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???: MEGA  

Full Text Available 04000 04100 ?? ?? | ????? MEGA Download ??????|http://evolgen.biol.se.tmu.ac.jp/ME GA/ UPGMA NJ? ????? ?? ?????????????????????????? J???????????????? MEGA2: molecular evolution ary genetics analysis software. Kumar S, Tamura K,

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Electroporation of Alcaligenes eutrophus with (mega) plasmids and genomic DNA fragments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electroporation was used as a tool to explore the genetics of the heavy-metal-resistant strain Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. A 12.9-kb A. eutrophus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pMOL850, was constructed to optimize electroporation conditions. This vector is derived from the E. coli plasmid pSUP202 and contains the replication region of the A. eutrophus megaplasmid pMOL28. Electroporation was used to transform A. eutrophus CH34 derivatives with megaplasmids (sizes up to 240 kb), and transform...

1994-01-01

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Electroporation of Alcaligenes eutrophus with (mega) plasmids and genomic DNA fragments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroporation was used as a tool to explore the genetics of the heavy-metal-resistant strain Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. A 12.9-kb A. eutrophus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pMOL850, was constructed to optimize electroporation conditions. This vector is derived from the E. coli plasmid pSUP202 and contains the replication region of the A. eutrophus megaplasmid pMOL28. Electroporation was used to transform A. eutrophus CH34 derivatives with megaplasmids (sizes up to 240 kb), and transformants were selected for resistance to heavy metals. Electroporation was also performed with endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. Transformation of markers affecting lysine biosynthesis (lysA194) and biosynthesis of the siderophore alcaligin E were observed. Transfer of the nonselected markers pheB332 and aro-333, linked to lysA194, confirmed the intervention of homologous recombination. However, during transformation of ale::Tn5-Tc, illegitimate recombination and transposition were also observed as an alternative for the inheritance of the Tn5-Tc markers. PMID:7986037

Taghavi, S; van der Lelie, D; Mergeay, M

1994-10-01

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Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, but its exact genetic organization and biochemical synthesis is unknown. Results The complete sequence of the cereulide synthetase (ces gene cluster, which encodes the enzymatic machinery required for the biosynthesis of cereulide, was dissected. The 24 kb ces gene cluster comprises 7 CDSs and includes, besides the typical NRPS genes like a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and two CDSs encoding enzyme modules for the activation and incorporation of monomers in the growing peptide chain, a CDS encoding a putative hydrolase in the upstream region and an ABC transporter in the downstream part. The enzyme modules responsible for incorporation of the hydroxyl acids showed an unusual structure while the modules responsible for the activation of the amino acids Ala and Val showed the typical domain organization of NRPS. The ces gene locus is flanked by genetic regions with high homology to virulence plasmids of B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids. Conclusion The ces gene cluster that is located on a pXO1-like virulence plasmid represents, beside the insecticidal and the anthrax toxins, a third type of B. cereus group toxins encoded on megaplasmids. The ces genes are restricted to emetic toxin producers, but pXO1-like plasmids are also present in emetic-like strains. These data might indicate the presence of an ancient plasmid in B. cereus which has acquired different virulence genes over time. Due to the unusual structure of the hydroxyl acid incorporating enzyme modules of Ces, substantial biochemical efforts will be required to dissect the complete biochemical pathway of cereulide synthesis.

Wagner Martin

2006-03-01

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???: MEGA2  

Full Text Available 02000 ?????? MEGA2 download Univ. of Pittsburgh|http://watson.hgen.pitt.edu/docs/mega2_htm href='/togodb/show/stga_tool/528' target='_blank'>SOLAR ?

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Transporting Mega-Events to Sustainability: Assessing behaviors and attitudes of tourists and residents to promote sustainable mobility for 2014 Fifa World Cup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Chance, eine Sport Mega-Veranstaltung wie die FIFA Weltmeisterschaft (WM) durchzuführen, bietet für Brasilien, besonders für die Stadt Manaus, drei mögliche Wege, zu wachsen. Erstens gibt es die Planungsphase, die vorbereitende Aktivitäten einschließt, wie z.B. infrastrukturelle Verbesserungen, um die FIFA WM durchführen zu können; zweitens die Phase nach der Veranstaltung, die von Langzeit Vorteilen begleitet ist; wie bei einer schnellen Entwicklung und Verbesserung eines effizie...

2012-01-01

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The Mega Mesospheric Parachute  

Science.gov (United States)

The current understanding and modeling of the upper reaches of the atmosphere is incomplete. Upper atmospheric interactions with the lower atmosphere, effects of ionizing radiation, high altitude cloud phenomena, and the dynamical interaction with the magnetosphere require greater definition. The scientific objective of obtaining a greater understanding of the upper atmosphere can be achieved by designing, implementing, testing, and utilizing a facility that provides long period in-situ measurements of the mesosphere. Current direct sub-sonic measurements of the upper atmosphere are hampered by the approximately one minute sub-sonic observation window of a ballistic sounding rocket regardless of the launch angle. In-situ measurements at greater than transonic speeds impart energy into the molecular atmospheric system and distort the true atmospheric chemistry. A long duration, sub-sonic capability will significantly enhance our ability to observe and measure: (1) mesospheric lightning phenomena (sprites and blue jets) (2) composition, structure and stratification of noctilucent clouds (3) physics of seasonal radar echoes, gravity wave phenomena (4) chemistry of mesospheric gaseous ratio mixing (5) mesospheric interaction of ionizing radiation (6) dynamic electric and magnetic fields This new facility will also provide local field measurements which complement those that can be obtained through external measurements from satellite and ground-based platforms. The 400 foot (approximately 130 meter) diameter lightweight mega-mesospheric parachute system, deployed with a sounding rocket, is proposed herein as a method to increase sub-sonic mesospheric measurement time periods by more than an order of magnitude. The report outlines a multi-year evolving science instrumentation suite in parallel with the development of the mega meso-chute facility. The developmental issues surrounding the meso-chute are chiefly materials selection (thermal and structural) and deployment mechanism physics. Three mission cases were conceived and developed to include cost and schedules estimates. Each scenario has increasing scientific utility with paralleling launch weight, parachute hang-time, deployment altitude, and parachute size: (1) Case #1: $8.4M@24 months, 6kg payload, 20 min., 50km alt., 80 m. dia. (2) Case #2: $10.4M@24 months, 6kg payload, 20 min., 60km alt, 130m. dia. (3) Case #3: $13.6M@36 months, 30kg payload, 30 min., 90km alt., 200m. dia. The initial breakout cost for the parachute system is approximately $2M@24 months. This report identifies that although the challenges of the mega-meso-chute may be difficult, they can be surmounted and valuable results can be achieved.

Kloesel, Kurt J.; Oberto, Robert; Kinsey, Robert

2005-01-01

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Photon detector for MEGA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83-MeV photon produced in a ? ? e? decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm2, a directional resolution of 10 degree, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. It will consist of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e+e- pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers will have three drift chamber layers to track the e+e- pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer will have four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons. The inner drift chamber layer in each of the spectrometers includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between the two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. During the past year, efforts have focused primarily on software development, completion of the delay line tests, and development of electronics for the scintillators and delay line read-out. Optical windows were glued onto the light guides required for the third pair spectrometer. In addition, major contributions were made to the development of a proposal to measure the Michel parameter, ?, using the MEGA positron detectors

1992-01-01

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Photon detector for MEGA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay ? ? e? to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10"1"3. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a ? ? e? decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm"2, a directional resolution of 10 degrees, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e"+e"- pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm

1991-01-01

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BACTERIAL PLASMIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

Marina Dinic

2007-12-01

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Spiroplasma plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrachromosomal DNA, constituting plasmids or replicative forms of viruses, has been detected in a variety of spiroplasmas, particularly in Spiroplasma citri. Only a few of the S. citri plasmids were characterized by restriction enzyme mapping, and essentially nothing is known on functions encoded by the plasmids. Our studies revealed in S. citri (R8A2) an 8.0-kbp plasmid that differed from previously described plasmids in its restriction map. It was also clonable in pBR322. The plasmid, named pRA1, was found in large quantities as free plasmid in S. citri (R8A2) subclones of low passage level. In subclones of higher passage levels, free plasmid was replaced by plasmid sequences integrated into the spiroplasma chromosome, as revealed by Southern hybridization blots of digested spiroplasmal DNA with nick-translated pRA1 or its recombinant as probes. Significant quantities of integrated plasmid sequences were also observed in S. kunkelii and in Spiroplasma sp. P40. Small quantities of free and/or integrated plasmid DNA were detected in some spiroplasmas serologically and genotypically remote from S. citri. Chromosome-integrated pRA1 sequences were cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmids pUC13 and M13. Hybridization tests and restriction maps of these clones indicated that the integrated plasmid sequences consisted of small repetitive sequences inserted into specific sites on the spiroplasma chromosome. Despite the large number of the inserts they do not appear to affect significantly gene expression in the spiroplasma. Due to the abundance of free and integrated pRA1 in S. citri, nick-translated pRA1 was effective as a DNA probe in detecting small numbers of S. citri in infected periwinkle plants and leafhoppers. PMID:3312107

Razin, S; Nur, I; Glaser, G

1987-06-01

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The MEGA data acquisition system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment will acquire 3 MB/sec of data into a 9-crate Fastbus system controlled by a single Fastbus master. A second-level trigger will be implemented in a Fermilab Advanced Computer Program (ACP) farm of 32 Motorola 68020 microprocessors. Output from the ACP farm at a rate of 24 KB/sec will be sent to a MicroVAX II for taping. 16 refs.

Oothoudt, M.A.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D.; Hughes, E.B.; Jui, C.C.H.; Cooper, P.S.; Hahn, K.; Lauer, R.B.; Markey, J.K.

1987-01-01

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The MEGA data acquisition system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MEGA experiment will acquire 3 MB/sec of data into a 9-crate Fastbus system controlled by a single Fastbus master. A second-level trigger will be implemented in a Fermilab Advanced Computer Program (ACP) farm of 32 Motorola 68020 microprocessors. Output from the ACP farm at a rate of 24 KB/sec will be sent to a MicroVAX II for taping.

Oothoudt, M.A.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D.; Cooper, M.D.; Foreman, W.M.; Hogan, G.E.; Kozlowski, T.; Naivar, F.J.; Smith, W.

1987-08-01

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Calibration of the MEGA Prototype  

Science.gov (United States)

Calibration measurements of the MEGA (Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy) prototype have been performed with radioactive lab sources and at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at the Free Electron Laser Laboratory (FELL) of Duke University, Durham, NC. MEGA is a combined Compton scatter and pair creation telescope. It con- sists of two main detector units, the tracker and the calorimeter. Doublesided Silicon strip detectors form the tracker, which is surrounded by the pixelated CsI(Tl) blocks of the calorimeter. A prerequisite for successful data analysis is a calibration of each indi- vidual readout channel. This work is still ongoing. The performance of the detector units will be there- fore presented as currently known. The encountered problems and the resulting (single detector) calibra- tion methods will be described briefly. Since we aim at an energy range of 0.3 50 MeV, the HIGS — a Compton back-scattering source — with beams of mono-energetic, fully linearly polarized photons in the range of 0.7 50 MeV was a good match for the MEGA calibration. Measurements at various ener- gies and for different incidence angles have been per- formed. Some preliminary results will be presented. Key words: Compton telescope; pair telescope; Si strip detector; CsI calorimeter; ?-ray; HIGS.

Andritschke, R.; Zoglauer, A.; Kanbach, G.; Schönfelder, V.; Schrey, F.; Schopper, F.; Bloser, P. F.; Hunter, S. D.; Macri, J.; Miller, R. S.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Pinayev, I. V.

2004-10-01

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FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to all photovoltaic and concentrator flexible blanket technologies, and can readily accommodate standard multijunction and emerging ultra-lightweight IMM (inverted metamorphic) photovoltaic flexible blanket assemblies, as well as ENTECHs Stretched Lens Array (SLA) and DSSs (Deployable Space Systems) FACT, which allows for cost reduction at the array level.

Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

2012-01-01

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MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre. The pipeline combines multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. The astrometric calibration of the output images is accurate to ...

Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

2007-01-01

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Aspectos da miocardite em chagásicos crônicos com "megas" e sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo microscópico de 20 corações de chagásicos com "megas" e de outros 20 sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) revelou que tanto a Jibrose quanto o exsudato inflamatório no miocárdio são discretos nos casos de "megas" e geralmente acentuados nos casos de ICC. Considerando-se q [...] ue nos "megas" a ICC, a hipertrofia do miocárdio e a lesão vorticilar são fenômenos raros, nossos achados (atuais e anteriores) sugerem que estes estejam relacionados principalmente com a agressão inflamatória ao miocárdio ventricular, uma vez que a desnervação é, geralmente, mais acentuada nos casos de "megas" que nos de ICC. Abstract in english The study of 20 hearts from chagasic patients with "megas " and of others 20 from chagasics without "megas" with heart failure, shows that both, myocardial Jibrosis and inflammatory exudate are light in cases with "megas" and severe in group with heart failure. In chagasic with "megas" the myocardia [...] l hypertrophy, the apical lesion and the cardiac insufficiency are infrequent. Ourfindings suggest that they are related to the myocardial ventricular inflammation and not to the cardiac denervation. This latter is more severe in cases of "megas" than in cases of congestive heart failure without "megas".

Almeida, Hipólito de Oliveira; Gobbi, Helenice; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Araújo, Waldir Ferreira; Fernandes, Paula Ávila.

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Aspectos da miocardite em chagásicos crônicos com "megas" e sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo microscópico de 20 corações de chagásicos com "megas" e de outros 20 sem "megas" com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC revelou que tanto a Jibrose quanto o exsudato inflamatório no miocárdio são discretos nos casos de "megas" e geralmente acentuados nos casos de ICC. Considerando-se que nos "megas" a ICC, a hipertrofia do miocárdio e a lesão vorticilar são fenômenos raros, nossos achados (atuais e anteriores sugerem que estes estejam relacionados principalmente com a agressão inflamatória ao miocárdio ventricular, uma vez que a desnervação é, geralmente, mais acentuada nos casos de "megas" que nos de ICC.The study of 20 hearts from chagasic patients with "megas " and of others 20 from chagasics without "megas" with heart failure, shows that both, myocardial Jibrosis and inflammatory exudate are light in cases with "megas" and severe in group with heart failure. In chagasic with "megas" the myocardial hypertrophy, the apical lesion and the cardiac insufficiency are infrequent. Ourfindings suggest that they are related to the myocardial ventricular inflammation and not to the cardiac denervation. This latter is more severe in cases of "megas" than in cases of congestive heart failure without "megas".

Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

1984-06-01

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Manic Episode Associated with Mega Cisterna Magna  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mega cisterna magna is a part of "Dandy-Walker Complex" and it is characterized by the enlargement of the cisterna magna, morphologically intact vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. We report a case of manic attack in a 23-year-old man with mega cisterna magna. The patient was treated with quetiapine 1,000 mg/day and sodium valproate 1,500 mg/day and the symptoms were ameliorated within 2.5 months. In this case, mega cisterna magna and manic symptoms may be found together coincidentally or any ...

Turan, Tayfun; Bes?irli, Asl?; Asdemir, Akif; O?zsoy, Saliha; Es?el, Ertug?rul

2010-01-01

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Characterization of Boolean Valued Star and Mega Lattice Functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a study on Boolean valued star and mega lattice functions. It establishes a positive lattice measure, complex lattice measure, star lattice function and founds that every star lattice function is a positive lattice measure on s(L and every star lattice function is a s-additive on X. Also, it classifies mega lattice function, mega lattice and demonstrates that in a mega lattice the limit of the integral is equal to the integral of the limit and every mega lattice is a s-additive. Finally, it confirms that every mega lattice preserves Fatous lemma.

D.V.S.R. Anil Kumar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Plasmid segregation without partition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low-copy number plasmids need a segregation mechanism to assort one half of the plasmid copies to each daughter cell during cell division. This can be achieved directly by partitioning plasmid copies through a mechanism reminiscent of eukaryotic mitosis. Briefly, plasmid copies are paired around a centromere-like site, and then separated toward the daughter cells at cell division. Partition mechanisms are used by a majority of well-studied plasmids. They involve two proteins, a DNA-binding pr...

Guynet, Catherine; Cruz, Fernando La

2011-01-01

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Characterization of non-virulence plasmids with homology to the virulence plasmid of Salmonella dublin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six wild-type (wt) strains of Salmonella typhimurium, one wt strain of S. heidelberg and 12 wt strains of Escherichia coli were isolated based on both hybridization to a 6-kb HindIII fragment of the non-virulence coding part of the S. dublin serovar-specific virulence plasmid and the absence of hybridization to the virulence genes (spv genes) of the same plasmid. Such hybridization was shown to be caused by resident plasmids in all strains and to involve the same region of 30 to 37 kb of consecutive HindIII fragments on the S. dublin virulence plasmid, suggesting a common origin of this plasmid DNA. Nine of the plasmids were selected for detailed characterization and were shown not to be of the same plasmid species. They varied in size between 44 and 88 kb, they showed incompatibility with the plasmid K-MP10, or belonged to incompatibility group X, and with the exception of five plasmids from E. coli, they showed different HindIII restriction profile patterns. PMID:8584797

Aabo, S; Olsen, J E; Threlfall, E J; Brown, D J

1995-01-01

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Tests performed with the improved MEGA spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an improved version of the MEGA (for multiechelle grating arrangement) spectrometer of Engman and Lindblom (1984) and the results of testing the improved instrument. The original MEGA instrument was improved by incorporating new gratings, an improved temperature control, and an improved grating clamping system which eliminated the deformation effects caused by the use of the old grating-mounting system. The spectral resolution of the improved system, determined in tests using a He-Ne laser and standard electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs) to obtain scans of Hg 5461 and Hg 4358 lines, was found to be limited by Doppler broadening in the EDL. The improved spectrometer was used for determining the velocity of a supersonic jet by measuring the Doppler shifts of spectral lines emitted by the beam atoms or molecules. Doppler shifts were found to be independent of the initial pressure within the measurement accuracy.

Gustafsson, Ove; Lindblom, Peter

1988-01-01

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Architecture of the MEGA detector trigger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trigger for the MEGA detector system is based on signals from single, high-energy photons interacting in one of the three MEGA pair spectrometers. The trigger is divided into a fast and a slow stage. The first stage produces a fast output if a specific pattern of detector hits is observed in the scintillators and high-speed wire chambers of a pair spectrometer. The second, slow-stage interrogates drift chamber hit patterns and provides a veto when the pattern fails a minimal requirement for reconstruction of the hits into a pair of circular orbits. The trigger interacts with the photon detector electronics by gating limited sections of the detector during the read-out of an event. This paper describes the two stage trigger system, the photon detector electronics, and the implementation of the trigger outputs to strobe the data acquisition system. The performance of the trigger is compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon detector response. (orig.).

Chen, Y.K.; Cooper, M.D.; Cooper, P.S.; Dzemidzic, M.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Hungerford, E.V.; Kim, G.J.; Knott, J.E.; Lan, K.J.; Liu, F.; Mayes, B.W.; Mischke, R.E.; Phelps, R.; Pinsky, L.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Szymanski, J.J.; Tang, L.G.; Tribble, R.E.; Tu, X.L.; Van Ausdeln, L.A.; Von Witsch, W.; Wright, C.S. [Dept. of Phys., Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM (United States)]|[Fermi Nat. Accel. Lab., Phys. Section, Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Cyclotron Inst., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Cyclotron Facility, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)]|[Enrico Fermi Inst., Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

1996-03-21

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Creating Engaging Learning Environments in Mega Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this participation-based workshop, you will take part in a unique professional development activity designed to enable you to train your former undergraduate general education students to become teaching assistants (TAs) capable of implementing instructional strategies proven to move students from a passive role to an intellectually active role in the LECTURE portion of your class. This combined professional development and general education undergraduate teaching assistants program (which are all part of the larger Ambassadors Program at UofA), are being used to transform the teaching of a ``mega'' introductory science courses with enrollments of 750 or more. Gen. ed. students participating in this ``Ambassador Program'' have gone on to pursue a minor degree in Astronomy, some are creating curriculum and doing research on the teaching and learning in mega classes, while another is pursuing an advanced degree in science education. Active audience participation will be required--and it will be fun, really!!

Prather, Edward

2012-02-01

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Psychiatric manifestations associated with mega cisterna magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dandy-Walker variant is a milder form of the Dandy-Walker complex and is characterized by normal-sized posterior fossa, mild vermian hypoplasia, and a cystic lesion that communicates with the fourth ventricle. This syndrome has been described in association with schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, manic episode, psychosis (delusional type), and recurrent catatonia. The authors present two cases of mega cisterna magna associated with mania and catatonic schizophrenia. PMID:24763763

Pandurangi, Swapna; Pandurangi, Aditya; Matkar, Abhay; Shetty, Nithin; Patil, Preetam

2014-04-01

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Staphylococcal plasmids that replicate and express erythromycin resistance in both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmid pSA5700 from Staphylococcus aureus coding for erythromycin (EmR) and chloramphenicol (CmR) resistance was transformed into Streptococcus pneumoniae. High-copy-number and EmR constitutive mutants of this plasmid were isolated. Transformation frequencies in S. pneumoniae as high as 70% were obtained with a constitutive plasmid as donor DNA, into a recipient cell containing a resident, inducible, high-copy-number plasmid. With the aid of these high frequencies, the site of constitutive m...

Barany, F.; Boeke, J. D.; Tomasz, A.

1982-01-01

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Paving the Mega Cities : Dynapac Red Carpet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the design and the technology behind the vehicles we drive has gone a long way, the main principle in which we construct our roads today, the materials and the machinery we use to do it has hardly changed for the last 40 years.This project takes  a fresh look at an industry that has remained stagnant for several decades. Looking into a future in which large Mega-Cities will develop, the aim of this project will be to develop a new solution for constructing and maintaining the transport...

2012-01-01

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Degradative plasmids from sphingomonads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large plasmids ('megaplasmids') are commonly found in members of the Alphaproteobacterial family Sphingomonadaceae ('sphingomonads'). These plasmids contribute to the extraordinary catabolic flexibility of this group of organisms, which degrade a broad range of recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds. The genomes of several sphingomonads have been sequenced during the last years. In the course of these studies, also the sequences of several plasmids have been determined. The analysis of the published information and the sequences deposited in the public databases allowed a first classification of these plasmids into a restricted number of groups according to the proteins involved in the initiation of replication, plasmid partition and conjugation. The sequence comparisons demonstrated that the plasmids from sphingomonads encode for four main groups of replication initiation (Rep) proteins. These Rep proteins belong to the protein superfamilies RepA_C (Pfam 04796), Rep_3 (Pfam 01051), RPA (Pfam 10134) and HTH-36 (Pfam 13730). The 'degradative megaplasmids' pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02, pCHQ1, pISP0, and pISP1, which code for genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, carbazole, dibenzo-p-dioxin and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, carry Rep proteins which either belong to the RepA_C- (plasmids pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02), Rep-3- (plasmids pCHQ1, pISP0) or RPA-superfamily (pISP1). The classification of these 'degradative megaplasmids' into three groups is also supported by sequence comparisons of the proteins involved in plasmid partition (ParAB) and the organization of the three genes on the respective plasmids. All analysed 'degradative megaplasmids' carry genes, which might allow a conjugative transfer of the plasmids. Sequence comparisons of these genes suggest the presence of at least two types of transfer functions, which either are closer related to the tra- or vir-genes previously described for plasmids from other sources. PMID:24111699

Stolz, Andreas

2014-01-01

30

MEGAS multi-electrode gas sensor system. Final report; MEGAS - Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the MEGAS project, GTE developed and and constructed an electronic system for controlling and data acquisition of sensors for laboratory and test applications. The system is based on microcontrollers and has a data bus connection. Measurements made in order to find out whether the concentrations of a binary gas mixture and combustion gases are detected separately were successful. A demonstration system was constructed. The MEGAS project showed that it is possible to separate two gases by a sensitive layer at constant sensor temperature. The sensor element is a promising technology. Further research is required on suppressing sensor poisoning by siloxanes, and on reduced sensitivity to interfering gases (e.g. ethanol in the case of combustion gases). (orig.)

Kelleter, J.

2003-07-01

31

Thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices  

CERN Document Server

This technical report presents a thermal analysis of MegaDiscaP semiconductor devices. This analysis evaluates the thermal cycling of representative devices in order to estimate the expected lifetime. Simulation results based on manufacturer specifications are presented.

Cravero, Jean-Marc; Garcia Retegui, Rogelio; Maestri, Sebastian; Wassinger, Nicolas

2011-01-01

32

Transportation planning for mega events: a model of urban change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My study is about opportunities for revolutionary developments in urban transport. Often, we think of transport and urban development as an evolutionary process, yet there exist a few opportunities for cities to revolutionize their transport system within a short timeframe of only 10 years. Prime examples for such opportunities are mega events. Based on my hypothesis that mega event owners exercise a decisive influence on urban and transport planning through the requirements they impose on ci...

Kassens, Eva; Potenske, Karen R.

2010-01-01

33

Las mega-ciudades y las periferias expandidas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este artículo propone una línea de investigación sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de las mega-ciudades enfocada a la periferia regional de éstas. Específicamente, se plantean elementos en orden a ampliar la investigación sobre las áreas peri-urbanas o periferias metropolitanas expandidas de las mega-ciudades, ya que es en estas zonas donde gran parte de la dinámica de crecimiento metropolitano está teniendo lugar. El interés principal de este artículo lo constituye el área metrop...

2002-01-01

34

Responding to Threats of Climate Change Mega-Catastrophes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a low but uncertain probability that climate change could trigger “mega-catastrophes,” severe and at least partly irreversible adverse effects across broad regions. This paper first discusses the state of current knowledge and the defining characteristics of potential climate change mega-catastrophes. While some of these characteristics present difficulties for using standard rational choice methods to evaluate response options, there is still a need to balance the benefits and c...

Kousky, Carolyn; Rostapshova, Olga V.; Toman, Michael; Zeckhauser, Richard Jay

2010-01-01

35

Plasmid transformation in Haemophilus influenzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purified 34-megadalton-plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from antibiotic-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae transforms competent strains of H. influenzae more efficiently if the recipient strains contain certain other 30-megadalton plasmids.

Albritton, W L; Bendler, J W; Setlow, J K

1981-01-01

36

Plasmid transformation in Haemophilus influenzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purified 34-megadalton-plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from antibiotic-resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae transforms competent strains of H. influenzae more efficiently if the recipient strains contain certain other 30-megadalton plasmids. PMID:6970194

Albritton, W L; Bendler, J W; Setlow, J K

1981-02-01

37

Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2013-06-01

38

Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

2008-01-01

39

Mega-masers, Dark Energy and the Hubble Constant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Powerful water maser emission (water mega-masers) can be found in accretion disks in the nuclei of some galaxies. Besides providing a measure of the mass at the nucleus, such mega-masers can be used to determine the distance to the host galaxy, based on a kinematic model. We will explain the importance of determining the Hubble Constant to high accuracy for constraining the equation of state of Dark Energy and describe the Mega-maser Cosmology Project that has the goal of determining the Hubble Constant to better than 3%. Time permitting, we will also present the scientific capabilities of the current and future NRAO facilities: ALMA, EVLA, VLBA and GBT, for addressing key astrophysical problems

Lo, Fred K. Y.

2007-10-15

40

Novel Macrolide Resistance Module Carried by the IncP-1? Resistance Plasmid pRSB111, Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The macrolide resistance plasmid pRSB111 was isolated from bacteria residing in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant. The 47-kb plasmid confers resistance to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, and tylosin when it is carried by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and is very similar to prototype IncP-1? plasmid pB3, which was previously isolated from an activated-sludge bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant. The two plasmids differ in their accessor...

Szczepanowski, Rafael; Krahn, Irene; Bohn, Nadine; Pu?hler, Alfred; Schlu?ter, Andreas

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

76 FR 58044 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance; The Mega...  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Mega Life & Health Ins...Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages...Dell Service Sales, Emdeon Business...and Insphere Insurance Solutions...of The MEGA Life & Health Ins...Dell Service Sales, Emdeon Business...workers of MEGA Life & Health Ins...unemployment insurance (UI) wages...Dell Service Sales, Emdeon...

2011-09-19

42

Plasmid mapping computer program.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new computer algorithms are described which rapidly order the restriction fragments of a plasmid DNA which has been cleaved with two restriction endonucleases in single and double digestions. Two of the algorithms are contained within a single computer program (called MPCIRC). The Rule-Oriented algorithm, constructs all logical circular map solutions within sixty seconds (14 double-digestion fragments) when used in conjunction with the Permutation method. The program is written in Apple...

Nolan, G. P.; Maina, C. V.; Szalay, A. A.

1984-01-01

43

Strategies simulation model for the gas business chain MEGAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MEGAS is a simulation model representing fundamental parameters of Corpoven's natural gas and NGL production, handling, processing, transportation and distribution systems in the Venezuelan mid-east, as well as its financial implications. Various strategies regarding development, prices, costs, new business opportunities, production scenarios, demand and energy policies can be evaluated through this model in order to determine, after analyzing the economics results, a set of strategies to follow in the mid and long term. MEGAS could be also used to make risk analysis studies, considering that probabilistic parameters and variables like gas quality, production, demand, plant shutdowns and others are to be represented by their distinctive function. It is possible to set up a probabilistic function for each economic indicator or operating variables with an appropriate experiment design. MEGAS is based on a dynamic simulation language, which facilitates both the real system components representation and the main variables statistical data accumulation. It also allows graphical representation of results and the simulation animation. Demand and price forecasts, new projects, costs and capabilities of the systems are some of the model input data. MEGAS should be considered as a tool that eases the strategic planning of the business, making it possible for the Corporation to foresee changes, both in the domestic and international market, to predict how these changes could affect its business affairs and to visualize different return scenarios

1994-03-07

44

Computer tomographic diagnosis of a mega-dolicho basilar artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four mega-dolicho basilar arteries are described, which were found by computer tomography and confirmed by angiography. Two patients showed additional abnormalities or anomalies of other vessels. The computer tomographic features are described. The elongated vessels can produce so-called normal pressure hydrocephalus by impressing the floor of the third ventricle, although the hydrocephalus cannot be confirmed by computer tomographic cisternography. (orig.)

