Quebec with the Great Whale Project. They argue that Hydro-Quebec escalated its commitment even after serious questions emerged about its environmental impacts and economic feasibility, because of (1) its earlier success with large projects, (2) its engineering culture''s norms for consistency, and (3) its role in the government''s desire for economic and cultural autonomy. Finally, they discuss the changes that are necessary to break commitments to such projects

  8. Theoretical interpretation of frequency sweeping observations in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Dendy, R. O.; Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2005-03-01

    Frequency sweeping (chirping) of high frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. In this paper observations of chirping in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [A. Sykes, R. J. Akers, L. C. Appel et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] are considered, and it is shown that these may be interpreted using the Berk-Breizman augmentation of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. This model includes an energetic particle source: it leads not only to a single chirp but also to a series of bursting events. This repetitious behavior is characteristic of the chirping seen in experiments such as MAST. The similarity between features in velocity space and features in frequency space reinforces the theory that hole-clump pair formation is responsible for the observed frequency sweeping.

  9. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm2, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  10. Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej

    2013-04-01

    The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52?). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good conditions for agriculture. Areas of ancient civilizations (Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Greece) always are concentrated near zones of high seismic activity. Catastrophic earthquakes occurred with interval about 200-500 years, and memory of population was limited usually by duration of 2-3 generations, i.e. by interval 50-80 years. The proposed hypothesis of exposed latitudinal zones at the Earth as pulsating geoid may present nowadays basic interest. References. 1.Ben-Zion Y. Earthquake physics and seismic hazard. 8-th Alexander von Humboldt International Conference. EGU Series. Natural Disasters, Global Change, and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites. Cusco. Peru. 2012. P.14. 2.Sun W. Seismic energy distribution in latitude and a possible tidal stress explanation // Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 1992. Vol. 71. P. 205-216. 3.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Latitudinal distribution of earthquakes in the Andes and its peculiarity. Advances in Geosciences. 2009. 22. 139-145. www.adv.geosci.net/22/139/2009/ 4.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Seismicity of the Pacific region: global feature detection. - M.: Janus-K. 2012. 308 p. 5.Veronnet, Alex. Rotation de l'ellipsoide hétérogène et figure exacte de la Terre. Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées. 1912. 6e série, tome 8, p. 331-463.

  11. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to the existing literature and studies of large-scale IT projects, empirical data from a mega IT project in mid-sized Danish Bank, Jyske Bank, demonstrates a successful implementation of a highly complex IT platform transition. Linguistic representations and especially extensive use of metaphors by executive management to form and shape the megaproject appeared to have significant impact on guidance of individual and collective action, and thereby presumably one of the important factors for the successful implementation. To learn from this case study, we investigate the use of metaphors in the megaproject and discuss how leading by metaphors are enacted. Our findings are that (1) storytelling with metaphors can act as backbone for communication, (2) metaphors can set direction for technical capabilities, and finally (3) metaphors can be used to emphasize emotional intelligence.

  12. “Creative obstructions” and more : On cross sectorial mega-event collaboration outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh

    Abstract: ATLAS, Special track 6: Reinventing the local in tourism landscapes “Creative obstructions” and more? On cross sectorial mega-event collaboration outcomesCarina Ren (ren@ccg.aau.dk) & Morten Krogh Petersen (mkp@learning.aau.dk), Aalborg UniversityIn May of 2014, Copenhagen was the host of the yearly Eurovision Song Contest (ESC). In this paper, we discuss how the public-private co-creation set-up of this mega-event can be seen as a network project simultaneously enacting global state competitiveness and local place and identity. According to Cerny (1997), the dynamics of political globalization have altered the roles of the state so that it “is no longer able to act as a decommodifying hierarchy (i.e., taking economic activities out of the market). It must act more and more as a collective commodifying agent – (i.e., putting activities into the market) – and even as a market actor itself (p. 267, italics in the original). Short of cases (in a Danish context at least), which document the varied effects of state competitiveness through the blurring of public and private boundaries, we decided to engage with ESC 2014 to explore its set-up, described by the partners as a containing a number of creative obstructions in order to create “much more than a song contest”. Through fieldwork and collaboration with the public and private ESC partners, we describe how the mega-event linked corporate, municipal, regional and national activities and interests in new ways. Also, the event was to engage the public as co-creators of the week-long event itself but also, importantly, of much longer-lasting and broader outcomes. This was achieved through a number of outreach schemes within tourism, education, industrial development and sustainability in sub-events, collaborating with an unconventional array of actors such as NGOs, schools and a private real estate company hosting the venue. One outcome of this collaboration was the same-sex ‘Wonderful Weddings’ events offered by the municipality in collaboration with Wonderful Copenhagen to celebrate and accommodate for a large Eurovision gay segment. We discuss how in spite of close collaboration, common values such as tolerance and sustainability heralded by all stakeholders became not only a creative but rather an actual obstruction.Through the case of ESC 2014, we point to a number of outcomes of what Cerny and others have described as a development towards the marketization of the state and the state as a ‘marketizer’. We argue that at least in relation to events, the forces of a competition state are not singularly homogenizing, but also lead to increased heterogeneity (Kaspersen & Thorsager 2010). This point may also be transferred to the field of city branding, and challenges the idea that globalization and associated increased competition between cities unequivocally leads to uniformity (see Ooi 2014).ReferenceCerny, P. G. (1997), Paradoxes of the Competition State: The Dynamics of Political Globalization. Government and Opposition, 32: 251–274. doi: 10.1111/j.1477-7053.1997.tb00161.x. Kaspersen, L. B & L. Thorsager (2010): Responding to Globalisation: Changing the State Strategy from Infrastructural Power to Authoritarian Liberal Power. In: M. Böss (ed.) The Nation-State in Transformation: Economic Globalisation, Institutional Mediation and Political Values. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, p.247-267 Ooi, C. S. (2014) The Making of the Copy-cat City: Accreditation Tactics in Place Branding. In P. O. Berg & E. Björner (eds.) Branding Chinese Mega-Cities: Policies, Practices and Positioning. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated, p. 232–248

  13. Meteor observations with Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, S; Beskin, G; Biryukov, A; Bondar, S; Ivanov, E; Katkova, E; Perkov, A; Sasyuk, V

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the results of meteor observations with 9-channel Mini-MegaTORTORA (MMT-9) wide-field optical monitoring system with high temporal resolution. During first 1.5 years of operation more than 90 thousands of meteors have been detected, at a rate of 300-350 per night, with durations from 0.1 to 2.5 seconds and angular velocities up to 38 degrees per second. The faintest detected meteors has the peak brightness about 10 mag, while the majority - from 4 to 8 mag. Some of the meteors have been observed in BVR filters simultaneously. Color variations along the trail for them are determined. All parameters of detected meteors are published online. The database also includes the information on 10 thousands meteors detected by our previous FAVOR camera in 2006-2009 years.

  14. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, S. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Brown, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Centurion, M. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 855 N 16th Street, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA; Chase, T. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Coffee, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Eichner, J. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Frisch, J. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Fry, A. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Gühr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Hartmann, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Hettel, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Jobe, R. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Jongewaard, E. N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Lewandowski, J. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Li, R. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Lindenberg, A. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Makasyuk, I. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; May, J. E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; McCormick, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Nguyen, M. N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Reid, A. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Shen, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Sokolowski-Tinten, K. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg, Germany; Vecchione, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Vetter, S. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Wu, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Yang, J. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 855 N 16th Street, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA; Dürr, H. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Wang, X. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  15. Direct-drive shock-ignition for the Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review of direct-drive shock ignition studies done as an alternative for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). One and two dimensional systematic analyses of HiPER-like shock-ignited target designs are performed for the fuel assembly irradiation uniformity using the whole LMJ configuration or a part of the facility, and for the uniformity of the ignitor spike. High-gain shock-ignition is shown to be possible with intensity of each quad less than 1015 W/cm2 but low modes asymmetries displace the power required in the ignitor spike towards higher powers. Shock-ignition of Direct-Drive Double-Shell non-cryogenic targets is also addressed. (authors)

  16. Mega debris flow deposits on the western Wilkes Land margin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donda, F.; O'Brien, P.E.; De Santis, L.; Rebesco, M.; Brancolini, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    Multichannel seismic data collected off Western Wilkes Land (East Antarctica) reveal the occurrence of mega debris flow deposits on the lower slope and rise that were formed throughout the Miocene. Commonly, debris flow units are separated by thin deposits of well-stratified facies, interpreted as predominantly glaciomarine mixed contouritic and distal turbidite deposits. These units could act as weak layers and could have played a major role in the slope instability. High sedimentation rates, due to large amounts of sediment delivered from a temperate, wet-based ice sheet, constituted a key factor in the sediment failures. The main trigger mechanism would probably have been earthquakes enhanced by isostatic rebound following major ice sheet retreats.

  17. Lessons from the Twin Mega-Crises: The Financial Meltdown and the BP Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershey H. Friedman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the synchronicity of two mega-crises we are now facing: The BP oil spill and the repercussions of the 2008 financial meltdown. It examines some key common threads in both of these crises. The overarching message is that firms must maintain a culture of social responsibility, must behave in an ethical manner, and must do everything possible to avoid societal harm. The three key lessons to be learned from the twin crises are to consider and mange risk in decision making; minimize conflicts of interest in the hope that executives will then not engage in actions that involve excessive risk to stakeholders; and that government regulation can be beneficial, rather than harmful to business and society – as long as it does not stifle innovation and growth.

  18. Handling technology of Mega-Watt millimeter-waves for optimized heating of fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuma, Takashi; Kubo, Shin; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Takita, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Sakuji; Ito, Satoshi; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Idei, Hiroshi; Notake, Takashi; Shapiro, Michael A; Temkin, Richard J; Felici, Federico; Goodman, Timothy; Sauter, Olivier; Minami, Ryutaro; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Mutoh, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Millimeter-wave components were re-examined for high power (Mega-Watt) and steady-state (greater than one hour) operation. Some millimeter-wave components, including waveguide joints, vacuum pumping sections, power monitors, sliding waveguides, and injection windows, have been improved for high power CW (Continuous Waves) transmission. To improve transmission efficiency, information about the wave phase and mode content of high power millimeter-waves propagating in corrugated waveguides, which are difficult to measure directly, were obtained by a newly developed method based on retrieved phase information. To optimize the plasma heating efficiency, a proof-of-principle study of the injection polarization feedback control was performed in the low power test stand. PMID:21384725

  19. Structural and functional analysis of a polyoma-related mammalian plasmid (L factor): the enhancer activity and plasmid establishment.

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIMURA, H; Ikeda, Y.; M. Yoshimoto(Nagoya University, J-464-8602 Nagoya, Japan); Tamaki, S; Hanada, K.; Kusano, T.; T. Kohda; Saito, H; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    L factor is a unique plasmid DNA which was originally discovered in a subclone (B822) of mouse L cells at a high copy number (more than 5,000 copies/cell). The presence of L factor caused no detectable abnormalities to the plasmid-bearing cells. We determined the total DNA sequence of the L factor I (and a part of L factor II) and compared it with that of polyoma DNA. Both DNA are common to the general construction of DNA frames such as early, late and noncoding regions, suggesting the two to...

  20. Conjugative plasmids harboring tet(W) and tet(M) involved in the transfer of tetracycline resistance.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Kopejtka, Karel; Volná, Lucie; Bhumibhamon, G.; Chro?áková, Alica; Jirout, Ji?í; Schmitt, H.; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.; Elhottová, Dana

    Santander : International Society for Plasmid Biology, 2012. [International Plasmid Biology Conference 2012. 12.09.2012-16.09.2012, Santander] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : conjugative plasmids harboring * tetracycline resistance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Characterizing Mega-Earthquake Related Tsunami on Subduction Zones without Large Historical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Astill, S.; Farahani, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Mohammed, F.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent large tsunami events (e.g., Chile 2010 and Japan 2011), the insurance industry is very aware of the importance of managing its exposure to tsunami risk. There are currently few tools available to help establish policies for managing and pricing tsunami risk globally. As a starting point and to help address this issue, Risk Management Solutions Inc. (RMS) is developing a global suite of tsunami inundation footprints. This dataset will include both representations of historical events as well as a series of M9 scenarios on subductions zones that have not historical generated mega earthquakes. The latter set is included to address concerns about the completeness of the historical record for mega earthquakes. This concern stems from the fact that the Tohoku Japan earthquake was considerably larger than had been observed in the historical record. Characterizing the source and rupture pattern for the subduction zones without historical events is a poorly constrained process. In many case, the subduction zones can be segmented based on changes in the characteristics of the subducting slab or major ridge systems. For this project, the unit sources from the NOAA propagation database are utilized to leverage the basin wide modeling included in this dataset. The length of the rupture is characterized based on subduction zone segmentation and the slip per unit source can be determined based on the event magnitude (i.e., M9) and moment balancing. As these events have not occurred historically, there is little to constrain the slip distribution. Sensitivity tests on the potential rupture pattern have been undertaken comparing uniform slip to higher shallow slip and tapered slip models. Subduction zones examined include the Makran Trench, the Lesser Antilles and the Hikurangi Trench. The ultimate goal is to create a series of tsunami footprints to help insurers understand their exposures at risk to tsunami inundation around the world.

  2. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Jeremy M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes. These demonstrations underscore the importance of using large phylogenies to uncover important evolutionary patterns and we present a fast and simple method for constructing these phylogenies.

  3. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Asiyanbola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAGOS is becoming more difficult and complex. This is reflected in the increasing bumper-to-bumper traffic being experienced in the mega-city of Lagos during 6.30 am – 11.30am morning peak hours and (3.00pm – 7.30 pm evening peak hours. It now seems that traffic congestions are becoming forcefully acceptable excuses for workers being late to work in Lagos metropolis. One approach at solving this problem adopted by the Lagos State Government is traffic management through the establishment of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA. Traffic management could be regarded as a systematic and sustained effort on directing and controlling all traffics on our roads to make them free from negative effects of the transport system. The aim of this research work was to assess the impact of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA with particular reference on the efforts to reduce road traffic problems. Both secondary and primary data sources that were collected in 2008 were used in the study. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.