1979-01-01

45

In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration into a Web tool called PlasmidFinder that can be used for replicon sequence analysis of raw, contig group, or completely assembled and closed plasmid sequencing data. The PlasmidFinder database currently consists of 116 replicon sequences that match with at least at 80% nucleotide identity all replicon sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. PlasmidFinder identified a total of 103 replicons and between zero and five different plasmid replicons within each of 49 S. Typhimurium draft genomes tested. The pMLST Web tool was able to subtype genomic sequencing data of plasmids, revealing both known plasmid sequence types (STs) and new alleles and ST variants. In conclusion, testing of the two Web tools using both fully assembled plasmid sequences and WGS-generated draft genomes showed them to be able to detect a broad variety of plasmids that are often associated with antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea

2014-01-01

46

Non-additive costs and interactions alter the competitive dynamics of co-occurring ecologically distinct plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmids play an important role in shaping bacterial evolution and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. As modular genetic elements that are often conjugative, the selective pressures that act on plasmid-borne genes are distinct from those that act on the chromosome. Many bacteria are co-infected by multiple plasmids that impart niche-specific phenotypes. Thus, in addition to host-plasmid dynamics, interactions between co-infecting plasmids are likely to be important drivers of plasmid population dynamics, evolution and ecology. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a facultative plant pathogen that commonly harbours two distinct megaplasmids. Virulence depends on the presence of the tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid, with benefits that are primarily restricted to the disease environment. Here, we demonstrate that a second megaplasmid, the At plasmid, confers a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere. To assess the individual and interactive costs of these plasmids, we generated four isogenic derivatives: plasmidless, pAt only, pTi only and pAtpTi, and performed pairwise competitions under carbon-limiting conditions. These studies reveal a low cost to the virulence plasmid when outside of the disease environment, and a strikingly high cost to the At plasmid. In addition, the costs of pAt and pTi in the same host were significantly lower than predicted based on single plasmid costs, signifying the first demonstration of non-additivity between naturally occurring co-resident plasmids. Based on these empirically demonstrated costs and benefits, we developed a resource-consumer model to generate predictions about the frequencies of these genotypes in relevant environments, showing that non-additivity between co-residing plasmids allows for their stable coexistence across environments. PMID:24500159

Morton, Elise R; Platt, Thomas G; Fuqua, Clay; Bever, James D

2014-03-22

47

Homology Among Treponema Denticola Plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three of 16 isolates of Treponema denticola were found to contain small (2.O-2.7kb) cryptic plasmids. These were pTDl from * denticola ATCC 33520, pTD2 from strain T32A, and pTD3 from train D3Al. These plasmids were characterized by restriction mapping an...

E. A. Reedy L. G. Simonson L. B. Zablen

1994-01-01

48

Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200??m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18??km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40??m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Thornton, E. B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, Jr. , A. H.

2007-01-01

49

A study of the decay ? ? e? by the MEGA experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the lepton-flavor number non-conserving rare decay ? ? e?. Data- taking is complete, with 450 million events on tape taken over approximately 107 seconds. A small portion of the data sample has been processed through the complete event reconstruction codes to search for the ? ? e? process. No evidence for the ? ? e? decay is observed at a sensitivity of ?7 x 10-11 (90% confidence)

1996-07-25

50

The Church Mountain Sturzstrom (Mega-Landslide), Glacier, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed investigation of an ancient sturzstrom or mega-landslide near Glacier, Washington has revealed it areal extent, approximate volume, age, geomorphology, source area, and possible causes. Stratigraphic and lithologic investigations indicate Church Mountain as the source area; therefore, this mega-landslide has been named the Church Mountain Sturzstrom (CMS). The CMS deposit is approximately 9 km in length, averages about 1 km in width, and has an estimated volume of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] m[sup 3]. Characteristics of the morphology and stratigraphy of the CMS deposit are suggestive of a sturzstrom origin, and may be indicative of sturzstrom elsewhere in the world. The overall stratigraphy of the deposit mimics the stratigraphy of the source area. The deposit is very compact, poorly sorted, matrix supported, and composed of highly angular clasts. Over steepening of the mountain due to glacial erosion may have contributed to the cause of failure, although the age of the CMS is at least 7,000 years younger than deglaciation. Four trees were C[sup 14] dated, yielding ages of about 2,700 B.P. for the CMS. Several other mega-landslides have been identified within 5--30 km of the CMS. The close proximity of these mega-landslides to the CMS suggests the possibility that they may have been triggered by an earthquake, although the ages of the other slides are currently unknown. The age of the CMS correlates approximately with age ranges of co-seismic events occurring along the west coast of Washington, further suggesting the possibility of an earthquake triggering mechanism.

Carpenter, M.R.; Easterbrook, D.J. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

51

ROLE OF MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON BRANDING DESTINATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sporting events to help make creating beautiful scenery and unique areas to tourism. Thepurpose of this study was investigated the role of holding sporting events on destinationsBranding with hosted of mega sports event (Traditional Sport ;hors riding) on branding sportstourism destinations in Golestan province. Data from a questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha = 91%)and interviews were collected. Statistical population of this study was 217 patients (53 expert(cultural heritage; physical education...

2011-01-01

52

Las mega-ciudades y las periferias expandidas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone una línea de investigación sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de las mega-ciudades enfocada a la periferia regional de éstas. Específicamente, se plantean elementos en orden a ampliar la investigación sobre las áreas peri-urbanas o periferias metropolitanas expandidas de las meg [...] a-ciudades, ya que es en estas zonas donde gran parte de la dinámica de crecimiento metropolitano está teniendo lugar. El interés principal de este artículo lo constituye el área metropolitana de Ciudad de México, respecto de la cual se indica un patrón urbano mucho más disperso en la mayor parte del territorio regional, y el surgimiento de una multitud de subcentros urbanos, manifestándose una estructura multinuclear que constituye la estructura básica de los territorios metropolitanos. Al mismo tiempo, se afirma que los aspectos teóricos y metodológicos discutidos son también relevantes para otras grandes áreas metropolitanas, lo que puede contribuir a un análisis más sistemático de la periferia regional de la mega-ciudad, y en particular sus nuevos patrones territoriales Abstract in english This article suggests a line of research about the growth and development of mega-cities, focused in their regional outskirts. Specifically, some elements seeking research on peri-urban areas on metropolitan expanded outskirts of the mega-cities are introduced, since it is in these zones where the b [...] iggest part of the metropolitan growth is taking place. The most important interests of this article laid both on the metropolitan Ciudad de México, about wich a urban pattern, more scattered than the ones in most part of the regional territory, is shown, and on the springing up of many a great number of urban sub-centers, wich are reflected on a multinuclear structure, which in turns becomes the basic structure of the metropolitan territories. At the same time, it is stated that the discussed theoretical and methodological aspects are also relevant for other big metropolitan areas, what may contribute to a more systematic analysis of the regional outskirt of the mega-cities, and in particular to its new territorial patterns

Adrián Guillermo, Aguilar.

53

Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Ira...

2013-01-01

54

The Political Risk of Oil and Gas Mega Projects : A Descriptive Empirical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two elements can be seen to evolve progressively with globalization: political risk and mega projects. Although a fair amount of research has been carried out in regards to political risk and mega projects as separate units of investigation, few studies have attempted to combine the two. This thesis fills a void in the existing literature by providing a specialized approach to political risk, focusing on political risk of oil and gas mega projects in particular. Drawing on a comprehensive dat...

2011-01-01

55

Mega-trucks proposal runs into political roadblock | EurActiv  

...Mega-trucks proposal runs into political roadblock | EurActiv EU news & policy debates- across languages - en Click here for EU ... › News Mega-trucks proposal runs into political roadblock -A + A Published 16 September 2013 1 comment Tags lorries, megatrucks, ...REPORT / A controversial proposal to end cross-border restrictions and length-restrictions for mega-trucks across the EU is looking increasing unlikely to see the light ... 'Mega-trucks' are vehicles that can be up 25-metres long, and weigh 60 tonnes. They can carry larger volumes and the ...

56

Plasmid-mediated transformation in Bacillus megaterium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A transformation system was developed for Bacillus megaterium by using antibiotic resistance plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid molecules derived from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Lysozyme-generated protoplasts of B. megaterium allowed uptake of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Transformants expressed the antibiotic resistance determinants present on the plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, and reisolated plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid yielded restrictio...

1980-01-01

57

The 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a miniaturized selfish genome with optimized functional competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a relatively small multi-copy selfish DNA element that resides in the yeast nucleus at a copy number of 40-60 per haploid cell. The plasmid is able to persist in host populations with almost chromosome-like stability with the help of a partitioning system and a copy number control system. The first part of this article describes the properties of the partitioning system comprising two plasmid coded proteins, Rep1 and Rep2, and a partitioning locus STB. Current evidence supports a model in which the Rep-STB system couples plasmid segregation to chromosome segregation by promoting the physical association of plasmid molecules with chromosomes. In the second part, the focus is on the Flp site-specific recombination system housed by the plasmid, which plays a critical role in maintaining steady state plasmid copy number. The Flp system corrects any decrease in plasmid population by promoting plasmid amplification via a recombination induced rolling circle replication mechanism. Appropriate plasmid amplification, without runaway increase in copy number, is ensured by positive and negative regulation of FLP gene expression by plasmid coded proteins and by the control of Flp level/activity through post-translational modification of Flp by the cellular sumoylation system. The Flp system has been successfully utilized to understand mechanisms of site-specific recombination and to bring about directed genetic alterations for addressing fundamental problems in biology and for accomplishing bio-engineering objectives. A particularly interesting, and perhaps less well known and underappreciated, application of Flp in revealing unique DNA topologies required to confer functional competence to DNA-protein machines is discussed. PMID:23541845

Chan, Keng-Ming; Liu, Yen-Ting; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni; Sau, Soumitra

2013-07-01

58

Large plasmids of avian Escherichia coli isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasmid DNA of 30 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens was extracted and examined using techniques designed to isolate large plasmids. This plasmid DNA was examined for the presence of certain known virulence-related genes including cvaC, traT, and some aerobactin-related sequences. Seventeen of the 30 isolates contained from one to four plasmids greater than 50 kb in size. Eleven of these 17 strains possessed plasmids greater than 100 kb in size. Therefore, E. coli isolates of chickens frequently contain large plasmids, and many of these plasmids are likely to contain virulence-related sequences. PMID:8980827

Doetkott, D M; Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Berryhill, D L

1996-01-01

59

Senior Residence Tour Checklist  

Science.gov (United States)

... Environment: Is the residence located in a safe neighborhood? Is the residence close to your family and friends? Are there shopping centers or other businesses within walking distance? Do you like the appearance of the ...

60

The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

2007-10-10

 
 
 
 
61

Maharashtra's Mega Sugar Mill Cogen Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mega Sugar Mill Cogeneration Power Project involving sugar mills in the Indian state of Maharashtra's is led by the Maharashtra State Federation of Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd (Sakhar Sangh) and MITCON. The Project, which aims to implement cogeneration projects at 55-60 sugar mills by October 2005, has the backing of national agencies and financial institutions. The criteria for mill selection, the three options for participating mills, the potential power generation and the support provided by Sakhar Sangh and MITCON are explained. Some of the mills that have started work are named. The difficulties in establishing cogeneration projects in India are summarised in a side box.

Matu, Sunil [MITCON, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

62

How to make mega-cities energy efficient?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

2010-09-15

63

Communication in mega-projects : The consultant´s perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today’s large-scale construction projects for can easily be mistaken for a regular project but with an increase in size and cost. However, as projects surpass a point where one manager cannot single handily control the project, conditions change. Many may refer to this as the point when one looses the ‘helicopter perspective’ of the project. What this illustrates is the ability to have a holistic view of the project. This is especially true in projects that are classed as mega-projects....

Billstro?m, Ludvig; Cederqvist, Louise

2012-01-01

64

Stimulating revolutionary science with mega-cash prizes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We argue that the most ambitious science is intrinsically riskier science, more likely to fail. It is almost always a safer career strategy for the best scientists to seek to extend knowledge more modestly and to build incrementally on existing ideas and methods. Therefore, higher rewards for success are a necessary incentive to encourage top scientists to work on the most important scientific problems, ones where the solution has potentially revolutionary implications. We suggest that mega-cash prizes (measured in tens of millions of dollars) are a suitable reward for those individuals (or institutions) whose work has triggered radically new directions in science. PMID:18289798

Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

2008-01-01

65

Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

2004-06-07

66

Pan-aortic hybrid treatment of mega-aorta syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid procedures combining traditional open and newer endovascular techniques are increasingly used to treat complex aortic disease. We present a novel approach for total aortic replacement, including hybrid repair of the arch and thoracoabdominal aorta, in a patient with "mega-aorta syndrome." A two-stage approach using a valve-sparing aortic root replacement, total arch replacement (stage I elephant trunk), and left carotid-axillary bypass was used to treat the root, proximal-mid arch, and left subclavian aneurysmal pathology. This was followed by a hybrid distal arch/Extent II thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair 3 months later. After 15 months follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic with an intact repair, no endoleak, and normal ventricular and aortic valve function. This case demonstrates a novel "pan-aortic" hybrid approach for repair of extensive thoracic aortic disease. PMID:21296539

Shah, Asad A; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; McCann, Richard L; Hughes, G Chad

2011-05-01

67

Does the Earth show up an impending mega-earthquake?  

CERN Multimedia

In line of the intermediate-term monitoring of seismic activity aimed at prediction of the world largest earthquakes the seismic dynamics of the Earth's lithosphere is analysed as a single whole, which is the ultimate scale of the complex hierarchical non-linear system. The present study demonstrates that the lithosphere does behave, at least in intermediate-term scale, as non-linear dynamic system that reveals classical symptoms of instability at the approach of catastrophe, i.e., mega-earthquake. These are: (i) transformation of magnitude distribution, (ii) spatial redistribution of seismic activity, (iii) rise and acceleration of activity, (iv) change of dependencies across magnitudes of different types, and other patterns of collective behaviour. The observed global scale seismic behaviour implies the state of criticality of the Earth lithosphere in the last decade.

Romashkova, L L; Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Romashkova, Leontina L.

2007-01-01

68

IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the r...

Schlu?ter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bo?nemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pu?hler, Alfred

2007-01-01

69

Characterization of plasmids in halobacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extrachromosomal, covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid has been isolated from different species of halobacteria. Three strains of Halobacterium halobium and one of Halobacterium cutirubrum, all of which synthesize purple membrane (Pum+) and bacterioruberin (Rub+), contain plasmids of different size which share extensive sequence homologies. One strain of Halobacterium salinarium, another one of Halobacterium capanicum, and two new Halobacterium isolates from Tunisia, which are als...

1981-01-01

70

R-Plasmid Transfer in Zymomonas mobilis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conjugal transfer of three IncP1 plasmids and one IncFII plasmid into strains of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was obtained. These plasmids were transferred at high frequencies from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa into Z. mobilis and also between different Z. mobilis strains, using the membrane filter mating technique. Most of the plasmids were stably maintained in Z. mobilis, although there was some evidence of delayed marker expression. A low level of chromos...

Skotnicki, Mary L.; Tribe, David E.; Rogers, Peter L.

1980-01-01

71

FCC resid processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper narrows the definition of reside processor to those FCC's which run feedstocks containing 1 wt.% or more Conradson carbon residue. With this new definition, the resid survey is revisited to see if any new conclusions can be drawn from the data. The authors break down the numbers and geography of resid processors, feed types, operating variables, and yields. After examining the state of resid processing in the FCC, the paper focuses on the design of cracking catalysts for handling resid feeds. There are important considerations involved in processing resid including high levels of contaminants such as vanadium and nickel, the impact on heat balance, and diffusion effects. Catalysts can be designed to improve the profitability of a resid operation. A clear picture of the roles of zeolite and matrix is presented, along with a discussion of the different types of zeoliters which are commonly used. The paper demonstrates how zeolite and matrix are best combined to meet objectives within a given set of constraints while processing resid

1988-12-02

72

Rain Forest Dance Residency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

Watson, Dawn

1997-01-01

73

Plasmids and evolutionary rescue by drug resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic resistance provides evolutionary rescue for bacterial populations under the threat of extinction through antibiotics. It can arise de novo through mutation in the population, or be obtained from other bacterial populations via the transfer of a resistance-conferring plasmid. We use stochastic modeling methods to establish whether the most likely source of rescue is via a plasmid or via the chromosome, and show that contrary to what is assumed plasmids are not necessarily beneficial locations for resistance genes. Competition at the plasmid level of selection is of great importance-the spread of a resistant plasmid in the population can be slowed or entirely stopped by a nonresistant version of the same plasmid. We suggest that future studies on antibiotic-resistant plasmids should explicitly consider competition at this level of selection. PMID:24749717

Tazzyman, Samuel J; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

2014-07-01

74

A generalized model of plasmid replication.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple model is developed that permits the determination of cellular extrachromosomal DNA content for a large number of host-plasmid systems. The model incorporates host, vector, and environmental influences on plasmid replication through the use of empirical expressions. The model successfully predicts the plasmid content of many host-vector systems in a balanced growth situation, both in continuous and batch cultures. Techniques for determining model parameters are also presented. The model parameters, which characterize the effect of plasmid on its own synthesis, are given physical interpretation through the development of a structured model for a particular class of plasmids and subsequent comparison of the predictions of the two models. The simplicity of the model expressions should, in the absence of: (1) discriminatory criteria such as plasmid concentration under transient growth conditions or (2) detailed knowledge on molecular mechanisms of plasmid replication, prove useful in the study of host-vector systems for genetic engineering applications. PMID:18588031

Satyagal, V N; Agrawal, P

1989-04-01

75

Globalization and the rise of mega-cities in the developing world  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thomas Friedman has argued in The World is Flat that those who deny rapid globalization will not survive in the global economy. First, we critically discuss Friedman?s views and highlight the new globalization driven by outsourcing and vertical specialization. Second, we argue that Friedman pays insufficient attention to the spectacular growth of mega-cities in the developing world. The world is not flat, and the developing world certainly is not. Still, mega-cities tend to become too bi...

2008-01-01

76

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

2006-01-01

77

Precursory changes in ionosphere immediately before mega-thrust earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Heki [2011] reported that positive anomalies of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) appeared about 1 hour before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) by using the Japanese dense GPS array. Here we show that similar anomalies commonly precede mega-thrust earthquakes, i.e. the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (Mw9.2), 2010 Maule (Mw8.8), 2012 Off-Northern Sumatra (Mw8.6), 2007 Bengkulu (Mw8.5), and 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquakes (Mw8.3). So far, the 2005 Nias earthquake (Mw8.6) is the only over-Mw8.5 earthquake without clear preseismic TEC changes (TEC data then were disrupted by severe plasma bubble signatures). The anomalies started 90-40 minutes before earthquakes. They are positive and smaller negative anomalies often accompanied. The centers of the positive anomalies sometimes shift southward (northward) from the ruptured faults in the northern (southern) hemispheres. The attached figure shows the slant TEC changes observed by Chilean GPS stations over 2.5-hours period encompassing the 2010 Maule earthquake. Clear onsets of the TEC anomalies can be seen about 40 minutes prior to the mainshock. TEC increases may occur irrespective of earthquakes. We studied geomagnetic activities before and after these mega-thrust events; the 2010 Maule and the 2007 Bengkulu earthquakes occurred during geomagnetic quiescence and the others occurred during more or less disturbed periods. We analyzed the TEC time series of the same satellite and station pairs over 120 days before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki and 2007 Bengkulu earthquakes. Relatively large TEC changes with similar spatial and temporal scales to the preseismic anomalies occur from time to time, many of which are due to large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from the auroral oval. In short, they are not rare but not so often, i.e. we can rule out with confidence the possibility that the TEC anomalies before all these six earthquakes are fortuitous. We also review observables other than GPS-TEC showing similar preseismic changes, and suggest that f0Es at Kokubunji and geomagnetic field in NE Japan showed interesting behaviors immediately before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

Heki, K.; Cahyadi, M. N.

2012-12-01

78

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2006-04-15

79

Michaels/Sisson Residence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Model (1:50) of Michaels/Sisson Residence, Mercer Island, Washington, USA, designed by Miller/Hull Partnership Architects, 1988, built by architecture students, University of Pretoria as a 2nd year project, 2005.

Nordhoff, Karin; Myburgh, Janri; Clarke, Alan

2005-01-01

80

Magrietjie Residence : Poster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poster of the Magrietjie ladies residence situated on Prospect Street in Hatfield. Designed by Brian Sandrock, it was completed in 1981. The poster depicts a virtual model, with day and night views of the building.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Beyond the MEGA BORG: The future of cooperative damage assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prespill planning and coordination are the major requirements of industry and government to ensure future cooperative natural resource damage assessments (NRDA). Since oil spills most often occur without warning, both parties must be prepared prior to an oil spill into the environment. Federal and State co-trustees should enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to ensure cooperation and coordination among trustees in all NRDA activities. The MOU should provide the framework whereby each trustee's resource interests can be represented. Ideally, MOUs should be prepared during the prespill planning process, although the MEGA BORG MOU was prepared soon after the actual discharge. The establishment of co-trustee working groups will foster the positive working relationships necessary in cooperative NRDAs. The trustees should identify all potential co-trustees in a given area and agree on a mechanism for trustee notification. Criteria for the rapid designation of the Lead Administrative Trustee and approaches for coordination with response agencies and potential responsible parties (PRPs) need to be developed. Most importantly, the trustees should identify PRPs and invite their participation in the prespill planning process

1993-11-14

82

MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

Charles L. Mader

2002-01-01

83

The impact of (mega)-cities on the earth's gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

The world population is constantly growing; today over 7 billion people populate the planet. This development has led to a strong urbanization and expanding cities. According to the United Nations, since 2007 more human beings have lived in urban areas than in rural areas, and by 2030 the urban share will be more than 60%. The challenges of fast growing cities lie in urban management, supply to inhabitants of resources (e.g. water, power, food), and strong environmental problems (e.g. pollution), i.e. their ecological footprint. In our study we address the question of another footprint, whether (mega)-cities have an impact on the earth's gravity field. Analyzing the possible triggers will help to understand the multiple footprints of big cities in various regions. We analyze several data sources. The main data sets are a) monthly solutions of the gravity satellite mission GRACE, detecting changes in the earth's gravity field over time, b) data of the hydrological model WGHM, estimating mass changes in terrestrial and ground water storage, c) urban population data of the United Nations, d) land cover information of the European Space Agency, e) different climate data sets and other auxiliary data. The results suggest a non-uniform pattern of gravity changes with variations in trends related to different clustering parameters.

Schnitzer, S.; Estrella, N.; Güntner, A.; Matiu, M.; Peterseim, N.; Menzel, A.

2013-12-01

84

Comportamento do peso do coração e do corpo em chagásicos crônicos com e sem "megas"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O peso do coração é menor nos chagásicos com "megas" do que nos falecidos subitamente ou em I.C.C., sendo, porém, maior que nos controles. Já o peso corporal ésemelhante nos chagásicos falecidos subitamente e nos controles, havendo redução moderada no grupo com I.C.C., e rtiais acentuada nos chagási [...] cos com "megas" (redução de 20% em relação aos controles). A relação percentual peso cardíaco/peso corporal é de 1,1% no grupo com I.C.C.; 0,71% no grupo de morte súbita; 0,77% no grupo com "megas"; 0,49% no grupo controle e 0,60% ne grupo de doenças caquetizantes. Com base nas médias dos pesos cardíacos e corporal dos grupos controle, de doenças caquetizantes e de megas, calculou-se que o emagrecimento ocorrido nos megas reduziria o peso cardíaco médio de apenas 6,8%. Abstract in english Heart weight is less in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes than in those which have died suddenly or with congestive heart failure, it is, however, greater than in the Controls. Body weight is similar in chagasic patients who have died suddenly and in the Controls, there is a moderate body weig [...] ht reduction in the group with congestive heart failure, and a more accentuated reduction in chagasic patients with "mega" syndromes (a reduction of 20% in comparíson with the Controls). The relationship between heart - weight and body - weight, expressed as a percentage is 1,1% in the group with congestive heart failure; 0,71% in the group which died suddenly; 0.77% in the group with "mega" syndromes, 0.49% in the Controls group and 0.60% in the group with cachexia producing diseases. On the basis of mean heart - weights and body - weights of the control group, group with cachexia producing diseases and group with "mega" syndromes it was calculated that the emaciation which occurred in those with "mega"syndromes could reduce mean heart - weight by at least 6.8%.

Hipólito de Oliveira, Almeida; Vicente de Paula A., Teixeira; Waldyr Ferreira de, Araújo.

85

“Festivalisation” of Urban Governance in South African Cities: Framing the Urban Social Sustainability of Mega-Event Driven Development from Below  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is based on field research in two South African host cities of the Men’s Football World Cup 2010 (eThekwini and Johannesburg. The discussed work is part of the research project “Festivalisation” of Urban Governance: The Production of Socio-Spatial Control in the Context of the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. In the context of mega-events, impacts and changes on urban development can vary on a spectrum of festivalisation between opposing poles, either “driven by the event”, or on the other hand where existing configurations of actors and established policies are “driving the event”. By drawing on a theoretical framework which is inspired by an analytical understanding of urban governance, our assumptions are that (a different configurations of governance promote different ways of handling the challenges associated to the hosting and (b that different types of “festivalisation” have different consequences and effects for the lived realities of the residents at a local level. The latter is an arena in which urban governance policies are translated, adapted, renegotiated or rejected. We argue that the bringing together of both spheres (local and metropolitan provides a profound understanding of the process of mega-event implementation and its relation to urban social sustainability.

Matthias Fleischer

2013-12-01

86

Short-lived tectonic switch mechanism for long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eruptive rates in volcanic arcs increase significantly after mega-thrust earthquakes in subduction zones. Over short to intermediate time periods the link between mega-thrust earthquakes and arc response can be attributed to dynamic triggering processes or static stress changes, but a fundamental mechanism that controls long-term pulses of volcanic activity after mega-thrust earthquakes has not been proposed yet. Using geomechanical, geological, and geophysical arguments, we pro...

Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

2013-01-01

87

Large scale purification of plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid procedure for large scale purification of plasmid DNA is described. The procedure consists of two main steps: 1. Alkaline extraction of plasmid DNA (by a slight modification of the method of Birnboim and Doly (1)) and 2. Purification of the crude extract by hydroxyapatite chromatography. The plasmids obtained are biologically active and can be used in gene manipulation experiments. PMID:6348728

Bachvarov, D R; Ivanov, I G

1983-01-01

88

Survey of plasmids in various mycoplasmas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty-three strains representing 15 distinct Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNAs of three strains, Mycoplasma sp. strain 747, Spiroplasma mirum strain SMCA, and M. hominis strain 1257, suggested the presence of a plasmid with molecular weights of approximately 70, 10, and 9 megadaltons, respectively. The functions of these plasmids are currently unknown.

Harasawa, R.; Barile, M. F.

1983-01-01

89

Requirements for Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid maintenance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Borrelia burgdorferi has multiple linear and circular plasmids that are faithfully replicated and partitioned as the bacterium grows and divides. The low copy number of these replicons implies that active partitioning contributes to plasmid stability. Analyzing the requirements for plasmid replication and partition in B. burgdorferi is complicated by the complexity of the genome and the possibility that products may act in trans. Consequently, we have studied the replication-partition region ...

Tilly, Kit; Checroun, Claire; Rosa, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

90

Affinity adsorption of plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a protein-mediated dual functional affinity adsorption of plasmid DNA is described in this work. The affinity ligand for the plasmid DNA comprises a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as the fusion partner with a zinc finger protein. The protein ligand is first bound to the adsorbent by affinity interaction between the GST moeity and gluthathione that is covalently immobilized to the base matrix. The plasmid binding is then enabled via the zinc finger protein and a specific nucleotide sequence inserted into the DNA. At lower loadings, the binding of the DNA onto the Fractogel, Sepharose, and Streamline matrices was 0.0078 +/- 0.0013, 0.0095 +/- 0.0016, and 0.0080 +/- 0.0006 mg, respectively, to 50 microL of adsorbent. At a higher DNA challenge, the corresponding amounts were 0.0179 +/- 0.0043, 0.0219 +/- 0.0035, and 0.0190 +/- 0.0041 mg, respectively. The relatively constant amounts bound to the three adsorbents indicated that the large DNA molecule was unable to utilize the available zinc finger sites that were located in the internal pores and binding was largely a surface adsorption phenomenon. Utilization of the zinc finger binding sites was shown to be highest for the Fractogel adsorbent. The adsorbed material was eluted with reduced glutathione, and the eluted efficiency for the DNA was between 23% and 27%. The protein elution profile appeared to match the adsorption profiles with significantly higher recoveries of bound GST-zinc finger protein. PMID:15176890

Ghose, Siddhartha; Forde, Gareth M; Slater, Nigel K H

2004-01-01

91

Chromate resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chromate resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300, isolated from chromium-contaminated sediment in the upper Hudson River, was found to be plasmid specified. Loss of the plasmid (pLHB1) by spontaneous segregation or mitomycin C curing resulted in a simultaneous loss of chromate resistance. Subsequent transformation of such strains with purified pLHB1 plasmid DNA resulted in a simultaneous re-acquisition of the chromate resistance phenotype and the plasmid. When pLHB1 was transferred by con...

Bopp, L. H.; Chakrabarty, A. M.; Ehrlich, H. L.

1983-01-01

92

pLS010 plasmid vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb malM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb T.sub.c r DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY); Balganesh, Tanjore S. (Upton, NY)

1988-01-01

93

pLS101 plasmid vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb ma1M gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tcr DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lacks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

1985-02-19

94

Plasmids in several strains of deinococcus radiodurans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deinococcus radiodurans is known as a radioresistant bacterium. For the construction of the shuttle vector, plasmids of this bacterium were isolated and investigated. At least two plasmids in the cells of D. radiodurans MR_1, KR_1 and Sark were found in this experiment. However, a common plasmid among MR_1, KR_1 and Sark strains could not be found. These plasmids would be useful for the construction of the shuttle vector for cloning radioresistant genes of this bacterium. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1994-07-01

95

Self-aggregation of MEGA-9 (N-nonanoyl-N-methyl-D-glucamine) in aqueous medium: physicochemistry of interfacial and solution behaviors with special reference to formation energetics and micelle microenvironment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-aggregation of MEGA-9 (N-nonanoyl-N-methyl-D-glucamine), a nonionic sugar-based surfactant, was studied with respect to the effect of salt (NaCl) and ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) on its critical micelle concentration (cmc), aggregation number, hydrodynamic dimensions, energetics of micellization, and micellar microenvironment. Fluorimetry (both steady state and time resolved) was used to understand the microenvironments under the influence of additives. NaCl was found to decrease cmc, increase aggregation number (N), increase micellar size, and decrease enthalpy of micelle formation; the IL effect on the parameters was mostly opposite. The microscopic properties of micelles were probed using two fluorophores: one nonpolar C-153 (2,3,5,6-1H,4H-tetrahydro-8-trifluormethylquinolizino-(9,9a,1-gh)coumarin) and the other fairly polar ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate); they delivered information on the palisade layer and the peripheral region of the micelle interface, respectively. Energy of activation and entropy of activation of the dynamics of the probes were evaluated from their decay time, lifetime, and rotational movements in the regions of residency in the micelles. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that the ternary combination MEGA-9/IL/H2O had the maximum interaction energy compared to any of the binary combinations. Thus, the ionic liquid reduced MEGA-9 self-association to a large extent. PMID:23718221

Pan, Animesh; Mati, Soumya Sundar; Naskar, Bappaditya; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Moulik, Satya Priya

2013-06-27

96

Purification and Properties of the Plasmid Maintenance Proteins from the Borrelia burgdorferi Linear Plasmid lp17 ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi carries more plasmids than any other bacterium, many of which are linear with covalently closed hairpin ends. These plasmids have also been referred to as mini-chromosomes and essential genetic elements and are integral components of its segmented genome. We have investigated two plasmid maintenance proteins, BBD14 (the replication initiator) and BBD21 (a presumptive ParA orthologue), encoded by the linear plasmid lp17; these proteins are repre...

Deneke, Jan; Chaconas, George

2008-01-01

97

Quality Control of Mega Voltage Portal Imaging System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) is a system used to verify either the correct positioning of the patient during radiotherapy treatment or the linear accelerator beam parameters. The correct position of the patient corresponds to the position at which the patient was scanned at the CT simulator and according to which the therapy plan was made and optimized. Regarding this, besides the advanced treatment planning system and optimized treatment planning techniques, the day-to-day reproduction of simulated conditions is of great importance for the treatment outcome. Therefore, to verify the patient set-up portal imaging should be applied prior to the first treatment session and repeated according to treatment prescriptions during the treatment. In order to achieve full functionality and precision of the EPID, it must be included in radiotherapy Quality Control (QC) programme. The QC of the Mega Voltage portal imaging system was separated in two parts. In the first, the QC of the detector parameters should be performed. For this purpose, the FC2 and QC3 phantoms should be used, along with the Portal Image Processing System program (PIPSpro) package for data analysis. The second part of the QC of the linear accelerator's portal imaging system should include the QC of the CBCT. In this part a set of predefined manufacturer's tests using two different phantoms, one for the geometry calibration and the other for the image quality evaluation, should be performed. Also, the treatment conditions should be simulated using anthropomorphic phantoms and dose distributions for particular EPID protocols should be measured. Procedures for quality control of the portal imaging system developed and implemented at University Hospital Rijeka are presented in this paper.(author)

2013-04-10

98

The impact of population change on the growth of mega-cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population dynamics of population growth in mega-cities and the contributions of migration to urban growth are described. The policy implications are identified as the need for a continued emphasis on fertility declines, because reductions will have a beneficial effect on reducing the pace of growth of mega-cities. The short-term goal of policy should be to provide urban contraceptive services to female migrants, who should be targeted specifically as a special group. Natural increase will be the main source of growth of mega-cities, and women who migrated during the 1990s will be a part of that natural increase. Reductions in population growth will make it easier for governments to provide services and to manage the large population size in mega-cities, which will continue to exist as long as economic activities are centralized and economic development promotes urbanization and spatial concentration. The emergence of mega-cities with populations of many millions has been a recent and increasing phenomena. The largest cities in 1980 were Tokyo with 16.9 million followed by New York City with 15.6 million. By 1990, the largest mega-cities were Mexico City with 20.2 million, Tokyo with 18.1 million, Sao Paulo with 17.4 million, and New York with 16.2 million. By the year 2000, the expectation is that Mexico City will have 25.6 million, Sao Paulo 22.1 million, Tokyo 19.0 million, Shanghai 17.0 million, and New York 16.8 million. The rankings will change, but the pattern clearly reflects the growth of mega-cities in developing countries. The age structure of urban populations is conducive to population growth. The main component of urban growth in Asia has been migration. Age structure changes have affected migration and will continue to affect fertility in mega-cities. Mega-cities will attract a young population because of the tourist and personnel services sectors which employ large numbers of young people, because of the demand for educated workers who tend to be younger, and because of enhanced opportunities for education. In Asia, economic policies encourage high levels of female labor force participation. PMID:12288070

Guest, P

1994-03-01

99

An Assigned Teaching Resident Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors' adult psychiatry residency training program identified several educational needs for residents at their institution. Junior residents needed enhanced learning of clinical interviewing skills and learning connected to the inpatient psychiatry ward rotations, and senior residents needed opportunities to prepare for the…

Daniels-Brady, Catherine; Rieder, Ronald

2010-01-01

100

Excellent Supervision: The Residents' Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Former residents rated their videotaped psychotherapy supervision sessions on how helpful their supervisors were as teachers during the session. Residents' and experts' ratings of the same videotape were compared and found to have no significant correlation. However, male residents were less critical than either female residents or experts. Former residents were also interviewed. Supervisors were rated as excellent when they were accepting and also when they provided guidance about highly cha...

Shanfield, Stephen B.; Hetherly, Vroni V.; Matthews, Kenneth L.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Residents Manual - Cytogenetics Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical Skills The resident will learn about, and master some of, the technical skills necessary for the practice of clinical cytogenetics. These technical skills include optimal specimen collection, methods of processing various tissues for routine and molecular cytogenetic analyses, different methods for staining and banding metaphase chromosomes, and preparation of samples for fluorescence-based cytogenetic testing (FISH, CGH, SKY).

102

What makes a "great resident": the resident perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthopedic surgery residency training is a difficult endeavor, and the selection of residents that will perform well in a rigorous training program is challenging for residency program directors. Even defining a "great" resident is a difficult endeavor. However, there are certain qualities that anecdotally are associated with high-performing residents, which include being trustworthy, hard-working and efficient, self-directed learners, detail-oriented, and personable. These qualities are difficult to teach and are likely learned by an individual during their early years of education and groomed during college and medical school. Individuals possessing these characteristics are more likely to bring a high-level of professionalism to their work as residents and to perform well on objective measures of success in residency such as high OITE scores, good faculty evaluations, and peer-reviewed publications. We discuss the available, but limited, literature on what makes a "great" resident and share the resident perspective on this topic. PMID:24648060

Nemani, Venu M; Park, Caroline; Nawabi, Danyal H

2014-06-01

103

“Corte Transversal”: una mega escultura entre el río Mapocho y la autopista Costanera Norte en Santiago de Chile/ “Corte Transversal”: a mega sculpture between the Mapocho River and the Costanera Norte toll road in Santiago de Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Corte Transversal”: una mega escultura entre el río Mapocho y la autopista Costanera Norte en Santiago de Chile/“Corte Transversal”: a mega sculpture between the Mapocho River and the Costanera Norte toll road in Santiago de Chile

Revista de Urbanismo, Departamento de Urbanismo de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Chile. (Reportaje de M.I.PavezR.- M.P.Henríquez.O

2008-12-01

104

Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible for causing infections both in humans and animals worldwide; these are Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae; Ã?-lactams are antimicrobials commonly prescribed to treat uncomplicated as well as severe infections caused by these Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram negative and also Gram positive bacteria. In particular, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems found broad application in treatment of infections caused by the aforementioned enteric species. Recently however, increasing levels of resistance to Ã?-lactams is observed in these key infectious agents as well as in many other previously susceptible species. This phenomenon has become a major public concern. Antimicrobials including Ã?-lactams have been often used in heavy amounts in farming, not only to treat the diagnosed infections in individual animals but also as prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion. It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to Ã?-lactams) could be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm animals to humans (farm workers, animal caretakers etc.). It has been therefore speculated whether the plasmids with the bla genes found in Enterobacteriaceae in humans could actually originate from the animal sources. The overall aim of this thesis was to verify if indeed related resistance plasmids can circulate between enteric bacteria from humans and food production animals; and if so, then which of these plasmid species are specifically associated with the epidemic types of blaTEM genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Furthermore, the association of the plasmid encoded blaTEM genes with transposable elements is also studied in order to get a broader perspective of which MGEs are involved in mobilization and spread of these bla genes in the diverse reservoirs. Finally, an attempt is made to encompass ecological aspects of plasmid driven transmission of resistance among the enteric bacteria. In the first study the relationship between plasmids harbouring blaTEM-52 genes isolated from humans, poultry and also meat products was examined. Twenty- two plasmids from a collection of E. coli and different serovars of S. enterica were characterized. The study delivered molecular evidences that epidemiologically related plasmids circulated in the diverse species of enteric bacteria and between humans and animals, and the possible transmission route could have been contaminated food products like meat. Two types of epidemic plasmids were detected in isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; namely undistinguishable IncI1 blaTEM-52 plasmids were found in human and poultry isolates of E. coli and S. enterica; also undistinguishable IncX1 plasmids were isolated from E. coli and S. enterica from human infections, poultry and meat products (from poultry, broiler and beef). The strains harbouring these plasmids were confirmed not to be clonally related, hence indicating the transmission of the plasmids between the different bacteria from humans and animals rather than isolation of the same bacterial clones from the different reservoirs. With relation to the study I, a range of other observations was made. On majority of the examined plasmids, the blaTEM-52 genes resided on the Tn3-related transposons. Further analysis of the genetic envir

Bielak, Eliza Maria

2012-01-01

105

Plasmid Mediated Salt Tolerance in Root Associated Bacteria from Erigerone linifolious  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial strains (which could tolerate 2-3M NaCl in the growth medium were isolated from the roots of Erigerone linifolious. They were El-1, El-2, El-3 (from histoplane of roots and REl-1, REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 (from the rhizoplane. All bacterial strains were motile rods (except El-2 which were cocci, exhibiting either Gram-negative (El-1, El-2, El-3, REl-1 or Gram-variable (REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 staining. These strains were affiliated with genus Delya (El-1, Vibrio (El-3, REl-1, while four Gram-variable strains shaired characters with Bacillus pumilus. They have wide temperature and pH ranges with different optima. These strains also exhibit multiple salts/osmolytes/heavy metals/antibiotics resistance. Curing of plasmids from four of these strains revealed that salt tolerance and most of the other resistances were plasmid encoded. Plasmids residing in these halo-tolerant strains were conjugative (except pSH1413. Hybridization experiments revealed that one of these plasmids (pSH1414 belonged to IncN group of plasmids.

Azra Yasmin

2000-01-01

106

Conservation of plasmid DNA sequences in coronatine-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato PT23.2, plasmid pPT23A (101 kb) is involved in synthesis of the phytotoxin coronatine. The physical characterization of mutations that abolished coronatine production indicated that at least 30 kb of pPT23A DNA are required for toxin synthesis. In the present study, {sup 32}P-labeled DNA fragments from the 30-kb region of pPT23A hybridized to plasmid DNAs from several coronatine-producing pathovars of P. syringae under conditions of high stringency. These experiments indicated that this region of pPT23A was strongly conserved in large plasmids (90 to 105 kb) that reside in P. syringae pv. atropurpurea, glycinea, and morsprunorum. The functional significance of the observed homology was demonstrated in marker-exchange experiments in which Tn5-inactivated sequences from the 30-kb region of pPT23A were used to mutate coronatine synthesis genes in the three heterologous pathovars. Physical characterization of the Tn5 insertions generated by marker exchange indicated that genes controlling coronatine synthesis in P. syringae pv. atropurpurea 1304, glycinea 4180, and morsprunorum 567 and 3714 were located on the large indigenous plasmids where homology was originally detected. Therefore, coronatine biosynthesis genes are strongly conserved in the plasmid DNAs of four producing pathovars, despite their disparate origins (California, Japan, New Zealand, Great Britain, and Italy).

Bender, C.L.; Young, S.A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States)); Mitchell, R.E. (Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Auckland (New Zealand))

1991-04-01

107

Conservation of plasmid DNA sequences in coronatine-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato PT23.2, plasmid pPT23A (101 kb) is involved in synthesis of the phytotoxin coronatine. The physical characterization of mutations that abolished coronatine production indicated that at least 30 kb of pPT23A DNA are required for toxin synthesis. In the present study, 32P-labeled DNA fragments from the 30-kb region of pPT23A hybridized to plasmid DNAs from several coronatine-producing pathovars of P. syringae under conditions of high stringency. These experiments indicated that this region of pPT23A was strongly conserved in large plasmids (90 to 105 kb) that reside in P. syringae pv. atropurpurea, glycinea, and morsprunorum. The functional significance of the observed homology was demonstrated in marker-exchange experiments in which Tn5-inactivated sequences from the 30-kb region of pPT23A were used to mutate coronatine synthesis genes in the three heterologous pathovars. Physical characterization of the Tn5 insertions generated by marker exchange indicated that genes controlling coronatine synthesis in P. syringae pv. atropurpurea 1304, glycinea 4180, and morsprunorum 567 and 3714 were located on the large indigenous plasmids where homology was originally detected. Therefore, coronatine biosynthesis genes are strongly conserved in the plasmid DNAs of four producing pathovars, despite their disparate origins (California, Japan, New Zealand, Great Britain, and Italy)

1991-01-01

108

Transduction Efficiency of Pantropic Retroviral Vectors Is Controlled by the Envelope Plasmid to Vector Plasmid Ratio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pantropic retroviral vectors pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope G protein (VSV-G) are typically produced by transient transfection of the VSV-G expression plasmid because constitutive expression of VSV-G is cytotoxic. To produce pantropic vectors, the VSV-G expression plasmid and the vector plasmid are cotransfected into a packaging cell line, such as 293-gag-pol. Typically, the ratio of VSV-G plasmid to the vector plasmid ranges from 0.33 to 1.0. However, it is not clear th...

2005-01-01

109

Involvement of plasmids in Streptomyces incarnatus phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sinefungin producing, pock forming strain Streptomyces incarnatus was shown to be thiostrepton resistant. However, it does not produce thiostrepton and structurally related antibiotics. In this strain, five low copy plasmids of variable sizes were detected with electron microscopy. The strain S. lividans TK24 became thiostrepton resistant upon transformation by one of the plasmids of S. incarnatus. PMID:2332156

Malina, H; Robert-Gero, M

1990-03-01

110

MEGA-MD: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software with mutational diagnosis of amino acid variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational diagnosis of amino acid variants in the human exome is the first step in assessing the disruptive impacts of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) on human health and disease. The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software with mutational diagnosis (MEGA-MD) is a suite of tools developed to forecast the deleteriousness of nsSNVs using multiple methods and to explore nsSNVs in the context of the variability permitted in the long-term evolution of the affected position. In its graphical interface for use on desktops, it enables interactive computational diagnosis and evolutionary exploration of nsSNVs. As a web service, MEGA-MD is suitable for diagnosing variants on an exome scale. The MEGA-MD suite intends to serve the needs for conducting low- and high-throughput analysis of nsSNVs in diverse applications. PMID:24413669

Stecher, Glen; Liu, Li; Sanderford, Maxwell; Peterson, Daniel; Tamura, Koichiro; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-05-01

111

Refractory psychosis and prominent cognitive deficits in a patient with mega-cisterna magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of refractory psychosis with prominent cognitive deficits in a patient with 'mega-cisterna magna', a congenital defect within the 'Dandy-Walker Complex' continuum. The 21-year-old female had a 3-year history of refractory psychotic symptoms despite adequate antipsychotic treatment. CT and MRI scans disclosed 'mega-cisterna magna'. Thorough neuropsychological testing recorded extensive deficits. Treatment with amisulpride 1200 mg/day resulted in a 30% decrease in PANSS score within 2 months. Then galantamine 8 mg/day was added and PANSS score decreased further by 27% within 2 weeks. Cognitive and social functioning was overall much improved. The effect was sustained in a 24 months follow-up. It is postulated that even a less extended cerebellar lesion, such as mega-cisterna magna, can be associated with psychosis, and in some cases with treatment refractoriness or cognitive dysfunction. Adjuvant galantamine may improve cognitive and psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:17150294

Ferentinos, Panayotis P; Kontaxakis, Vassilis P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, Beata J; Paplos, Konstantinos G; Pappa, Dimitra A; Soldatos, Constantin R

2007-03-30

112

Pooling fMRI data: meta-analysis, mega-analysis and multi-center studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of pooled data from related fMRI experiments has the potential to significantly accelerate progress in brain mapping. Such data-pooling can be achieved through meta-analysis (the pooled analysis of published results, mega-analysis (the pooled analysis of raw data or multi-site studies which can be seen as designed mega-analyses. Current limitations in function-location brain mapping and how data-pooling can be used to remediate them are reviewed, with particular attention to power aggregation and mitigation of false positive results. Some recently developed analysis tools for meta- and mega-analysis are also presented, and recommendations for the conduct of valid fMRI data pooling are formulated.

SergiGCostafreda

2009-09-01

113

Geologic Signatures of the Mega-Impact on Vesta  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many solar system bodies, Vesta is dominated by the crater scar left by a large, late collision. One way to understand the asteroid's global geology -- and by extension, the geophysical behavior of rocky planetary embryos -- is to understand the mechanics of crater formation at this scale. Recent simulations (Melosh and Ivanov LPSC 2011; Jutzi and Asphaug GRL 2011) have used 2D and 3D hydrocodes with various models of interior rheology to best match the observations. The 3D model by Jutzi and Asphaug includes pre-impact rotation, which we have proposed would lead to unusual-looking topographic structures on the asteroid, for instance double-folded ejecta flaps. The figure below shows the thickness of ejecta following the collision, from 0 (blue) to 50 km (red), for three cases: (a) no rotation; impact on axis; (b) no rotation; 45° impact; and (c) 4 hr rotation; 45° impact. The dashed line and arrow indicate the rotation axis and the impact direction, respectively. In each case the crater diameter is ~400 km and the central peak is about 8-12 km above the deepest part of the floor. The effect of impact obliquity is rather small (if a somewhat larger scaled impactor is used) while pre-impact rotation has a huge effect on the outcome. The detailed structures that are left behind after this mega-cavity grows and collapses, depend on the relative timing of expansion and collapse, and spin rotation -- and of course, the orientation of the collision relative to the spin axis at the time of impact, and on the granular flow of rocks at fairly low gravity and strain rate. We aim to present our results in the context of released data from the Dawn mission, as they become available, and to present new model results and analyses. We will also present unpublished analysis of the ejecta products from these simulations. In addition, we will outline the validity of using a Mohr-Coulomb type granular model for our target, which although it predicts final crater topography reasonably well, including the central peak structure, may be a simplification of the internal structure and dynamical response. Vesta will guide us in understanding how to accurately model the kinds of collisions that led to the growth of planets.

Asphaug, E. I.; Jutzi, M.

2011-12-01

114

Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several...

Delorme, Philippe; Willott, Chris; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier; Reyle?, Ce?line; Bertin, Emmanuel; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Robin, Annie; Allard, France; Doyon, Rene; Hill, Gary

2008-01-01

115

Brussels blocks stock exchange mega-merger deal | EurActiv  

...blocks stock exchange mega-merger deal | EurActiv competition,euro-finance,Competition policy,Deutsche Börse,mergers,NYSE EU news & policy debates- across languages - ...exchange mega-merger deal -A + A Published 02 February 2012 Tags Competition policy, Deutsche Börse, mergers, NYSE Deutsche Börse and the NYSE's proposal to ... 'The merger between Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext would have led to a near-monopoly in European financial derivatives worldwide,' EU Competition ... But NYSE Euronext and Deutsche Börse could try to put the disappointment of their failed euro;5.6-billion merger deal behind them ...

116

Expected residence time model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Transportation Technology Department of Sandia National Laboratories develops analytical and computational tools for the US Department of Energy to assess the radiological consequences and risks from the transportation of radioactive materials by all modes. When large quantities of materials are to be transported movements may occur over an extended period of time in what is collectively referred as a ``shipping campaign``. Since the routes over which the shipments occur often remain the same, cumulative exposure to individuals inhabiting the population zones adjacent to the transport links must be estimated. However, individuals do not remain in the same residences throughout their lifetimes and, in fact, move quite often. To appropriately allocate exposures among populations over extended periods of time, perhaps years, requires a model that accounts for three population categories; (1) the original populations residing in the areas adjacent to the transport links, (2) individuals moving out and (3) individuals moving into residences in the designated areas. The model described here accounts for these conditions and will be incorporated as a user option in the RADTRAN computer code for transportation consequence and risk analysis (Reference 1). RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the consequences and risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials.

Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.

1996-03-01

117

Expected residence time model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Transportation Technology Department of Sandia National Laboratories develops analytical and computational tools for the US Department of Energy to assess the radiological consequences and risks from the transportation of radioactive materials by all modes. When large quantities of materials are to be transported movements may occur over an extended period of time in what is collectively referred as a ''shipping campaign''. Since the routes over which the shipments occur often remain the same, cumulative exposure to individuals inhabiting the population zones adjacent to the transport links must be estimated. However, individuals do not remain in the same residences throughout their lifetimes and, in fact, move quite often. To appropriately allocate exposures among populations over extended periods of time, perhaps years, requires a model that accounts for three population categories; (1) the original populations residing in the areas adjacent to the transport links, (2) individuals moving out and (3) individuals moving into residences in the designated areas. The model described here accounts for these conditions and will be incorporated as a user option in the RADTRAN computer code for transportation consequence and risk analysis (Reference 1). RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the consequences and risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials

1996-02-25

118

Residents Manual - Surgical Pathology Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

The resident will participate in the management of a patient, provide advice regarding ordering of additional diagnostic tests and assisting in the interpretation of test results. The resident will participate in clinico-pathologic conferences.

119

Plasmid-determined resistance to tellurium compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transferable plasmids in gram-negative bacteria that confer resistance to potassium tellurite or tellurate were found. This resistance was distinct from resistance to mercury, silver, or arsenic compounds and was unrelated to antibiotic resistance. In Escherichia coli, plasmids determine a 100-fold increase in the minimal inhibitory concentration for tellurite and a 10-fold increase in tellurate resistance. Many, but not all, of the plasmids belong to incompatibility group S. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tellurium resistance is specifically associated with incompatibility group P-2 and involves a 5- to 10-fold increase in tellurite or tellurate resistance. 52 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Summers, A.O.; Jacoby, G.A.

1977-01-01

120

[Characteristics of Pseudomonas putida plasmid DNAs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Physico-chemical characteristics of plasmid DNAs isoalted from Pseudomonas putida G7 were studied as well as the behavior of these DNAs in th eourse of chromatography on columns with Sepharose 4B and kieselguhr with methylated albumin (MAC). This strain was found to contain several plasmid DNAs having molecular weights of 33-36X10(6), 15-18X10(6), and 3-5X10(6) dalton. The plasmid DNAs of biodegradation are supposed to be located in the vicinity of chromosomes, and only a small part of them is characterized by extrachromosomal localization. PMID:651695

Agabalian, A S; Zakharian, R A; Akopian, S M; Bakunts, K A; Israelian, Iu A

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

F plasmid ccd mechanism in Escherichia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ccd mechanism specified by the ccdA and ccdB genes of the mini-F plasmid determines fate of plasmid-free segregants in Escherichia coli (Jaffé et al., J. Bacteriol. 163:841-849, 1985). The killing function in plasmid-free segregants by the ccd mechanism did not affect cell growth of coexisting cells in the same culture. Elongated cells and anucleate cells caused by the ccd mechanism were clearly detected by flow cytometry in cultures of bacterial strains harboring Ccd+ Sop- mini-F plasmi...

Hiraga, S.; Jaffe?, A.; Ogura, T.; Mori, H.; Takahashi, H.

1986-01-01

122

A comparison of the modern seismogenic Nankai mega-splay fault and the exhumed ancient mega-splay fault, the Nobeoka thrust  

Science.gov (United States)

Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Therefore, understanding the fault mechanics of the mega-splay fault is essential toward assessing their role in the plate boundary processes and seismo-tsunamigenesis. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Deep portion of the megasplay fault and its connection to the plate boundary megathrust is, however, impossible to be accessed by direct drilling. Far and near field geophysical observation is therefore only way to access the modern and active megasplay fault. On-land exhumed and fossilized mega-splay faults, on the other hand, give a clue for the fault mechanics when they were active in depth although the exhumation and fossilization process modifies their primary properties due to physico-chemical weathering and crack opening by unloading. Our previous studies from the Nobeoka thrust in Kyushu, southwest Japan present well-preservation of primary faulting processes and clear contrast of physical property between the hanging wall and footwall. We have conducted the seismic, drilling, coring and logging investigation into the Nobeoka thrust to the depth of ~250 m including ~40m hanging wall and ~210 m footwall. The coring was ~99% recovery and full logging was successful. The result of the logging together with triangular S-wave vibro-seismic array investigation presents a clear contrast between the hanging wall and footwall. The results indicate how the fossilized megasplay fault is useful to investigate the primary properties in depth,excluding the secondary effects associated with exhumation and surface weathering.

Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Saito, S.; Fukuchi, R.; Kameda, J.; Hamada, Y.; Fujimoto, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hina, S.; Eida, M.; Kitamura, Y.

2012-12-01

123

Mega-Caves of Mars Revisited: Speleological Information Systems in Planetary Science and Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Speleological data bases are underutilized. Recently they have shown that lava tube mega-caves at the bottom of pit craters are non-existent and martian lava tube caves appear to be of the same order of magnitude as their terrestrial analogues.

Halliday, W. R.

2012-06-01

124

Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

Mohammad Koosha

2013-01-01

125

Improving Customer Satisfaction and Customer Service Levels : Case: Nakumatt Mega City Supermarket  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the current customer satisfaction and service levels of the Nakumatt mega city Supermarket through an efficient customer satisfaction survey. It is important for a company to work towards satisfying customers’ needs and expectations in order to flourish.

Onyango, Shalotte Salmi

2011-01-01

126

Design and Constructing pBGGT Plasmid: a Carrier Plasmid for Betathalassaemia Gene Targeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Most of molecular biology studies depend on making gene constructs. Although commercial plasmids are widely used for this purpose, sometimes due to the nature of the restriction sites or need of multiple subcloning, usual restriction sites available in original multiple cloning sites (MCS) of the plasmids could not be easily used, if not impossible at all. Here, we report an easy and fast method to construct suitable plasmid with a new MCS for constructing a 16kb gene targeting pl...

Khanahmad, H.; Azadmanesh, K.; Ma, Shokrgozar; Ar, Niavarani; Karimi, M.; Rabbani, B.; Khalili, M.; Bagheri, R.; Maryami, F.; Zeinali, S.

2006-01-01

127

Design and Constructing pBGGT Plasmid: a Carrier Plasmid for Betathalassaemia Gene Targeting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Most of molecular biology studies depend on making gene constructs. Although commercial plasmids are widely used for this purpose, sometimes due to the nature of the restriction sites or need of multiple subcloning, usual restriction sites available in original multiple cloning sites (MCS of the plasmids could not be easily used, if not impossible at all. Here, we report an easy and fast method to construct suitable plasmid with a new MCS for constructing a 16kb gene targeting plasmid. Methods: Firstly, the suitable MCS was designed by studying the sequence of desired gene fragments in Gene runner software. Two partial complementary 74 base long oligonucleotides were designed and constructed to make this MCS. The original pUC19 MCS was replaced with the new one by enzymatic digestion of the plasmid and removal of the MCS, followed by adding the two complementary oligonucleotides and ligating the construct and transforming it into Ecoli TOP10 F.The new plasmid was then purified and sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. Findings: Synthesis of two 74 base polynuclotides was successful, and these polynucleotides formed a double stranded fragment which was successfully inserted between HindIII-EcoRI sites of pUC19. Analysis of intermediate step results showed successful progress of cloning reaction. Final analysis of the plasmid by restriction analysis and sequencing the MCS confirmed authenticity of the new plasmid. Conclusions: The method described here is a fast and easy way to make suitable plasmid out of commercially available plasmids. This process can considerably decrease the time and cost of plasmid construction. Availability of suitable restriction sites in proper order makes it possible to directionally clone the desired gene fragments which is more efficient and excludes screening steps for the right direction of the fragments. The plasmid reported herein is specifically tailored to insert different fragments of a beta-globin gene targeting construct.

F Maryami

2006-05-01

128

Marine Diatom Plasmids and their Biotechnological Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-range objective of the proposed research is to achieve transformation of marine diatoms. The more immediate objectives pertain to the characterization of two small plasmids we have discovered in a marine diatom, Cylindrotheca fusiformis, a specie...

F. G. Plumley

1992-01-01

129

MegaMIR: The Megapixel Mid-Infrared Instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Megapixel Mid-infrared Instrument (MegaMIR) is a proposed Fizeau-mode camera for the Large Binocular Telescope operating at wavelengths between 5 and 28 micrometers. The camera will be used in conjunction with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), a cryogenic optical system that combines the beams from twin 8.4-m telescopes in a phase coherent manner. Unlike other interferometric systems, the co-mounted telescopes on the LBT satisfy the sine condition, providing diffraction-limited resolution over the 40" field of view of the camera. With a 22.8-m baseline, MegaMIR will yield 0.1" angular resolution, making it the highest resolution wide field imager in the thermal infrared for at least the next decade. MegaMIR will utilize a newly developed 1024 x 1024 pixel Si:As detector array that has been optimized for use at high backgrounds. This new detector is a derivative of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) low-background detector. The combination of high angular resolution and wide field imaging will be a unique scientific capability for astronomy. Key benefits will be realized in planetary science, galactic, and extra-galactic astronomy. High angular resolution is essential to disentangle highly complex sources, particularly in star formation regions and external galaxies, and MegaMIR provides this performance over a full field of view. Because of the great impact being made by space observatories like the Spitzer Space Telescope, the number of available targets for study has greatly increased in recent years, and MegaMIR will allow efficient follow up science.

Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick; Hong, John; Werner, Mike; Hinz, Phil; Gorjan, Varoujan; Ressler, Michael E.

2006-01-01

130

Residents' Satisfaction With the PRITE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examinations are an integral part of resident and program evaluation, but they are considered particularly stressful on residents. The department of psychiatry of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio administered the Psychiatry Resident-in-Training Examination (PRTTE) every other year to minimize stress and anxiety among residents. When questioned about their satisfaction with the PRTTE and its administration, the residents reported high levels of satisfaction and a desire to take the examination yearly. Dissatisfaction was limited to the physical environment in which the exam was administered. PMID:24431086

Matthews, K L; Ticknor, C B

1989-09-01

131

Plasmidal maintenance of composite DNA derived from polyoma related plasmid, L factor.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, we reported a multicopy mammalian plasmid with a structure related to polyoma. The plasmid, named L factor, was found at a high copy number (5,000 or more per cell) in a subclone derived from mouse L cells. We attempted to utilize L factor as a plasmid vector for mammalian cells. A series of composite DNA consisting of L factor and a foreign (herpes simplex virus tk) were constructed. These DNA could be established as plasmids after transfection to several mouse cell lines, although...

Saito, H.; Uehara, H.; Kusano, T.; Oishi, M.

1987-01-01

132

Characterization of a Haemophilus ducreyi mobilizing plasmid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The OriV site of Haemophilus ducreyi mobilizing plasmid pHD147, determined by replication in Escherichia coli polA, is located close to the OriT site. The OriT site, located by recombination-proficient and -deficient cells, and the OriV site map in a region of pHD147 homologous to the beta-lactamase-specifying plasmids of H. ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Mcnicol, P. J.; Albritton, W. L.; Ronald, A. R.