  4. The 2007 Bengkulu Earthquake Series in the Context of Mega-Ruptures off South Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Stein, S.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    We present a seismological and tectonic study of the 2007 Bengkulu series, including an evaluation of the source characteristics of the main three events based on quasi-real time estimators, including the Energy-to-Moment parameter THETA, which suggests a trend towards slowness for the main shock at 11:10 UTC. While the earthquakes took place within the fault area of the great 1833 earthquake, in the probable context of Coulomb stress transfer from the 2004 and 2005 events, the mainshock and its immediate aftershocks define a faulting area significantly smaller than that of the 1833 event, and a preliminary review of plate kinematic models also suggests that the 2007 shock did not release the full strain accumulated since 1833. This is also supported by the seismic moment of the Bengkulu event (5E28 dyn*cm), and by preliminary modeling of the moderate near field tsunami (see Borrero et al., this session). In this context, we address the question of how much slip remains to be released along the 1833 rupture zone and to the South of it, and more generally of the ability for a large, but not gigantic event, to act as a barrier to the propagation of rupture during a future mega-earthquake. Namely, do the 2007 events preclude the future occurrence of a mega-earthquake whose rupture would over-ride the Bengkulu fault area? Historical records in Central and South Peru, as well as the over-riding by the 2004 Sumatra rupture of the 1881 Car Nicobar fault zone, would suggest a "cautiously negative" answer, casting a pessimistic note on far-field tsunami risk for the Southwestern Indian Ocean. ~

  5. Effect of Doximity Residency Rankings on Residency Applicants’ Program Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Choosing a residency program is a stressful and important decision. Doximity released residency program rankings by specialty in September 2014. This study sought to investigate the impact of those rankings on residency application choices made by fourth year medical students. Methods: A 12-item survey was administered in October 2014 to fourth year medical students at three schools. Students indicated their specialty, awareness of and perceived accuracy of the rankings, and the rankings’ impact on the programs to which they chose to apply. Descriptive statistics were reported for all students and those applying to Emergency Medicine (EM. Results: A total of 461 (75.8% students responded, with 425 applying in one of the 20 Doximity ranked specialties. Of the 425, 247 (58% were aware of the rankings and 177 looked at them. On a 1-100 scale (100=very accurate, students reported a mean ranking accuracy rating of 56.7 (SD 20.3. Forty-five percent of students who looked at the rankings modified the number of programs to which they applied. The majority added programs. Of the 47 students applying to EM, 18 looked at the rankings and 33% changed their application list with most adding programs. Conclusion: The Doximity rankings had real effects on students applying to residencies as almost half of students who looked at the rankings modified their program list. Additionally, students found the rankings to be moderately accurate. Graduating students might benefit from emphasis on more objective characterization of programs to assess in light of their own interests and personal/career goals

  6. [Hybrid plasmid pSD1 containing the immunity region of bacteriophage lambda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikarev, S D; Sineoki?, S P; Stepanov, A I

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid plasmid pSD1 carrying the immunity region of the coliphage lambda and bio operon have been obtained by means of studying the efficiency of transcription DNA fragments in the plasmid RSF2124. The molecular weight of this plasmid is 17.2 Md. The growth inhibition of phage lambdavir has been observed in cells carrying the new hybrid plasma. The properties of the plasmid pSD1 and probable reasons of the growth inhibition of phage lambdavir are discussed. The hybrid plasmid pSD2 carrying genes R, A and J of phage lambda has been constructed on the basis of the plasmid RSF2124. There are cohesive ends in this plasmid which make possible its packing in the phage lambda head. Hybrid plasmid pSD3 carrying genes P and Q of phage lambda has also been constructed. PMID:157906

  7. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, SØren

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination functions using very short regions of homology. Initial manipulation of the IncFII target plasmids R1 and R1drd19 indicated that the linear targeting DNA should be devoid of all extraneous homologies to. the target molecule for optimal insertion specificity. Indeed, a simple recombination assay proved that in the presence of additional homologous regions in the targeting DNA, strand exchanges occurred exclusively within the longest regions of homology. A versatile panel of vectors was created to facilitate convenient PCR amplification of targeting DNAs containing various combinations of different antibiotic resistance genes and fluorescent markers. The choice of 5' non-homologous extensions in primer pairs used for amplifying the marker cassettes determines the site specificity of the targeting DNA. This methodology is applicable to the modification of all plasmids that replicate in E coli and is not restricted by plasmid size.

  8. Plasmid-determined copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae from impatiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooksey, D.A. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas syringae was recently identified as the cause of a new foliar blight of impatiens. The bacterium was resistant to copper compounds, which are used on a variety of crops for bacterial and fungal disease control. The bacterium contained a single 47-kilobase plasmid (pPSI1) that showed homology to a copper resistance operon previously cloned and characterized from P. syringae pv. tomato plasmid pPT23D (D. Cooksey, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:454-456, 1987). pPSI1 was transformed by electroporation into a copper-sensitive P. syringae strain, and the resulting transformants were copper resistant. A physical map of pPSI1 was constructed, and the extent of homology to pPT23D outside the copper resistance operon was determined in Southern hybridizations. The two plasmids shared approximately 20 kilobases of homologous DNA, with the remainder of each plasmid showing no detectable homology. The homologous regions hybridized strongly, but there was little or no conservation of restriction enzyme recognition sites.

  9. Deep sequencing reveals complex spurious transcription from transiently transfected plasmids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejepínská, Jana; Malík, Radek; Moravec, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 7, ?. 8 (2012), e43283. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA204/09/0085 Grant ostatní: EMBO(XE) 0001488 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transient plasmid transfection * deep sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  10. Transformation of Streptococcus lactis Protoplasts by Plasmid DNA †

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Jeffery K.; McKay, Larry L.

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol-treated protoplasts prepared from Streptococcus lactis LM3302, a lactose-negative (Lac?) derivative of S. lactis ML3, were transformed to lactose-fermenting ability by a transductionally shortened plasmid (pLM2103) coding for lactose utilization.

  11. A biobrick library for cloning custom eukaryotic plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Marco; Grünberg, Raik; Isalan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often require customised variations of plasmids that are not commercially available. Here we demonstrate the applicability and versatility of standard synthetic biological parts (biobricks) to build custom plasmids. For this purpose we have built a collection of 52 parts that include multiple cloning sites (MCS) and common protein tags, protein reporters and selection markers, amongst others. Importantly, most of the parts are designed in a format to allow fusions that maintain the reading frame. We illustrate the collection by building several model contructs, including concatemers of protein binding-site motifs, and a variety of plasmids for eukaryotic stable cloning and chromosomal insertion. For example, in 3 biobrick iterations, we make a cerulean-reporter plasmid for cloning fluorescent protein fusions. Furthermore, we use the collection to implement a recombinase-mediated DNA insertion (RMDI), allowing chromosomal site-directed exchange of genes. By making one recipient stable cell line, many standardised cell lines can subsequently be generated, by fluorescent fusion-gene exchange. We propose that this biobrick collection may be distributed peer-to-peer as a stand-alone library, in addition to its distribution through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://partsregistry.org/). PMID:21901127

  12. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Plasmid DNA Adsorption via Hydrophobic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gungunes H.; Uzek R.; Uzun L.; Ozkara S.; ?enel S.; Denizli A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims the preparation of magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-Lphenylalanine), [poly(HEMA-MAPA)] nanoparticles for plasmid DNA separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions. Magnetic nanoparticles will be produced emulsion polymerization of 2- hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine (MAPA) monomers. Nanosized particles including hydrophobic groups stemmed from polymerizable derivative of phenylalanine aminoacid were ...

  13. Geminiviruses: a tale of a plasmid becoming a virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupovic Mart

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae are small single-stranded (ss DNA viruses infecting plants. Their virion morphology is unique in the known viral world – two incomplete T = 1 icosahedra are joined together to form twinned particles. Geminiviruses utilize a rolling-circle mode to replicate their genomes. A limited sequence similarity between the three conserved motifs of the rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (RCR Reps of geminiviruses and plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria allowed Koonin and Ilyina to propose that geminiviruses descend from bacterial replicons. Results Phylogenetic and clustering analyses of various RCR Reps suggest that Rep proteins of geminiviruses share a most recent common ancestor with Reps encoded on plasmids of phytoplasmas, parasitic wall-less bacteria replicating both in plant and insect cells and therefore occupying a common ecological niche with geminiviruses. Capsid protein of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus was found to be the best template for homology-based structural modeling of the geminiviral capsid protein. Good stereochemical quality of the generated models indicates that the geminiviral capsid protein shares the same structural fold, the viral jelly-roll, with the vast majority of icosahedral plant-infecting ssRNA viruses. Conclusion We propose a plasmid-to-virus transition scenario, where a phytoplasmal plasmid acquired a capsid-coding gene from a plant RNA virus to give rise to the ancestor of geminiviruses.

  14. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Schrøder, I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two novel plasmids isolated from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum DSM6725 (A. thermophilum), growing optimally at 70degreesC, has been determined. pBAS2 was found to be a 3653 bp plasmid with a GC content of 43%, and the sequence revealed 10 open reading frames (ORFs). The two largest of these, namely Orf21 and Orf41, showed similarity to a Bacillus plasmid recombinase and a Pseudoalteromonas plasmid replication protein, respective...

  15. Incidence of Plasmids in Thermus spp. Isolated in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Munster, Michael J.; Munster, Ann P.; Sharp, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-eight strains of Thermus spp. were isolated from thermal sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., and 62.5% showed evidence of plasmid DNA. Attempts to assign function to the plasmid DNA were unsuccessful, and the presence of plasmid DNA could not be correlated with antibiotic or heavy metal resistance. A number of these cryptic plasmids are now being investigated for their potential as vectors for molecular cloning in Thermus spp.

  16. Presence of Lactose Genes and Insertion Sequences in Plasmids of Minor Species of the Genus Lactococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Bounaix, S.; Benachour, A; Novel, G

    1996-01-01

    The type strains of all known species and biovars of the Lactococcus genus were tested for the presence of plasmids, lactose genes, and insertion sequences cloned from the lactose plasmid of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Only the biovar xylosus of this subspecies is plasmid free. The lactose plasmid is present only in lactose-positive strains except in Lactococcus plantarum. The distribution of insertion sequences varies within the type strains of the Lactococcus genus.

  17. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Kyle H. Ramsey; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N.

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector p...

  18. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphog...

  19. Frequency-dependent advantages of plasmid carriage by Pseudomonas in homogeneous and spatially structured environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, RJ; Lilley, AK; Lacey, SJ; Murrell, D; Godfray, HC

    2007-01-01

    The conditions promoting the persistence of a plasmid carrying a trait that may be mutually beneficial to other cells in its vicinity were studied in structured and unstructured environments. A large plasmid encoding mercury resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens was used, and the mercury concentration allowing invasion from rare for both plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free cells was determined for different initial inoculum densities in batch-culture structured (filter surface) and unstructured ...

  20. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4?% (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7?% (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  1. Air-quality measurements in mega-cities: Focus on gaseous organic and particulate pollutants and comparison between two contrasted cities, Paris and Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid and important development of large urban areas ('mega-cities'), especially in developing countries, causes and will cause serious air-quality problems. Pollutant measurements in these cities help to characterize the chemical nature and the quantity of these pollutants and to constrain air-quality models. This paper focuses on measurements of volatile organic compounds and aerosols that have an important impact on air quality. We present a brief review on existing measurements and experimental strategies in mega-cities and then we show results from recent measurement campaigns that took place in two contrasted mega-cities: Paris and Beijing. (authors)

  2. Transient residence and exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. M. Delhez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Sciences, 2004 to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialisation and of the boundary conditions. In addition to the equation for the mean residence time, it is suggested to solve a simple advection-diffusion problem to quantify the effect of the initialisation and clarify the interpretation of the results. Using the two same equations but with modified boundary conditions, the method can also be used to quantify the accumulated time spent by water/tracer parcels in a control domain. This diagnostic is called "exposure time".

  3. Usefulness of plasmid profiles for differentiation of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Tacket, C O; Shahid, N; Huq, M. I.; Alim, A R; Cohen, M L.

    1984-01-01

    We studied the plasmid profiles of 136 Shigella isolates in Bangladesh to determine whether plasmid profiles could be used for differentiation of strains for epidemiological studies. Many different plasmid patterns were observed within each species, indicating that many genetically different strains of Shigella are responsible for illness in Bangladesh.

  4. Generation and Molecular Characterization of New Temperature-Sensitive Plasmids Intended for Genetic Engineering of Pasteurellaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature-sensitive (TS) plasmids were generated through chemical mutagenesis of a derivative of the streptomycin resistance parent plasmid pD70, isolated from Mannheimia hemolytica serotype 1. Three TS plasmids which failed to replicate at or above 42°C in M. hemolytica but which were fully func...

  5. Plasmid Copy Number and Disease Severity in Naturally Occurring Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Last, Anna R.; Roberts, Chrissy h.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Mabey, David C. W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a virulence factor. Plasmid copy number, C. trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity.

  6. The distribution of plasmids that carry virulence and resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus is lineage associated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Alex J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is major human and animal pathogen. Plasmids often carry resistance genes and virulence genes that can disseminate through S. aureus populations by horizontal gene transfer (HGT mechanisms. Sequences of S. aureus plasmids in the public domain and data from multi-strain microarrays were analysed to investigate (i the distribution of resistance genes and virulence genes on S. aureus plasmids, and (ii the distribution of plasmids between S. aureus lineages. Results A total of 21 plasmid rep gene families, of which 13 were novel to this study, were characterised using a previously proposed classification system. 243 sequenced plasmids were assigned to 39 plasmid groups that each possessed a unique combination of rep genes. We show some resistance genes (including ermC and cat and virulence genes (including entA, entG, entJ, entP were associated with specific plasmid groups suggesting there are genetic pressures preventing recombination of these genes into novel plasmid groups. Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that plasmid rep, resistance and virulence genes were associated with S. aureus lineages, suggesting restriction-modification (RM barriers to HGT of plasmids between strains exist. Conjugation transfer (tra complex genes were rare. Conclusion This study argues that genetic pressures are restraining the spread of resistance and virulence genes amongst S. aureus plasmids, and amongst S. aureus populations, delaying the emergence of fully virulent and resistant strains.

  7. Plasmid-determined silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from a silver mine.

    OpenAIRE

    Haefeli, C; Franklin, C.; K. HARDY

    1984-01-01

    A silver-resistant strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated from a silver mine. It harbored three plasmids, the largest of which (pKK1; molecular weight, 49.4 X 10(6)) specified silver resistance. Plasmid pKK1 was apparently nonconjugative but could be transferred to Pseudomonas putida by mobilization with plasmid R68.45.