1986-01-01

133

Plasmid transfer for enhancing degradation capabilities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The kinetics of plasmid conjugation for the TOL and RP4 plasmids depend strongly on the donor cells' specific growth rate and substrate concentration, both of which determine the cells' energy availability. Although transfer rates can be large when energy availability is high, normal biological processes have low energy availability. Therefore, we propose and evaluate preliminarily a simple scheme to create a small zone of high energy availability.

Rittmann, B. E.; Smets, B. F.; Macdonald, J. A.; Stahl, D. A.

1995-01-01

134

Enterotoxin Plasmid from Clostridium perfringens Is Conjugative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin is the major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal illnesses. The enterotoxin gene, cpe, is located on the chromosome of food-poisoning isolates but is found on a large plasmid in non-food-borne gastrointestinal disease isolates and in veterinary isolates. To evaluate whether the cpe plasmid encodes its own conjugative transfer, a C. perfringens strain carrying...

Brynestad, Sigrid; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.; Mcclane, Bruce A.; Granum, Per Einar; Rood, Julian I.

2001-01-01

135

Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 X 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcali...

Shields, M. S.; Hooper, S. W.; Sayler, G. S.

1985-01-01

136

Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor. PMID:24715290

Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

2014-01-01

137

[Antibiotic resistance plasmids in various strains of Staphylococcus aureus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmids with the molecular weights of 1.6 to 21.0 MD were detected in Staphylococcus aureus. The plasmids determined resistance to benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, arsenate and arsenite. Strain p16 of Staphylococcus aureus contained plasmid pL16 with the molecular weight of 18.0 MD determining resistance to erythromycin, streptomycin, benzylpenicillin and ampicillin. The plasmid has two replication sites and is likely a natural recombinant of two plasmids. PMID:8166563

Gabisoniia, T G; Chanishvili, T G; Makaridze, M R; Chikovani, L A; Adamiia, R Sh; Galushka, F P; Karataev, G I

1993-06-01

138

Relationship between plasmid content and auxotype in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and forty strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, representing 12 different auxotype groups, were examined for differences in plasmid content. Most auxotype groups harbored a phenotypically cryptic 2,6-megadalton plasmid; a few groups also carried a 24.5-megadalton plasmid which has been previously characterized as a transfer plasmid. However, isolates of the proline-, citrulline-, and uracil-requiring (PCU-) auxotype were consistently free of plasmids. The correlation between auxotype ...

Dillon, J. R.; Pauze?, M.

1981-01-01

139

Penicillin and tetracycline resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic nature of penicillin (Pc) and tetracycline (Tc) resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied and compared with those in S. aureus. Of 10 S. epidermidis strains transduced for penicillin resistance, we could isolate Pc plasmids from only 3. One of these plasmids also encoded for cadmium resistance and another encoded for resistance to ethidium bromide, traits also associated with S. aureus Pc plasmids. Endonuclease fingerprinting of the Pc plasmids from the two sp...

Totten, P. A.; Vidal, L.; Baldwin, J. N.

1981-01-01

140

Mega starbirth cluster is biggest, brightest and hottest ever seen  

Science.gov (United States)

Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc hi-res Size hi-res: 4519 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Robert A.E. Fosbury (European Space Agency/Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Germany) Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc This illustration shows an artist’s impression of the so-called Lynx arc, a newly identified distant super-cluster that contains a million blue-white stars twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The Lynx arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical ‘starbirth’ region visible with small telescopes. The stars in the Lynx arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula’s central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. The stars are so hot that a very large fraction of their light is emitted in the ultraviolet that makes the gas glow with the green and red colours illustrated here. The so-called Lynx Arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical 'starbirth' region visible with small telescopes. The newly identified super-cluster contains a million blue-white stars that are twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. It is a rarely glimpsed example of the early days of the Universe where furious firestorms of starbirth blazed across the skies. The spectacular cluster's opulence is dimmed when seen from Earth only by the fact that it is 12 000 million light years away. The discovery of this unique and tantalising object was the result of a systematic study of distant clusters of galaxies carried out with major X-ray, optical and infrared telescopes, including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, ROSAT and the Keck Telescopes. Bob Fosbury, of the European Space Agency's Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Germany, and a team of international co-authors report the discovery in the 20 October 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The mega-cluster of stars appears as a puzzling red arc behind a distant galaxy cluster 5400 million light-years away in the northern constellation of Lynx. The arc is the stretched and magnified image of a mysterious celestial object about 12 000 million light-years away (at a redshift of 3.36), far beyond the cluster of galaxies. This means that the remote source existed when the Universe was less than 2000 million years old. Fosbury and colleagues first tried to identify the arc by analysing the light from the object, but the team was not able to recognise the pattern of colours in the spectral signature of the remote object. While looking for matches with the colour spectrum, Fosbury realised that the light was related to that of the nearby Orion Nebula, a star-forming region in our own Milky Way. However where the Orion Nebula is powered by only four hot and bright blue stars, the Lynx Arc must contain around a million such stars! Furthermore, the spectrum shows that the stars in the Lynx Arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula's central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx Arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. Even the most massive, normal nearby stars are no hotter than around 40 000°C. However, stars forming from the original, pristine gas in the early Universe can be more massive and consequently much hotter - perhaps up to 120 000°C. The earliest stars may have been as much as several hundred solar masses, but the chemical make-up of the Universe today prevents stars from forming beyond about 100 solar masses. Such 'primordial' super-hot stars are thought to be the first luminous objects to condense after the Big Bang cooled. Astronomers believe that these first 'monster' stars formed considerably earlier than the Lynx Arc - up

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to...

Marwan Yousef; Ayed Adel

2013-01-01

142

Conservation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid maintenance regions among Salmonella serovars as a basis for plasmid curing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association of large plasmids with virulence in invasive Salmonella serovars has led to a number of studies designed to uncover the role of these plasmids in virulence. This study addresses two aspects of virulence-associated plasmids. The first is the distribution of the replication and maintenance regions among the plasmids of different Salmonella serovars, and the second is the use of the conserved virulence plasmid par region to provide a rapid method for eliminating the virulence pla...

Tinge, S. A.; Curtiss, R.

1990-01-01

143

High-level plasmid-mediated gentamicin resistance and pheromone response of plasmids present in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eleven pheromone-responding plasmids encoding erythromycin or gentamicin resistance were isolated from multiresistant clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The plasmids were classified into six types with respect to their pheromone responses. The three erythromycin resistance plasmids responded to different pheromones. Of the eight gentamicin resistance plasmids, four plasmids responded to same pheromone. Southern hybridization studies showed that the genes involved in regulation of the ph...

Shiojima, M.; Tomita, H.; Tanimoto, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Ike, Y.

1997-01-01

144

Enterotoxin plasmid from Clostridium perfringens is conjugative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin is the major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and several non-food-borne human gastrointestinal illnesses. The enterotoxin gene, cpe, is located on the chromosome of food-poisoning isolates but is found on a large plasmid in non-food-borne gastrointestinal disease isolates and in veterinary isolates. To evaluate whether the cpe plasmid encodes its own conjugative transfer, a C. perfringens strain carrying pMRS4969, a plasmid in which a 0.4-kb segment internal to the cpe gene had been replaced by the chloramphenicol resistance gene catP, was used as a donor in matings with several cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was transferred at frequencies ranging from 2.0 x 10(-2) to 4.6 x 10(-4) transconjugants per donor cell. The transconjugants were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization analyses. The results demonstrated that the entire pMRS4969 plasmid had been transferred to the recipient strain. Plasmid transfer required cell-to-cell contact and was DNase resistant, indicating that transfer occurred by a conjugation mechanism. In addition, several fragments of the prototype C. perfringens tetracycline resistance plasmid, pCW3, hybridized with pMRS4969, suggesting that pCW3 shares some similarity to pMRS4969. The clinical significance of these findings is that if conjugative transfer of the cpe plasmid occurred in vivo, it would have the potential to convert cpe-negative C. perfringens strains in normal intestinal flora into strains capable of causing gastrointestinal disease. PMID:11292780

Brynestad, S; Sarker, M R; McClane, B A; Granum, P E; Rood, J I

2001-05-01

145

Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms. All known plasmid-encoded par loci specify three components: a cis-acting centromere-like site and two trans-acting proteins that form a nucleoprotein complex at the centromere (i.e. the partition complex). The proteins are encoded by two genes in an operon that is autoregulated by the par-encoded proteins. In all cases, the upstream gene encodes an ATPase that is essential for partitioning. Recent cytological analyses indicate that the ATPases function as adaptors between a host-encoded component and the partition complex and thereby tether plasmids and chromosomal origin regions to specific subcellular sites (i.e. the poles or quarter-cell positions). Two types of partitioning ATPases are known: the Walker-type ATPases encoded by the par/sop gene family (type I partitioning loci) and the actin-like ATPase encoded by the par locus of plasmid R1 (type II partitioning locus). A phylogenetic analysis of the large family of Walker type of partitioning ATPases yielded a surprising pattern: most of the plasmid-encoded ATPases clustered into distinct subgroups. Surprisingly, however, the par loci encoding these distinct subgroups have different genetic organizations and thus divide the type I loci into types Ia and Ib. A second surprise was that almost all chromosome-encoded ATPases, including members from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria and Archaea, clustered into one distinct subgroup. The phylogenetic tree is consistent with lateral gene transfer between Bacteria and Archaea. Using database mining with the ParM ATPase of plasmid R1, we identified a new par gene family from enteric bacteria. These type II loci, which encode ATPases of the actin type, have a genetic organization similar to that of type Ib loci. Udgivelsesdato: Aug

Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

2000-01-01

146

Emergency nurse residency program evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this mixed method descriptive study was to perform a program evaluation on an emergency nurse residency program. The study identified leaders' goals, objectives, and outcomes and the nurse residents' perceptions of the program, including whether they felt prepared to make the transition into their new role. The program evaluation revealed that the nurse residents felt confident, secure, and prepared to function as well-rounded emergency nurses after completing the emergency nurse residency program, in congruence with leaders' objectives. PMID:24060658

Johnson, Anitra; Salisbury, Helen; Johannsson, Mark; Barajas, Kenny

2013-01-01

147

E-marketing of sports mega-events with specific reference to the 2010 Soccer World Cup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From an analysis of the literature it is apparent that there has been no concerted effort to date to undertake a coherent and integrated assessment of the application of e-marketing in sport mega-events. A strategic evaluation of the e-marketing initiatives implemented since 2000 during national and international mega events, indicates that e-marketing, in most instances, took place in a limited and fragmented manner. However a further analysis of these case studies provides valuable perspect...

Radikonyana, Paul Shimane

2013-01-01

148

Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Decay in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Experienced Children after Starting Mega-HAART  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing numbers of patients are treated with mega-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), or multiple-combination antiretroviral therapy, in an attempt to overcome the viral resistance that has contributed to treatment failure. Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral dynamics are used to quantify the potency of a given regimen. While mega-HAART is expected to provide potent therapy, its potency among heavily experienced HIV-infected children who have failed previous treat...

Plipat, Nottasorn; Ruan, Ping K.; Fenton, Terence; Yogev, Ram

2004-01-01

149

Alignment status of J-PARC main ring after the mega quake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In J-PARC, positions of magnets have been measured in every two years for the check of alignment status. The displacements of magnets measured in August 2010 remained still small since the full alignment in autumn 2007. The 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake happened in 11th March shook the ring for two minutes with seismic intensity six. We measured the magnet alignment status after the mega quake. (author)

2011-08-01

150

Patch definition in metapopulation analysis: a graph theory approach to solve the mega-patch problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The manner in which patches are delineated in spatially realistic metapopulation models will influence the size, connectivity, and extinction and recolonization dynamics of those patches. Most commonly used patch-definition methods focus on identifying discrete, contiguous patches of habitat from a single temporal observation of species occurrence or from a model of habitat suitability. However, these approaches are not suitable for many metapopulation systems where entire patches may not be fully colonized at a given time. For these metapopulation systems, a single large patch of habitat may actually support multiple, interacting subpopulations. The interactions among these subpopulations will be ignored if the patch is treated as a single unit, a situation we term the "mega-patch problem." Mega-patches are characterized by variable intra-patch synchrony, artificially low inter-patch connectivity, and low extinction rates. One way to detect this problem is by using time series data to calculate demographic synchrony within mega-patches. We present a framework for identifying subpopulations in mega-patches using a combination of spatial autocorrelation and graph theory analyses. We apply our approach to southern California giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests using a new, long-term (27 years), satellite-based data set of giant kelp canopy biomass. We define metapopulation patches using our method as well as several other commonly used patch delineation methodologies and examine the colonization and extinction dynamics of the metapopulation under each approach. We find that the relationships between patch characteristics such as area and connectivity and the demographic processes of colonizations and extinctions vary among the different patch-definition methods. Our spatial-analysis/graph-theoretic framework produces results that match theoretical expectations better than the other methods. This approach can be used to identify subpopulations in metapopulations where the distributions of organisms do not always reflect the distribution of suitable habitat. PMID:24669726

Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Siegel, David A; Raimondi, Peter T; Alberto, Filipe

2014-02-01

151

Handling technology of mega-watt millimeter-waves for optimized heating of fusion plasmas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Millimeter-wave components were re-examined for high power (Mega-Watt) and steady- state (greater than one hour) operation. Some millimeter-wave components, including waveguide joints, vacuum pumping sections, power monitors, sliding waveguides, and injection windows, have been improved for high power CW (Continuous Waves) transmission. To improve transmission efficiency, information about the wave phase and mode content of high power millimeter-waves propagating in corrugated waveguides, whi...

Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Idei, H.; Notake, T.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T. P.

2009-01-01

152

Trust, knowledge, and democracy. The public debate about Dutch mega-stables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the relationship between trust, knowledge and democracy. Using the public debate about a mega-stable in a small town in the Netherlands, we demonstrate the role of the media, and communication of research in establishing and loosing trust. We ask the following: how can local governments maintain, or regain trust amongst citizens when they deal with sensitive and knowledge intensive issues which trigger a lot of resistance and thus increase the risks of declining trust? I...

2009-01-01

153

A survey on medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Studying medicine consumption is a significant parameter in the estimation of the health care system of a country. This study evaluates the amount of medicine consumption in the mega cities of Iran and indentifies individual factors that influence this consumption.
Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey of public medicine consumption was directed at random samples that counted 628 persons of fi...

Mehdi Rahimpour; Kamelia Saremi; Elham Shirvani; Hosna Gomari; Mahmoud Rahimpour; Amin Niroumanesh; Soroush Sardari

2011-01-01

154

A Case with Mega Cisterna Magna Renal and Ear Anomalies: Is This a New Syndrome?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Extrarenal pathologies may be associated with renal position and fusion anomalies. According to the literature, our patient is the first horseshoe kidney case that had mega cisterna magna, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. Case Report. A 9-year-old boy admitted because of the myoclonic jerks. He had a dysmorphic face, low-set and cup-shaped ears, arachnodactyly, and mild mental retardation. The patient's laboratory findings were normal except for a mild leucocytosis and...

Konca, C?apan; Caliskan, Bahar; Tas, Mehmet Ali

2013-01-01

155

Low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPC's for the MEGA experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of MWPCs for the MEGA experiment at LAMPF are described. The chambers are cylindrical, low mass (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} radiation lengths), and are designed to operate at high rates (3 {times} 10{sup 4} /mm{sup 2}/s). Several novel construction techniques have been developed and custom electronics have been designed to help achieve the required performance, which corresponds to that needed at high luminosity colliders. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Mischke, R.E.; Armijo, V.; Black, J.K.; Bolton, R.D.; Carius, S.; Cooper, M.D.; Espinoza, C.; Hart, G.W.; Hogan, G.E.; Piilonen, L.E.; Sandoval, J.; Schilling, S.; Sena, J.; Stanislaus, S.; Suazo, G.; Szymanski, J.J.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Fisk, R.; Koetke, D.D.; Manweiler, R.W. (Valparaiso Univ., IN (USA)); Jui, C. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

1990-01-01

156

Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: Th...

2012-01-01

157

Low-mass, high-rate cylindrical MWPC's for the MEGA experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of MWPCs for the MEGA experiment at LAMPF are described. The chambers are cylindrical, low mass (3 x 10"-"4 radiation lengths), and are designed to operate at high rates (3 x 10"4 /mm"2/s). Several novel construction techniques have been developed and custom electronics have been designed to help achieve the required performance, which corresponds to that needed at high luminosity colliders. 4 refs., 3 figs

1990-08-02

158

MegaRibavirin Aerosol for the Treatment of Influenza A Virus Infections in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While newer neuraminidase inhibitors have been used recently to treat influenza A and B virus infections, emergence of drug resistance poses potential problems. Previous ribavirin aerosol treatments of influenza were effective and drug resistance was not observed. To make ribavirin aerosol treatment a quicker process and limited to once or twice daily treatments, a MegaRibavirin formulation (100 mg of ribavirin/mL) was developed that when used with the Aerotech II nebulizer was effective in p...

2008-01-01

159

Designing Liner Shipping Feeder Service Networks in the New Era of Mega Containerships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the new era of mega containerships, global containership liners design their transportation service as Hub-and-Spoke networks to improve the access to local transportation markets and to reduce operational costs by using short-sea connections for low-volume transportation lanes. These connections from the hub ports to the regional ports constitute the feeder network which is serviced by small or medium-sized feeder containerships. This study analyzes general characteristics of feeder servi...

Polat, Olcay

2013-01-01

160

Enhancement of plasmid-mediated transgene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of studies aimed at the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, allergic diseases, as well as muscle disorders strengthen the fact that gene therapy could represent an alternative method to treat human diseases where conventional approaches are less effective. To improve transgene expression from plasmid vectors, DNA nuclear targeting sequences (DTSs) can be introduced in a vector backbone to increase in vivo expression up to 20-fold using electroporation (EP) delivery in muscle tissue. The purpose of this chapter is to represent a step-by-step strategy for the construction of a plasmid vector with enhanced efficiency of nuclear plasmid uptake and the methodic for the in vivo efficiency evaluation of the obtained expression vector. PMID:24715279

Fioretti, Daniela; Iurescia, Sandra; Rinaldi, Monica

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid.

Klaus Braun, Leonie von Brasch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Volker Ehemann, Juergen Jenne, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Werner Rittgen, Waldemar Waldeck

2007-01-01

162

BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid.

Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

2007-01-01

163

A new free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A free vibration analysis method for space mega frames of super tall buildings is developed. The physical model of a mega frame is idealized as a three-dimensional assemblage of stiffened close-thin-walled tubes with continuously distributed mass and stiffness. One-variable functions defined on the nodal lines selected by the analyst are unknown functions (eigenfunctions) employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the model. By a Hamiltonian principle, the governing equations of the free vibration analysis can be obtained, which are a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) of the eigenfunctions with their corresponding boundary conditions. The desired vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration modes (eigenfunctions) can be obtained by numerically solving the system of ODEs with boundary conditions. The free vibration analysis also includes the coupling vibration modes of the collection composed by several nodal lines. The results from the illustration example show that the method is rational and powerful for the free vibration analysis of space-mega-frame systems.

2010-06-01

164

Trends in vehicular emissions in China's mega cities from 1995 to 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiyear inventories of vehicular emissions in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou from 1995 through 2005 have been developed in this paper to study the vehicle emissions trends in China's mega cities during the past decade. The results show that the vehicular emissions of CO, HC, NOx and PM10 have begun to slow their growth rates and perhaps even to decline in recent years due to the implementation of measures to control vehicular emissions in these cities. However, vehicular CO2 emissions have substantially increased and still continue to grow due to little fuel economy improvement. Passenger cars and large vehicles (including heavy duty trucks and buses) are the major sources of vehicular CO2 and CO emissions while large vehicles were responsible for nearly 70% and 80% of the vehicular NOx and PM10 emissions in these mega cities. Motorcycles are also important contributors to vehicular emissions in Guangzhou and Shanghai. - The vehicular emissions (except CO2) in China's mega cities have begun to slow their rates of growth and even to decline during the past decade.

2010-02-01

165

Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail a creation of an additional capacity of at least 100,000 MW. The Ultra Mega Power projects, each with a capacity of 4000 megawatts or above, are being developed with an aim to bridge this gap. The UMPPs are seen as an expansion of the MPP (Mega Power Projects projects that the Government of India undertook in the nineties but met with limited success. The Ministry of Power in association with Central Electricity Authority and Power Finance Corporation Ltd. has launched an initiative for development of coal-based UMPP's in India. These projects will be awarded to developers on the basis of competitive bidding.

M.K.Singh

2013-03-01

166

Mega-heatwave temperatures due to combined soil desiccation and atmospheric heat accumulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent European mega-heatwaves of 2003 and 2010 broke temperature records across Europe. Although events of this magnitude were unprecedented from a historical perspective, they are expected to become common by the end of the century. However, our understanding of extreme heatwave events is limited and their representation in climate models remains imperfect. Here we investigate the physical processes underlying recent mega-heatwaves using satellite and balloon measurements of land and atmospheric conditions from the summers of 2003 in France and 2010 in Russia, in combination with a soil-water-atmosphere model. We find that, in both events, persistent atmospheric pressure patterns induced land-atmosphere feedbacks that led to extreme temperatures. During daytime, heat was supplied by large-scale horizontal advection, warming of an increasingly desiccated land surface and enhanced entrainment of warm air into the atmospheric boundary layer. Overnight, the heat generated during the day was preserved in an anomalous kilometres-deep atmospheric layer located several hundred metres above the surface, available to re-enter the atmospheric boundary layer during the next diurnal cycle. This resulted in a progressive accumulation of heat over several days, which enhanced soil desiccation and led to further escalation in air temperatures. Our findings suggest that the extreme temperatures in mega-heatwaves can be explained by the combined multi-day memory of the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer.

Miralles, Diego G.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

2014-05-01

167

Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction  

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Full Text Available As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed.

Hyo Seon Park

2013-05-01

168

Evaluating the potential of the MegaSIMS for nuclear forensics  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear forensics investigates the illicit movement of nuclear materials. Measurements of uranium isotopic compositions are an important key as they permit provenance tracing and determination of intended use. Traditional secondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) are incapable of resolving 235UH from 236U due to the high mass resolving power (MRP ~38,000) needed, significantly limiting their ability to accurately measure 236U/235U, particularly for highly enriched uranium. This limitation can significantly inhibit the ability to establish details about enrichment processes. The MegaSIMS is a unique combination of SIMS and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and allows for molecular interference free measurements, while retaining the spatial resolution and ease of sample preparation common in SIMS analyses. The instrument was primarily designed to measure the oxygen isotope composition of the solar wind [1] and its capability for measuring high mass elements has not been evaluated previously. We evaluated the potential of the MegaSIMS by measuring 236U/235U without hydride interference. While preliminary results show abundance sensitivity of ~E-9 and an MRP of ~1,200 at the high mass side of 238 amu, precision is limited by the detector geometry and slow magnet switching. Future work will include developing electrostatic peak switching as well as refining the measurement precision and abundance sensitivity of the MegaSIMS for nuclear forensics. [1] McKeegan, Kallio, Heber, Jarzebinski, Mao, Coath, Kunihiro, Wiens, Nordholt, Moses Jr., Reisenfeld, Jurewicz, and Burnett, 2011. Science. 332, 1528-1532.

Boehnke, P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Coath, C. D.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Steele, R. C.; Harrison, M.

2013-12-01

169

Identificación de mega?ambientes para potenciar el uso de genotipos superiores de arroz en Panamá / Identifying mega?environments to enhance the use of superior rice genotypes in Panama  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar tres métodos para identificar mega?ambientes, para optimizar el uso del potencial genético de los cultivares de arroz, durante el proceso de selección, y para hacer recomendaciones sobre siembras comerciales en Panamá. Los datos experimentales fueron obtenidos [...] de los ensayos de productividad de cultivares precoces realizados entre 2006 y 2008. Para lograr la estratificación de los ambientes y definir los mega?ambientes, se utilizaron los métodos del genotipo vencedor mediante el modelo AMMI1, el modelo biplot GGE y el de conglomerado por el método de Ward, complementado con el biplot GGE. Los tres métodos utilizados identificaron dos mega?ambientes, donde los cultivares sobresalientes fueron Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145?05. Hubo una coincidencia de 100% en el agrupamiento del conglomerado x el biplot GGE, mientras que entre conglomerado x AMMI1 y biplot GGE x AMMI1 fue de 95,2%. El genotipo más estable, en ambos mega?ambientes, fue el cultivar Idiap 145?05, lo que indica capacidad de adaptación amplia y específica. La capacidad adaptativa de los genotipos superiores y no las condiciones agroclimáticas de las localidades evaluadas fue responsable de la definición de los mega?ambientes. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate three methods to identify mega?environments, in order to optimize the use of the genetic potential of rice cultivars during the selection process and to make recommendations for commercial plantations in Panama. Experimental data were obtained from the test [...] performance, between 2006 and 2008, for early maturing cultivars. To achieve the stratification of environments and define mega?environments, the winner genotype method by the AMMI1 model, GGE biplot model and cluster by Ward's method supplemented by GGE biplot were used. The three methods used identified two mega?environments, where the outstanding cultivars were Fedearroz 473 e Idiap 145?05. There was 100% coincidence in the grouping of the cluster x the GGE biplot, with 95.2% coincidence between the AMMI1 x cluster and GGE biplot x AMMI1. The most stable genotype, in both mega?environments, was the Idiap?145?05 cultivar, which indicates its broad and specific adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity of the superior genotypes and not the agroclimatic conditions of the assessed localities was responsible for defining the mega?environments.

Ismael, Camargo& #8209; Buitrago; Evelyn, Quirós& #8209; Mc Intire; Román, Gordón& #8209; Mendoza.

170

Plasmid Coded Halotolerance in Mangrove Soil Bacteria  

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Full Text Available Increasing salinity in the soil and irrigation water is a global concern of paramount importance especially to Pakistan. Isolation was carried out from soil samples of Mangrove area near `REHRI`, two isolates CMG350 (Staphylococcus saprophyticus and CMG351 (Pseudomonas paucimobilis were selected for further studies. Character halotolerance in both the isolates was plasmid born, as cured derivatives lost the character. Maximum accumulation of Na+ i.e., 12.5% was observed by CMG351 whereas 9.8% was observed by CMG350. Halotolerance was found associated with proteins encoded by plasmids.

Nuzhat Ahmed

2003-01-01

171

The minimal replicon of a streptomycete plasmid produces an ultrahigh level of plasmid DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A functional map of Streptomyces coelicolor plasmid SCP2* was deduced from derivatives constructed by in vitro deletions. Functions were analyzed on bifunctional shuttle plasmids that contained pBR322 for selection and replication in Escherichia coli and fragments of SCP2* for replication in Streptomyces griseofuscus C581 and strains of Streptomyces lividans. The aph gene for neomycin resistance from Streptomyces fradiae and the tsr gene for thiostrepton resistance from Streptomyces azureus were incorporated as selectable antibiotic resistance markers in streptomycetes. An 11.8-kb sequence bounded by EcoRI and KpnI restriction sites contains the information for self-transfer and normal replication of the plasmid. A 5.9-kb EcoRI-SalI fragment contains all of the information for normal replication. Partial digestion generated a 2.2-kb Sau3A fragment that is sufficient for replication but it produces ten times higher plasmid copy number than the basic replicon. pHJL400 and PHJL401 are useful shuttle vectors containing the moderate-copy-number streptomycete plasmid combined with the E. coli plasmid pUC19. A 1.4-kb BclI-Sau3A fragment with an additional internal BclI site contains the minimal replicon but it produces 1000 times higher plasmid copy number than the basic replicon. pHJL302 is a useful shuttle vector containing the ultrahigh-copy-number streptomycete plasmid combined with the E. coli plasmid pUC19. PMID:3012613

Larson, J L; Hershberger, C L

1986-05-01

172

Characterization of the nodulation plasmid encoded chemoreceptor gene mcpG from Rhizobium leguminosarum  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, chemotaxis in Rhizobium has not been well characterized. Methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins are sensory proteins important in chemotaxis of numerous bacteria, but their involvement in Rhizobium chemotaxis is unclear and merits further investigation. Results A putative methyl accepting chemotaxis protein gene (mcpG of Rhizobium leguminosarum VF39SM was isolated and characterized. The gene was found to reside on the nodulation plasmid, pRleVF39d. The predicted mcpG ORF displayed motifs common to known methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, such as two transmembrane domains and high homology to the conserved methylation and signaling domains of well-characterized MCPs. Phenotypic analysis of mcpG mutants using swarm plates did not identify ligands for this putative receptor. Additionally, gene knockouts of mcpG did not affect a mutant strain's ability to compete for nodulation with the wild type. Notably, mcpG was found to be plasmid-encoded in all strains of R. leguminosarum and R. etli examined, though it was found on the nodulation plasmid only in a minority of strains. Conclusions Based on sequence homology R. leguminosarum mcpG gene codes for a methyl accepting chemotaxis protein. The gene is plasmid localized in numerous Rhizobium spp. Although localized to the sym plasmid of VF39SM mcpG does not appear to participate in early nodulation events. A ligand for McpG remains to be found. Apparent McpG orthologs appear in a diverse range of proteobacteria. Identification and characterization of mcpG adds to the family of mcp genes already identified in this organism.

Del Bel Kate L

2003-01-01

173

Hairy-root-inducing plasmid: physical map and homology to tumor-inducing plasmids.  

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A physical map was constructed for the 250-kilobase plasmid pRiA4b, which confers the virulence properties of a strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for hairy root disease in plants. The complete HindIII and KpnI restriction map was determined from a collection of overlapping HindIII partial digest clones. Homologous regions with two well-characterized plasmids that confer virulence for crown gall disease, plasmids pTiA6 and pTiT37, were mapped on pRiA4b. As much as 160 kilobases of pRiA4b had ...

1984-01-01

174

Isolation of uvrA mutation on a multicopy plasmid: preliminary characterization of the mutant protein.  

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A new uvrA mutation (uvrA276) has been isolated on a multicopy plasmid and shown to reside within the region of the uvrA gene defined by the KpnI to SalI endonuclease sites. The protein produced by the uvrA276 mutant gene is identical in size to the wild-type protein and binds to single-stranded DNA under the same conditions as the wild-type protein. However, extracts prepared from strains containing this mutant are deficient at incision of DNA that has been irradiated with UV light.

Lorensen, E.; Masker, W. E.; Chase, J. W.

1984-01-01

175

Isolation and characterization of cryptic plasmids from filamentous, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many filamentous, nonheterocystous, N/sub 2/-fixing cyanobacteria from the LPP group contain cryptic plasmids. Plasmid number and size were determined as well as sequence homologies among independent strains of the same species, and different species. Only a few studied have been carried out to determine plasmid profiles in filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. Also, sequence homologies between plasmids have been examined only in the unicellular organisms. Using both liquid and solid BG-11 culture media, various strain specific, rapid, small-scale plasmid isolation procedures have been developed. These include lysozyme/SDS incubations, phenol and chloroform extractions, and an isopropanol precipitation. Resuspended pellets were electrophoresed on agarose gels, providing a quick and accurate method of determining plasmid size and number. Several endogenous plasmids have been isolated, cloned, and mapped through restriction enzyme digestion. These clones were used in Southern hybridizations to determine sequence homologies between plasmids of several strains and species.

Felkner, R.H.; Barnum, S.R.

1986-04-01

176

Plasmid associated with pathogenicity and calcium dependency of Yersinia enterocolitica.  

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Studies of the virulence and plasmid properties of Yersinia enterocolitica revealed a plasmid, 42.2 +/- 1.1 megadaltons in size, which is associated with the pathogenicity and calcium dependency of this organism.

Gemski, P.; Lazere, J. R.; Casey, T.

1980-01-01

177

Plasmid resistance to ampicillin in Salmonella typhi.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Salmonella typhi strain resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and sulfonamides was isolated in Catania in 1988. It has been shown that these resistances were encoded by an auto-transferable R-plasmid, of molecular weight 70 Md, belonging to the incompatibility group B. PMID:2102113

Marranzano, M; D'Angelo, M; Agodi, A; Santangelo, C

1990-01-01

178

Nonrandom cotransformation by related plasmids in streptococcus pheumoniae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gene cloning in gram positive bacterial systems is of increasing interest and it would be helpful to know how plasmid DNA transforms recipient cells. A highly nonrandom cotransformation by related plasmids that is readily explainable and may be expected to show up frequently in other systems has been found. Control experiments with unrelated plasmids were significant in showing that essentially all the cells were competent for plasmid transformation. (ACR)

Saunders, C.W.; Hageman, J.; Guild, W.R.

1981-01-01

179

Physical map of the conjugal plasmid of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

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The 24.5-megadalton plasmid of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is required for transfer of R-factors and possibly chromosomal markers during conjugal matings between gonococcal strains. We constructed a physical map of one such plasmid, pLE2451, using EcoRI, BglII, and HincII site-specific restriction endonucleases. The patterns of deoxyribonucleic acid digestion obtained with this plasmid were identical to those obtained with three other plasmids of similar size.

Tenover, F. C.; Mayer, L. W.; Young, F. E.

1980-01-01

180

Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in Haemophilus ducreyi.  

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Clinical isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi were shown to be resistant to tetracycline. Resistance was associated in some strains with a 30-megadalton plasmid capable of transferring resistance in conjugative matings with other strains of H. ducreyi and other species of Haemophilus. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns suggest a relationship between H. ducreyi plasmids and other tetracycline resistance plasmids in Haemophilus. The presence of plasmid-mediated resistance to the tetracyclin...

Albritton, W. L.; Maclean, I. W.; Slaney, L. A.; Ronald, A. R.; Deneer, H. G.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Plasmid Replicon Typing of Commensal and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates?  

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Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escheric...

Johnson, Timothy J.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Sara J.; Logue, Catherine M.; White, David G.; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K.

2007-01-01

182

The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance  

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Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance represents a significant public health problem. When resistance genes are mobile, being carried on plasmids or phages, their spread can be greatly accelerated. Plasmids in particular have been implicated in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the selective pressures which favour plasmid-carried resistance genes have not been fully established. Here we address this issue with mathematical models of plasmid dynamics in r...

2011-01-01

183

Self-transmissible plasmid in Zymomonas mobilis carrying antibiotic resistance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cryptic plasmid pRUT41 from Zymomonas mobilis was examined for its biological properties. This plasmid was found to be conjugally transferred from Z. mobilis CP4 to Escherichia coli BM21 and to carry genes for antibiotic resistance (gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). Covalently closed circular plasmid DNA was isolated from eight transconjugants of E. coli BM21. These plasmids were identical in mobility on agarose gels and exhibited the same restriction patterns as the native pRUT41...

Walia, S. K.; Carey, V. C.; All, B. P.; Ingram, L. O.

1984-01-01

184

Deep Sequencing Reveals Complex Spurious Transcription from Transiently Transfected Plasmids  

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Transient plasmid transfection is a common approach in studies in cultured mammalian cells. To examine behavior of transfected plasmids, we analyzed their transcriptional landscape by deep sequencing. We have found that the entire plasmid sequence is transcribed at different levels. Spurious transcription may have undesirable effects as some plasmids, when co-transfected, inhibited expression of luciferase reporters in a dose-dependent manner. In one case, we attributed this effect to a Kan/N...

Nejepinska, Jana; Malik, Radek; Moravec, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

2012-01-01

185

Homology of mycoplasma plasmid pADB201 and staphylococcal plasmid pE194.  

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The complete nucleotide sequence of pADB201, a 1.7-kilobase cryptic plasmid from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, is reported. The sequence contains a single large open reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide of up to 198 codons long. The sequence of the putative polypeptide shows significant similarity to that of the repF gene product of staphylococcal plasmid pE194.

1989-01-01

186

Isolation and screening of plasmids from the epilithon which mobilize recombinant plasmid pD10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the potential of bacteria from river epilithon to mobilize a recombinant catabolic plasmid, pD10, encoding 3-chlorobenzoate degradation and kanamycin resistance. Fifty-four mobilizing plasmids were exogenously isolated by triparental matings between strains of Pseudomonas putida and epilithic bacteria from the River Taff (South Wales, United Kingdom). Frequencies for mobilization ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} per recipient at 20C. The sizes of the mobilizing plasmids isolated ranged from 40 kb to over 200 kb, and 19 of 54 were found to encode mercury resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance from 40 kb to over 200 kb, and 19 of 54 were found to encode mercury resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was also found but not resistance to UV light or various heavy metals. Eight plasmids of epilithic bacteria, analyzed by comparing restriction fragmentation patterns, showed significant differences between those isolated from different independent matings. Optimal temperatures for mobilization of pD10 were between 15 and 25C. Four mercury resistance plasmids were found to be broad host range, transferring mercury resistance and mobilizing pD10 readily to representative species of {beta}- and {gamma}-purple bacteria. In general, frequencies of pD10 mobilization by plasmids of epilithic bacteria were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than conjugal transfer frequencies. Thus, there is a high potential for exchange of recombinant genes introduced into the epilithon by mobilization between a variety of bacterial species.

Hill, K.E.; Weightman, A.J.; Fry, J.C. (Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom))

1992-04-01

187

Demonstration of plasmid-mediated drug resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid-mediated kanamycin resistance was detected in a strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii responsible for a nationwide epidemic of surgical infections in Brazil. The plasmid did not influence susceptibility to tobramycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, or ciprofloxacin. Plasmid-mediated drug resistance has not been described so far in mycobacteria. PMID:24574286

Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Bispo, Paulo José Martins; Santin, Katiane; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

2014-05-01

188

Compositional discordance between prokaryotic plasmids and host chromosomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Most plasmids depend on the host replication machinery and possess partitioning genes. These properties confine plasmids to a limited range of hosts, yielding a close and presumably stable relationship between plasmid and host. Hence, it is anticipated that due to amelioration the dinucleotide composition of plasmids is similar to that of the genome of their hosts. However, plasmids are also thought to play a major role in horizontal gene transfer and thus are frequently exchanged between hosts, suggesting dinucleotide composition dissimilarity between plasmid and host genome. We compared the dinucleotide composition of a large collection of plasmids with that of their host genomes to shed more light on this enigma. Results The dinucleotide frequency, coined the genome signature, facilitates the identification of putative horizontally transferred DNA in complete genome sequences, since it was found to be typical for a certain genome, and similar between related species. By comparison of the genome signature of 230 plasmid sequences with that of the genome of each respective host, we found that in general the genome signature of plasmids is dissimilar from that of their host genome. Conclusion Our results show that the genome signature of plasmids does not resemble that of their host genome. This indicates either absence of amelioration or a less stable relationship between plasmids and their host. We propose an indiscriminate lifestyle for plasmids preserving the genome signature discordance between these episomes and host chromosomes.

van Kampen Antoine HC

2006-02-01

189

Burnout among Dutch medical residents  

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Medical residents (doctors in training to become medical specialists) fulfill an important role in the Dutch healthcare system. They take their share of responsibility for efficient patient care in hospitals, mental healthcare centres, rehabilitation centres and other medical institutions. Medical residents see the period of training for medical specialist as a valuable phase in their lives. It is a phase in which finding a balance between training, work and private life plays an important pa...

Prins, Jelle Tjitse

2009-01-01

190

The Resident-Appraisal Profile  

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The author describes a method for developing a formative evaluation process in a family-medicine program, using the real practice environment and computer tools. Earlier evaluation processes suffered from a lack of credibility on the part of residents and teachers. Incorporating evaluation into daily experience directs the supervisor's attention to discrete aspects of the resident-patient contact and encourages feedback. The statistical validity and reliability of this process remain to be te...

Ellison, Philip

1987-01-01

191

Residency effects in animal contests.  

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The question of why territorial residents usually win asymmetrical owner-intruder contests is critical to our understanding of animal contest evolution. Game theory suggests that, under certain conditions, residency could be used as an arbitrary means of contest settlement in a manner analogous to tossing a coin. Key empirical support for this idea is provided by a study on the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria); however, this result has proven controversial. We show conclusively that ...

Kemp, Darrell J.; Wiklund, Christer

2004-01-01

192

Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc. of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5 of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Results Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1% declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00, followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00 and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00. On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively. Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. Conclusions This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

Marwan Yousef

2013-01-01

193

U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

A legal permanent resident (LPR) or green card recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United States. Permanent resident status confers certain rights and responsibilities. For example, LP...

J. Yankay R. Monger

2012-01-01

194

Novel plasmid combinations in Haemophilus ducreyi isolates from Thailand.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi collected in Thailand in 1984 were characterized by plasmid content. Three novel plasmids with estimated molecular masses of 1.8, 2.6, and 2.8 MDa were observed in 29 isolates, in addition to the 3.2-, 5.7-, and 7.0-MDa beta-lactamase and 4.4-MDa sulfonamide resistance plasmids. At least three of the seven plasmids were observed in each of the 29 isolates. The number and diversity of plasmids observed in these isolates of H. ducreyi distinguish them from...

Sarafian, S. K.; Johnson, S. R.; Thomas, M. L.; Knapp, J. S.

1991-01-01

195

Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

1999-01-01

196

Mega compartment complex in the Anadarko basin: A completely sealed overpressured phenomenon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated pressure, potentiometric, and geologic data demonstrate the existence of a basin-wide, completely sealed overpressured compartment in the Anadarko basin. All reservoirs within this complex exhibit pressure gradients ranging form 0.6 to 0.98 psi/feet, which exceeds the normal gradient of 0.465 psi/feet. These reservoirs have produced large quantities of natural gas, particularly from the Pennsylvanian Red Fork and Morrowan sandstones. This mega compartment complex is enclosed by top, bottom, and lateral seals. The top seal, which is located between 8,500 and 11,000 feet below the surface, is relatively horizontal, dips slightly to the southwest, and appears to cut across stratigraphy. However, the basal seal is stratigraphically controlled and seems to coincide with the Devonian Woodford Shale. The complex is laterally sealed to the south by the Wichita Mountain uplift frontal fault zone and by the convergence of the top and basal seals along the eastern, northern, and western boundaries. Nested within this complex is a myriad of smaller compartments with their own distinct pressure gradients. In addition, local overpressured compartments are present outside the mega compartment complex in normal and near-normal pressured regions. Significant gas fields producing from the Morrow and Red Fork horizons are considered nested compartments within the mega compartment complex. The Southwest Leedey field contains a stratigraphically and/or lithologically sealed Red Fork sandstone compartment. The Upper Morrowan chert conglomerate reservoirs in the Cheyenne field area comprise a compartment with a distinct lateral seal associated with the frontal fault zone of the Wichita Mountain uplift.

Al-Shaieb, Z.; Puckette, J.; Ely, P.; Abdalla, A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

1991-03-01

197

Seismic Regime in the Vicinity of the 2011 Tohoku Mega Earthquake (Japan, M w = 9)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake (M w = 9) is unique due to a combination of its large magnitude and the high level of detail of regional seismic data. The authors analyzed the seismic regime in the vicinity of this event using data from the Japan Meteorological Agency catalog and world databases. It was shown that a regional decrease in b-value and of the number of main shocks took place in the 6-7 years prior to the Tohoku mega earthquake. The space-time area of such changes coincided with the development of precursor effects in this area, as revealed by uc(Lyubushin) (Geofiz Prots Biosfera 10:9-35, 2011) from the analysis of microseisms recorded by the broadband seismic network F-net in Japan. The combination of episodes of growth in the number of earthquakes, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the b-value and average depth of the earthquakes, was observed for the foreshock and aftershock sequences of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Some of these anomalies were similar to those observed (also post factum) by uc(Katsumata) (Earth Planets Space 63:709-712, 2011), uc(Nanjo) et al. (Geophys Res Lett 39, 2012), and uc(Huang) and uc(Ding) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1878-1883, 2012), whereas others were not described before. The correlation of the periods of growth in seismic activity with the decrease of the average depth of earthquakes can be explained by the growth of fluid activity and the tendency of a penetration of low density fluids into the upper horizons of the lithosphere. The unexpectedly strong Tohoku mega earthquake with a rather small rupture area caused an unexpectedly high tsunami wave. From here it seems plausible that M9+ earthquakes with a large tsunami could occur in other subduction zones where such cases were suggested before to be impossible.

Rodkin, M. V.; Tikhonov, I. N.

2014-01-01

198

Topographic and road control of mega-gullies in Kinshasa (DR Congo)  

Science.gov (United States)

Diachronic mapping (1957, 1967, 2007 and 2010) shows an exponentially growing mega-gully network since roads were constructed through in the forests and plantations which occupied the sandy soils of the high town of Kinshasa. We found that the spatial occurrence of the mega-gullies (width ? 5 m) in this newly urbanized environment is controlled by two factors. First, there is a topographic control, given by the relation S = 0.00008A- 1.459, with S being the slope gradient (m m- 1) of the soil surface at the gully head and A the drainage area (ha) above the head. There is also a ‘road’ control, expressed by S = 22.991Lc- 1.999, with Lc being the cumulated length of roads in the basin above the gully head. The co-existence of both controls reflects the fact that the local sands are highly permeable and hence roads are more important generators of continuous runoff. The S-A relation noted above should not be applied outside the town where the road network is less dense. In contrast, the S-Lc relation may be used in both the town and rural areas underlain by porous soils where roads are the only generators of continuous runoff. We further conclude that the high town of Kinshasa is one of the most vulnerable places for gullying, and gullying can potentially transform the town into a badland. ‘Artisanal’ gully treatment is more successful than generally believed and the S-Lc relation can be a tool for mega-gully prevention.

Makanzu Imwangana, Fils; Dewitte, Olivier; Ntombi, Médard; Moeyersons, Jan

2014-07-01

199

Patient dose and image quality from mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of ever more conformal radiation delivery techniques makes the subject of accurate localization of increasing importance in radiotherapy. Several systems can be utilized including kilo-voltage and mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT), CT on rail or helical tomography. One of the attractive aspects of mega-voltage cone-beam CT is that it uses the therapy beam along with an electronic portal imaging device to image the patient prior to the delivery of treatment. However, the use of a photon beam energy in the mega-voltage range for volumetric imaging degrades the image quality and increases the patient radiation dose. To optimize image quality and patient dose in MV-CBCT imaging procedures, a series of dose measurements in cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms using an ionization chamber, radiographic films, and thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed. Furthermore, the dependence of the contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the image upon the dose delivered for a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom was evaluated. Depending on the anatomical site and patient thickness, we found that the minimum dose deposited in the irradiated volume was 5-9 cGy and the maximum dose was between 9 and 17 cGy for our clinical MV-CBCT imaging protocols. Results also demonstrated that for high contrast areas such as bony anatomy, low doses are sufficient for image registration and visualization of the three-dimensional boundaries between soft tissue and bony structures. However, as the difference in tissue density decreased, the dose required to identify soft tissue boundaries increased. Finally, the dose delivered by MV-CBCT was simulated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thereby allowing the incorporation of MV-CBCT dose in the treatment planning process. The TPS-calculated doses agreed well with measurements for a wide range of imaging protocols

2007-02-01

200

Patient dose and image quality from mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of ever more conformal radiation delivery techniques makes the subject of accurate localization of increasing importance in radiotherapy. Several systems can be utilized including kilo-voltage and mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT), CT on rail or helical tomography. One of the attractive aspects of mega-voltage cone-beam CT is that it uses the therapy beam along with an electronic portal imaging device to image the patient prior to the delivery of treatment. However, the use of a photon beam energy in the mega-voltage range for volumetric imaging degrades the image quality and increases the patient radiation dose. To optimize image quality and patient dose in MV-CBCT imaging procedures, a series of dose measurements in cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms using an ionization chamber, radiographic films, and thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed. Furthermore, the dependence of the contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the image upon the dose delivered for a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom was evaluated. Depending on the anatomical site and patient thickness, we found that the minimum dose deposited in the irradiated volume was 5-9 cGy and the maximum dose was between 9 and 17 cGy for our clinical MV-CBCT imaging protocols. Results also demonstrated that for high contrast areas such as bony anatomy, low doses are sufficient for image registration and visualization of the three-dimensional boundaries between soft tissue and bony structures. However, as the difference in tissue density decreased, the dose required to identify soft tissue boundaries increased. Finally, the dose delivered by MV-CBCT was simulated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thereby allowing the incorporation of MV-CBCT dose in the treatment planning process. The TPS-calculated doses agreed well with measurements for a wide range of imaging protocols. PMID:17388167

Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S; Johnson, Mark; Miften, Moyed

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ultra Mega Power Projects: Additional Re-Structural Capacity to Existing Indian Grid System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The demand for power in India is ever increasing, as industrial sector is one of the largest consumers of electrical energy in India. More and more efforts are made by the Government every year to overcome this problem. Ultra Mega Power projects (UMPP) are a series of ambitious power projects planned by the Government of India. With India being a country of chronic power deficit, the Government of India has planned to provide 'power for all' by the end of the eleventh plan. This would entail ...

2013-01-01

202

Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

2013-12-01

203

Megalencephaly, mega corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development: delineation of a rare syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC), callosal hypertrophy is a rare neuroimaging finding with only few reported patients. The "megalencephaly, mega CC, and complete lack of motor development" syndrome is morphologically characterized by generalized megalencephaly, a thickened CC, and extensive polymicrogyria causing a pachygyric appearance. We report on the fifth patient showing this rare syndrome, a 3-year-old girl displaying the typical neuroimaging features. Clinically she showed a severely impaired motor, mental, and speech development with marked muscular hypotonia but no dysmorphic facial signs. She also retained the ability to move by rolling sidewards so that complete lack of motor development may not be a consistent feature. PMID:20803648

Hengst, Meike; Tücke, Jens; Zerres, Klaus; Blaum, Marcus; Häusler, Martin

2010-09-01

204

Development of a hardened imaging system for the Laser MegaJoule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ facility will host inertial confinement fusion experiments in order to achieve ignition by imploding a Deuterium-Tritium microballoon. In this context an X-ray imager is necessary to diagnose the core size and shape of the DT-target in the 10–100?keV band in complement of neutron imaging system. Such a diagnostic will be composed of two parts: an X-ray optical system and a detection assembly. Each element will be affected by the harsh environment created by fusion reactions.

Rousseau A.

2013-11-01

205

Sinapinic acid clusters distribution from monomer to mega Dalton's region in MALDI process  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we report the first complete sinapinic acid clusters distribution from monomer to mega Dalton's region by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). A decrease of eight orders in intensity was observed from monomer ion to 10 000-mer ion. The results fit to the model of laser ablation induced desorption process with bimodal power-law dependence. In addition, the detailed measurements on the populations of different sizes of clusters can provide some insight of different models of the mechanism for MALDI.

Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chang, Kuang-Hua; Lin, Jung-Lee; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

2013-03-01

206

Method to integrate multiple plasmids into the mycobacterial chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to create a system in which two independent plasmids can be integrated into a mycobacterial chromosome, a mycobacterial plasmid was constructed containing the phage attachment site attP from the mycobacteriophage L5 genome and additionally containing the bacterial attachment site, attB. This plasmid will integrate into the mycobacterial chromosome via recombination of the plasmid-borne attP site with the chromosomal attB site in the presence of a mycobacterial vector carrying the L5 integrase (int) gene. The integrated plasmid has a plasmid-borne attB site that is preserved and will accept the integration of additional mycobacterial plasmids containing the L5 attP site. This system should be useful in the construction of novel mycobacterial strains. In particular, this system provides a method by which several recombinant antigens or reporter constructs can be sequentially inserted into a mycobacterial strain and subsequently tested. PMID:14718555

Saviola, Beatrice; Bishai, William R

2004-01-01

207

Plasmid-mediated NAD independence in Haemophilus parainfluenzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The location of the genes coding for NAD independence in four unusual clinical isolates of Haemophilus parainfluenzae was determined by transferring these genes to plasmid-free Haemophilus influenzae Rd by transformation and analysing transformants for the presence of plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis. All NAD-independent transformants were found to carry a single plasmid species. The plasmids, originally harboured by the four H. parainfluenzae isolates recovered from unrelated sources, were of the same size (5.25 kb). Spontaneous reversion to NAD dependence occurred with a low frequency (0.1 to 0.2% of the progeny of a single clone) in both H. parainfluenzae and H. influenzae Rd. The revertants had lost this small plasmid. Mitomycin C exhibited a plasmid 'curing' effect with a frequency of 'curing' of between 1 and 6% of the surviving clones. It was concluded that the genes conferring NAD independence were located on the small 5.25 kb plasmid. PMID:1770356

Windsor, H M; Gromkova, R C; Koornhof, H J

1991-10-01

208

Role of Plasmid in Production of Acetobacter Xylinum Biofilms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetobacter xylinum has the ability to produce cellulotic biofilms. Bacterial cellulose is expected to be used in many industrial or biomedical materials for its unique characteristics. A. xylinum contains a complex system of plasmid DNA molecules. A 44 kilobases (kb plasmid was isolated in wild type of A. xylinum. To improve the cellulose producing ability of A. xylinum, role of the plasmid in production of cellulose was studied. The comparisons between wild type and cured cells of A. xylinum showed that there is considerably difference in cellulose production. In order to study the relationship between plasmid and the rate of cellulose production, bacteria were screened for plasmid profile by a modified method for preparation of plasmid. This method yields high levels of pure plasmid DNA that can be used for common molecular techniques, such as digestion and transformation, with high efficiency.

Abbas Rezaee

2005-01-01

209

Pathway of plasmid transformation in pneumococcus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmids transform Streptococcus pneumoniae by a process involving low efficiency assembly of replicons from fragments of single strands that have entered the cell separately. Transformation of preexisting replicons is much more efficient. We have cloned the erm gene of pIP501 into pMV158, which so far as we know is the first example of cloning in a pneumococcus host-vector system.

Guild, W.R.; Saunders, C.W.

1981-01-01

210

Rapid extraction of plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two rapid methods were evaluated for their extraction of plasmids from Clostridium perfringens. The first method involved lysis of 1 to 2 ml of C. perfringens culture by treatment with hyaluronidase, lysozyme, and sarcosyl. DNA, extracted with phenol-chloroform, was treated with RNase, boiled, and electrophoresed in a 1.2% agarose gel. The second method involved lysis of 2 ml of culture by lysozyme treatment and extraction with alkaline sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Extracted DNA was treated ...

1986-01-01

211

Plasmid Coded Halotolerance in Mangrove Soil Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing salinity in the soil and irrigation water is a global concern of paramount importance especially to Pakistan. Isolation was carried out from soil samples of Mangrove area near `REHRI`, two isolates CMG350 (Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and CMG351 (Pseudomonas paucimobilis) were selected for further studies. Character halotolerance in both the isolates was plasmid born, as cured derivatives lost the character. Maximum accumulation of Na+ i.e., 12.5% was observed by CMG...

Nuzhat Ahmed; Fehmida Fasim; Zafar Nawaz; Qureshi, Fouad M.

2003-01-01

212

Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

Sergey Karpov

2013-01-01

213

Mega-project planning and economic welfare: a case study of British Columbia's North East Coal Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose is to study the characteristics of natural resource mega-project planning processes. The implications of staple theory and selected characteristics of natural resource mega- projects are used to construct eleven characteristics of such planning processes. These planning process characteristics are examined in a case study of British Columbia's North East Coal Project (BCNECP). The major planning issues are identified. The findings support many of the eleven proposed characteristics of natural resource planning processes. 281 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs.

Knight, N. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Community and Regional Planning)

1990-12-01

214

Kinetics of resid hydrotreating reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five resids from the Middle East and China have been hydrotreated in a pilot plant, which has three fixed-bed reactors in series. Six commercial catalysts were tested. The process conditions were 12.0-16.8MPa, 370-405C, LHSV of 0.15-1.0h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/oil ratio of 400-1000nm{sup 3}m{sup -3}. The feedstocks included the following Chinese resids Shengli, Xinjiang and Liaohe. Kinetic parameters of resid hydrotreating reactions were calculated in terms of pore diffusion resistance and were correlated with some special properties of oils and catalysts. This study supplies important basic data for the selection of catalysts, for the design of composite catalyst beds and for the optimization of process conditions

Chang, Jie; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Dadong [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (PIPP) P.O. Box 914-17, Beijing 100083 (China)

1998-08-27

215

Research on Mega-Math: Discrete mathematics and computer science for children. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the subcontract was to provide further research on the approach to mathematics education embodied in the workbook ``This is Mega-Mathematics!`` essentially produced under the subcontract and its preceding informal (alas!) cooperative arrangements. The workbook is now widely and freely distributed on the Internet under the copyright of the Los Alamos National Labs. This research was to consist of: (1) the development and dissemination of materials, (2) experimentation with use of the materials in classroom visits and other events, (3) communication of the ideas embodied in the materials to various forums concerned with mathematics education reform, (4) the development of connections to the computer games industry, (5) the development of new workbook-type materials, (6) publications, (7) the development of connections to Science Museums, (8) the development of uses of the Internet to make MegaMath materials and ideas available through that medium, (9) the stimulation of and coordination with other projects in mathematics education reform. All of these objectives have been accomplished in what should be regarded as one of the most interesting and cost-effective projects ever undertaken in mathematics education, a testimony to the vision and creative imagination of the Los Alamos Labs.

Fellows, M.R. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

1995-06-26

216

Sustainable Science? Reducing the Carbon Impact of Scientific Mega-Meetings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientists across the globe recognize the importance of reducing carbon emissions to combat climate change.  At the same time, we have increased our carbon footprint through air travel to the growing number of scientific society “mega-meetings” that host thousands of attendees.  Although alternative solutions have been proposed to reduce the environmental impact of annual conferences, these have yet to be evaluated against the business-as-usual scenario.  Here, we use 9 years of annual meeting attendance data from the Ecological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers to assess the efficacy of two additional solutions: 1 alternate large national meetings that require significant air travel with smaller regional meetings that do not; and 2 incorporate geography into the meeting location selection process.  The carbon footprint of annual mega-meetings ranged 3-fold, from 1196-4062 metric tons of CO2.  Results indicate that an alternating schedule of national and regional meetings can reduce conference-related CO2 emissions up to 73%, while improved spatial planning may result in further reductions.  We discuss the benefits and tradeoffs of proposals to green scientific meetings, with a view to spark further debate on how to increase the sustainability of scientific conferences.

Alexandra G. Ponette-González

2011-01-01

217

Photon detector for MEGA. Final report, July 16, 1992--May 31, 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past year, we have continued our work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83 MeV photon produced in a ? ? e? decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm2, a directional resolution of 10 degree, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. (All quoted resolutions are FWHM.) It consists of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin (0.045 radiation lengths each) Pb foils to convert photons into e+e- pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers have three drift chamber layers to track the e+e- pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer has four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons such as those from the ?0 ? 2? decay

1993-01-01

218

Photon detector for MEGA. Final report, July 16, 1992--May 31, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past year, we have continued our work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos. The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83 MeV photon produced in a {pi} {yields} e{gamma} decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 {times} 5 mm{sup 2}, a directional resolution of 10{degree}, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. (All quoted resolutions are FWHM.) It consists of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin (0.045 radiation lengths each) Pb foils to convert photons into e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs. The two smaller pair spectrometers have three drift chamber layers to track the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs and thereby determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The third pair spectrometer has four layers of drift chamber, together with a larger turning region, to provide better tracking information for high energy photons such as those from the {pi}{sup 0} {yields} 2{gamma} decay.

Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

1993-12-31

219

Design and optimization of MeV class Compton scattering MEGa-ray sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. A new precision source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energies, enabled by state of the art laser and x-band linac technologies, is currently being built at LLNL. Various aspects of the theoretical design, including dose and brightness optimization, will be presented. In particular, while it is known that nonlinear effects occur in such light sources when the laser normalized potential is close to unity, we show that these can appear at lower values of the potential. A three dimensional analytical model and numerical benchmarks have been developed to model the source characteristics, including nonlinear spectra. Since MEGa-ray sources are being developed for precision applications such as nuclear resonance fluorescence, assessing spectral broadening mechanisms is essential. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Albert, Felicie; Anderson, S. G.; Betts, S. M.; Cross, R. R.; Ebbers, C. A.; Houck, T. L.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Siders, C. W.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Barty, C. P. J.

2010-11-01

220

Estudo das vias biliares extrahepáticas em pacientes portadores de "megas" chagásieos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 22 pacientes internados no Hospital das Clinicas da F. M. U. F. Pe e portadores de "megas" chagásicos. cuja etiologia foi comprovada através de pesquisas epidemiológicas, clínicas e laboratoriais, realizamos a colecisto-colangiografia intravenosa. Verificamos em 21 enfermos a vesícula e o colédoc [...] o com topografia, morfologia e dmãmica normais. Em apenas um doente encontramos a vesícula bastante aumentada de volume e o coledoco de calibre dilatado, sem imagem de cálculo no seu interior. O tempo de esvaziamento colédoco-duodeno muito prolongado, sugeriu alterações motoras. Abstract in english The Author reports the results of his studies with intravenous cholecystocho­langiography in the chronic stages of Chagas' disease, specially in "megas" - megaesophagus and megacolon. The research was performed in the Hospital das Clinicas of the University Federal of Pernambuco, Brazil, in out-pati [...] ents from endemic areas. The diagnosis was established by strongly positive complement fixation test for Chagas disease (Guerreiro & Machado's test); roentgenologic changes of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary ducts were considered.