  8. The virulence plasmids of Salmonella serovars typhimurium, choleraesuis, dublin, and enteritidis, and the cryptic plasmids of Salmonella serovars copenhagen and sendai belong to the same incompatibility group, but not those of Salmonella serovars durban, gallinarum, give, infantis and pullorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, J T; Baron, L S; Dai, X Y; Life, C A

    1990-02-01

    We examined the compatibility of the Salmonella virulence plasmids of serovars choleraesuis, dublin, enteritidis, gallinarum and pullorum and the cryptic Salmonella plasmids of serovars copenhagen, durban, give, infantis and sendai, with the 90 kilobase pair (kb) virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium. The 90 kb virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium in the form of pWR33, a cointegrate of F'::Tn10lac+ts and the 90 kb virulence plasmid, was transferred by bacterial conjugation into the Salmonella strains (except for S. sendai). The compatibility of their plasmids with the 90 kb virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium was then tested. Separately, a 90 kb virulence plasmid tagged with Tn5 was transformed into the S. sendai strain. The 90 kb virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium was found to be incompatible with the plasmids of serovars choleraesuis, copenhagen, dublin, enteritidis, and sendai, but compatible with the plasmids of serovars durban, gallinarum, give, infantis, and pullorum. PMID:2348777

  9. Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we propose that increased eruption rates over longer timescales are due to the relaxation of the compressional regime that accompanies mega-thrust subduction zone earthquakes. More specifically, the reduction of the horizontal stress ?h promotes the occurrence of short-lived strike-slip kinematics rather than reverse faulting in the volcanic arc. The relaxation of the pre-earthquake compressional regime facilitates magma mobilization by providing a short-circuit pathway to shallow depths by significantly increasing the hydraulic properties of the system. The timescale for the onset of strike-slip faulting depends on the degree of shear stress accumulated in the arc during inter-seismic periods, which in turn is connected to the degree of strain-partitioning at convergent margins. We performed Coulomb stress transfer analysis to determine the order of magnitude of the stress perturbations in present-day volcanic arcs in response to five actual mega-thrust earthquakes; the 2005 M8.6, 2007 M8.5, and 2007 M7.9 Sumatra earthquakes; the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake; and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake. We find that all, but one, the shallow earthquakes that occurred in the arcs of Sumatra, Chile and Japan show a marked lateral component. Our hypothesis suggests that the long-term response of volcanic arcs to subduction zone mega-thrust earthquakes will be manifested as predominantly strike-slip seismic events, and that these future earthquakes will be followed closely by seismic swarms, inflation, and other indications of a rising magma source.

  10. Expansion of a plasmid classification system for Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the diversity of plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus strains of human, animal, and food origins.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, C.; Garcia-Migura, L.

    2012-01-01

    An expansion of a previously described plasmid classification was performed and used to reveal the plasmid content of a collection of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different origins. rep genes of other genera were detected in Staphylococcus. S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybridizations were performed with 18 representative S. aureus strains, and a high number of plasmids of different sizes and organizations were detected. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Expansion of a plasmid classification system for Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the diversity of plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus strains of human, animal, and food origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, C.; Garcia-Migura, L.; Aspiroz, C.; Zarazaga, M.; Torres, C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-01-01

    An expansion of a previously described plasmid classification was performed and used to reveal the plasmid content of a collection of 92 Staphylococcus aureus strains of different origins. rep genes of other genera were detected in Staphylococcus. S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybrid......) hybridizations were performed with 18 representative S. aureus strains, and a high number of plasmids of different sizes and organizations were detected. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved....

  12. Studies on the plasmid stability, plasmid copy number and endo(1, 3)(1, 4) b-glucanase production by free and alginate immobilised recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DBY746, containing the plasmid pJG317, was grown in a variety of fermentation modes including batch, serial batch and chemostat culture incorporating a wide range of media types Plasmid pJG317 consists of a 2^-denved yeast episomal plasmid containing the gene which encodes for the bacterial enzyme endo (1,3)(1,4) P-glucanase. The concentration of enzyme produced appears to be proportional to the number of plasmid copies per cell. Specific e...

  13. Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López-Villarejo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number. It is thought that Kis antitoxin levels decrease in these cells and that this acts as the switch that activates the Kid toxin; activated Kid toxin reduces copB-mRNA levels and this increases RepA levels that increases plasmid copy number. In support of this model we now report that: (i the Kis antitoxin levels do decrease in cells containing a mini-R1 plasmid carrying a repA mutation that reduces plasmid copy number; (ii kid-dependent replication rescue is abolished in cells in which the Kis antitoxin levels or the CopB levels are increased. Unexpectedly we found that this coordination significantly increases both the copy number of the repA mutant and of the wt mini-R1 plasmid. This indicates that the coordination between plasmid replication functions and kis-kid system contributes significantly to control plasmid R1 replication.

  14. Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication

    OpenAIRE

    López-Villarejo, Juan; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number. It is thought that Kis antitoxin levels decrease in these cells and that this acts as the switch that activates the Kid toxin; activated Kid toxin reduces copB-mRNA levels and this increases RepA levels that increases plasmid copy number. In support of this model we now repo...

  15. Large plasmids of Escherichia coli and Salmonella encode highly diverse arrays of accessory genes on common replicon families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wireman, Joy; Hilliard, Valda C; Summers, Anne O

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are important in evolution and adaptation of host bacteria, yet we lack a comprehensive picture of their own natural variation. We used replicon typing and RFLP analysis to assess diversity and distribution of plasmids in the ECOR, SARA, SARB and SARC reference collections of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Plasmids, especially large (?30 kb) plasmids, are abundant in these collections. Host species and genotype clearly impact plasmid prevalence; plasmids are more abundant in ECOR than SAR, but, within ECOR, subgroup B2 strains have the fewest large plasmids. The majority of large plasmids have unique RFLP patterns, suggesting high variation, even within dominant replicon families IncF and IncI1. We found only four conserved plasmid types within ECOR, none of which are widely distributed. Within SAR, conserved plasmid types are primarily serovar-specific, including a pSLT-like plasmid in 13 Typhimurium strains. Conservation of pSLT contrasts with variability of other plasmids, suggesting evolution of serovar-specific virulence plasmids is distinct from that of most enterobacterial plasmids. We sequenced a conserved serovar Heidelberg plasmid but did not detect virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. Our data illustrate the high degree of natural variation in large plasmids of E. coli and Salmonella, even among plasmids sharing backbone genes. PMID:22939841

  16. Sym plasmid transfer to various symbiotic mutants of Rhizobium trifolii, R. leguminosarum, and R. meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Djordjevic, M.A.; Zurkowski, W; Shine, J; Rolfe, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Two self-transmissible Sym(biosis) plasmids, one encoding pea-specific nodulation and nitrogen-fixation functions (plasmid pJB5JI) and the other encoding clover-specific nodulation and nitrogen-fixation functions (plasmid pBR1AN) were used to determine whether the symbiotic genes encoded on these plasmids are expressed in various members of the Rhizobiaceae. The host specificity of Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum Sym plasmid-cured strains could be directly determined by the transfer t...

  17. Long-term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10000 soil bacterial cells could receive and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent and was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the tra YALE region from IncFV plasmid pED208.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, B. B.; Frost, L S; Paranchych, W.

    1986-01-01

    The pED208 plasmid is a 90-kilobase conjugative plasmid which is the derepressed form of Fo lac plasmid (IncFV). A 3.3-kilobase HindIII-PstI fragment from the pED208 plasmid was cloned and sequenced and was found to contain four open reading frames which were highly homologous to the traA, traL, traE, and traY gene products of the F plasmid. The pED208 traA propilin protein was 119 amino acids in length, consisting of a leader sequence of 55 amino acids and a mature pilin subunit of 64 residu...

  19. Long- term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent and was dominated by ?- and ?-Proteobacteria.

  20. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin; Gerdes, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and parC encoded by the par2 locus of plasmid pB171, ParA formed cytoskeletal-like structures that dynamically relocated over the nucleoid. Simultaneously, the par2 locus distributed plasmids regularly over the nucleoid. We show here that the dynamic ParA patterns are not simple oscillations. Rather, ParA nucleates and polymerizes in between plasmids. When ...

  1. Mega jardines infantiles: heterotopías para el gobierno de la población infantil en Medellín / Mega-kindergartens: heterotopias for governing the infant population in Medellin / Mega jardins de infância: heterotopias para o governo da população infantil em Medellin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés Klaus, Runge Peña; Sara Carolina, Carrillo David.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No marco de uma política integral de atenção para a infância, durante as últimas administrações a cidade de Medellín realizou um grande investimento em infraestrutura, especificamente para a construção, em lugares estratégicos da cidade, de grandes jardins de infância. Este texto tem como propósito [...] pensar em chave foucaultiana esses espaços como heterotopias, isto é, como espaços para o governo (governamentalidade) da população infantil. No texto se considera que a reestruturação e ressignificação do espaço educativo escolar e das práticas desenvolvidas na sua interioridade não obedecem, principalmente, a uma preocupação pedagógica ou filantrópica que poderia ser interpretada de maneira independente de um contexto histórico e social, nas margens de determinados interesses e relações de poder. Numa primeira parte, seguindo Foucault, se revisa o conceito de heterotopia e se propõe que esses espaços educativos outros -além da sua função educativa e formativa- cumprem um papel governamental em quanto permitem o governo da população infantil ao constituírem-se em lugares estratégicos para a implantação de tecnologias sociais como a prevenção. Abstract in spanish En el marco de una nueva política de atención integral a la infancia, durante las últimas administraciones la ciudad de Medellín ha venido realizando una considerable inversión en infraestructura urbana, específicamente con la creación, en lugares estratégicos de la ciudad, de grandes jardines infan [...] tiles. Este escrito tiene como propósito pensar en clave foucaultiana esos espacios como heterotopías, es decir, como espacios otros para el gobierno (gubernamentalidad) de la población infantil. Partimos así, del presupuesto según el cual la reestructuración y resignificación del espacio educativo escolar y de las prácticas en su interior no obedece a una suerte de preocupación pedagógica y filantrópica que sin más se pueda considerar desligada de un contexto histórico y social y al margen de ciertos intereses y de ciertas relaciones de poder. Para ello, y de la mano de Foucault, en una primera parte se le pasa revista al concepto de heterotopía y a sus particularidades; en la segunda parte, se profundiza en la caracterización de los mega jardines infantiles como heterotopías y se plantea que estos espacios educativos otros -además de su función educativa y formativa- cumplen con un papel gubernamental en el sentido que permiten el gobierno de la población infantil gracias a que se convierten en lugares estratégicos para la implementación de tecnologías sociales como la prevención. Abstract in english Under a new policy of comprehensive child care during the past administrations Medellin has been making a considerable investment in urban infrastructure, specifically the creation in strategic locations in the city, large kindergartens. This paper aims to reflect upon these spaces as key Foucauldia [...] n heterotopias, ie, as other spaces for the government (governmentality) of children. So, we start from the estimation that restructuring and redefining educational space and practices therein are not due to a kind of educational and philanthropic concern that no more can be considered detached from a historical and social context and outside certain interests and certain power relations.

  2. Predicting residents' performance: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozuah Philip O

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Objective criteria for predicting residents' performance do not exist. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that global assessment by an intern selection committee (ISC) would correlate with the future performance of residents. Methods A prospective study of 277 residents between 1992 and 1999. Global assessment at the time of interview was compared to subsequent clinical (assessed by chief residents) and cognitive performance (assessed by the American Boar...

  3. Novel DC ring topology and protection system - a comprehensive solution for mega city power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Maharsi, Mohamed Yassine

    2009-07-01

    The development of mega cities leads to increased load concentration and brings additional challenges to managing the electrical grid while keeping power available for critical loads. Techniques using FACTS devices are being applied to alleviate power management difficulties and to confine faults in their originating areas in order to limit the risk of cascading failures in the grid. The addition of many FACTS devices often results in control and protection coordination difficulties, power oscillations between connected networks, subsynchronous resonance problems, and torsional interactions with nearby generator units. The most effective solution is obtained when the individual AC subsystems representing sources and loads are decoupled so a fault in a given subsystem is not propagated to another subsystem. This solution can be achieved by the deployment of a DC system where power sources and loads are connected to the DC bus through voltage source converters. For a mega city, this would be conceived as a DC ring feeding multiple loads and connected to remote and local power sources. Unfortunately, the lack of fast DC circuit breakers has been one of the key issues affecting extensive applications of DC systems with common DC buses; a DC fault would discharge all the capacitors of the DC bus and cause delays in system recovery and possibly a wide system collapse. In this research, I provide a comprehensive solution to mega city power grid problems by proposing a DC system topology that enables grid expansions without affecting existing protection settings or changing existing AC breaker ratings. I also propose the means for protecting the DC system by designing a fast DC breaker and developing a control algorithm capable of isolating DC faults without blocking converter stations or depleting DC bus capacitors. My contribution is three folds: (1) I modeled and simulated Shanghai power grid and performed a study to identify short circuit and voltage stability problems using data provided by ABB corporate research located in China. I built on the work that had been performed in ABB China by considering different contingencies and I applied solutions using individual FACTS devices such as FCL, SVC-LightRTM, and HVDC-LightRTM. I analyzed the results from each solution in order to assess its merits and limitations in dealing with fault current and voltage stability problems. Then I presented a novel DC ring topology that provides redundancy, better protection against cascading faults, and does not increase short circuit levels. With this topology, adding loads or power sources does not impact system protection or performance. (2) I proposed two novel designs for a DC circuit breaker that is of critical importance to DC applications using multiple converter stations. The proposed designs solve the problem of DC fault clearing without causing significant voltage drops, current oscillations, or shutting down of any converter station connected to the DC bus. The DC breaker rated at a voltage of 320 kV and a current of 3000 A can interrupt DC currents as high as 70 kA within 800 mus. (3) I proposed a novel placement of the DC circuit breakers within the DC ring topology combined with an intelligent protection algorithm that optimizes fault detection and isolation without affecting the rest of the DC system. The protection scheme uses local measurements and special coordination techniques for clearing solid faults and uses differential measurements to identify and isolate high impedance faults.

  4. Interpersonal Relationships of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Janet E.; Kruzich, Jean M.

    1990-01-01

    Conducted interviews with 332 intellectually intact residents in 54 nursing homes to study their patterns of interpersonal relationships with staff, other residents, and family and friends outside the home. Results indicated importance of having a close friend for residents' participation in activities, life satisfaction, and nursing home…

  5. Toolbox for Evaluating Residents as Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H.; Ismail, Nadia; Mian, Ayesha; Dewey, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review existing assessment tools related to evaluating residents' teaching skills and teaching effectiveness. Methods: PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched using combinations of keywords including "residents," "residents as teachers," "teaching skills," and "assessments" or "rating scales." Results: Eleven evaluation…

  6. Residence Hall Damage: Analysis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Thomas A.

    The problems of residence hall damage and vandalism are examined in this booklet. An analysis and control program is proposed to provide a systematic method of dealing with the problem. A list of basic assumptions held by students and staff on residence hall damage is presented for discussion. Problems created by damage to residence halls are also…

  7. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  8. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resident assessment. 51...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The... condition a comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident's...

  9. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident training. 964.140 Section... training. (a) Resident training opportunities. HUD encourages a partnership between the residents, the HA and HUD, as well as with the public and non-profit sectors to provide training opportunities...

  10. Stakeholder participation to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. : A case study of the forum for the coal-power plant “Datteln 4” project

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Tassilo; Zakharova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how stakeholder participation should be implemented to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. Thereby societal acceptance is seen as a major contributor to project success in this context and involving society in decision-making and two-way dialogue is recognized as the most  effective to achieve this. Based on this research area, a theoretical framework was proposed for the mega project context including prerequisite, process and outcome criteria...

  11. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, R.M.; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M; Zeng, L.; Zhang, Y

    2008-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "...

  12. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  13. Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

  14. Studies on the drift properties and spatial resolution using a microMEGAS-equipped time projection chamber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosario L Reserva; Dennis C Arogancia; Angelina M Bacala; Khalil Boudjemline; Dan Burke; Paul Colas; Madhu Dixit; Arnaud Giganon; Ioannis Giomataris; Hermogenes C Gooc Jr; Yukihiro Kato; Keisuke Fujii; Hiroyuki Fujishima; Masahiro Habu; Takatoshi Higashi; Makoto Kobayashi; Hirotoshi Kuroiwa; Vincent Lepeltier; Takeshi Matsuda; Osamu Nitoh; Kirsten Sachs; Ronald Dean Settles; Akira Sugiyama; Philippe Rosier; Sachio Matsushita; Keiichi Nakamura; Takashi Watanabe; Atsushi Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Yamaoka; Thomas Zeruerras

    2007-12-01

    R & D studies on the performance as well as on the gas properties of the microMEGAS-based time projection chamber with standard readout were carried out in June 2005 using 4 GeV/c pion beam in a magnetic field from 0 to 1 T at the proton synchrotron beam line at KEK, Japan. Analysis of the electron drift velocity, diffusion constant and point resolution of padrow measurement for MicroMEGAS TPC filled with 95% argon and 5% isobutane gas are presented. The underlying physical mechanism which determines the optimal TPC performance are briefly discussed. Preliminary measurements of gas properties and spatial resolution in close agreement with the analytical calculation and MAGBOLTZ simulation are summarized and presented in this paper.

  15. Differences in the stability of the plasmids of Yersinia pestis cultures in vitro: impact on virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Leal-Balbino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid and chromosomal genes encode determinants of virulence for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. However, in vitro, Y. pestis genome is very plastic and several changes have been described. To evaluate the alterations in the plasmid content of the cultures in vitro and the impact of the alterations to their pathogenicity, three Y. pestis isolates were submitted to serial subculture, analysis of the plasmid content, and testing for the presence of characteristic genes in each plasmid of colonies selected after subculture. Different results were obtained with each strain. The plasmid content of one of them was shown to be stable; no apparent alteration was produced through 32 subcultures. In the other two strains, several alterations were observed. LD50 in mice of the parental strains and the derived cultures with different plasmid content were compared. No changes in the virulence plasmid content could be specifically correlated with changes in the LD50.

  16. Asymmetrical Inheritance of Plasmids Depends on Dynamic Cellular Geometry and Volume Exclusion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetrical inheritance of plasmid DNA, as well as other cellular components, has been shown to be involved in replicative aging. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms underlying this important asymmetry. Currently proposed models suggest it is established via diffusion, but differ on whether a diffusion barrier is necessary or not. However, no study so far incorporated key aspects to segregation, such as dynamic morphology changes throughout anaphase or plasmids size. Here, we determine the distinct effects and contributions of individual cellular variability, plasmid volume and moving boundaries in the asymmetric segregation of plasmids. We do this by measuring cellular nuclear geometries and plasmid diffusion rates with confocal microscopy, subsequently incorporating this data into a growing domain stochastic spatial simulator. Our modelling and simulations confirms that plasmid asymmetrical inheritance does not require an active barrier to diffusion, and provides a full analysis on plasmid size effects. PMID:26468952

  17. Transfer of the lambdadv plasmid to new bacterial hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambda dv, which was derived from bacteriophage lambda, replicates autonomously as a plasmid in Escherichia coli and consists of only the immunity region (imm/sup lambda/) and DNA replication genes (O, P) of the ancestral phage. Addition phages (lambda imm21--lambda dv) carry the lambda dv fragment inserted as a tandem duplication in their genome (sequence A imm21 O P imm/sup lambda/ O P R) are formed as recombinants after lambda imm21 infection of strains carrying lambda dv. Addition phages were used to transfer lambda dv to new bacterial hosts. Lambda dv transfer by excision of the lambda dv segment from the addition phage genome requires a bacterial Rec or a phage Red recombination system. Successful transfer is stimulated by uv irradiation of the addition phage before infection. Some properties of the newly transferred lambda dv plasmids are described. (U.S.)

  18. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-based gene removal from plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu Vardhan; Khamo, John S; Cho, Ellen; Schornak, Cara; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This data article contains supplementary figures and methods to the research article entitled, "Multiplex gene removal by two-step polymerase chain reactions" (Krishnamurthy et al., Anal. Biochem., 2015, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.03.033), which presents a restriction-enzyme free method to remove multiple DNA segments from plasmids. Restriction-free cloning methods have dramatically improved the flexibility and speed of genetic manipulation compared to conventional assays based on restriction enzyme digestion (Lale and Valla, 2014. DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods, vol. 1116). Here, we show the basic scheme and characterize the success rate for single and multiplex gene removal from plasmids. In addition, we optimize experimental conditions, including the amount of template, multiple primers mixing, and buffers for DpnI treatment, used in the one-pot reaction for multiplex gene removal. PMID:26217766

  20. A Rebeccamycin Analog Provides Plasmid-Encoded Niche Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arnam, Ethan B; Ruzzini, Antonio C; Sit, Clarissa S; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2015-11-18

    Bacterial symbionts of fungus-growing ants occupy a highly specialized ecological niche and face the constant existential threat of displacement by another strain of ant-adapted bacteria. As part of a systematic study of the small molecules underlying this fraternal competition, we discovered an analog of the antitumor agent rebeccamycin, a member of the increasingly important indolocarbazole family. While several gene clusters consistent with this molecule's newly reported modification had previously been identified in metagenomic studies, the metabolite itself has been cryptic. The biosynthetic gene cluster for 9-methoxyrebeccamycin is encoded on a plasmid in a manner reminiscent of plasmid-derived peptide antimicrobials that commonly mediate antagonism among closely related Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26535611

  1. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  2. Impacts of Mega-droughts on Water and Food Security in the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A Paleoclimate Scenario Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Pitois, G.; Ringler, C.; Wang, D.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Spanning over Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is the home of several hundred million people and the "bread basket" for much of South Asia. The flat terrain, fertile soils, and favorable climate of the IGP make it agriculturally productive. However prolonged droughts caused by consecutive monsoon failures can seriously affect crop production and social wellbeing, in particular for the eastern part of the plains where agriculture remains largely rain-fed. Severe droughts were observed in the IGP historically, and recent paleoclimate studies reveal that more severe and long-lasting "mega-droughts" had happened in the distant past. Agricultural losses from major droughts can dramatically affect food systems and increase the vulnerability of resource-poor people given the delicate balance between food supply and demand under growing natural resource scarcity. To estimate the potential impacts of "mega-droughts" on the water and food systems in the IGP, we develop worst-case drought scenarios through inverse modeling of tree-ring-based PDSI reconstruction that covers the period 1300-1899 (A.D.), and analyze these historic mega-drought scenarios using IFPRI's IMPACT global water and food projections model. The base year of the IMPACT model is parameterized using socioeconomic and engineering data that reflect today's water management and infrastructure, agricultural technologies, population, income, and market institutions. The base year simulation is validated against observations to ensure model fidelity. Anticipated changes of the above factors in the future out to 2050 are specified using demographic and economic growth projections and literature data. Model simulation results represent the consequences of mega-droughts in the IGP given technological and socioeconomic conditions of today and in the future. We also explore policy options for increasing the resilience of water and food systems in the IGP, through scenario analysis, and recommendations are made concerning investment in water infrastructure and agricultural technologies, in addition to trade policies.

  3. The Water Situation of the Future Mega City "Urumqi" (NW-China) – Resources, Risk, Conservation and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Urumqi is located in the remote center of the Eurasian continent. It is a future mega-city with rapid economic development and high population density in China's western interior. Urumqi's water resource problems are the main research objects in this thesis. Several models have been put forward to predict water demand in Urumqi and useful suggestions have been gathered to reduce water scarcity. In 2010, the average annual water resources of Urumqi were at 939.22 million m³ and the average ...

  4. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Karpov; Grigory Beskin; Sergey Bondar; Alexey Perkov; Evgeny Ivanov; Adriano Guarnieri; Corrado Bartolini; Giuseppe Greco; Andy Shearer; Vyacheslav Sasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transfo...

  5. Perfil de colesterol de ovos comerciais e ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Mourthé K.; Martins R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Determinou-se quantitativamente, por cromatografia gasosa, o teor colesterol de ovos enriquecidos com ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega-3 e de ovos comuns disponíveis no mercado de Belo Horizonte/MG. Foram analisadas duas marcas de ovos comuns e duas de ovos enriquecidos com cinco repetições por amostragem. Não houve diferença entre os níveis de colesterol para os tipos de ovos estudados.

  6. Antimicrobial endophytic fungal assemblages inhabiting bark of Taxus baccata L. of Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Tayung, K.; Jha, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from inner bark of Taxus baccata L., an important source of potent anticancer drug taxol. Bark samples were collected from two locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India, part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot, during two seasons i.e. monsoon and winter. Altogether 77 fungal strains representing 18 genera were isolated from T. baccata bark during the present investigation. The colonizing frequency was recorded as 38.5% and the fungal community comprised of...

  7. Along came a mega-event : prospects of competitiveness for a 2010 FIFA World Cup™ host city

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Ernest Thomas

    2013-01-01

    South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ came at a time when countries and cities worldwide were increasingly competing for this sought-after status. The benefits and challenges of such an event have received significant attention from researchers and practitioners alike. No tourism destination is guaranteed long-term competitiveness by being offered the once-off opportunity to host a major international event. This study aimed to determine whether a mega-event would make a greater ...

  8. The Role of Mega-events in Country Branding : Case Study on Brand of Ukraine before European Football Championship 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Klonova, Anastasiia

    2012-01-01

    Successful presentation of a country as a brand and positioning its unique image on the global level can give significant opportunities for development and progress of the state in the different areas. This research applies theories on the country branding to estimate impact of mega sport events on the image of state. To accomplish these goal I used case study – formation of brand Ukraine before hosting European Football Championship 2012 (EURO 2012). To investigate  brand strategy of Ukraine...

  9. Urban entrepreneurialism and mega-events in transitional urban China : a case study of Expo 2010 in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingyue; ???

    2012-01-01

    Fordism-Keynesianism gradually transited to neoliberalism during 1970s economic recession in capitalist society, shifting urban governance from managerialism to entrepreneurialism. At the same time, China’s 1978 political-economic reform has led to a rapid development and a profound urban transformation characterized by globalization, neo-liberal decentralization and marketization over the past thirty years. To sustain the development and further promote the transformation, mega-events as one...

  10. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, A; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  11. Linearized oncolytic adenoviral plasmid DNA delivered by bioreducible polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaesung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Nam, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2011-01-01

    As an effort to overcome limits of adenovirus (Ad) as a systemic delivery vector for cancer therapy, we developed a novel system using oncolytic Ad plasmid DNA with two bioreducible polymers: arginine-grafted bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)polymer (ABP) and PEG5k-conjugated ABP (ABP5k) in expectation of oncolytic effect caused by progeny viral production followed by replication. The linearized Ad DNAs for active viral replication polyplexed with each polymer were able to replicate only in ...

  12. Genetic organization of the Francisella plasmid pFNL10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantsev, A P; Golovliov, I R; Ohara, Y; Mokrievich, A N; Obuchi, M; Norqvist, A; Kuoppa, K; Pavlov, V M

    2001-11-01

    We report here the molecular characterization of pFNL10, a 3990-bp cryptic plasmid of Francisella novicida-like F6168. The plasmid was maintained in F. novicida Utah 112 and F. tularensis LVS strains. We sequenced the entire plasmid and found six open reading frames (ORFs)-ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, and ORFm. ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, and ORFm are located on the same strand, and we designated it the plus strand. ORF1 and ORF2 are on the complementary strand. The ORFs appear to be arranged in two operons, one comprising ORF5 and ORF4 and the other ORF1 and ORF2. There exist two distinct promoters similar to the Escherichia coli sigma(70) promoter, one 5' to ORF1-ORF2 operon and the other 5' to ORF5-ORF4 operon. We found that in both promoters the transcriptional start is an adenosine. ORF3 is positioned in tandem with ORF5-ORF4, but has its own transcriptional start, a thymidine. However, sequence analysis revealed no recognizable promoter in physical proximity to ORF3. Sequence analysis revealed transcriptional terminators immediately downstream of the two operons. Experimental results showed that the ORF1-ORF2 terminator is authentic. But we could not definitively confirm the ORF5-ORF4 terminator. Two sets of direct repeats, one 31 and the other 13 bp, characteristic of ori are positioned between the two promoters. ORF1 encodes a protein that bears homology to the replication initiation protein RepA of various bacteria, and disruption of this ORF indeed blocked pFNL10 replication. In contrast, ORF2 disruption caused formation of plasmid multimers, suggesting aberrant replication. Our analysis also suggests that pFNL10 replicates by the theta mode. The ORF5-ORF4 operon resembles the phd-doc operon of Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1, but the significance of this similarity is unclear. PMID:11735370

  13. De Novo Assembly of Plasmids Using Yeast Recombinational Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Molecular cloning is a cornerstone of modern biology laboratories. However, traditional cloning can be time-consuming and problematic. We outline herein a method that utilizes the endogenous gap repair system of yeast cells to clone and assemble DNA constructs. This system is simple, cheap, and requires minimal reagents. It can be used for the assembly of both simple (single DNA fragments) and complex (multiple DNA fragments) constructs into plasmids. PMID:26194707

  14. Hybrid Mitochondrial Plasmids From Senescence Suppressor Isolates of Neurospora intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed several natural suppressor isolates of the pKalilo-based fungal senescence syndrome of Neurospora intermedia. The pKalilo plasmid did not increase in titer in these isolates. Nor did it show integration "de novo." In at least two of the senescence suppressor isolates, pKalilo had formed stable recombinants with other mitochondrial elements. pKalilo/mtDNA recombination junctions were complete and appeared to have been formed via a nonhomologous recombination mechanism. Further anal...