Huggins, Donald.

 
 
 
 
221

The mega-Gray-level glucose dosimeter using optical rotation change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dosimetric characteristics of glucose dosimeter based on the radiation induced change in optical rotation of D-glucose solution was studied for the high-dose dosimetry at mega-Gray level. D-glucose solution of 20 wt% concentration was used for dosimeter solution. The optical rotation of solution is independent of the temperature of solution during measurement in the range of 5 to 30 deg C and stable for a long period at room temperature before and after irradiation. Radiation induced optical rotation change also does not depend on the temperature during irradiation in the range of 25 to 50 deg C. Glucose dosimeter was found to be very reproducible in mega-Gray level and covers high dose range from 0.01 to 4.30 MGy within the accuracy of ± 4 %. As to the radiation chemical mechanism, the optical rotation change of glucose solution is ascribed to radiation induced decomposition of D-glucose, and the G value for the decomposition, which is 4.1 to initial stage of irradiation, decreases with the increase of dose. (author)

1987-01-01

222

Prevalência de megas em necrópsias realizadas no triângulo mineiro no período de 1954 a 1988  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre 1708 necrópsias de chagásicos crônicos, de um total de 4690, diagnosticamos 273 megas. Destes o mais freqüente foi o megacólon, seguido pelo megaesôfago, ocupando a associação megacólon e megaesôfago o terceiro lugar. Discutem-se e comparam-se os achados com outros de ordem clinico-epidemiológica e anatomopatológica. Confirmando dados da literatura, nossos achados atuais mostram, que a exemplo do que sucede na cardiopatia chagásica, o megacólon e o megaesôfago predominam no sexo masculino, discutindo-se os fatores que poderiam explicar a razão desse fato.One thousand seven hundred and eight chronic chagasic post-mortem examinations studied from a total of4690 autopsies perfomed at our Institution. Two hundred and seventy-three chagasic had megas. Megacolon was the most frequent, followed by megaesophagus. Megacolon associated with megaesophagus was, the third mostcommom finding. Our data are discussed and compared with the literature. Megacolon and megaesophagus were more prevalent in man, as shown by other workers. Higher parasitemia perhaps could explain this finding.

Edison Reis Lopes

1989-12-01

223

The evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance represents a significant public health problem. When resistance genes are mobile, being carried on plasmids or phages, their spread can be greatly accelerated. Plasmids in particular have been implicated in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the selective pressures which favour plasmid-carried resistance genes have not been fully established. Here we address this issue with mathematical models of plasmid dynamics in response to different antibiotic treatment regimes. Results We show that transmission of plasmids is a key factor influencing plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance, but the dosage and interval between treatments is also important. Our results also hold when plasmids carrying the resistance gene are in competition with other plasmids that do not carry the resistance gene. By altering the interval between antibiotic treatments, and the dosage of antibiotic, we show that different treatment regimes can select for either plasmid-carried, or chromosome-carried, resistance. Conclusions Our research addresses the effect of environmental variation on the evolution of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance.

Rankin Daniel J

2011-05-01

224

Plasmid Replicon Typing of Commensal and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escherichia coli isolates of avian, human, and poultry meat origin for plasmid replicon types. Additionally, the isolates were assessed for their content of several colicin-associated genes. Overall, a high degree of plasmid variability was observed, with 221 different profiles occurring among the 1,015 isolates examined. IncFIB plasmids were the most common type identified, regardless of the source type of E. coli. IncFIB plasmids occurred significantly more often in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and retail poultry E. coli (RPEC) than in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian and human fecal commensal E. coli isolates (AFEC and HFEC, respectively). APEC and RPEC were also significantly more likely than UPEC, HFEC, and AFEC to possess the colicin-associated genes cvaC, cbi, and/or cma in conjunction with one or more plasmid replicons. The results suggest that E. coli isolates contaminating retail poultry are notably similar to APEC with regard to plasmid profiles, with both generally containing multiple plasmid replicon types in conjunction with colicin-related genes. In contrast, UPEC and human and avian commensal E. coli isolates generally lack the plasmid replicons and colicin-related genes seen in APEC and RPEC, suggesting limited dissemination of such plasmids among these bacterial populations.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Sara J.; Logue, Catherine M.; White, David G.; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K.

2007-01-01

225

Plasmid replicon typing of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the critical role of plasmids in horizontal gene transfer, few studies have characterized plasmid relatedness among different bacterial populations. Recently, a multiplex PCR replicon typing protocol was developed for classification of plasmids occurring in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, a simplified version of this replicon typing procedure which requires only three multiplex panels to identify 18 plasmid replicons is described. This method was used to screen 1,015 Escherichia coli isolates of avian, human, and poultry meat origin for plasmid replicon types. Additionally, the isolates were assessed for their content of several colicin-associated genes. Overall, a high degree of plasmid variability was observed, with 221 different profiles occurring among the 1,015 isolates examined. IncFIB plasmids were the most common type identified, regardless of the source type of E. coli. IncFIB plasmids occurred significantly more often in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and retail poultry E. coli (RPEC) than in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian and human fecal commensal E. coli isolates (AFEC and HFEC, respectively). APEC and RPEC were also significantly more likely than UPEC, HFEC, and AFEC to possess the colicin-associated genes cvaC, cbi, and/or cma in conjunction with one or more plasmid replicons. The results suggest that E. coli isolates contaminating retail poultry are notably similar to APEC with regard to plasmid profiles, with both generally containing multiple plasmid replicon types in conjunction with colicin-related genes. In contrast, UPEC and human and avian commensal E. coli isolates generally lack the plasmid replicons and colicin-related genes seen in APEC and RPEC, suggesting limited dissemination of such plasmids among these bacterial populations. PMID:17277222

Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Johnson, Sara J; Logue, Catherine M; White, David G; Doetkott, Curt; Nolan, Lisa K

2007-03-01

226

38 CFR 51.70 - Resident rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

...resident of the United States. (2) The resident has the right to be free of...accordance with State law may exercise the resident's rights to the extent provided...B) A change in resident rights under Federal or State law or...

2009-07-01

227

42 CFR 483.10 - Resident rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

...resident of the United States. (2) The resident has the right to be free of interference...accordance with State law may exercise the resident's rights to the extent provided...B) A change in resident rights under Federal or State law or...

2009-10-01

228

Cleaner in Hall of Residence  

Science.gov (United States)

This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

229

[Conjugative R plasmids isolated from hospital strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa hospital strains isolated from patients and environment in the Republican Centre of Burns in Tbilisi contained conjugative R plasmids. The plasmids were marked pM15 and pM19, respectively. The plasmid pM15 determined resistance to carbenicillin, kanamycin and tetracycline and plasmid pM19 determined resistance to carbenicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and streptomycin. Plasmid pM15 had a molecular weight of 45.8 MD and seven sites for EcoRI, six sites for HindIII and five sites for Hpa-I-restrictase. This plasmid, as others, belongs to the Inc-P1 incompatibility group. PMID:1304129

Gabisoniia, T G; Galushka, F P; Chanishvili, T G

1992-12-01

230

Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5?Å and belonged to space group P2?2?2?. PMID:24100563

Carr, Stephen B; Mecia, Lauren B; Phillips, Simon E V; Thomas, Christopher D

2013-10-01

231

Comparative genetic organization of incompatibility group P degradative plasmids.  

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Plasmids that encode genes for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds are often examined only for characteristics of the degradative pathways and ignore regions that are necessary for plasmid replication, incompatibility, and conjugation. If these characteristics were known, then the mobility of the catabolic genes between species could be predicted and different catabolic pathways might be combined to alter substrate range. Two catabolic plasmids, pSS50 and pSS60, isolated from chlorobiph...

Burlage, R. S.; Bemis, L. A.; Layton, A. C.; Sayler, G. S.; Larimer, F.

1990-01-01

232

Optimised plasmids for sustained transgene expression in vivo  

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Plasmid based gene therapy approaches often lack long term transgene expression in vivo due to silencing or loss of the vector. One way to overcome these limitations is to combine non-silenced promoters with strong viral enhancers. Here we combine cytomegalovirus (CMV) derived enhancer elements with the strong, human elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter in a plasmid backbone devoid of potentially immunostimulating CpG sequences. The transgene expression of plasmids containing either the ...

2010-01-01

233

Determination of plasmid copy number by the "boiling" method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast and reliable approach for determination of plasmid copy number in Escherichia coli is proposed, based on the "boiling" method (5) for separation of plasmid and chromosomal DNA. The method includes in vivo uniform labeling of total bacterial DNA, separation of DNA into plasmid and chromosomal DNA fractions, and quantitation of DNA in the two fractions by radioactivity measurement. No isolation and purification of native DNA are necessary. PMID:3318550

Ivanov, I G; Bachvarov, D R

1987-08-15

234

Transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis protoplasts by plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid.  

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A method has been developed to transform plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid into protoplasts of the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. Protoplasts were formed by treatment of cells with lysozyme. The efficiency of formation of protoplasts was affected by the strain, the media, and the cell density. Deoxyribonucleic acid uptake was induced by polyethylene glycol. Deoxyribonucleic acid from the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pC194 was used for transformation. Although this plasmid could not be i...

Martin, P. A.; Lohr, J. R.; Dean, D. H.

1981-01-01

235

Characterization of ampicillin resistance plasmids from Haemophilus ducreyi.  

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Seven strains of Haemophilus ducreyi from diverse geographic origins were analyzed for their plasmid content. All strains were multiply resistant, but only resistance to ampicillin was transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. The H. ducreyi plasmids encoding for ampicillin resistance were 7.4, 5.7, and 3.6 megadaltons and encoded for part or all of TnA, and ampicillin transposon. The relatedness of these plasmids was examined by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA-DNA homolog...

Totten, P. A.; Handsfield, H. H.; Peters, D.; Holmes, K. K.; Falkow, S.

1982-01-01

236

Automated Filtration-Based High-Throughput Plasmid Preparation System  

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Current methods of plasmid preparation do not allow for large capacity automated processing. We have developed an automated high-throughput system that prepares plasmid DNA for large-scale sequencing. This system is based on our previously reported filtration method. In this method, cell harvesting, alkaline lysis, and plasmid purification occur in a single 96-well microtiter plate from which sequence-ready DNA samples are collected. The plates are designed to allow all reagents to be injecte...

Itoh, Masayoshi; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Akiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Masaki; Kawai, Jun; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Carninci, Piero; Shibata, Yuko; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

1999-01-01

237

Gene Replacement in Mycobacteria by Using Incompatible Plasmids  

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A simple and efficient delivery system was developed for making targeted gene knockouts in Mycobacterium smegmatis. This delivery system relies on the use of a pair of replicating plasmids, which are incompatible. Incompatible plasmids share elements of the same replication machinery and so compete with each other during both replication and partitioning into daughter cells. Such plasmids can be maintained together in the presence of antibiotics; however, removal of selection leads to the los...

2003-01-01

238

Ultrafiltration of supercoiled plasmid DNA : modeling and application  

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A mass transfer model is proposed for predicting sieving coefficients, Sobs, of supercoiled plasmid DNA (pDNA), in the presence of a salt, in membranes with narrow pores, i.e., pores smaller than the gyration radii of the plasmids to be considered for a certain application. The model assumes that permeation occurs due to plasmid suction at the membrane surface as a result of the convective flow, being the probability of permeation also dependent on the instantaneous molecular conformation of ...

Mora?o, A.; Nunes, J. C.; Sousa, Fani; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa; Escobar, I. C.; Queiroz, J. A.

2011-01-01

239

High-frequency conjugal transfer of a gonococcal penicillinase plasmid.  

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Gonococci containing a 24 X 10(6)-dalton conjugal plasmid were able to mobilize for transfer a smaller, non-self-transmissible penicillinase (Pcr) plasmid with high frequency under appropriate conditions. In some strains, over 10% of donor colony-forming units transferred the Pcr plasmid in a mating of less than 2 h, which suggests that the conjugal system was naturally derepressed. Colony-opacity variants containing different quantities of an approximately 28,000-dalton outer membrane protei...

1980-01-01

240

Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.  

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Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined.

Vescovo, M.; Morelli, L.; Bottazzi, V.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Streamlined Purification of Plasmid DNA From Prokaryotic Cultures  

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We describe the complete process of AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates for 96 plasmid preparations, starting from prokaryotic culture and ending with high purity DNA. Based on multi-well filtration for bacterial lysate clearance and DNA purification, this method creates a streamlined process for plasmid preparation. Filter plates containing silica-based media can easily be processed by vacuum filtration or centrifuge to yield appreciable quantities of plasmid DNA. Quantitative analyses determine ...

Pueschel, Laura; Li, Hongshan; Hymes, Matthew

2011-01-01

242

Plasmid-Driven Formation of Influenza Virus-Like Particles  

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We established a plasmid-based system for generating infectious influenza virus-like particles entirely from cloned cDNAs. Human embryonic kidney cells (293T) were transfected with plasmids encoding the influenza A virus structural proteins and with a plasmid encoding an influenza virus-like viral RNA (vRNA) which contained an antisense copy of the cDNA for green fluorescence protein (GFP) flanked by an RNA polymerase I promoter and terminator. Intracellular transcription of the latter constr...

Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2000-01-01

243

Ultrasensitive plasmid mapping by high performance capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and conventional slab electrophoresis in mapping of four closely related plasmids with three different restriction enzymes. The plasmids express full length and truncated forms of a growth factor receptor oncogene product and were digested with HpaII, HaeIII and RsaI. The resulting oligonucleotide fragments were under 2000 base pairs in length, a size well suited to separation by HPCE with linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix. Plasmid mapping is an essential tool in biotechnology both for the design of an expression system and for monitoring the stability of the expression system during fermentation. HPCE can yield much higher resolution of oligonucleotides than attainable in conventional agarose gel electrophoretic procedures for plasmid mapping. In the examples described here, the HpaII digests provided the surest identification of individual plasmids in the HPCE analysis and could discriminate among all four plasmids. In conventional slab electrophoresis, however, the RsaI digests provided the best discrimination, although two of the plasmids in this system yielded essentially identical electrophoretic patterns. Hence the optimal restriction enzyme for plasmid mapping applications with HPCE may differ from that selected on the basis of conventional slab gel analysis, and the former technique can provide higher discrimination among related plasmids. The advantages of the HPCE format with respect to speed, low sample consumption and resolution are described. PMID:8354236

Maschke, H E; Frenz, J; Belenkii, A; Karger, B L; Hancock, W S

1993-01-01

244

Method to integrate multiple plasmids into the mycobacterial chromosome  

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In order to create a system in which two independent plasmids can be integrated into a mycobacterial chromosome, a mycobacterial plasmid was constructed containing the phage attachment site attP from the mycobacteriophage L5 genome and additionally containing the bacterial attachment site, attB. This plasmid will integrate into the mycobacterial chromosome via recombination of the plasmid-borne attP site with the chromosomal attB site in the presence of a mycobacterial vector carrying the L5 ...

Saviola, Beatrice; Bishai, William R.

2004-01-01

245

Multiple Pathways of Plasmid DNA Transfer in Helicobacter pylori  

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Many Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains carry cryptic plasmids of different size and gene content, the function of which is not well understood. A subgroup of these plasmids (e.g. pHel4, pHel12), contain a mobilisation region, but no cognate type IV secretion system (T4SS) for conjugative transfer. Instead, certain H. pylori strains (e.g. strain P12 carrying plasmid pHel12) can harbour up to four T4SSs in their genome (cag-T4SS, comB, tfs3, tfs4). Here, we show that such indigenous plasmids can...

Rohrer, Stefanie; Holsten, Lea; Weiss, Evelyn; Benghezal, Mohammed; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

2012-01-01

246

Multiple pathways of plasmid DNA transfer in Helicobacter pylori  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains carry cryptic plasmids of different size and gene content, the function of which is not well understood. A subgroup of these plasmids (e.g. pHel4, pHel12), contain a mobilisation region, but no cognate type IV secretion system (T4SS) for conjugative transfer. Instead, certain H. pylori strains (e.g. strain P12 carrying plasmid pHel12) can harbour up to four T4SSs in their genome (cag-T4SS, comB, tfs3, tfs4). Here, we show that such indigenous plasmids can...

Rohrer, Stefanie; Holsten, Lea; Weiss, Evelyn; Benghezal, Mohammed; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

2012-01-01

247

Photonic plasmid stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium: A comparison of three unique plasmids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquiring a highly stable photonic plasmid in transformed Salmonella Typhimurium for use in biophotonic studies of bacterial tracking in vivo is critical to experimental paradigm development. The objective of this study was to determine stability of transformed Salmonella Typhimurium (S. typh-lux using three different plasmids and characterize their respective photonic properties. Results In presence of ampicillin (AMP, S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 plasmids exhibited 100% photon-emitting colonies over a 10-d study period. Photon emitters of S. typh-lux with pCGLS-1, pAK1-lux and pXEN-1 without AMP selection decreased over time (P 7 to 1 × 109 CFU, P 0.05; although photonic emissions across a range of bacterial concentrations were not different (1 × 104 to 1 × 106 CFU, P > 0.05. For very low density bacterial concentrations imaged in 96 well plates photonic emissions were positively correlated with bacterial concentration (P 3 to 1 × 105 CFU low to high were different in the 96-well plate format (P Conclusion These data characterize photon stability properties for S. typh-lux transformed with three different photon generating plasmids that may facilitate real-time Salmonella tracking using in vivo or in situ biophotonic paradigms.

Lay Donald

2009-07-01

248

Ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and antibiotic resistance plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing ornamental fish industry is associated with public health concerns including extensive antibiotic use accompanied by increasing antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze Aeromonas isolates from imported tropical ornamental fish and coldwater koi carps bred in the Czech Republic to assess the potential risk of ornamental fish as a source of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR) and antibiotic resistance plasmids. A collection of Aeromonas spp. with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC?0.05mg/L) was selected for the detection of PMQR genes. Isolates harbouring PMQR genes were further analyzed for the additional antibiotic resistance, integron content, clonality, biofilm production and transferability of PMQR genes by conjugation and transformation. Comparative analysis of plasmids carrying PMQR genes was performed. Fifteen (19%, n=80) isolates from koi carps and 18 (24%, n=76) isolates from imported ornamental fish were positive for qnrS2, aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrB17 genes. PMQR-positive isolates from imported ornamental fish showed higher MIC levels to quinolones, multiresistance and diverse content of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons compared to the isolates from the carps. Related IncU plasmids harbouring qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were found in Aeromonas spp. from imported ornamental fish and koi carps from various geographical areas. Ornamental fish may represent a potential source of multiresistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements for the environment and for humans. PMID:24629900

Dobiasova, Hana; Kutilova, Iva; Piackova, Veronika; Vesely, Tomas; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika

2014-07-16

249

Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program  

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Richard F Wagner Jr, Sharon S Raimer, Brent C Kelly Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA Abstract: Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activit...

Rf, Wagner Jr; Ss, Raimer; Bc, Kelly

2013-01-01

250

Currents, Water Budget and Turn-Over Time Within A Man-Made Coastal Mega-Structure: Palm Jumeirah, Southern Arabian Gulf, United Arab Emirates  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale land reclamation projects along the coastline of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), are set to expand from 45 km of natural shoreline to more than 1,500 km by 2010. The increasing scale of coastal development in Dubai has large-scale effects on water movement throughout the project area. Palm Jumeirah is the oldest, most well-developed of several man-made coastal mega-constructions in Dubai. This construction project started 6 years ago, has an overall surface area of 7.9 km2 and a footprint of 23 km2, and is connected to the coast via a 5-km long spine from the mainland to the crescent tip. We made time series observations of hydrographic properties and currents within the Palm Jumeirah Lagoon (PJL) during 29 days in April/May 2008 to examine the current flows, water budget, salt transport, and turn-over time. The currents and water flow within the PJL were quite variable, with stronger currents, greater material transports, lower water temperatures, and slightly lower salinities in areas close to the entrances where flushing is ample. Due to the shallow water depths, we found only weak vertical stratification during a tidal cycle. The lagoon system is comprised of 18 blind channels surrounded by a semi-circular open channel, which in turn is linked to the coastal waters by 4 gaps (one each on the East and West sides and two at the base of the development) in the rocky breakwater that surrounds the development. We found substantial differences in water discharge between the east and west gaps, with high discharge on average exiting the east gap and extremely low water discharge exiting the west gap. Our results indicate that the PJL is flushed unequally between the east and west sides with residence times of 1.2 and 42 days for the east and west sides of the development, respectively. Previous studies of water residence time using the DELFT3D hydrodynamics simulation modeling software did not capture this difference accurately, estimating residence times for the two sides of PJL to be 14 and 28 days, respectively. Stratification remains absent during the spring-neap tidal cycle with well mixed conditions throughout the lagoon system. PJL tides are mixed mainly semidiurnal, with the spring and neap tidal ranges measuring 116 and 56 cm, respectively, with no measureable change in either amplitude or phase within the man-made lagoon.

Cavalcante, G.; Kjerfve, B.

2009-05-01

251

Induced mutagenesis of plasmids and chromosomal genes inserted into plasmid DNA 1. Mutagenic effects of irradiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of two physical agents: UV- and ?-radiation has been considered in comparison. DNA of RSF2124 plasmid, determining colcine synthesis and ampicillin resistance, was used as a model. Mutagenous effect is taken into account according to the appearance of Col--mutants, which are not capable of colicine synthesis. Lethal effect is determined according to ampicillin marker inactivation. After reisolation of plasmid DNA from mutant transformant, new traits and antibiotic resistance are preserved during subsequent transformations and reseedings of transformed colonies, which proves mutational nature of the transformations. Under short-wave UV irradiation (lambda=254 nm) of RSF2124 DNA a clear mutagenous effect is detected: relative amount of Col--mutants at the optimum for mutagenesis doses increased by a factor of 10. Under conditions of W-reactivation (additional UV-irradiation of recipient cells of wild C600 type) of lethal injuries an increase in mutagenous effect was observed, which is reliable for 95%. A distinct increase in mutagenesis (approximately by a factor of 4) is observed during UV-irradiation in small doses of only one recipient cell (a so-called indirect UV-mutagenesis). Thus, according to its ability to W- and indirect UV-mutagenesis plasmid DNA behaves as DNA of moderate phages, which can testify to their evolution relationship. Treatment of plasmid DNA with acridine orange before UV-irradiation protected only from lethal injuries. ?-irradiation of 60Co at inactivation approximately 10-2 increased by an order the yield of Col--mutants. The presence of the plasmid in a cell did not affect its UV-resistance

1984-04-01

252

Degradative Plasmid and Heavy Metal Resistance Plasmid Naturally Coexist in Phenol and Cyanide Assimilating Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals are known to be powerful inhibitors of xenobiotics biodegradation activities. Alleviation the inhibitory effect of these metals on the phenol biodegradation activities in presence of heavy metals resistant plasmid was investigated. Approach: Combination of genetic systems of degradation of xenobiotic compound and heavy metal resistance was one of the approaches to the creation of polyfunctional strains for bioremediation of soil after co-contamination with organic pollutants and heavy metals. Results: A bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida PhCN (pPhCN1, pPhCN2 had been obtained. This bacterium contained two plasmids, a 120 Kb catabolic plasmid that encode for breakdown of phenol (pPhCN1 and pPhCN2 plasmid (100 Kb that code for cadmium and copper resistant. Cyanide assimilation by this bacterium was encoded by chromosomal genes. The inhibitory effect of cadmium (Cd2+ or copper (Cu2+ on the degradation of phenol and cyanide by P. putida strains PhCN and PhCN1 (contained pPhCN1 were investigated. The resistant strain PhCN showed high ability to degrade phenol and cyanide in presence of Cd2+ or Cu2+ comparing with the sensitive strain PhCN1. In addition, Cd2+ or Cu2+ was also found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on the C23O dioxygenase enzyme activity in the presence of cyanide as a nitrogen source. Conclusion: The presence of heavy metal resistance plasmid alleviated the inhibitory effect of metals on the phenol and cyanide assimilation by resistant strain.

Bahig E.  Deeb

2009-01-01

253

Plasmid DNA hydrogels for biomedical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few years, our research group has focused on the design and development of plasmid DNA (pDNA) based systems as devices to be used therapeutically in the biomedical field. Biocompatible macro and micro plasmid DNA gels were prepared by a cross-linking reaction. For the first time, the pDNA gels have been investigated with respect to their swelling in aqueous solution containing different additives. Furthermore, we clarified the fundamental and basic aspects of the solute release mechanism from pDNA hydrogels and the significance of this information is enormous as a basic tool for the formulation of pDNA carriers for drug/gene delivery applications. The co-delivery of a specific gene and anticancer drugs, combining chemical and gene therapies in the treatment of cancer was the main challenge of our research. Significant progresses have been made with a new p53 encoding pDNA microgel that is suitable for the loading and release of pDNA and doxorubicin. This represents a strong valuable finding in the strategic development of systems to improve cancer cure through the synergetic effect of chemical and gene therapy. PMID:24011472

Costa, Diana; Valente, Artur J M; Miguel, M Graça; Queiroz, João

2014-03-01

254

Involvement of Tn4430 in transfer of Bacillus anthracis plasmids mediated by Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pXO12.  

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The self-transmissible plasmid pXO12 (112.5 kilobases [kb]), originally isolated from strain 4042A of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis, codes for production of the insecticidal crystal protein (Cry+). The mechanism of pXO12-mediated plasmid transfer was investigated by monitoring the cotransfer of the tetracycline resistance plasmid pBC16 (4.2 kb) and the Bacillus anthracis toxin and capsule plasmids, pXO1 (168 kb) and pXO2 (85.6 kb), respectively. In matings of B. anthracis donors...

Green, B. D.; Battisti, L.; Thorne, C. B.

1989-01-01

255

Locked on course: Hydro-Quebec`s commitment to mega-projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large organizations often escalate their commitments to mega-project development, even after evidence becomes available of adverse environmental consequences or lack of economic feasibility. This escalation of commitment transcends both sectorial and national boundaries. Preeminent examples include controversial nuclear projects in the US, hydroelectric projects like the Three Gorges Dam in China, and transport projects like the Chunnel and the Concorde. In this article, the authors examine the experience of Hydro-Quebec with the Great Whale Project. They argue that Hydro-Quebec escalated its commitment even after serious questions emerged about its environmental impacts and economic feasibility, because of (1) its earlier success with large projects, (2) its engineering culture`s norms for consistency, and (3) its role in the government`s desire for economic and cultural autonomy. Finally, they discuss the changes that are necessary to break commitments to such projects.

Maxwell, J.; Briscoe, F.; Suzuki, Tatsujiro [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lee, J.; Stewart, A.

1997-01-01

256

Locked on course: Hydro-Quebec's commitment to mega-projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large organizations often escalate their commitments to mega-project development, even after evidence becomes available of adverse environmental consequences or lack of economic feasibility. This escalation of commitment transcends both sectorial and national boundaries. Preeminent examples include controversial nuclear projects in the US, hydroelectric projects like the Three Gorges Dam in China, and transport projects like the Chunnel and the Concorde. In this article, the authors examine the experience of Hydro-Quebec with the Great Whale Project. They argue that Hydro-Quebec escalated its commitment even after serious questions emerged about its environmental impacts and economic feasibility, because of (1) its earlier success with large projects, (2) its engineering culture''s norms for consistency, and (3) its role in the government''s desire for economic and cultural autonomy. Finally, they discuss the changes that are necessary to break commitments to such projects

1997-01-01

257

High-power optical coatings for a mega-joule class ICF laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of advancements in Inertial Confinement Fusion research, LLNL is developing plans for a new 1.5 to 2 mega-joule solid-state Nd:glass laser designed to achieve fusion ignition. The new design is possible in part due to advances in optical coatings suitable for high power laser systems. High damage threshold mirrors and polarizers are comprised of electron beam deposited dielectric multilayers. Subthreshold illumination, or laser conditioning, of the multilayer coatings results in an increase in the damage thresholds by factors of 2 to 3 at 1.06?m, thus meeting the fluence requirements of the advanced architecture. For anti-reflective coatings, protective organic coatings for non-linear crystals and phase plates for beam smoothing, sol-gel films provide high damage thresholds coatings at low cost

1992-09-14

258

Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52?). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good conditions for agriculture. Areas of ancient civilizations (Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Greece) always are concentrated near zones of high seismic activity. Catastrophic earthquakes occurred with interval about 200-500 years, and memory of population was limited usually by duration of 2-3 generations, i.e. by interval 50-80 years. The proposed hypothesis of exposed latitudinal zones at the Earth as pulsating geoid may present nowadays basic interest. References. 1.Ben-Zion Y. Earthquake physics and seismic hazard. 8-th Alexander von Humboldt International Conference. EGU Series. Natural Disasters, Global Change, and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites. Cusco. Peru. 2012. P.14. 2.Sun W. Seismic energy distribution in latitude and a possible tidal stress explanation // Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 1992. Vol. 71. P. 205-216. 3.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Latitudinal distribution of earthquakes in the Andes and its peculiarity. Advances in Geosciences. 2009. 22. 139-145. www.adv.geosci.net/22/139/2009/ 4.Levin B.W., Sasorova E.V. Seismicity of the Pacific region: global feature detection. - M.: Janus-K. 2012. 308 p. 5.Veronnet, Alex. Rotation de l'ellipsoide hétérogène et figure exacte de la Terre. Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées. 1912. 6e série, tome 8, p. 331-463.

Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej

2013-04-01

259

Burnable poison optimization study for mega-kW PWR nuclear power plant long cycle core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the content of the burnable poison (Gd) and the main results of the in-core fuel management for the Mega-kW PWR nuclear power plant long cycle core (18 month reload) is analyzed using the advanced fuel management design code package. The fuel assemblies of the various contents of the burnable poison and the various number of the burnable poison rod are calculated, and the infinite multiplication factor versus burnup for different assemblies is given out. Accordingly this, the results of four fuel management schemes are calculated. The results show that the scheme which uses lower content of burnable poison and more poison rods is better than that uses higher content of burnable poison and fewer poison rods

1999-06-01

260

Current practice in the use of MEGA-PRESS spectroscopy for the detection of GABA.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing interest in the use of edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the detection of GABA in the human brain. At a recent meeting held at Cardiff University, a number of spectroscopy groups met to discuss the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of GABA-edited MR spectra. This paper aims to set out the issues discussed at this meeting, reporting areas of consensus around parameters and procedures in the field and highlighting those areas where differences remain. It is hoped that this paper can fulfill two needs, providing a summary of the current 'state-of-the-art' in the field of GABA-edited MRS at 3T using MEGA-PRESS and a basic guide to help researchers new to the field to avoid some of the pitfalls inherent in the acquisition and processing of edited MRS for GABA. PMID:23246994

Mullins, Paul G; McGonigle, David J; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Evans, C John; Edden, Richard A E

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mountain Megas: America's Newest Metropolitan Places and a Federal Partnership to Help Them Prosper  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years after the Civil War, the population of the intermountain West began to boom as people moved across the Mississippi River for new opportunities as homesteaders, prospectors, and enterprising dry goods merchants. 130 years later or so, it appears that this region of the United States is experiencing yet another renaissance. This report from the Brookings Institution's "Blueprint for American Prosperity" series takes a close look at the growth this region has experienced in recent years. Written by Robert E. Lang, Andrea Sarzynski, and Mark Muro, the report is divided into six chapters, including "Megapolitan Development in the Intermountain West" and "Forging a New Federal-Mega Agenda for the Intermountain West". Visitors can also avail themselves of a brief executive summary if they are in a hurry, and they may also wish to pay particular attention to the report's conclusions as well.