  15. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyšín, Lud?k; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kate?ina; Št?pán, V.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bugler, B.; Legube, G.; Cafarelli, P.; Casta, R.; Champeaux, J.P.; Sence, M.; Vlk, M.; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, S.; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 3 (2015), s. 343-352. ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-28721S; GA MŠk LD12008; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : proton radiation * DNA plasmid * direct and indirect effects * clustered damage * repair enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.528, year: 2014

  16. Communicating mega-projects in the face of uncertainties: Israeli mass media treatment of the Dead Sea Water Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Cohen-Blankshtain, Galit; Shuali, Yoav; Boykoff, Max

    2015-10-01

    Given the potential for uncertainties to influence mega-projects, this study examines how mega-projects are deliberated in the public arena. The paper traces the strategies used to promote the Dead Sea Water Canal. Findings show that the Dead Sea mega-project was encumbered by ample uncertainties. Treatment of uncertainties in early coverage was dominated by economics and raised primarily by politicians, while more contemporary media discourses have been dominated by ecological uncertainties voiced by environmental non-governmental organizations. This change in uncertainty type is explained by the changing nature of the project and by shifts in societal values over time. The study also reveals that 'uncertainty reduction' and to a lesser degree, 'project cancellation', are still the strategies most often used to address uncertainties. Statistical analysis indicates that although uncertainties and strategies are significantly correlated, there may be other intervening variables that affect this correlation. This research also therefore contributes to wider and ongoing considerations of uncertainty in the public arena through various media representational practices. PMID:24357623

  17. MegaMiner: A Tool for Lead Identification Through Text Mining Using Chemoinformatics Tools and Cloud Computing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Yogesh; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an indispensable tool to cope with the massive amount of data being tossed by the high throughput omics technologies. With the objective of enhancing the automation capability of virtual screening process a robust portal termed MegaMiner has been built using the cloud computing platform wherein the user submits a text query and directly accesses the proposed lead molecules along with their drug-like, lead-like and docking scores. Textual chemical structural data representation is fraught with ambiguity in the absence of a global identifier. We have used a combination of statistical models, chemical dictionary and regular expression for building a disease specific dictionary. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study on malaria has been carried out in the present work. MegaMiner offered superior results compared to other text mining search engines, as established by F score analysis. A single query term 'malaria' in the portlet led to retrieval of related PubMed records, protein classes, drug classes and 8000 scaffolds which were internally processed and filtered to suggest new molecules as potential anti-malarials. The results obtained were validated by docking the virtual molecules into relevant protein targets. It is hoped that MegaMiner will serve as an indispensable tool for not only identifying hidden relationships between various biological and chemical entities but also for building better corpus and ontologies. PMID:26138567

  18. MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

  19. An insight of traditional plasmid curing in Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    As the causative agent of foodborne related illness, Vibrio species causes a huge impact on the public health and management. Vibrio species is often associated with seafood as the latter plays a role as a vehicle to transmit bacterial infections. Hence, antibiotics are used not to promote growth but rather to prevent and treat bacterial infections. The extensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry and environment has led to the emerging of antibiotic resistant strains. This phenomenon has triggered an alarming public health concern due to the increase number of pathogenic Vibrio strains that are resistant to clinically used antibiotics and is found in the environment. Antibiotic resistance and the genes location in the strains can be detected through plasmid curing assay. The results derived from plasmid curing assay is fast, cost effective, sufficient in providing insights, and influence the antibiotic management policies in the aquaculture industry. This presentation aims in discussing and providing insights on various curing agents in Vibrio species. To our best of knowledge, this is a first review written discussing on plasmid curing in Vibrio species. PMID:26347714

  20. Properties and transforming activities of two plasmids in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, C.W.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Two plasmids from group B streptococcus were introduced into pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and examined for copy number, stability, and some features of the process by which they transform pneumococcal recipients. The 3.6 Mdal pMV158 (tet) was present at a minimum of 12 to 16 copies per chromosome and was never observed to be cured. The 20 Mdal pIP501 (cat erm) had a minimum copy number of 3 to 4 per chromosome and was lost spontaneously at a frequency near 0.03 per division. The presence of novobiocin increased this frequency 2 to 3-fold. Competence for chromosomal transformation and the membrane endonuclease needed for normal DNA entry were required for plasmid transformation. Plasmid transformants segregated transformed cells one generation ahead of chromosomal transformants. Both single and multiple hit components of the transformation reaction kinetics were observed, but the latter could not be seen in the presence of competing chromosomal DNA. The majority of the transforming activity behaved as covalently closed circular DNA in dye-buoyancy gradients.

  1. Genetic Characterization of a Stable F? lac Plasmid1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, Francis L.; Balbinder, Elias

    1972-01-01

    A mutant F? plasmid has been isolated in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium harboring Fts114lac. This mutant, designated FlacS, exhibits unique genetic stability in strains of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli. It shows no thermolability and is lost at frequencies of 20 to 100 times less than the wild-type F?lac (F42) in the same genetic backgrounds. The FlacS is also insensitive to conventional plasmid curing agents, whereas both Fts114lac and F42 are readily cured. The nature of the mutation(s) conferring stability to the FlacS is unclear, but plasmid linkage has been established. The high frequency of conjugal transfer of the FlacS and its behavior in recombination-deficient strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli argue against its stability being due to stable chromosomal integration. The FlacS is also capable of transferring chromosomal markers in S. typhimurium and E. coli mating systems. No major differences in chromosomal mobilization have been observed among F42, Fts114lac, and FlacS donors of either genus. PMID:16559163

  2. Genetic Characterization of a Stable F' lac Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrina, F L; Balbinder, E

    1972-10-01

    A mutant F' plasmid has been isolated in a strain of Salmonella typhimurium harboring F(ts114)lac. This mutant, designated FlacS, exhibits unique genetic stability in strains of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli. It shows no thermolability and is lost at frequencies of 20 to 100 times less than the wild-type F'lac (F42) in the same genetic backgrounds. The FlacS is also insensitive to conventional plasmid curing agents, whereas both F(ts114)lac and F42 are readily cured. The nature of the mutation(s) conferring stability to the FlacS is unclear, but plasmid linkage has been established. The high frequency of conjugal transfer of the FlacS and its behavior in recombination-deficient strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli argue against its stability being due to stable chromosomal integration. The FlacS is also capable of transferring chromosomal markers in S. typhimurium and E. coli mating systems. No major differences in chromosomal mobilization have been observed among F42, F(ts114)lac, and FlacS donors of either genus. PMID:16559163

  3. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  4. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  5. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: The daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors...... have their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working......Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk...

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than $\\sim$130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures ($\\sim$160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  7. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkden, N. R., E-mail: nrw504@york.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Adamek, J.; Komm, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of AS CR, v. v. i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B. D. [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ?1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant K.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Vaselli, O.; Trupti, G.; Singh, B.; Lashin, Aref; Arifi, Nassir Al

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son-Narmada-Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ˜130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (˜160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°-265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  9. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClements, K. G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-07-15

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  10. Electron spin resonance dating of mega-fauna from Lagoa dos Porcos, Piaui (Brazil))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excavations performed at Lagoa dos Porcos site revealed a vast amount of extinct mammal fossil remains, becoming one of the richest palaeontological occurrences in the Serra da Capivara National Park region, a UNESCO World Heritage. Although anatomic and taxonomic aspects of extinct Quaternary mammals are relatively well known, chronologic information for deposits is rare. In this context, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of mega-fauna samples provides important information for establishing a chronological background. This work presents the ESR dating of two teeth, one of Gomphotheriidae and other of Toxodontinae. Dose-response curves of each sample were constructed using spectra acquired with a JEOL FA-200 X-Band spectrometer resulting in equivalent dose (De) of 220±40 Gy and 39±2 Gy for Toxodontinae and Gomphotheriidae tooth, respectively. The conversion of De in age was made using ROSY ESR dating software resulting in 26±4 and 22±3 ka. These results place Lagoa dos Porcos fossil assemblage within the Late Pleistocene. These dates overlap with a period of abrupt increase in rainfall in northeast Brazil, and it is possible that this environmental change is related to the formation of this deposit. (authors)

  11. Microlensing in M31 - The MEGA Survey's Prospects and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, A; Gould, A; Gyuk, G; Sackett, P D; Kuijken, K; Sutherland, W; Widrow, L M

    2000-01-01

    January 2000 completes the first season of intensive, wide-field observations of microlensing and stellar variability in M31 by MEGA (Microlensing Exploration of the Galaxy and Andromeda) at the Isaac Newton 2.5m Telescope, the KPNO 4m, and the 1.3m and 2.5m telescopes of MDM Observatory. In preliminary analysis, we detect ~50000 variable objects, including some consistent with microlensing events. We present the level of sensitivity to be reached in our planned three-year program to test for the presence of a significant halo microlensing population in M31, as well as its spatial distribution and mass-function. We also discuss our application of image subtraction to these wide fields and HST WFPC2 Snapshot followup observations to confirm candidates identified from previous years' surveys. We present intermediate results from our smaller-field survey, on the MDM 1.3m and Vatican Advanced Technology 1.8m Telescope, from 1994-1998, wherein we have discovered 8 additional probable microlensing events, over abou...

  12. Liquid Metal Angiography for Mega Contrast X-ray Visualization of Vascular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Pan, Keqin; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the anatomical vessel networks plays a vital role in physiological or pathological investigations. However, identifying the fine structures of the smallest capillary vessels via conventional imaging ways remains a big challenge. Here, the room temperature liquid metal angiography was proposed for the first time to produce mega contrast X-ray images for multi-scale vasculature mapping. Gallium was used as the room temperature liquid metal contrast agent and perfused into the vessels of in vitro pig hearts and kidneys. We scanned the samples under X-ray and compared the angiograms with those obtained via conventional contrast agent--the iohexol. As quantitatively proved by the gray scale histograms, the contrast of the vessels to the surrounding tissues in the liquid metal angiograms is orders higher than that of the iohexol enhanced images. And the resolution of the angiograms has reached 100{\\mu}m, which means the capillaries can be clearly distinguished in the liquid metal enhanced images. With t...

  13. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Allan, S.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Komm, M.

    2015-02-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ˜1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  14. Assessment of injury from the MEGA BORG oil spill: A case of cooperative damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tanker MEGA BORG exploded while lightering about 60 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas on 8 June 1990. The explosion was followed by a spectacular fire and major release of Angolan crude. Up to 5.1 million gallons of the 41 million gallon cargo was lost to the sea or burning over a period of seven days. Vessel interests took responsibility for the spill and employed skimming and dispersive cleanup techniques. It is estimated that approximately 126 gallons ultimately reached shore in western Louisiana. Within a day of the explosion, the Norwegian vessel owner, French cargo owner and the Norwegian vessel insurer entered into discussion with the Texas Water Commission and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration regarding damage assessment options. Within the next two days the owners agreed to fund and participate in a cooperative preliminary assessment of environmental injury. Five projects were funded to determine whether there was sufficient injury to justify the completion of a full natural resource damage assessment: (1) Fate of spilled oil; (2) Effects on shrimp fishery; (3) Effects on marine mammals and turtles; (4) Effects of beach oiling and (5) Effects on recreation. Funds were also provided for report preparation and project management. Several issues of major concern were considered by vessel interests prior to agreement. Many of these issues are common to consideration of cooperative assessments and may be critical importance to future incidents particularly if the damage assessment regulations developed pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act encourage cooperative responses

  15. Particle confinement of pellet-fuelled H-mode plasmas in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the particle confinement of pellet-fuelled plasmas in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The dataset is restricted mostly to neutral beam heated plasmas and to shallow pellets launched from the high field side. It is shown that the pellet deposition can be explained only by invoking the ?B drift of the pellet ablatant. The pellet creates a zone with positive density gradient and increased temperature gradient. Simulations show that these changes could increase the level of micro-turbulence and thus enhance further the penetration of pellet-deposited particles towards the core. Post-pellet dynamics of the density profile is characterised by the pellet retention time ?pel. It is shown that ?pel correlates with the status of the edge transport barrier (L-mode or H-mode) and decreases rapidly for pellet deposition radius rpel approaching the plasma edge. For ELMy H-mode and ITER-like pellets, rpel ? 0.8a, the pellet retention time is about 20% of the energy confinement time. The fuelling requirement by the pellets for ITER is discussed

  16. Search for thermonuclear neutrons in a mega-ampere plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma focus experiments were carried out at a modified PF-1000 where the cathode disc was added in front of the anode. Experimental results indicated a fraction of thermonuclear neutrons on the mega-ampere current level. In order to prove the thermonuclear mechanism, the time of neutron production and the neutron energy spectrum were measured by time-of-flight (TOF) diagnostics. Neutron TOF signals showed that the neutron production was a multiphase process and more than one mechanism occurred simultaneously. The occurrence of the thermonuclear mechanism was most evident during the plasma stagnation at low deuterium pressures. At low filling pressures, the narrow width of the neutron energy spectra demonstrated an ion temperature of about 1 keV. The possibility of thermonuclear neutrons was studied also after the stagnation, during the main neutron emission. In this case, the thermonuclear mechanism could be verified by calculating the number of deuterons that participate in the fusion process. For the bulk of thermonuclear plasmas, a significant fraction of plasma should participate in fusion. Finally, the basic consideration of the thermonuclear mechanism in Z-pinches showed the reasonableness of the MagLIF concept.

  17. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  18. Evidence of ENSO mega-drought triggered collapse of prehistory Aboriginal society in northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Hamish; Marx, Samuel; Moss, Patrick; Hammond, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The Kimberley region of northwest Australia contains one of the World's largest collections of rock art characterised by two distinct art forms; the fine featured anthropomorphic figures of the Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings, and broad stroke Wandjina figures. Luminescence dating of mud wasp nests overlying Gwion Gwion paintings has confirmed an age of at least 17,000 yrs B.P. with the most recent dates for these paintings from around the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 yrs B.P.). Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Wandjina rock art then emerged around 3800 to 4000 yrs B.P. following a hiatus of at least 1200 yrs. Here we show that a mid-Holocene ENSO forced collapse of the Australian summer monsoon and ensuing mega-drought spanning approximately 1500 yrs was the likely catalyst of this change in rock art. The severity of the drought we believe was enhanced through positive feedbacks triggered by change in land surface condition and increased aerosol loading of the atmosphere leading to a weakening or failure of monsoon rains. This confirms that pre-historic aboriginal cultures experienced catastrophic upheaval due to rapid natural climate variability and that current abundant seasonal water supplies may fail again if significant change in ENSO occurs.

  19. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  20. Dolicomegarterias ilíacas.: Presentación de un caso. / Iliac mega-dolicho arteries: Presentation of a case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yariana, Martínez Sánchez; Enélida, Matos Abrahantes; Juliana M, Tarajano Márquez; Jacqueline, Ramos Serpa; José Antonio, Rodríguez González.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías del árbol vascular son comunes. Los aneurismas aislados de las arterias ilíacas son de observación bastante rara. Representan un porcentaje escaso de las distintas estadísticas y a menudo se resalta su aislamiento, precisamente para recordar su rareza. Reportamos un caso masculino, de [...] 74 años de edad, que asistió a consulta por presentar síntomas urinarios. Se le realizó un ultrasonido de abdomen, observándose hidronefrosis renal bilateral moderada, además masas complejas una en cada fosa ilíaca. Se le indicó Tomografía Axial Computarizada de abdomen, donde se confirmó la hidronefrosis renal bilateral y aneurismas de ambas arterias ilíacas. Se completó el estudio con un Angiotac, y se demostró que ambas ilíacas estaban tortuosas y dilatadas (DOLICOMEGARTERIAS). Abstract in english Vascular tree anomalies are common. Iliac arteries isolated aneurisms are very unusual. They represent an scarce percent of the different statistics and their isolation is frequently highlighted, precisely to recollect their rareness.We report the case of a male, 74-years-old patient, assisting the [...] consultation with urinary symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound was made, showing moderated bilateral renal hydronephrosis and also complex masses in each iliac fosse. An abdomen computed axial tomography was indicated, confirming the bilateral renal hydronephrosis and aneurisms in both iliac arteries. The study was completed with an Angiotac and it was demonstrated that both iliac arteries were tortuous and dilated ( Mega-dolicho arteries ).

  1. Dolicomegarterias ilíacas.: Presentación de un caso. Iliac mega-dolicho arteries: Presentation of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariana Martínez Sánchez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Las anomalías del árbol vascular son comunes. Los aneurismas aislados de las arterias ilíacas son de observación bastante rara. Representan un porcentaje escaso de las distintas estadísticas y a menudo se resalta su aislamiento, precisamente para recordar su rareza. Reportamos un caso masculino, de 74 años de edad, que asistió a consulta por presentar síntomas urinarios. Se le realizó un ultrasonido de abdomen, observándose hidronefrosis renal bilateral moderada, además masas complejas una en cada fosa ilíaca. Se le indicó Tomografía Axial Computarizada de abdomen, donde se confirmó la hidronefrosis renal bilateral y aneurismas de ambas arterias ilíacas. Se completó el estudio con un Angiotac, y se demostró que ambas ilíacas estaban tortuosas y dilatadas (DOLICOMEGARTERIAS.Vascular tree anomalies are common. Iliac arteries isolated aneurisms are very unusual. They represent an scarce percent of the different statistics and their isolation is frequently highlighted, precisely to recollect their rareness.We report the case of a male, 74-years-old patient, assisting the consultation with urinary symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound was made, showing moderated bilateral renal hydronephrosis and also complex masses in each iliac fosse. An abdomen computed axial tomography was indicated, confirming the bilateral renal hydronephrosis and aneurisms in both iliac arteries. The study was completed with an Angiotac and it was demonstrated that both iliac arteries were tortuous and dilated ( Mega-dolicho arteries .

  2. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ?1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak

  3. The effects of resonant magnetic perturbations on fast ion confinement in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, K. G.; Akers, R. J.; Boeglin, W. U.; Cecconello, M.; Keeling, D.; Jones, O. M.; Kirk, A.; Klimek, I.; Perez, R. V.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-07-01

    The effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the confinement of energetic (neutral beam) ions in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) are assessed experimentally using measurements of neutrons, fusion protons and fast ion D? (FIDA) light emission. In single null-diverted (SND) MAST pulses with relatively low plasma current (400 kA), the total neutron emission dropped by approximately a factor of two when RMPs with toroidal mode number n?=?3 were applied. The measured neutron rate during RMPs was much lower than that calculated using the TRANSP plasma simulation code, even when non-classical (but axisymmetric) ad hoc fast ion transport was taken into account in the latter. Sharp drops in spatially-resolved neutron rates, fusion proton rates and FIDA emission were also observed. First principles-based simulations of RMP-induced fast ion transport in MAST, using the F3D-OFMC code, show similar losses for two alternative representations of the MAST first wall, with and without full orbit effects taken into account; for n?=?6 RMPs in a 600 kA plasma, the additional loss of beam power due to the RMPs was found in the simulations to be approximately 11%.

  4. Flippige Online-PDFs - Webpublikationen mit Umblätter-Effekt durch das MegaZine3-Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Mattern

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Webdokumente werden in letzter Zeit immer häufiger mit einem Umblätter–Effekt präsentiert. Beliebt ist dies vor allem für Onlineversionen von Printmagazinen, Produktkatalogen und die Postwurfflyer von Super- und Baumärkten. Diese Funktion des Umblätterns wird mit diversen Begriffen Flip Book, Pageflip, … bezeichnet – einige davon sind markenrechtlich geschützt – was es echt schwierig macht, sich googelnder Weise einen raschen Überblick zu solchen Tools zu verschaffen. Wer es dennoch schafft, findet schnell heraus, dass diese Funktion eher im professionellen, hochpreisigen Desktop- und Online-Publishing Bereich angesiedelt ist. Für medienpädagogisch motivierte Projektergebnisse gibt’s wenig Optionen[FN1], die die Eigenverantwortung bei der Onlinepublikation und Onlineverbreitung unterstützen. Daher war ich sehr erfreut, als ich mit MegaZine3 (MZ3 ein Tool gefunden hab, dass einerseits als Basisversion für alle NutzerInnen kostenlos ist (nichteinmal registrierungspflichtig, für Schulen und Unis eine kostenlose EDU–Lizenz ermöglicht (unbegrenzte Seitenanzahl bei Registrierung der Schule und es MZ3 auch als deutschsprachige Version gibt, weil die Entwicklungsfirma in München zu hause ist.

  5. Commissioning and clinical implementation of a mega-voltage cone beam CT system for treatment localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement in conformal radiotherapy techniques with steep dose gradients has allowed for the delivery of higher doses to a tumor volume while maintaining the sparing of surrounding normal tissue. In this situation, verification of patient setup and evaluation of internal organ motion just prior to radiation delivery is a crucial step. To this end, several volumetric image-guided techniques have been developed for patient localization, such as the Siemens MVision mega-voltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) system. In this work, the commissioning and clinical implementation of the MVision system is presented. The geometry and gain calibration procedures for the system are described, and guidelines for quality assurance procedures are provided. Different MV-CBCT clinical protocols, ranging from daily to weekly image-guidance, which includes image acquisition, reconstruction, registration with planning CT, and treatment couch offsets corrections, were commissioned. The image quality characteristics of the MVision system were measured and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, including the image noise and uniformity, low-contrast resolution, and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the image reconstruction and registration software was evaluated. Data show that a 2 cm large object with 1% electron density contrast can be detected with the MVision system with 10 cGy at isocenter and that the registration software is accurate within 2 mm in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions

  6. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  7. Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temporal, M., E-mail: mauro.temporal@hotmail.com [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Garbett, W. J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ramis, R. [ETSI Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50??m), and target positioning (20??m) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

  8. Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Garbett, W. J.; Ramis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50 ?m), and target positioning (20 ?m) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

  9. Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Stanier, A; Gordovskyy, M; McClements, K G; Gryaznevich, M P; Lukin, V S

    2013-01-01

    In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity eta < 1E-5. In Hall-MHD three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the curre...

  10. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland in 2008. The collars provided GPS-positions with 1-3-hours intervals hence giving detailed information on the spatial distribution of the animals. The detailed information prompt opportunities to introduce statistical models to enhance the understanding of causal effects on the distribution of the caribou in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland.

  11. Dense transient plasmas driven by a mega-ampere device in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the pulse power generator SPEED 2, a medium energy and large current device (187kJ, 4MA, 300kV, 400ns, dI/dt ? 1013 A/s), has been transfered from the Duesseldorf University to the Plasma Physics Group of the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN). The SPEED 2 arrived at CCHEN in May 2001 and was in operation in January 2002, being the most powerful device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Experiments in different Z-pinch configurations using the SPEED 2 generator will be carried out at CCHEN in the future. Possible objectives using the SPEED 2 devices are discussed in this work: a) Neutron flux characteristics from plasma focus discharges operating in D2 (with temporal and spatial resolution) correlated to discharge parameters, plasma dynamics and instabilities. Particular investigation of the effect of insulator surface preparation and conditioning on pinch behavior and neutron yield, b) High brightness and soft X- ray radiation from transient electrical discharges, especially in wire arrays, and c) Magnetic confinement in a quasistatic z-pinch at mega ampere peak current. Plasma dynamics and stability in an original quasi-static z-pinch configuration (a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch) and in a combination scheme that use gas puff and plasma focus will be studied at high current using the SPEED 2 generator. Results about SPEED 2 performance, obtained in Chile, are presented

  12. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    OpenAIRE

    Shweiki E; Martin ND; Beekley AC; Jenoff JS; Koenig GJ; Kaulback KR; Lindenbaum GA; Patel PH; Rosen MM; Weinstein MS; Zubair MH; Cohen MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national ...

  13. Introducing "optimal challenges" in resident training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Anette Bagger; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Background: Residents are often caught between two interests: the resident’s desire to participate in challenging learning situations and the department’s work planning. However, these interests may clash if they are not coordinated by the senior doctors, and challenging learning situations risk being subject to work planning. Summary of work: Inspired by Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of optimal challenges, an intervention study aimed at introducing a more suitable planning of resident’s learning in terms of optimal allocation of educational patient contacts. The objective was to coordinating residents’ individual competences and learning needs with patient characteristics in order to match each resident with a case (an outpatient or a patient) that meets the learning needs of the resident and thus pose an optimal challenge to the resident. Summary of results: The preliminary results show that the residents benefit from the intervention because they experienced more optimal challenges than before the intervention. However, the matching of resident and case seems to work against the established culture in the department: the daily work has for many years been organized so that senior doctors have their “own” patients and they do not “share” patients with residents. Thus the patients were accustomed to have their “own” specialist doctor. Conclusion: The intervention generated optimal challenges, but revealed the need for more team-based organization of senior doctors and residents’ working relationships in order to meet the health system’s and the patients’ call for continuity in the treatment. Take-home message: The matching of resident and case stimulates optimal learning situations, but cultural and organizational values concerning the doctor-patient continuity are challenged.

  14. blaCMY-2-positive IncA/C plasmids from escherichia coli and salmonella enterica are a distinct component of a larger lineage of plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large multidrug resistance plasmids of the A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) have been found in a diverse group of Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We present three completed sequences from IncA/C plasmids that originated from Escherichia coli (cattle) and Salmonella enterica sero...

  15. Physical mapping of TOL plasmids pWWO and pND2 and various R plasmid-TOL derivatives from Pseudomonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrbach, P R; Ward, J; Meulien, P; Broda, P

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of several independently isolated R plasmid-TOL hybrids revealed a wide variation in the amount of TOL DNA they contain. If the formation of the various R plasmid-TOL hybrids involves transposition (which has yet to be rigorously assessed), such transposition does not involve a unique segment of TOL DNA.

  16. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  17. Resident Physicians in Turkey: Results of a Survey of 1069 Residents from 11 Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    AYSAN, Erhan; KÖRO?LU, Gürol; TÜRKEL?, Vildan

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the problems, expectations and objectives of resident physicians in Turkey and to provide a contribution to the development and amendment of the residency program. Background: Residency varies considerably in accordance with factors like teaching staff, the institution and government policies. If characteristics, problems, expectations and objectives of resident physicians are stated and known, development and amendment of residency programs will be both easier and faster...

  18. Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Diversity of the Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli Virulence Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Kaper, James B; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2015-10-01

    Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains are a genomically diverse group of diarrheagenic E. coli strains that are characterized by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genomic island, which encodes a type III secretion system that is essential to virulence. AEEC strains can be further classified as either enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), or atypical EPEC, depending on the presence or absence of the Shiga toxin genes or bundle-forming pilus (BFP) genes. Recent AEEC genomic studies have focused on the diversity of the core genome, and less is known regarding the genetic diversity and relatedness of AEEC plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses in this study demonstrated genetic similarity among AEEC plasmid genes involved in plasmid replication conjugative transfer and maintenance, while the remainder of the plasmids had sequence variability. Investigation of the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) plasmids, which carry the BFP genes, demonstrated significant plasmid diversity even among isolates within the same phylogenomic lineage, suggesting that these EAF-like plasmids have undergone genetic modifications or have been lost and acquired multiple times. Global transcriptional analyses of the EPEC prototype isolate E2348/69 and two EAF plasmid mutants of this isolate demonstrated that the plasmid genes influence the expression of a number of chromosomal genes in addition to the LEE. This suggests that the genetic diversity of the EAF plasmids could contribute to differences in the global virulence regulons of EPEC isolates. PMID:26238712

  19. IncHI plasmids, a dynamic link between resistance and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Minh-Duy; Wain, John

    2008-01-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group (Inc) HI1 are important vectors of antibiotic resistance in both of the major causal agents of enteric fever: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. In S. Typhi, IncHI1 plasmids appeared in the 1970s and spread globally. In some circumstances they are maintained within the bacterial population even in the absence of selection from antibiotics. The low cost associated with IncH plasmids in Salmonella is due, in part, to the presence of a plasmid gene encoding an H-NS-like global regulator which acts co-operatively with chromosomally encoded H-NS. Very recently, IncHI1 plasmids have crossed from S. Typhi into S. Paratyphi A; the acquisition of drug resistance and possibly other phenotypic traits encoded by IncHI1 plasmids has increased the virulence potential of this neglected pathogen. There is no vaccine for S. Paratyphi A and resistance to the current drugs of choice, the fluoroquinolones, is also spreading rapidly. There is a conserved backbone to all IncH plasmids but variation occurs in regions of the plasmids associated with antibiotic resistance. These IncHI1 plasmids are allowing major human pathogens to sample genes available in their environment, the human gut, and will be maintained by enhancing the competitive advantage of the bacterial host. Therefore competition between closely related resistance plasmids will probably increase the transmission of enteric fever by enhancing the fitness of their bacterial hosts. PMID:19741288

  20. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ? 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  1. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  2. Evolutionary Paths That Expand Plasmid Host-Range: Implications for Spread of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Yano, Hirokazu; Burleigh, Stephen; Simmons, Ryan S; Hughes, Julie M; Rogers, Linda M; Hunter, Samuel S; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Ponciano, José M; Top, Eva M

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization has declared the emergence of antibiotic resistance to be a global threat to human health. Broad-host-range plasmids have a key role in causing this health crisis because they transfer multiple resistance genes to a wide range of bacteria. To limit the spread of antibiotic resistance, we need to gain insight into the mechanisms by which the host range of plasmids evolves. Although initially unstable plasmids have been shown to improve their persistence through evolution of the plasmid, the host, or both, the means by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we sought to identify the underlying genetic basis of expanded plasmid host-range and increased persistence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid using a combined experimental-modeling approach that included whole-genome resequencing, molecular genetics and a plasmid population dynamics model. In nine of the ten previously evolved clones, changes in host and plasmid each slightly improved plasmid persistence, but their combination resulted in a much larger improvement, which indicated positive epistasis. The only genetic change in the plasmid was the acquisition of a transposable element from a plasmid native to the Pseudomonas host used in these studies. The analysis of genetic deletions showed that the critical genes on this transposon encode a putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) and a cointegrate resolution system. As evolved plasmids were able to persist longer in multiple naïve hosts, acquisition of this transposon also expanded the plasmid's host range, which has important implications for the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26668183