262

ADAPTION OF “MEGA EVENT IMPACT SCALE”: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY (2011 ERZURUM 25. WINTER UNIVERSIADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at carrying out validity and reliability studies and the adaption of Turkish version of the scale titled “Mega Event Impact Scale” and developed by Jie ve Yan (2010. The scale, which consists of five-point Likert scale 42 items, was administered to the local audience following 2011 Erzurum 25. Winter Universiade. The subjects of the study were 412 people (55 % male and 45 % female, who were chosen through random sampling method. Explanatory factor analysis, applied to determine construct validity of the scale, revealed a construct with 36 items and 8 factors. The internalconsistency reliability coefficient for the whole study was found 0.917. The findings showed that internal consistency reliability of factor items had an item / total correlation coefficient ranging between 0.50 and 0.85. The results were discussed in terms of the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale.

Kerem Y?ld?r?m ?im?ek

2012-05-01

263

Calculation of prompt doses induced by fusion experiments in Laser MegaJoule facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ), built at CEA/CESTA near Bordeaux, France, will conduct research in the field of plasma physics and inertial confinement fusion. Some of these experiments are designed to produce during less than one nanosecond up to 1019 neutrons at 14 MeV in indirect drive mode. The 300 m long building that hosts both laser sources and target chamber was designed to confine neutron and gamma fluxes in the experiment hall during a shot. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a TRIPOLI 4 modelling of the facility to ensure that prompt doses in occupied areas inside the facility that host employees during a shot will be sufficiently low. Although significant radiation levels inside the experiment hall, prompt doses in occupied rooms are limited to a few ?Sv per shot which is fully compatible with radiation level limits.

2011-10-01

264

The reactivity of direct coal liquefaction resids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An empirical test for determining the relative reactivity of coal liquefaction distillation resids was developed using the University of Delaware short contact time batch reactor. This test was applied to a suite of fifteen coal liquefaction resids. Conversions of resid to distillate obtained thermally and catalytically are significantly different. Kinetic data, although limited, indicate that a component of the resid is not convertible. Two coupled computer models were developed. A structural model describes the structural characteristics of the soluble portion of the distillation resids. A reaction model accepts the output of the structural model and produces a conversion value for each resid that is within two standard deviations of the experimentally determined values.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Calkins, W.H.; Klein, N.T.; Huang, H.; Campbell, D.; Wang, S.; Wang, K.

1998-07-01

265

The application of water soluble, mega-Stokes-shifted BODIPY fluorophores to cell and tissue imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) fluorophores are widely used in bioimaging to label proteins, lipids and nucleotides, but in spite of their attractive optical properties they tend to be prone to self-quenching because of their notably small Stokes shift. Herein, we compare two BODIPY compounds from a recently developed family of naphthyridine substituted BODIPY derivatives, one a visible emitting derivative (BODIPY-VIS) and one a near-infrared emitting fluorophore with a Stokes shift of approximately 165 nm as contrast reagents for live mammalian cells and murine brain tissue. The compounds were rendered water soluble by their conjugation to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Both PEGylated compounds exhibited good cell uptake compared with their parent compounds and confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed all dyes explored to be nuclear excluding, localizing predominantly within the lipophilic organelles; the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that these BODIPY derivatives are modestly cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 10 ?M where they induce apoptosis and necrosis. Although the quantum yield of emission of the visible emitting fluorophore was over an order of magnitude greater than the Mega-Stokes shifted probe, the latter showed considerably reduced tendency to self quench and less interference from autofluorescence. The near-infrared probe also showed good penetrability and staining in live tissue samples. In the latter case similar tendency to exclude the nucleus and to localize in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was observed as in live cells. This to our knowledge is the first demonstration of such a Mega-Stokes BODIPY probe applied to cell and tissue imaging. PMID:24467513

Moriarty, R D; Martin, A; Adamson, K; O'Reilly, E; Mollard, P; Forster, R J; Keyes, T E

2014-03-01

266

Aerosol chemical characteristics of a mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)  

Science.gov (United States)

Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), organic acids, major inorganic ions and trace elements were determined in aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2001) in Dhaka (Bangladesh). Using the Fe content of the aerosol to reconstruct the aerosol mass from soil-type mineralic material, a mass balance of the Dhaka aerosol was achieved. From this follows that on the average around 76% of the aerosol is from soil-type material, around 18% of carbonaceous material, and around 6% soluble ions and trace elements (without iron) Dhaka aerosol, while As appears to be of geogenic origin. Organic acids contributed only 0.72% C to OC and were much less abundant relative to OC than at European sites. The trace elements levels in Dhaka were much lower than at comparable Southeast Asian mega-cities (e.g. Lahore, Pakistan), but considerably higher than reported for European and US cities under present day conditions. The correlation between EC and OC was quite high ( R2=0.81) indicating a potential joint source of emission for carbonaceous aerosols. The EC/total carbon (TC) and K/EC ratios indicated that biomass combustion was not a main contributor to EC in Dhaka, which implicates that fossil fuel combustion is the major contributor to EC levels in the Dhaka aerosol. The differences in the EC/TC and K/EC ratios in the three mega-cities in Southeast Asia (data available from Dhaka, Bangladesh; Lahore, Pakistan; and Mumbai, India) indicate that the aerosol source mix in Southeast Asian cities varies considerably at a national or even regional scale.

Salam, Abdus; Bauer, Heidi; Kassin, Karin; Mohammad Ullah, Shah; Puxbaum, Hans

267

Aerosol chemical characteristics of a mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), organic acids, major inorganic ions and trace elements were determined in aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2001) in Dhaka (Bangladesh). Using the Fe content of the aerosol to reconstruct the aerosol mass from soil-type mineralic material, a mass balance of the Dhaka aerosol was achieved. From this follows that on the average around 76% of the aerosol is from soil-type material, around 18% of carbonaceous material, and around 6% soluble ions and trace elements (without iron) {lt} 0.3%. Enrichment factors (Fe as a reference element) indicated that coal fly ash is a likely main source for Cd, Pb and Zn in the Dhaka aerosol, while As appears to be of geogenic origin. Organic acids contributed only 0.72% C to OC and were much less abundant relative to OC than at European sites. The trace elements levels in Dhaka were much lower than at comparable Southeast Asian mega-cities (e.g. Lahore, Pakistan), but considerably higher than reported for European and US cities under present day conditions. The correlation between EC and OC was quite high (R{sup 2} = 0.81) indicating a potential joint source of emission for carbonaceous aerosols. The EC/total carbon (TC) and K/EC ratios indicated that biomass combustion was not a main contributor to EC in Dhaka, which implicates that fossil fuel combustion is the major contributor to EC levels in the Dhaka aerosol. The differences in the EC/TC and K/EC ratios in the three mega-cities in Southeast Asia (data available from Dhaka, Bangladesh; Lahore, Pakistan; and Mumbai, India) indicate that the aerosol source mix in Southeast Asian cities varies considerably at a national or even regional scale.

Salam, A.; Bauer, H.; Kassin, K.; Ullah, S.M.; Puxbaum, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

2003-06-01

268

Sustainable Housing, Population Growth and Poverty: The Implications on Lagos Mega City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When people affected by poverty are unable to lead a decent life, there is no doubt that there will be a decay of the city. And when there are inadequate and unfit housing, the condition of the environment often result to slums and ghettos, there will be the disaster of homelessness, unplanned and sprawl nature of city growth. The magic year had the consolation slogan of “housing for all by the year 2000” but this has since changed to the hard fact of “ what Nigerians failed to realize is that housing is a thing that every family would need to provide for itself.” The era of subsidy is gone and this reality has raised a lot of pertinent questions especially on where lies the hope for the poor in a mega city? The phenomenal growth of our towns and cities has given rise to conurbation and metropolitan areas, with various planning problems such as traffic congestion, slum, shanty towns, waste management, housing, pollution, poverty and several others. There is no doubt that the impact of rapid population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually a consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town. There is always an upsurge and conglomeration of people in city centres with the resultant effects on housing growth arising from acute unemployment. This growth and physical expansion of cities have been accompanied by unplanned urban sprawl, environmental pollution, deterioration, deficiencies in modern basic facilities, and general urban decay. As increased poverty and urbanization exert more pressures on urban facilities, most Nigerian cities tend to have lost their original dignity, social cohesion and administrative efficiency.This paper therefore revealed the consequences of the problems of urbanization in Lagos, it focuses on the spatial growth and the rapid rate of development in Metropolitan Lagos in order to show the significance and the role of public-private-partnership in the Mega City. 

Ola E. Aluko

2011-08-01

269

Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes. These demonstrations underscore the importance of using large phylogenies to uncover important evolutionary patterns and we present a fast and simple method for constructing these phylogenies.

Beaulieu Jeremy M

2009-02-01

270

Transient residence and exposure times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (2004 to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialization and of the boundary conditions. In addition to the equation for the mean residence time, it is suggested to solve a simple advection-diffusion problem to quantify the effect of the initialization and clarify the interpretation of the results. Using the two same equations but with modified boundary conditions, the method can also be used to quantify the accumulated time spent by water/tracer parcels in a control domain. This diagnostic is called 'exposure time'. Analytical and realistic model results are used to illustrate the concepts.

E. J. M. Delhez

2006-01-01

271

Transient residence and exposure times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Sciences, 2004 to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialisation and of the boundary conditions. In addition to the equation for the mean residence time, it is suggested to solve a simple advection-diffusion problem to quantify the effect of the initialisation and clarify the interpretation of the results. Using the two same equations but with modified boundary conditions, the method can also be used to quantify the accumulated time spent by water/tracer parcels in a control domain. This diagnostic is called "exposure time".

E. J. M. Delhez

2005-05-01

272

Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed question...

1996-01-01

273

Construction and application of an expression vector from the new plasmid pLAtc1 of Acidithiobacillus caldus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a recently sequenced 9.8-kb plasmid, pLAtc1, from Acidithiobacillus caldus strain SM-1 was characterized and developed into an expression vector. The pLAtc1 backbone carried an oriV, three rep genes, five mob genes, a Nic site, and an addiction system. Multilocus sequence analysis indicated that pLAtc1 was phylogenetically more related to the IncQ-like broad host range plasmids than to other IncQ plasmids. pLAtc1 was able to replicate and reside in Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Comamonas testosteroni, but not in Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. pLAtc1 was mobilized via conjugation into E. coli BL21 and A. caldus SM-1 from E. coli S17-1. Quantitative PCR revealed seven and four copies of plasmid in A. caldus and E. coli cells, respectively. The expression vector pLAtcE was constructed from pLAtc1 by introducing a regulatable promoter (P tetH ), a transcriptional terminator, a multiple cloning site, a kanamycin resistance gene, and a streptomycin resistance gene. The functionality of pLAtcE was demonstrated by expressing a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein in E. coli and in A. caldus. pLAtcE was used to express ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (sucAB) and succinate dehydrogenase (sdhA) genes in A. caldus. The newly engineered strain that harbored sucAB and sdhA on a plasmid pLAtcE-sucA-sucB-sdhA grew better than the parent strain SM-1/pLAtcE in tetrathionate and glucose-supplemented medium and produced more acidity and resulted in a more oxidative environment. This study created a useful molecular tool for genetic manipulation of the thermoacidophilic and autotrophic A. caldus. PMID:24445921

Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; You, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2014-05-01

274

Air-quality measurements in mega-cities: Focus on gaseous organic and particulate pollutants and comparison between two contrasted cities, Paris and Beijing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid and important development of large urban areas ('mega-cities'), especially in developing countries, causes and will cause serious air-quality problems. Pollutant measurements in these cities help to characterize the chemical nature and the quantity of these pollutants and to constrain air-quality models. This paper focuses on measurements of volatile organic compounds and aerosols that have an important impact on air quality. We present a brief review on existing measurements and experimental strategies in mega-cities and then we show results from recent measurement campaigns that took place in two contrasted mega-cities: Paris and Beijing. (authors)

2007-10-01

275

A plasmid cloning vehicle for Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new plasmid cloning vehicle (pDM2) was used to introduce a library of Haemophilus influenzae chromosomal fragments into H. influenzae. Transformants of the highly recombination-defective rec-1 mutant were more likely to contain exclusively recombinant plasmids after exposure to ligated DNA mixtures than was the wild type. pDM2 could replicate in Escherichia coli K-12.

Mccarthy, D.; Clayton, N. L.; Setlow, J. K.

1982-01-01

276

Plasmid-mediated Tet M in Haemophilus ducreyi.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A tetracycline-resistant Haemophilus ducreyi strain isolated in the United States was shown to carry a 34-megadalton plasmid which hybridized with the 1.8-kilobase KpnI-HindIII Tet M probe. The complete Tn916 transposon hybridized with five different bands from this plasmid, suggesting homology throughout the length of the transposon.

1989-01-01

277

[Plasmids of Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae strain 612].  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied Bacillus thuringiensis var galleriae, strain 612 plasmids. B. thuringiensis cells contain double-stranded plasmid DNA molecules (ranging of about 12% from total DNA content) with buoyant density 1.59 g/cm3. Plasmid DNA content was constant during the exponential and stationary phases of bacterial growth. The plasmid fractions consist of DNA molecules with molecular weights of 5.9 x 10(6), 10.0 x 10(6), and 110.9 x 10(6) daltons (pVD1, pVD2 pVD3, respectively). Endonuclease EcoRI cuts the plasmids pVD2 and pVD3 into two and four fragments, respectivelyy, but pVDI seemed to be resistent to EcoRI treatment. We found that pVD2 and pVD3 plasmids contain a common DNA fragment with the molecular weight of 6.7 x 10(6) dalton as it was shown by restriction analysis. In contrast, the same plasmids contain the common fragment with molecular weight of 7.5 x 10(6) dalton as shown by heteroduplex analysis. Plasmid pVD3 has a transposon-like structure. PMID:6252447

Debabov, V G; Khlebalina, O I; Galushka, F P; Sladkova, I A

1980-01-01

278

Plasmid partition and incompatibility--the focus shifts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mitotic apparatus that a plasmid uses to ensure its stable inheritance responds to the appearance of an additional copy of the plasmid's centromere by segregating it from the pre-existing copies: if the new copy arises by replication of the plasmid the result is partition, if it arrives on a different plasmid the result is incompatibility. Incompatibility thus serves as a probe of the partition mechanism. Coupling of distinct plasmids via their shared centromeres to form mixed pairs has been the favoured explanation for centromere-based incompatibility, because it supports a long-standing assumption that pairing of plasmid replicas is a prerequisite for their partition into daughter cells. Recent results from molecular genetic and fluorescence microscopy studies challenge this mixed pairing model. Partition incompatibility is seen to result from various processes, including titration, randomized positioning and a form of mixed pairing that is based on co-activation of the same partition event rather than direct contact between partition complexes. The perspectives thus opened onto the partition mechanism confirm the continuing utility of incompatibility as an approach to understanding bacterial mitosis. The results considered are compatible with the view that direct pairing of plasmids is not essential to plasmid partition. PMID:17714446

Bouet, Jean-Yves; Nordström, Kurt; Lane, David

2007-09-01

279

NATURAL TRANSFORMATION OF A MARINE VIBRIO SPECIES BY PLASMID DNA  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of thirty marine and estuarine bacterial isolates was examined for the ability to naturally transform with plasmid DNA. One isolate from Tampa Bay, Florida, identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, successfully incorporated and maintained the broad host range plasmid pKT23...

280

Linear Plasmid in the Genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel analysis of genomic DNA of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus revealed the presence of a previously unreported extrachromosomal element. This new element was demonstrated to be a linear plasmid. Of 11 strains evaluated, all contained either a 90-kb (pCSL1) or a 140-kb (pCSL2) linear plasmid.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Linear plasmid in the genome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel analysis of genomic DNA of the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus revealed the presence of a previously unreported extrachromosomal element. This new element was demonstrated to be a linear plasmid. Of 11 strains evaluated, all contained either a 90-kb (pCSL1) or a 140-kb (pCSL2) linear plasmid. PMID:11976316

Brown, Susan E; Knudson, Dennis L; Ishimaru, Carol A

2002-05-01

282

The right hand copy of the nopaline Ti-plasmid 25 bp repeat is required for tumour formation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At either end of the nopaline Ti-plasmid T-region resides a copy of a 25 bp repeated element. The normal T-DNA endpoint is 1 bp internal of the right copy, with the transcription initiation site of the nopaline synthase (nos) gene being approximately 300 bp away in the same direction. Here we describe results which demonstrate that deletion of any combination of sequences between the nos initiation site and the right copy of the 25 bp repeat does not affect oncogenicity. Thus a mutant retaini...

Watson, M. D.; Carter, G. H.; Shaw, C. H.

1984-01-01

283

Are we teaching school health in residencies?  

Science.gov (United States)

A school health survey was distributed to all family practice residency programs in the United States and Puerto Rico. The intent of the survey was to measure the degree to which residency programs include education on school health issues in their curriculum. The items on this survey measured four general areas: identification of family practice residency programs with school health components, curricular development, resident and faculty involvement, and the rationale for the lack of involvement of residency programs. The results of the survey indicate that approximately one-third of the residency programs presently have a school health component in their curriculum. Preschool physicals and sports medicine are the most popular activities within family practice residency programs. It was further determined that there is little question of the perceived importance of school health, but the question still remains as to what is the most efficient and effective manner of teaching residents these valuable skills. PMID:3622973

Strenecky, B J; Davis, J M

1987-01-01

284

Interaction of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida.  

Science.gov (United States)

We observed that Aeromonas salmonicida ARO200 will maintain either or both the Pseudomonas R-factor, pMG1, and Enterobacteriaceae R-factors. This bacterial strain, therefore, provides a unique background wherein the host ranges of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae plasmods overlap. Co-maintenance of these plasmids resulted in behavior of plasmid aggregates that allowed transfer of R-dterminants beyond the host range of the parent plasmid. We observed that the ARO200 genetic background facilitated the redistribution of B determinants among unrelated and conjugally noninterfertile gram-negative bacteria. Aberrant behavior resulting in the deletion of R-determinants for plasmids singly maintained in ARO200 was also observed. Plasmids studied included RP1, R702, IncP; Rs-a, IncW; R192.7, IncFII; R64-11, IncI; R390, IncN; and R6K, IncX.

Olsen, R H; Wright, C D

1976-01-01

285

Streamlined purification of plasmid DNA from prokaryotic cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the complete process of AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates for 96 plasmid preparations, starting from prokaryotic culture and ending with high purity DNA. Based on multi-well filtration for bacterial lysate clearance and DNA purification, this method creates a streamlined process for plasmid preparation. Filter plates containing silica-based media can easily be processed by vacuum filtration or centrifuge to yield appreciable quantities of plasmid DNA. Quantitative analyses determine the purified plasmid DNA is consistently of high quality with average OD(260/280;) ratios of 1.97. Overall, plasmid yields offer more pure DNA for downstream applications, such as sequencing and cloning. This streamlined method of using AcroPrep Advance Filter Plates allows for manual, semi-automated or fully-automated processing. PMID:21248696

Pueschel, Laura; Li, Hongshan; Hymes, Matthew

2011-01-01

286

[R plasmids incompatibility groups in epidemic Salmonella (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of 410 strains belonging to six serotypes of epidemic Salmonella (S. wien, S. saint-paul, S. panama, S. heidelberg, S. isangi and S. brandenburg) was studied. Resistance to one or more antibiotics was shown for 228 of these strains. Study of resistance transfer was investigated for 25 multiresistant strains of different epidemic origin. Resistance was coded for by conjugative R plasmids except in the case of S. brandenburg. From 20 strains of Salmonella, 39 plasmids were transferred to E. coli K12. Twenty-nine of these plasmids were classified into 7 incompatibility groups: IncFI, FII, I1, I2, N, C, M. These same groups were also found for 84 R plasmids from different enterobacteria. The "epidemic character" of these Salmonella serotypes does not seem to be associated with carriage of any particular R plasmid. PMID:931255

Avril, J L; Dabernat, H J; Gerbaud, G R; Horodniceanu, T; Lambert-Zechovsky, N; Le Minor, S; Mendez, B; Chabbert, Y A

1977-01-01

287

Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by cotransfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci. (orig.)

1985-02-01

288

Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by co-transfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci.

Chopin, M.C.; Rouault, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Rennes (France). Lab. de Recherches de Technologie Laitiere); Moillo-Batt, A. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital de Pontchaillon, 35 - Rennes (France))

1985-02-01

289

Analysis of plasmid pMZ1 from Micromonospora zionensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmid pMZ1, isolated from Micromonospora zionensis, was also able to replicate by the rolling circle mechanism in Micromonospora melanosporea and Streptomyces lividans. Southern hybridisation experiments with probe prepared from pMZ1 and immobilised M. zionesis DNA fragments separated on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicated that the plasmid is present in the progenitor strain in both integrated and autonomous states. Thiostrepton resistant derivatives of pMZ1 plasmid, pMZS25 and pMZS34, were used to study conjugal transfer in M. melanosporea and S. lividans. A 3.4 kb NcoI-MluI fragment from pMZ1 cloned in pIJ702 (plasmid pIJNM3) was shown to be sufficient to promote plasmid transfer and pock formation in S. lividans. PMID:9627967

Vukov, N; Vasiljevic, B

1998-05-15

290

Practice choices of graduating family medicine residents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the types of practices family medicine residents chose during the first 2 years after residency, and how these choices have changed over a 15-year period. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Areas served by graduates of the Queen's University family medicine residency program. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred thirty (76%) of the 303 graduates from 1977 to 1991 of the Queen's University family medicine residency program responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of ...

Godwin, M.; Hodgetts, G.; Wilson, R.; Pong, R.; Najgebauer, E.

1998-01-01

291

A pathological study on the virulence of Salmonella choleraesuis associated with 50-kilobase plasmid in mice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The virulence of Salmonella choleraesuis associated with 50-kilobase plasmid was assessed by the pathology produced in mice. The strains used in this study were plasmid-contained RF-1, plasmid-cured 31N-1 and plasmid-reintroduced 31N-1-T. Mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with sublethal doses of these bacteria and chronologically necropsied. Pathologically, the plasmid-positive (P+) cases were distinctly different from the plasmid-negative (P-) ones, especially in the peritoneal fluids a...

Moriguchi, R.; Kawahara, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Danbara, H.

1991-01-01

292

Plasmid DNA in Streptococcus cremoris Wg2: Influence of pH on Selection in Chemostats of a Variant Lacking a Protease Plasmid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cleared lysates of a proteolytic (Prt+) strain and a naturally occurring non-proteolytic (Prt?) variant of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 contain equal amounts of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA. An analysis of this plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least five different plasmid species in the Prt+ strain and only three plasmid species in the Prt? variant. Curing studies with acriflavine indicated that a 16-megadalton plasmid determined proteolytic a...

Otto, Roel; Vos, Willem M.; Gavrieli, Jonah

1982-01-01

293

Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

2010-01-01

294

Seismic cascades in advance and after 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and other mega-earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Regular features of discrete cascades of fractures are generally observed both in Nature and laboratory. Specifically, an understanding of seismic process in terms of dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, has already led to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake prediction technique that passed statistical significance testing in forward application, 1992-present. The 26 December 2004 mega-earthquake is the first indication that the algorithm, designed for prediction of M8.0+ earthquakes and tested in applications aimed at smaller target events down to M5.5+ in Italy, can be rescaled for prediction of mega-earthquakes of M9.0+. The event is not a full verification although supported by case histories of the other mega-earthquakes of the 20th century (Kamchatka, 1952; Andreanoff Islands, 1957; Chile, 1960; and Alaska, 1964). The analysis of seismic sequences within space-time of long-, intermediate-, and short-term scales evidence consecutive stages of inverse cascading of seismic activity to the great shock and direct cascading of aftershocks. The first may reflect coalescence of instabilities at the approach of a catastrophe, while the second indicates a certain state of readjustments in the system after it. In the case of 26 December 2004 event the inverse cascade could be related to a stepwise rise of seismic rate excited by the great 04 June 2000 (off-shore southern Sumatra) and the major 02 November 2002 (off-shore northern Sumatra) earthquakes. The direct cascade of aftershocks is characterized with a constant daily rate of above 250 events in the first 46 hours that has changed abruptly to a constant rate of about 27 events and remained the same until the swarm activity in the Andaman Sea back arc started on January 26 and burst out 500 magnitude 4 or larger quakes by January 28. Right after that the rate of aftershocks dropped to another near constant value of 11 per day through February, then to about 6 through March right to the time of 28 March 2004 Nias Mw8.7 mega-earthquake and its aftershocks. The spatial cascade of ruptures ended with 10 April 2005 strong magnitude 6.7 earthquake to the south of the mega-ones. We compare the observed seismic dynamics prior to and after the other mega-earthquakes, which demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course second-order phase transitions in the complex non-linear system of the Earth lithospheric blocks-and-faults.

Romashkova, L.; Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.

2005-12-01

295

Beyond the Mega Events: “Useful” Policies for Urban Mobility Dopo il Grande Evento: politiche “utili” per la mobilità  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses, through different examples, the limits of the urban mobility policies implemented for mega events, highlighting the tendency to privilege the infrastructure realization, more than policies on services, whose real usefulness is often put in doubt from the practice and whose maintenance often become a new cost for the community. On the base of a short review of the mobility policies mainly implemented in the preparation and management of the mega events, the paper highlights, from a critical point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences with reference to the real usefulness of urban mobility for the community beyond the mega event. The outcomes and the so-called “legacy” of the mega events for the cities are very different. Mega sport events, like the Olympic Games, have often involved only the realization of works for the event while events like the International Expositions have determined the acquisition of areas on which setting up the structures for the event. Only in few cases the works realized for the events have been inserted in a wider requalification or regeneration than programme involving the whole city and have been used as tools to achieve a stable improvement of the urban quality, above all regarding mobility. On the base of such considerations some aspects and key-points of urban mobility policies are highlighted in order to achieve real advantages to the community once the mega event is finished.Il contributo indaga i limiti delle politiche urbane e in particolare di quelle sulla mobilità attuate per i Grandi Eventi, evidenziando in molti casi la tendenza a privilegiare la realizzazione di infrastrutture, più che politiche sui servizi, la cui reale utilità è spesso messa in dubbio dalla pratica e i cui costi manutentivi divengono spesso nuovi carichi per la collettività. Sulla base di una breve rassegna delle politiche sulla mobilità maggiormente implementate nella preparazione e gestione dei Grandi Eventi, il contributo evidenzia in maniera critica punti di forza e punti di debolezza delle esperienze analizzate in riferimento sia alla gestione del grande evento, sia in riferimento alla loro reale utilità per la collettività dopo che il grande evento è terminato. Nell’ultima parte del contributo si evidenziano i principali requisiti che le politiche sulla mobilità devono possedere affinché apportino reali vantaggi alla città anche una volta che il Grande Evento è terminato.

Andrea Ceudech

2008-08-01

296

The visitors and the residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robert Normandeau discusses the relationship with the technologies developed by the generation of pioneers in comparison to that of the current generation. Through an analysis of the exclusive characteristics of digital media – such as, for example, the acousmatic approach, the different options for managing sound timbre, the procedures of semantic saturation attained by repetition of the sound fragment, the new social context, the spatial paradigm – the author defines those ones which are likely to generate a new approach to composition, approach proper to the ‘residents’ of the ‘digital generation’, now far from the demands, needs and contingencies of the pioneers.

Robert Normandeau

2010-12-01

297

Does Global seismic energy release increase? An analysis based on the Lithospheric Seismic Energy Flow Model (LSEFM). The case of mega - earthquakes (M > 9)  

CERN Multimedia

In this work the data of the earthquake catalog of the NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) are processed in terms of global seismic energy release. The determined Global Cumulative Seismic Energy Release (GCSER) graph as a function of time, is analyzed in the magnitude domain (discrete energy windows). Characteristic components of the analyzed graph are: its accelerated deformation character observed for energy windows lower than the background seismicity (M = 7.0 - 7.5), its lock state that started on 1923 and long seismic quiescence periods that preceded recent mega - earthquakes. The background GCSER value oscillates during the last century with a period of 60 years and with increasing amplitude. The recent (1952 - 2012) 5 mega - earthquakes are closely related to the amplitude increase of the GCSER oscillation. Hence, it is suggested that more mega - earthquakes are probable due to occur in the future. A global mechanism is postulated for the generation of the mega - earthquakes based on the pri...

Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

2012-01-01

298

La circulation des personnes. Borders, circulation and sport mega-event security : the example of Euro 2008 in Switzerland and Austria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper draws upon empirical insights provided by a two-year research project relating to security governance at the European Football Championships 2008 in Switzerland and Austria (Euro 2008). The objective is to study the role and modalities of border and access control in the context of sport mega-event security on various national and urban scales. This investigation seeks to demonstrate that security and surveillance at sport mega-events are shaped, fundamentally, by efforts towards th...

Klauser, Francisco

2011-01-01

299

Stakeholder participation to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. : A case study of the forum for the coal-power plant “Datteln 4” project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how stakeholder participation should be implemented to improve societal acceptance for mega projects. Thereby societal acceptance is seen as a major contributor to project success in this context and involving society in decision-making and two-way dialogue is recognized as the most  effective to achieve this. Based on this research area, a theoretical framework was proposed for the mega project context including prerequisite, process and outcome criteri...