  3. Unique needs of women pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M W

    1982-12-01

    The needs of women residents in hospital pharmacy programs are discussed with respect to the responsibilities of preceptors to help residents prepare for a successful career. Women were a small minority within the profession of pharmacy until recently. More than half of the current hospital pharmacy residents are women, while over 95% of the preceptors of residency training programs are men. Hospital pharmacy preceptors can help meet the unique needs of women residents, so that women pharmacists can achieve the career successes of which they are capable. Preceptors can help women residents make career decisions and develop career goals and strategies. Preceptors should ensure that women residents develop the broad base of knowledge and skills necessary for advancement. Women residents should be encouraged to get involved in pharmacy organizations, and the importance of networking should be stressed. It is important that women residents develop a business style so that they are perceived as confident and competent. Preceptors must recognize that most women will have conflicts in their roles of career woman, wife, and mother. Preceptors can also help women residents by making managerial changes (e.g., offering part-time positions and flexible scheduling) that will facilitate integration of the professional and personal responsibilities of women. PMID:7180857

  4. Replication and Active Partition of Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 Family: The Line between ICEs and Conjugative Plasmids Is Getting Thinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Poulin, Dominique; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family disseminate multidrug resistance among pathogenic Gammaproteobacteria such as Vibrio cholerae. SXT/R391 ICEs are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome of their host and eventually self-transfer to other bacteria by conjugation. Conjugative transfer of SXT/R391 ICEs involves a transient extrachromosomal circular plasmid-like form that is thought to be the substrate for single-stranded DNA translocation to the recipient cell through the mating pore. This plasmid-like form is thought to be non-replicative and is consequently expected to be highly unstable. We report here that the ICE R391 of Providencia rettgeri is impervious to loss upon cell division. We have investigated the genetic determinants contributing to R391 stability. First, we found that a hipAB-like toxin/antitoxin system improves R391 stability as its deletion resulted in a tenfold increase of R391 loss. Because hipAB is not a conserved feature of SXT/R391 ICEs, we sought for alternative and conserved stabilization mechanisms. We found that conjugation itself does not stabilize R391 as deletion of traG, which abolishes conjugative transfer, did not influence the frequency of loss. However, deletion of either the relaxase-encoding gene traI or the origin of transfer (oriT) led to a dramatic increase of R391 loss correlated with a copy number decrease of its plasmid-like form. This observation suggests that replication initiated at oriT by TraI is essential not only for conjugative transfer but also for stabilization of SXT/R391 ICEs. Finally, we uncovered srpMRC, a conserved locus coding for two proteins distantly related to the type II (actin-type ATPase) parMRC partitioning system of plasmid R1. R391 and plasmid stabilization assays demonstrate that srpMRC is active and contributes to reducing R391 loss. While partitioning systems usually stabilizes low-copy plasmids, srpMRC is the first to be reported that stabilizes a family of ICEs. PMID:26061412

  5. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Kolade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Methods: Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Results: Thirteen junior (first- or second-year resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8, were committed to the team (6.8, resolved conflict (6.7, ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7, participated actively (7.0, and managed resources (6.6. Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4 than with being chief resident (5.8. Conclusion: The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  6. Role of Plasmid of Pseudomonas putida S3A in Nylon 6 Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyam B. Al-Baldawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida S3A was isolated in previous study and selected for its good ability to degrade nylon 6, nylon 66 and nylon 6 film as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Thus, plasmid profile of this bacterium was studied. Results showed that this isolate harbored small plasmid DNA bands. In order to study the role of its plasmid in degradation of nylon 6 film, curing experiment was performed using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and showed that two colonies had lost their ability to degrade nylon 6 film as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Plasmid DNA extraction from one of these colonies indicated the loss of plasmid DNA bands and this referred that the plasmid DNA bands could be responsible for degrading of nylon 6 film in P. putida S3A.

  7. [Transposon mutagenesis, elimination and mobilization of plasmids in nitrogen-fixating bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Zhuravleva, E A; Panasenko, V I

    1990-02-01

    The expressed difference in the plasmid profile of A. brasilense Sp245 is registered as a result of Tn5-Mob-mutability. Integration of the vector pSUP5011 into one of the A. brasilense Sp245 plasmid and using of the Tn5-Mob transposon to mobilize the 85Md cryptic plasmid are reported. The properties of A. brasilense Sp245 with the mutant plasmids composition (surface structure, acetylene and nitrate reduction, ability to a number of carbohydrates utilization, formation of melanin, antibiotics resistance specter) have been analyzed. The transposon Tn5-Mob insertion into the 85Md plasmid resulted in isolation of a mutant excreting a melanin-like pigment into the medium. The results suppose 85Md plasmid participation in melaninogenesis. PMID:2159109

  8. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Sørensen, Søren J.; Hansen, Lars H.; Hasman, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    various other plasmids belonging to IncA/C and IncL/M, while blaTEM-52c was found on IncN-like as well as on IncR plasmids. In the majority of cases (n = 21) the blaTEM-52 gene was located on a Tn3 transposon. Seven out of 10 blaTEM-52 plasmids tested in conjugation experiments were shown to be capable of...... self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...

  9. Underwater Dendrochronology of the Sierra Nevada: Testing the Medieval Mega-Drought Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, F.; Kleppe, J. A.; Brothers, D.; Kent, G.

    2006-12-01

    As stated in the NAS STR Report, "regional and large-scale reconstructions of changes in other climatic variables, such as precipitation, over the last 2,000 years would provide a valuable complement to those made for temperature." In this context, we focus on the 'Medieval Mega-drought Hypothesis', which is based on radiocarbon dating of dead trees and stumps found underwater in Sierra Nevada lakes and streambeds, and states that century-long dry periods caused lakes to retreat and streams to dry up, with the most recent mega-droughts happening during medieval times. While several paleoclimatic records support this hypothesis, some do not, and the possibility exists that geomorphic processes, such as landslides caused by seismic events, were responsible for the presence of trees and stumps under current bodies of water. Given the relevance of this hypothesis, not only for sustainable water management but also for social stability and security, it is necessary to test it beyond reasonable doubt. One way to do so is by measuring the location, orientation, and time of origin of underwater trees, to determine if they were transported or grew in situ. For example, during 2005 wood samples were retrieved from submerged trees at Fallen Leaf Lake, California. The trees had been previously located and documented using an ROV that can obtain high resolution color video, and collect small surface samples using a gripper, down to a water depth of about 150 m. For tree-ring dating, a reference chronology from AD 543 to 2003 was developed using live and dead western juniper trees located near the lake. One underwater sample, i.e. a branch cross section that included 69 rings, was then dated to AD 1085-1153. This shows that it is feasible to obtain calendar dates and continuous ring-width series from underwater trees in the Sierra Nevada. Submerged trees in Fallen Leaf Lake were mapped in summer 2006 using an EdgeTech 4200 side-scan system capable of decimeter resolution. The 5 km2 side-scan survey required about two days of survey time, providing rapid identification of the underwater targets. Side-scan sonar imagery was complemented with sub-bottom seismic CHIRP profiling to assess fault movement and landslide formation. Initial evaluation of these data does not suggest a landslide origin for submerged trees in Fallen Leaf Lake. However, sub-bottom mapping of the West Tahoe fault underlying the southernmost end of Fallen Leaf Lake, combined with evidence that these trees are at a depth equivalent to the modern level of Lake Tahoe, may suggest a linkage between Fallen Leaf Lake levels and earthquake-generated permeability along the West Tahoe fault. These preliminary results indicate that the question of climatic vs. non-climatic origin of submerged trees is best answered by mapping and dating them in more than one lake. As tree-ring samples are collected and entered into a master chronology, they could also yield a continuous, annually resolved record over several millennia, because some submerged trees have already been radiocarbon dated to the mid-Holocene. It is by collating a myriad of wood samples buried in streambeds and lakes that the longest tree-ring chronologies, now going back 12,460 years, have been developed in central Europe.

  10. Megamodeling and Metamodel-Driven Engineering for Plastic User Interfaces: MEGA-UI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottet, Jean-Sébastien; Calvary, Gaelle; Favre, Jean-Marie; Coutaz, Jöelle

    Models are not new in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Consider all the Model-Based Interface Design Environments (MB-IDE) that emerged in the 1990s for generating User Interfaces (UI) from more abstract descriptions. Unfortunately, the resulting poor usability killed the approach, burying the models in HCI for a long time until new requirements sprung, pushed by ubiquitous computing (e.g., the need for device independence). These requirements, bolstered by the large effort expended in Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) by the Software Engineering (SE) community, have brought the models back to life in HCI. This paper utilizes both the know-how in HCI and recent advances in MDE to address the challenge of engineering Plastic UIs, i.e., UIs capable of adapting to their context of use (User, Platform, Environment) while preserving usability. Although most of the work has concentrated on the functional aspect of adaptation so far, this chapter focuses on usability. The point is to acknowledge the strength of keeping trace of the UI’s design rationale at runtime so as to make it possible for the system to reason about its own design when the context of use changes. As design transformations link together different perspectives on the same UI (e.g., user’s tasks and workspaces for spatially grouping items together), the paper claims for embedding a graph that depicts a UI from different perspectives at runtime while explaining its design rationale. This meets the notion of Megamodel as promoted in MDE. The first Megamodel was used to make explicit the relations between the core concepts of MDE: System, Model, Metamodel, Mapping, and Transformation. When transposed to HCI, the Megamodel gives rise to the notion of Mega-UI that makes it possible for the user (designer and/or end-user) to browse and/or control the system from different levels of abstraction (e.g., user’s tasks, workspaces, interactors, code) and different levels of genericity (e.g., model, metamodel, meta-metamodel). Yet, a first prototype (a rapid prototyping tool) has been implemented using general MDE tools (e.g., EMF, ATL). So far, the effort has been directed on the subset of the graph that links together different perspectives on the same UI including its mapping on the platform. Via an Extra-UI, the designer controls the UI’s molding and distribution based on a library of self-explanative transformations. Extra-UIs were previously called Meta-UIs. But as Meta is confusing with the same Meta prefix in MDE, we prefer the prefix Extra to assess there is no change of level of genericity. By contrast the Meta-UI manipulates upper levels of genericity (Meta levels in MDE) for making it possible for the user (designer and/or end-user) to observe and/or define languages for specifying UIs and Meta-UIs. Meta-UIs is the next step in our research agenda. Mega-UI is the overall UI that encompasses UIs, Extra-UIs, and Meta-UIs.

  11. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement ...

  12. Personal health care of internal medicine residents

    OpenAIRE

    Palabindala, Venkataraman; Foster, Paul; Kanduri, Swetha; Doppalapudi, Avanthi; Pamarthy, Amaleswari; Kovvuru, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical residents, as part of their job to balance the demands of their work with caring for themselves so as to be mentally, emotionally, and physically sound to stay clinically competent. While regulatory and legislative attempts at limiting medical resident work hours have materialized but have yet to attain passage, there are fairly little data looking into how residents cope up with their demands and yet attend to their own personal health. Design: Anonymous mailed survey. ...

  13. Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer ROTHFUß

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The hypothesis suggests that instruments for direct democratic decision making can open up new pathways to support the break-through of the citizens’ will. The paper analyses an interesting case study where two referenda around the same issue closely followed each other: Firstly, a top-down initiated referendum with a tendentious formulation of the question and with strong single-sided media support and, secondly, a referendum initiated by a citizens’ petition. Even though the citizens’ initiative managed to win the referendum, invalidating the previous decisions, a new challenge lies in the lacking motivation of political leaders to implement it. Finally, the case study helps to formulate some proposals for improvement of direct democratic instruments. The main lesson that can be learned from the case study, however, is that our societies are in desperate need for a new “culture of governance in partnership” with the people, the stakeholders and the affected neighbouring societies. Political decision making and planning needs more transparent, fair and honest communication, exchange and mutual respect and learning. Such culture would make societies more liveable and, at the same time, resilient against any sort of crisis.

  14. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 ?g/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 ?g/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  15. [Development of antibody medicines by bio-venture: lesson from license negotiations with mega pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The current method of antibody production is mainly the hybridoma method, in which mice are immunized with an excess amount of antigen for a short period to promote activation and proliferation of B-lymphocytes producing the antibodies of interest. Because of the excess antigen, those producing low-affinity antibodies are activated. In contrast, human blood B-lymphocytes are activated through natural immune reactions, such as the reaction to infection. B-lymphocytes are stimulated repeatedly with a small amount of antigen, and thus only those producing high-affinity antibodies are activated. Consequently, the lymphocytes producing the high-affinity antibodies are accumulated in human blood. Therefore, human lymphocytes are an excellent source of high-affinity antibodies. Evec, Inc. has established a unique method to produce high-affinity antibodies from human lymphocytes using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which induces the proliferation of B-lymphocytes. The method first induces the proliferation of B-lymphocytes from human blood using EBV, and then isolates those producing the antibodies of interest. The key features of the Evec technique are: 1) development of a lymphocyte library consisting of 150 donors' lymphocytes from which donors suited to develop the antibodies of interest can be selected in 4 days; and 2) development of a sorting method and cell microarray method for selecting lymphocyte clones producing the target antibodies. Licensing agreements have been concluded with European and Japanese pharmaceutical companies for two types of antibody. This paper describes Evec's antibody technology and experience in license negotiations with Mega Pharmacies. PMID:23292021

  16. Detection of change points in underlying earthquake rates, with application to global mega-earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sarah; Naylor, Mark; Main, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The recent spate of mega-earthquakes since 2004 has led to speculation of an underlying change in the global `background' rate of large events. At a regional scale, detecting changes in background rate is also an important practical problem for operational forecasting and risk calculation, for example due to volcanic processes, seismicity induced by fluid injection or withdrawal, or due to redistribution of Coulomb stress after natural large events. Here we examine the general problem of detecting changes in background rate in earthquake catalogues with and without correlated events, for the first time using the Bayes factor as a discriminant for models of varying complexity. First we use synthetic Poisson (purely random) and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (which also allow for earthquake triggering) to test the effectiveness of many standard methods of addressing this question. These fall into two classes: those that evaluate the relative likelihood of different models, for example using Information Criteria or the Bayes Factor; and those that evaluate the probability of the observations (including extreme events or clusters of events) under a single null hypothesis, for example by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and `runs' tests, and a variety of Z-score tests. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness among these tests varies widely. Information Criteria worked at least as well as the more computationally expensive Bayes factor method, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and runs tests proved to be the relatively ineffective in reliably detecting a change point. We then apply the methods tested to events at different thresholds above magnitude M ≥ 7 in the global earthquake catalogue since 1918, after first declustering the catalogue. This is most effectively done by removing likely correlated events using a much lower magnitude threshold (M ≥ 5), where triggering is much more obvious. We find no strong evidence that the background rate of large events worldwide has increased in recent years.

  17. Increased precipitation drives mega slump development and destabilization of ice-rich permafrost terrain, northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokelj, S. V.; Tunnicliffe, J.; Lacelle, D.; Lantz, T. C.; Chin, K. S.; Fraser, R.

    2015-06-01

    It is anticipated that an increase in rainfall will have significant impacts on the geomorphology of permafrost landscapes. Field observations, remote sensing and historical climate data were used to investigate the drivers, processes and feedbacks that perpetuate the growth of large retrogressive thaw slumps. These "mega slumps" (5-40 ha) are now common in formerly glaciated, fluvially incised, ice-cored terrain of the Peel Plateau, NW Canada. Individual thaw slumps can persist for decades and their enlargement due to ground ice thaw can displace up to 106 m3 of materials from slopes to valley bottoms reconfiguring slope morphology and drainage networks. Analysis of Landsat images (1985-2011) indicate that the number and size of active slumps and debris tongue deposits has increased significantly with the recent intensification of rainfall. The analyses of high resolution climatic and photographic time-series for summers 2010 and 2012 shows strong linkages amongst temperature, precipitation and the downslope sediment flux from active slumps. Ground ice thaw supplies meltwater and sediments to the slump scar zone and drives diurnal pulses of surficial flow. Coherence in the timing of down valley debris tongue deposition and fine-scaled observations of sediment flux indicate that heavy rainfall stimulates major mass flow events. Evacuation of sediments from the slump scar zone can help to maintain a headwall of exposed ground ice, perpetuating slump growth and leading to larger disturbances. The development of debris tongue deposits divert streams and increase thermoerosion to initiate adjacent slumps. We conclude that higher rainfall can intensify thaw slump activity and rapidly alter the slope-sediment cascade in regions of ice-cored glaciogenic deposits.

  18. Measurement of small lesions near metallic implants with mega-voltage cone beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorescu, Violeta; Prevrhal, Sven; Pouliot, Jean

    2008-03-01

    Metallic objects severely limit diagnostic CT imaging because of their high X-ray attenuation in the diagnostic energy range. In contrast, radiation therapy linear accelerators now offer CT imaging with X-ray energies in the megavolt range, where the attenuation coefficients of metals are significantly lower. We hypothesized that Mega electron-Voltage Cone-Beam CT (MVCT) implemented on a radiation therapy linear accelerator can detect and quantify small features in the vicinity of metallic implants with accuracy comparable to clinical Kilo electron-Voltage CT (KVCT) for imaging. Our test application was detection of osteolytic lesions formed near the metallic stem of a hip prosthesis, a condition of severe concern in hip replacement surgery. Both MVCT and KVCT were used to image a phantom containing simulated osteolytic bone lesions centered around a Chrome-Cobalt hip prosthesis stem with hemispherical lesions with sizes and densities ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm radius and 0 to 500 mg•cm -3, respectively. Images for both modalities were visually graded to establish lower limits of lesion visibility as a function of their size. Lesion volumes and mean density were determined and compared to reference values. Volume determination errors were reduced from 34%, on KVCT, to 20% for all lesions on MVCT, and density determination errors were reduced from 71% on KVCT to 10% on MVCT. Localization and quantification of lesions was improved with MVCT imaging. MVCT offers a viable alternative to clinical CT in cases where accurate 3D imaging of small features near metallic hardware is critical. These results need to be extended to other metallic objects of different composition and geometry.

  19. Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanier, A.; Browning, P.; Gordovskyy, M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); McClements, K. G.; Gryaznevich, M. P. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lukin, V. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity ??10{sup ?5}. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations.

  20. Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanier, A.; Browning, P.; Gordovskyy, M.; McClements, K. G.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Lukin, V. S.

    2013-12-01

    In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity ? ?10-5. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations.

  1. Reversible entrapment of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid on different chromatographic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Boštjan; ?ernigoj, Urh; Barut, Miloš; Štrancar, Aleš

    2013-10-11

    HPLC based analytical assay is a powerful technique that can be used to efficiently monitor plasmid DNA (pDNA) purity and quantity throughout the entire purification process. Anion exchange monolithic and non-porous particle based stationary phases were used to study the recovery of the different pDNA isoforms from the analytical column. Three differently sized pDNA molecules of 3.0kbp, 5.2kbp and 14.0kbp were used. Plasmid DNA was injected onto columns under the binding conditions and the separation of the isoforms took place by increasing the ionic strength of the elution buffer. While there was no substantial decrease of the recovered supercoiled and linear isoforms of the pDNA with the increase of the plasmid size and with the increase of the flow rate (recoveries in all cases larger than 75%), a pronounced decrease of the oc isoform recovery was observed. The entrapment of the oc pDNA isoform occurred under non-binding conditions as well. The partial oc isoform elution from the column could be achieved by decreasing the flow rate of the elution mobile phase. The results suggested a reversible entrapment of the oc isoform in the restrictions within the pores of the monolithic material as well as within the intra-particle space of the non-porous particles. This phenomenon was observed on both types of the stationary phase morphologies and could only be connected to the size of a void space through which the pDNA needs to migrate. A prediction of reversible pDNA entrapment was successfully estimated with the calculation of Peclet numbers, Pe, which defines the ratio between a convective and diffusive mass transport. PMID:24021834

  2. Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P < 0.0001), and 336 (62.2%) thought they would benefit from a computer-assisted training model simulating intussusception reduction (P < 0.0001). Radiology residents have limited opportunity to learn intussusception reduction and therefore lack confidence. Most think they would benefit from additional training with a computer-simulation model. (orig.)

  3. Plasmid transfer between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P; Stephenson, M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possibility of plasmid transfer occurring between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis in infected lepidopterous larvae, Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis were infected with two or more strains of B. thuringiensis and the resulting bacteria from the dead insects were examined for plasmid transfer. Transfer rates of plasmids coding for crystal production and tetracycline resistance were high, reaching levels similar to those obtained in laboratory broth cultures. Tran...

  4. Epidemiology of PPNG infections in Amsterdam: analysis by auxanographic typing and plasmid characterisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ansink-Schipper, M C; Huikeshoven, M H; Woudstra, R K; van Klingeren, B.; de Koning, G A; Tio, D; Schoonhoven, F J; Coutinho, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    In January 1981 the incidence of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains in Amsterdam had increased to 18% of all new cases of gonorrhoea. Auxanographic typing in combination with plasmid determination of 729 PPNG strains showed that in 1981 the predominant and endemic types were those with the Africa plasmid and transfer factor which were non-requiring and inhibited by phenylalanine. In 1982 proline requiring strains with the Asia plasmid and transfer factor increased af...

  5. appR gene product activates transcription of microcin C7 plasmid genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Guerra, L; Moreno, F. (Fernando); San Millán, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Microcin C7 (MccC7) is encoded by Escherichia coli plasmid pMccC7. However, some strains of E. coli K-12 carrying this plasmid do not produce this antibiotic. Here we show that these strains differ in the gene locus appR. This chromosomal gene product controls MccC7 production by activating the transcription of some, but not all, MccC7 plasmid genes.

  6. Redundant transfer of F' plasmids occurs between Escherichia coli cells during nonlethal selections.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J E; Benson, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Surface exclusion is the mechanism by which F plasmids prevent the redundant entry of additional F plasmids into the host cell during exponential growth. This mechanism is relaxed in cells that are in stationary phase. Using genetically marked F' plasmids and host strains, we extend this finding to Escherichia coli populations during extended nonlethal selection in bacterial lawns. We show that a high level of redundant transfer occurs between these nongrowing cells during the selection. This...

  7. Plasmid profilling and similarities in identities of probable microbes isolated from crude oil contaminated agricultural soil

    OpenAIRE

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE; Ann Ijeoma OGOAMAKA; Justina Ugochi UDENSI

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid analysis of bacteria isolated from agricultural soil experimentally contaminated with crude oil was carried out and the resultant bands’ depicting the different molecular sizes of the plasmid DNA molecules per isolate was obtained. There was no visible band observed for Klebsiella indicating that the organism lack plasmid DNA that confers degradative ability to it, possibly the gene could be borne on the chromosomal DNA which enabled its persistence in the polluted soil. Molecular cha...

  8. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. PMID:8669391

  9. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Hasman, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. Methods: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene....

  10. Characterization of the plasmidic beta-lactamase CMY-2, which is responsible for cephamycin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauernfeind, A; Stemplinger, I; Jungwirth, R; Giamarellou, H.

    1996-01-01

    The phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae HEL-1 indicates a plasmidic cephamycinase gene (blaCMY-2). Its sequence shows one open reading frame coding for a protein of 381 amino acids. CMY-2 is classified as class C beta-lactamase that is closely related to the plasmidic enzymes BIL-1 and LAT-1 and the chromosomal AmpC of Citrobacter freundii. The blaCMY-2 gene possibly was translocated onto a plasmid of C. freundii which spread to K. pneumoniae.

  11. Heterogeneous Selection in a Spatially Structured Environment Affects Fitness Tradeoffs of Plasmid Carriage in Pseudomonadsâ–¿

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Frances R.; Bruce, Kenneth D.; Ellis, Richard J.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Turner, Sarah L.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions under which fitness tradeoffs of plasmid carriage are balanced to facilitate plasmid persistence remain elusive. Periodic selection for plasmid-encoded traits due to the spatial and temporal variation typical in most natural environments (such as soil particles, plant leaf and root surfaces, gut linings, and the skin) may play a role. However, quantification of selection pressures and their effects is difficult at a scale relevant to the bacterium in situ. The present...

  12. Adaptation of model genetically engineered microorganisms to lake water: growth rate enhancements and plasmid loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobecky, P. A.; Schell, M. A.; Moran, M.A. (María Asunción); Hodson, R E

    1992-01-01

    When a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) is released into a natural ecosystem, its survival, and hence its potential environmental impact, depends on its genetic stability and potential for growth under highly oligotrophic conditions. In this study, we compared plasmid stability and potential for growth on low concentrations of organic nutrients of strains of Pseudomonas putida serving as model GEMs. Plasmid-free and plasmid-bearing (NAH7) prototrophic isogenic strains and two amino-...

  13. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus sanguis (Challis) with Cryptic Plasmids from Streptococcus ferus

    OpenAIRE

    Macrina, Francis L.; Wood, Patricia H.; Jones, Kevin R

    1980-01-01

    By using the basic methodology initially published by Kretschmer et al. (J. Bacteriol. 124:225-231, 1975), we have been able to introduce phenotypically cryptic plasmids from Streptococcus ferus (formerly Streptococcus mutans subsp. ferus) into Streptococcus sanguis by genetic transformation. In this system, the entry of the cryptic plasmids is selected indirectly. This is effected with transforming deoxyribonucleic acid mixtures in which the cryptic plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid is present i...

  14. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise

    2015-01-01

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer to diverse hosts in pure culture, the extent of their ability to transfer in the complex bacterial communities present in most habitats has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we isolated and characterized transconjugants with a degree of sensitivity not previously realized to investigate the transfer range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.191.

  15. A stable luciferase reporter plasmid for in vivo imaging in murine models of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacconi, Marta; Haag, Andreas F; Torre, Antonina; Castagnetti, Andrea; Chiarot, Emiliano; Delany, Isabel; Bensi, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    In vivo imaging of bioluminescent bacteria permits their visualization in infected mice, allowing spatial and temporal evaluation of infection progression. Most available bioluminescent strains were obtained by integration of the luciferase genes into the bacterial chromosome, a challenging and time-consuming approach. Recently, episomal plasmids were used, which were introduced in bacteria and expressed all genes required for bioluminescence emission. However, the plasmid was progressively lost in vitro and in vivo, if bacteria were not maintained under antibiotic selective pressure. Increased stability could be obtained inserting into the plasmid backbone sequences that assured plasmid partition between daughter bacterial cells, or caused death of bacteria that had lost the plasmid. So far, no detailed analysis was performed of either plasmid stability in vivo or contribution of different stabilizing sequence types. Here we report the construction of a plasmid, which includes the Photorhabdus luminescens lux cassette expressed under the control of a Staphylococcus aureus specific gene promoter, and toxin/antitoxin (T/A) and partition sequences (Par) conferring stability and transmissibility of the plasmid. Following infection of mice with S. aureus carrying this plasmid, we demonstrated that the promoter-lux fusion was functional in vivo, that the plasmid was retained by 70-100 % of bacterial cells 7 days post-infection, and that both stabilizing sequence types were required to maximize plasmid retention. These data suggest that the plasmid can be a valuable tool to study gene expression and bacterial spread in small laboratory animals infected with S. aureus or possibly other Gram-positive human pathogens. PMID:26685857

  16. Release of Extracellular Transformable Plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli Cocultivated with Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of cocultivation with either Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta), Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyta), Chlamydomonas neglecta (Chlorophyta), or Carteria inversa (Chlorophyta) on the production of extracellular plasmid DNA by Escherichia coli LE392(pKZ105). Dot blot hybridization analysis showed a significant release of plasmid DNA by cocultivation with all the algae tested. Further analysis by electrotransformation confirmed the release of transformable plasmid DNA by cocul...

  17. Imaging and nanodissection of individual supercoiled plasmids by atomic force microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image supercoiled plasmid DNA deposited on a mica surface in either a hydrated or desiccated state. Hydrated plasmid was precisely cut by the scanning tip at a location determined by the instrument operator. Small pieces of DNA (100-150 nm in length) were excised and deposited adjacent to the dissected plasmid, demonstrating that it is possible to remove and manipulate genomic DNA fragments, unresolvable by light microscopy, from defined chromosom...

  18. Cloning in Streptococcus lactis of plasmid-mediated UV resistance and effect on prophage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmid pIL7 (33 kilobases) from Streptococcus lactis enhances UV resistance and prophage stability. A 5.4-kilobase pIL7 fragment carrying genes coding for both characters was cloned into S. lactis, using plasmid pHV1301 as the cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transferred to three other S. lactis strains by transformation or protoplast fusion. Cloned genes were expressed in all tested strains

  19. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Plasmid DNA Adsorption via Hydrophobic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungunes H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the preparation of magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine, [poly(HEMA-MAPA] nanoparticles for plasmid DNA separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions. Magnetic nanoparticles will be produced emulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA and N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine (MAPA monomers. Nanosized particles including hydrophobic groups stemmed from polymerizable derivative of phenylalanine aminoacid were evaluated to offer surface area that is enough for the higher capacity DNA purification than commercial micronsized sorbents for DNA purification.

  20. [Plasmid characteristics of naphthalene and salicylate biodegradation in Pseudomonas putida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharian, R A; Bakunin, K A; Gasparian, N S; Kocharian, Sh M; Arakelov, G M

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work was to study the physico-chemical and biological properties of DNAs of the biodegradation plasmids NAH and SAL. A comparative analysis of the physico-chemical parameters for these DNAs made it possible to detect a number of identical properties in them: the same sedimentation profile for covalently-closed circular DNA forms, 68--70 S; the molecular weight of ca. 50 MD; a roughly equal number of fragments (up to 23) was found when the DNAs of NAH and SAL were restricted by EcoRI endonuclease. The transformation of the plasmidless strain PpGI was done. PMID:6259498