Ja?ger, Tassilo; Zakharova, Anna

2014-01-01

300

Tracking aeolian transport patterns across a mega-nourishment using video imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal dune areas protect the hinterland from flooding. In order to maintain the safety level provided by the dunes, it may be necessary to artificially supply the beach-dune system with sand. How to best design these shore nourishments, amongst others with respect to optimal dune growth on the long-term (decadal scale), is not yet clear. One reason for this is that current models for aeolian transport on beaches appear to have limited predictive capabilities regarding annual onshore sediment supply. These limited capabilities may be attributed to the lack of appropriate input data, for instance on moisture content of the beach surface, or shortcomings in process understanding. However, it may also be argued that for the long-term prediction of onshore aeolian sand supply from the beach to the dunes, we may need to develop some aggregated-scale transport equations, because the detailed input data required for the application of process-scale transport equations may never be available in reality. A first step towards the development of such new concepts for aggregated-scale transport equations is to increase phenomenological insight into the characteristics and number of aeolian transport events that account for the annual volume changes of the foredunes. This requires high-frequency, long-term data sets to capture the only intermittently occurring aeolian transport events. Automated video image collection seems a promising way to collect such data. In the present study we describe the movement (direction and speed) of sand patches and aeolian bed forms across a nourished site, using video imagery, to characterize aeolian transport pathways and their variability in time. The study site is a mega-nourishment (21 Mm3 of sand) that was recently constructed at the Dutch coast. This mega-nourishment, also referred to as the Sand Motor, is a pilot project that may potentially replace current practice of more frequently applying small scale nourishments. The mega-nourishment site has been, and still is, monitored intensively since its construction in 2011. The monitoring program includes an Argus video system consisting of 8 cameras, mounted on a 40 meter high tower in the middle of the Sand Motor, which collects snap shots and time-exposure images every half an hour. Also two Pan-Tilt-Zoom cameras can be used to zoom in at specific locations. In addition to the remote sensing by Argus, also bathymetric and topographic surveys are conducted every two months, LIDAR flights cover the beach and dune area every six months, and in the near future dune topography will be measured using Terrestrial laser scanning. A weather station mounted at the tower also collects wind data. These additional data sources will be used later on to explain observed aeolian transport pathways and assess their effect on dune evolution.

Wijnberg, Kathelijne; van der Weerd, Lianne; Hulscher, Suzanne

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Novel DC ring topology and protection system - a comprehensive solution for mega city power grids  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of mega cities leads to increased load concentration and brings additional challenges to managing the electrical grid while keeping power available for critical loads. Techniques using FACTS devices are being applied to alleviate power management difficulties and to confine faults in their originating areas in order to limit the risk of cascading failures in the grid. The addition of many FACTS devices often results in control and protection coordination difficulties, power oscillations between connected networks, subsynchronous resonance problems, and torsional interactions with nearby generator units. The most effective solution is obtained when the individual AC subsystems representing sources and loads are decoupled so a fault in a given subsystem is not propagated to another subsystem. This solution can be achieved by the deployment of a DC system where power sources and loads are connected to the DC bus through voltage source converters. For a mega city, this would be conceived as a DC ring feeding multiple loads and connected to remote and local power sources. Unfortunately, the lack of fast DC circuit breakers has been one of the key issues affecting extensive applications of DC systems with common DC buses; a DC fault would discharge all the capacitors of the DC bus and cause delays in system recovery and possibly a wide system collapse. In this research, I provide a comprehensive solution to mega city power grid problems by proposing a DC system topology that enables grid expansions without affecting existing protection settings or changing existing AC breaker ratings. I also propose the means for protecting the DC system by designing a fast DC breaker and developing a control algorithm capable of isolating DC faults without blocking converter stations or depleting DC bus capacitors. My contribution is three folds: (1) I modeled and simulated Shanghai power grid and performed a study to identify short circuit and voltage stability problems using data provided by ABB corporate research located in China. I built on the work that had been performed in ABB China by considering different contingencies and I applied solutions using individual FACTS devices such as FCL, SVC-LightRTM, and HVDC-LightRTM. I analyzed the results from each solution in order to assess its merits and limitations in dealing with fault current and voltage stability problems. Then I presented a novel DC ring topology that provides redundancy, better protection against cascading faults, and does not increase short circuit levels. With this topology, adding loads or power sources does not impact system protection or performance. (2) I proposed two novel designs for a DC circuit breaker that is of critical importance to DC applications using multiple converter stations. The proposed designs solve the problem of DC fault clearing without causing significant voltage drops, current oscillations, or shutting down of any converter station connected to the DC bus. The DC breaker rated at a voltage of 320 kV and a current of 3000 A can interrupt DC currents as high as 70 kA within 800 mus. (3) I proposed a novel placement of the DC circuit breakers within the DC ring topology combined with an intelligent protection algorithm that optimizes fault detection and isolation without affecting the rest of the DC system. The protection scheme uses local measurements and special coordination techniques for clearing solid faults and uses differential measurements to identify and isolate high impedance faults.

Haj-Maharsi, Mohamed Yassine

302

2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

2005-06-01

303

Musculoskeletal examination skills of pediatric residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of our work is to assess musculoskeletal examination skills of pediatric residents. A self-assessment questionnaire with five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree was used. After completion of questionnaires, the residents were taught proper joint examination techniques. Thereafter, the residents were asked to judge whether they had rated their skills accurately. The session was attended by 25/41 residents (61%. Overall, their reported examination skills were poor with a mean score of 3.0 for PGY1, 2.1 for PGY2, 2.2 for PGY3 and 3.0 for PGY4. After being taught the proper joint examinations techniques, 22% of residents reported they initially overestimated their skills and 5% underestimated their skills. The residents felt most comfortable with the knee exam, least comfortable with the finger and wrist joint exam. Most pediatric residents did not feel they can perform a focused musculoskeletal exam.

Johannes Roth

2011-01-01

304

Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

2013-01-01

305

Mining the ESO WFI and INT WFC archives for known Near Earth Asteroids. Mega-Precovery software  

CERN Document Server

The ESO/MPG WFI and the INT WFC wide field archives comprising 330,000 images were mined to search for serendipitous encounters of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). A total of 152 asteroids (44 PHAs and 108 other NEAs) were identified using the PRECOVERY software, their astrometry being measured on 761 images and sent to the Minor Planet Centre. Both recoveries and precoveries were reported, including prolonged orbital arcs for 18 precovered objects and 10 recoveries. We analyze all new opposition data by comparing the orbits fitted before and after including our contributions. We conclude the paper presenting Mega-Precovery, a new online service focused on data mining of many instrument archives simultaneously for one or a few given asteroids. A total of 28 instrument archives have been made available for mining using this tool, adding together about 2.5 million images forming the Mega-Archive.

Vaduvescu, O; Comsa, I; Paraschiv, A; Lacatus, D; Sonka, A; Tudorica, A; Birlan, M; Suciu, O; Char, F; Constantinescu, M; Badescu, T; Badea, M; Vidican, D; Opriseanu, C

2013-01-01

306

Implementation of mega opencast projects in complete greenfields of Gopalpur tract of Ib Valley coalfield in MCL - a success story  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the proposed very fast expanding production horizon of Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. (MCL) in the coming millennium and the existing mines being operated at their almost optimal level, new mega opencast projects are to be undertaken and successfully completed to fulfil the expansion programme of the organization. Some of the mega-projects are bound to be in remote greenfields and in industrially backward and inhospitable localities. Efforts and strategy required in such projects are considerably different than in the projects undertaken adjacent to the developed coalfields. In this article, the author has tried to synthesize the various procedures involved in starting a new opencast project, the constraints faced at grass root level and steps taken to overcome them. The starting up of the Basundhara (East) opencast project is used as a case study. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Singh, R.J. [Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd., Orissa (India)

2000-07-01

307

Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

1988-12-01

308

Antibiotic resistance plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical importance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of plasmids were isolated physically, and most antibiotic resistance is thought to be plasmid mediated. A number of characters (e.g., resistance to erythromycin or methicillin, and production of pigment) are determined by genes that do not give clear indications of either plasmid or chromosomal location. Although the formation of a particular plasmid is probably, even in bacterial terms, a very rare event, once formed such an element can spread rapidly among the bacterial population. The spectacular increase in the incidence of penicillinase-producing hospital strains in the late 1940's could have been due in part to this process. Evidence is stronger, however, for the intercell transfer of recently isolated plasmids coding for resistance to fusidic acid (and penicillinase production), or for neomycin, or for tetracycline resistance. Study of bacterial plasmids can resolve fundamental biochemical problems, and give some insight into the life of the cell at the molecular level. But the immediate application of the study of staphylococcal plasmids may be directed towards improving the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. The most important aspect of future anti-staphylococcal chemotherapy should thus be the limitation of the use of antibiotics, particularly for application to the skin and nose. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

309

Abortion training in family practice residency programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the fall of 1993, 399 family practice residency program directors were asked to complete a questionnaire so researchers could determine the current status of abortion training in family practice residency programs in the US. 301 program directors completed the questionnaire. Only 35 (12%) residency programs provided abortion training to residents. Program directors estimated that 45% of residents from these programs participated in abortion training. Abortion training lasted a median of 4 weeks. Residents performed a median of 10 abortions. They performed them up to 12 weeks gestation (range, 10-20). 30 programs taught suction curettage. Family practice residency programs in the west were more likely to provide this training than the other regions (36% vs. 4% for the south, 6% for the midwest, and 12% for the northeast; p 0.0001). Abortion training takes place primarily in clinics and hospitals (46%, 41%, respectively; 13% for both). Residency programs affiliated with a religious hospital were less likely to offer abortion training than nonaffiliated programs (3.9% vs. 15.7%; p = 0.0335). Religion was the main reason residents refused abortion training. At programs with no abortion training, 46% of senior residents did not know that family practice residents elsewhere received training in first trimester abortions. Only 24% of senior residents who did not know that family practice residents elsewhere received abortion training were interested in receiving abortion training. These findings show that few family practice residents are being trained in performing abortions, particularly in the midwest and the south, which are also the regions with the lowest access to abortion services. North Dakota has only 1 clinic that provides abortions and its physicians come from other states. PMID:8728517

Talley, P P; Bergus, G R

1996-04-01

310

Mega-pockmarks surrounding IODP Site U1414: Insights from the CRISP 3D seismic survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualization of neural network meta-attribute analyses reveals fluid migration pathways associated with mega-pockmarks within the CRISP 3D seismic volume offshore southern Costa Rica, near site U1414 of IODP Expedition 344. A 245km2 field of mega-pockmarks was imaged on the Cocos Ridge using EM122 multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and 3D seismic reflection aboard R/V Marcus G. Langseth during the 2011 CRISP seismic survey. We utilize the OpendTect software package to calculate supervised neural network meta-attributes within the 3D seismic volume, in order to detect and visualize probable faults and fluid-migration pathways within the sedimentary section of the incoming Cocos plate [see Kluesner et al., this meeting]. Pockmarks imaged within the 3D volume near the trench commonly show a two-tier structure with upper pockmarks located above the steep walls of deeper, older pockmarks. The latter appear to truncate surrounding strata, including widespread high-amplitude reverse polarity reflectors (RPRs), interpreted as trapping horizons. In addition, RPRs are also truncated by positive polarity crosscutting reflections (CCRs), most of which form the base and sides of lens-like structures below the RPRs that are frequently located next to imaged pockmarks. Site U1414 intersects one of these lens-like structures and this appears to correlate to a sharp density and porosity swing observed at ~255 mbsf. In addition, preliminary geochemical analyses from site U1414 show evidence of lateral fluid flow through sediments below the RPR [Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013]. Thus, we interpret the 3D lens-like structures to be pockets of trapped gas and/or over-pressured fluid. Based on 3D imaging we propose a 3-stage pockmark evolution: (1) Overpressure and blowout along RPRs, resulting in pockmark formation, (2) sustained seepage along pockmark walls, resulting in preferential deposition near the center of the pockmark, and (3) rapid burial as pockmarks near the trench axis. On the seafloor, small high-backscatter mounds are found near the walls of a subset of pockmarks, suggesting recent or active seafloor seepage. Further geochemical analyses are needed to determine the source of fluid/gas migration associated with the pockmark structures.

Nale, S. M.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.; Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Ranero, C. R.

2013-12-01

311

Interspecific plasmid transfer between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The streptococcal plasmids pMV158 and pLS1, grown in Streptococcus pneumoniae, were transformed to Bacillus subtilis by DNA-mediated transformation.The plasmids were unchanged in the new host; no deletions were observed in 80 instances of transfer. Hybrid plasmids were produced by recombining the EcoRI fragment of pBD6 that confers Km/sup r/ with EcoRI-cut pLS1, which confers Tc/sup r/. The simple hybrid, pMP2, was transferable to both species and expressed Tc/sup r/ and Km/sup r/ in both. A derivative, pMP5, which contained an insertion in the pBD6 component, expressed a higher level of kanomycin resistance and was more easily selected in S. pneumoniae. Another derivative, pMP3, which contained an additional EcoRI fragment, presumably of pneumococcal chromosomal DNA, could not be transferred to B. subtilis. Previous findings that monomeric plasmid forms could transform S. pneumoniae but not B. subtilis were confirmed using single plasmid preparations. Although plasmids extracted from either species were readily transferred to S. pneumoniae, successive passage in B. subtilis increased the ability of plasmid extracts to transfer the plasmid to a B. subtilis recipient. This adaptation was tentatively ascribed to an enrichment of multimeric forms in extracts of B. subtilis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A review of host ranges exhibited by plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria suggested differences in their ability to use particular host replication functions. (JMT)

Espinosa, M. (Inst. de Immunologia y Biologia Microbiana, Velazquez, Madrid, Spain); Lopez, P.; Perez-Urena, M.T.; Lacks, S.A.

1982-01-01

312

Urban development in mega-cities in developing countries : potentials of citizen participation in planning and managing urban development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuing urbanization and especially the growth of large cities are going to be among the most important challenges for developing countries in the future. This paper develops a model for citizen participation in planning and managing the development of mega-cities in developing countries. The approach chosen is furthering the argument that citizen participation in management and planning of urban affairs is a key prerequisite for effectively and efficiently responding to the challenges of ...

2003-01-01

313

The Role of Mega-events in Country Branding : Case Study on Brand of Ukraine before European Football Championship 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful presentation of a country as a brand and positioning its unique image on the global level can give significant opportunities for development and progress of the state in the different areas. This research applies theories on the country branding to estimate impact of mega sport events on the image of state. To accomplish these goal I used case study – formation of brand Ukraine before hosting European Football Championship 2012 (EURO 2012). To investigate  brand strategy of Ukra...

Klonova, Anastasiia

2012-01-01

314

On the Strength of the Carbon Nanotube-Based Space Elevator Cable: From Nano- to Mega-Mechanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper different deterministic and statistical models, based on new quantized theories proposed by the author, are presented to estimate the strength of a real, thus defective, space elevator cable. The cable, of ~100 megameters in length, is composed by carbon nanotubes, ~100 nanometers long: thus, its design involves from the nano- to the mega-mechanics. The predicted strengths are extensively compared with the experiments and the atomistic simulations on carbon nan...

Pugno, Nicola M.

2006-01-01

315

Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

Mu?ller, Martin

2009-01-01

316

Along came a mega-event : prospects of competitiveness for a 2010 FIFA World Cup™ host city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ came at a time when countries and cities worldwide were increasingly competing for this sought-after status. The benefits and challenges of such an event have received significant attention from researchers and practitioners alike. No tourism destination is guaranteed long-term competitiveness by being offered the once-off opportunity to host a major international event. This study aimed to determine whether a mega-event would make a grea...

2013-01-01

317

Plasmid and serological differences between Edwardsiella ictaluri strains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies have shown that isolates of Edwardsiella ictaluri obtained from infected channel catfish in the southeastern United States harbor two cryptic plasmids, designated pCL1 (5.7 kb) and pCL2 (4.9 kb). These isolates appear to be serologically homogeneous. To extend these studies, we focused our analyses on two isolates of nonictalurid origin. Plasmid analyses of a danio isolate showed that it harbored plasmids which were similar if not identical to pCL1 and pCL2. This strain was al...

Lobb, C. J.; Ghaffari, S. H.; Hayman, J. R.; Thompson, D. T.

1993-01-01

318

Plasmid-coded ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus ducreyi.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven of the 96 ampicillin-resistant isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi reported in the preceding article (Bilgeri et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22:686-688, 1982) were investigated and found to harbor plasmids of 3.95, 5.2, 5.8, and 6.4 megadaltons. All except the 5.8-megadalton plasmid have been shown to code for beta-lactamase. The 6.4- and 5.2-megadalton plasmids of three isolates were conjugally transferable to a streptomycin-resistant mutant of H. ducreyi at high frequencies, perhap...

Thomson, J. A.; Bilgeri, Y. R.

1982-01-01

319

Plasmid genes required for microcin B17 production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of the antibiotic substance microcin B17 (Mcc) is determined by a 3.5-kilobase DNA fragment from plasmid pMccB17. Several Mcc- mutations on plasmid pMccB17 were obtained by both transposon insertion and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Plasmids carrying these mutations were tested for their ability to complement Mcc- insertion or deletion mutations on pMM102 (pMM102 is a pBR322 derivative carrying the region encoding microcin B17). Results from these experiments indicate that at l...

San Milla?n, J. L.; Kolter, R.; Moreno, F.

1985-01-01

320

Control of the ccd operon in plasmid F.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The F sex factor plasmid of Escherichia coli contains a pair of genes, ccdA and ccdB, whose protein gene products are involved in an unusual feature of plasmid maintenance. The CcdB protein is a cytotoxin that becomes activated when the F plasmid is lost, thereby killing the F- segregant cells. In F+ cells, the CcdA protein protects against the lethal effects of CcdB. In the present study we show that ccdA and ccdB expressions are negatively autoregulated at the level of transcription. Geneti...

Tam, J. E.; Kline, B. C.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

High-Frequency Plasmid Transduction by Lactobacillus gasseri Bacteriophage ?adh †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The temperate bacteriophage ?adh mediates plasmid DNA transduction in Lactobacillus gasseri ADH at frequencies in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 transductants per PFU. BglII-generated DNA fragments from phage ?adh were cloned into the BclI site of the transducible plasmid vector pGK12 (4.4 kb). Phage ?adh lysates induced from Lactobacillus lysogens harboring pGK12 or the recombinant plasmids were used to transduce strain ADH to chloramphenicol resistance. The transduction frequencies of recomb...

Raya, R. R.; Klaenhammer, T. R.

1992-01-01

322

MegaSNPHunter: a learning approach to detect disease predisposition SNPs and high level interactions in genome wide association study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly hypothesized to affect an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases. Although many works have been done to identify and quantify the importance of multi-SNP interactions, few of them could handle the genome wide data due to the combinatorial explosive search space and the difficulty to statistically evaluate the high-order interactions given limited samples. Results Three comparative experiments are designed to evaluate the performance of MegaSNPHunter. The first experiment uses synthetic data generated on the basis of epistasis models. The second one uses a genome wide study on Parkinson disease (data acquired by using Illumina HumanHap300 SNP chips. The third one chooses the rheumatoid arthritis study from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC using Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set. MegaSNPHunter outperforms the best solution in this area and reports many potential interactions for the two real studies. Conclusion The experimental results on both synthetic data and two real data sets demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms the best solution that is currently available in handling large-scale SNP data both in terms of speed and in terms of detection of potential interactions that were not identified before. To our knowledge, MegaSNPHunter is the first approach that is capable of identifying the disease-associated SNP interactions from WTCCC studies and is promising for practical disease prognosis.

Xue Hong

2009-01-01

323

Bacterial Mitosis: ParM of Plasmid R1 Moves Plasmid DNA by an Actin-like Insertional Polymerization Mechanism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid movement is powered by insertional polymerization of ParM. Consistently, we find that segregating plasmids are positioned at the ends of extending ParM filaments. Thus, the process of R1 plasmid segregation in E. coli appears to be mechanistically analogous to the actin-based motility operating in eukaryotic cells. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that plasmid pairing is required for ParM polymerization. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2003

Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas

2003-01-01

324

The patchwork nature of rolling-circle plasmids: comparison of six plasmids from two distinct Bacillus thuringiensis serotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacillus thuringiensis, the entomopathogenic bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group, harbors numerous extrachromosomal molecules whose sizes vary from 2 to more than 200 kb. Apart from the genes coding for the biopesticide delta-endotoxins located on large plasmids, little information has been obtained on these plasmids and their contribution to the biology of their host. In this paper, we embarked on a detailed comparison of six small rolling-circle replicating (RCR) plasmids originating from two major B. thuringiensis strains. The complete nucleotide sequences of plasmid pGIl, pGI2, pGI3, pTX14-1, pTX14-2, and pTX14-3 have been obtained and compared. Replication functions, comprising, for each plasmid, the gene encoding the Rep-protein, double-strand origin of replication (dso), single-strand origin of replication (sso), have been identified and analyzed. Two new families, or homology groups, of RCR plasmids originated from the studies of these plasmids (Group VI based on pGI3 and Group VII based on pTX14-3). On five of the six plasmids, loci involved in conjugative mobilization (Mob-genes and origin of transfer (oriT)) were identified. Plasmids pTX14-1, pTX14-2, and pTX14-3 each harbor an ORF encoding a polypeptide containing a central domain with repetitive elements similar to eukaryotic collagen (Gly-X-Y triplets). These genes were termed bcol for Bacillus-collagen-like genes. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

Andrup, Lars; Jensen, Gert Bolander

2003-01-01

325

Evaluation of Intern, Resident and Patient’s KnowledgeOf their Right Charter in Ahvaz Jundishapur University Educational Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Provisions of law and medical ethics is one of the principles of patient satisfaction. The hospitals are inseparable units of social medicine which provide services for all the people in the community. In addition, educational hospitals are centers for education and the students acquire experience their. Obeying the laws of community medicine and patients' right charter are unavoidable to provide high quality services, health care and treatment. As follow-up regulatory bodies scattered in the annual evaluation of health service providers, this study was necessary.Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been done in order to assess patient & interns & resident’s awareness in 2010. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire based on patients' rights provisions. Sampling has been done randomly based on maximum amount of 433 people.Results: Among 433 people, there were 261 visitors, 103 residents, 69 interns, 181 males (% 48.8. The result show that in average %25.5 of visitors and %14.45 of physicians knew nothing about patients right contents, meanwhile %29.8 of visitors and %61.7 of physicians completely knew it.Conclusion: Considering, Ahvaz Jundishapur educational medical university is one of the first rate universities and Ahvaz is one of the developing mega cities; results could be clear lack of good transferring of information or some other reasons which could be suggestible for other studies.

Ahmad Ghorbani

2013-01-01

326

Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

2004-06-07

327

Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland in 2008. The collars provided GPS-positions with 1-3-hours intervals hence giving detailed information on the spatial distribution of the animals. The detailed information prompt opportunities to introduce statistical models to enhance the understanding of causal effects on the distribution of the caribou in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable â??virtual worldâ? of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland.

Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine

328

Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

McClements, K. G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-07-15

329

The signature of the 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

On 11 March 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, a mega earthquake (EQ) with magnitude (Mw) 9.0 [The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake] occurred at a depth of about 24 km near the East coast of Honshu Island, Japan as a result of a thrust faulting on or near the subduction plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Geomagnetic data from MAGDAS and Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) networks have been analyzed to examine the signature of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan. Results of data analysis indicate about 5 nT increase in the total geomagnetic field intensity in the vicinity of the epicenter of 2011Tohoku EQ compared with other reference stations. Moreover, the annual range of the Z-component daily variations tends to decrease near the epicenter before the occurrence of the Tohoku EQ. Concerning the ULF emissions; the Pc 3 amplitude ratio (ZPc3/HPc3) near the epicenter at the Onagawa [ONW] station showed a good correlation with other remote reference stations before the Tohoku EQ but it started to decrease with no correlation to other stations a few weeks before the 2011 Tohoku EQ. On the other hand, the Pc 3 amplitude ratio at ONW station showed a clear anti-correlation compared with reference stations after the 2011 Tohoku EQ.

Takla, E. M.; Yumoto, K.; Okano, S.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.

2013-12-01

330

Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility  

Science.gov (United States)

The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50 ?m), and target positioning (20 ?m) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Garbett, W. J.; Ramis, R.

2014-01-01

331

Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

CERN Document Server

In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity eta < 1E-5. In Hall-MHD three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the curre...

Stanier, A; Gordovskyy, M; McClements, K G; Gryaznevich, M P; Lukin, V S

2013-01-01

332

Widespread Mega-Pockmarks Imaged Along the Western Edge of the Cocos Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

A large field (245km2) of 31 seabed mega-pockmarks was imaged between the Cocos ridge and the Quepos plateau on ~16.5 Ma oceanic crust generated at the Cocos-Nazca spreading center. The imaged pockmarks represent only a fraction of the much larger pockmark field evident in 100 m grid cell bathymetry data secured from MGDS. The pockmarks are clustered around 1800-2100 mbsl and were mapped using EM122 multibeam sonar, a 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler, and 3D Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) aboard R/V Marcus G. Langseth during the CRISP seismic survey (2011). Using a constrained swath width of 1.4 km, the increased sounding density facilitated bathymetry/backscatter to be gridded at 10m and 8m respectively. The diameter of the pockmarks varies from ~1 km to ~2 km with a relief range of ~30-80 m, and average slopes of 15°. The MCS data also reveal older buried pockmarks in trench adjacent sediments. Small high-backscatter mounds occur within a subset of the pockmarks, which may indicate bioherms or carbonate banks above focused fluid flow conduits. Based on drilling results of DSDP Site 158 and ODP Site 1381, the pockmarks appear to be the result of paleo-differential advancement of a silica diagenetic front (opal-A to opal-CT). Although, the pockmarks may be erosional features sourced at depth from dewatering of sediments inter-bedded with igneous layers.

Gibson, J. C.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.; Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.

2012-12-01

333

Regional flood dynamics in a bifurcating mega delta simulated in a global river model  

Science.gov (United States)

this paper we show the importance of bifurcation channels for flow in river mega deltas through the use of a new computational scheme implemented in the global hydrodynamic model, CaMa-Flood (Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain model). First, we developed a new river network map based on SRTM3 DEM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 3 arc-second Digital Elevation Model) and HydroSHEDS (hydrological data and maps based on shuttle elevation derivatives at multiple scales) which includes bifurcation channels. Next, we implemented a new bifurcation scheme in CaMa-Flood capable of routing flow along this network and used the model to simulate the Mekong River. We show that in the Mekong delta such channels route about 50% of total flow and that their representation is essential for realistic hydrodynamic simulations. A simulation without bifurcation channels was obviously unrealistic because no flow occurred between the mainstem and adjacent channels even when their water level difference was >6 m. The bifurcation channels are extracted from globally available data sets; thus, it is straightforward to expand the proposed scheme to global-scale studies.

Yamazaki, Dai; Sato, Tomoko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Bates, Paul D.

2014-05-01

334

Photon detector for MEGA: Progress report, July 15, 1987-July 15, 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last October and November, we had prototype runs at LAMPF to test our designs and to confirm the background and trigger rates predicted by our Monte Carlo studies. Since these two runs, our hardware efforts have been directed toward beginning mass production of the detector elements. In parallel, we have been continuing our pattern recognition efforts, pointing toward the goal of having subroutines ready for the intelligent, second-stage trigger by this coming fall. During October, our group carried out an experiment on a prototype detector in the LAMPF Test Channel which allowed us to study the performance of our scintillators, light guides, phototubes, and electronics in a well-controlled environment. This was followed in November by the first major prototype run inside the MEGA solenoid at the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). For this run, we fabricated a plane of 12 scintillators, each 1 x 5 x 180 cm3, together with Al and lucite sheets whose thicknesses were chosen to reproduce the mass and radiation lengths that will be present in the real photon detector

1988-01-01

335

Dense transient plasmas driven by a mega-ampere device in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the pulse power generator SPEED 2, a medium energy and large current device (187kJ, 4MA, 300kV, 400ns, dI/dt ? 1013 A/s), has been transfered from the Duesseldorf University to the Plasma Physics Group of the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN). The SPEED 2 arrived at CCHEN in May 2001 and was in operation in January 2002, being the most powerful device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Experiments in different Z-pinch configurations using the SPEED 2 generator will be carried out at CCHEN in the future. Possible objectives using the SPEED 2 devices are discussed in this work: a) Neutron flux characteristics from plasma focus discharges operating in D2 (with temporal and spatial resolution) correlated to discharge parameters, plasma dynamics and instabilities. Particular investigation of the effect of insulator surface preparation and conditioning on pinch behavior and neutron yield, b) High brightness and soft X- ray radiation from transient electrical discharges, especially in wire arrays, and c) Magnetic confinement in a quasistatic z-pinch at mega ampere peak current. Plasma dynamics and stability in an original quasi-static z-pinch configuration (a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch) and in a combination scheme that use gas puff and plasma focus will be studied at high current using the SPEED 2 generator. Results about SPEED 2 performance, obtained in Chile, are presented

2002-12-19

336

Next-step-targeted experiments on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its first physics campaign, the principal parameters on MAST (Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) [A. Sykes et al., Nuclear Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] have been brought up towards their design values. Considerable advances have been made in a range of physics areas of direct relevance to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER Physics Basis, Nuclear Fusion 39, 2175 (1999)]. In this paper, results on H-mode access, global confinement and pedestal studies are presented and compared with conventional aspect ratio tokamak scalings. Physics and engineering requirements relevant to next step spherical tokamak devices are discussed, in particular the plasma formation, current ramp-up and sustainment, and plasma exhaust. Results of first experiments directly targeting these issues are presented: Plasma current up to 0.5 MA has been produced without use of the central solenoid flux, and current ramp-up and sustainment without use of the central solenoid flux has been demonstrated. Experiments on neutral beam heating and current drive (CD) demonstrate up to 50% bootstrap current fraction and good CD efficiency, and divertor power loading has been found to be tolerable and have a favorable outboard asymmetry

2003-05-01

337

A review of plasma boundary phenomena in the mega ampere spherical tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced diagnostics and an expanded operational space in Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) has lead to a wealth of data on the plasma boundary becoming available over the last year of operations and has significantly advanced the understanding of this region in the spherical tokamak and, more generally, is contributing to an improved understanding of the underlying plasma phenomena for this important region of the tokamak. Amongst the observations reported in this paper are that MAST is able to achieve simultaneous high confinement and high density with Type III ELMs for connected double-null discharges in which most (>93%) of the power efflux from the core observed at the targets (including during ELMs) arrives at the large wetted area outboard targets and is evenly distributed between the upper and lower divertor regions. Significant particle fluxes are reported well beyond the outboard separatrix during ELMs (up to 20 cm distant from the plasma) and appear to be associated with the radial expansion of a localised structure at around 1 km s-1. The result of preliminary experiments to broaden the SOL by asymmetric divertor biasing are also presented which show an encouraging, qualitative agreement with theory and demonstrate clear evidence for both SOL broadening and target power reduction

2003-03-01

338

Commissioning and clinical implementation of a mega-voltage cone beam CT system for treatment localization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement in conformal radiotherapy techniques with steep dose gradients has allowed for the delivery of higher doses to a tumor volume while maintaining the sparing of surrounding normal tissue. In this situation, verification of patient setup and evaluation of internal organ motion just prior to radiation delivery is a crucial step. To this end, several volumetric image-guided techniques have been developed for patient localization, such as the Siemens MVision mega-voltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) system. In this work, the commissioning and clinical implementation of the MVision system is presented. The geometry and gain calibration procedures for the system are described, and guidelines for quality assurance procedures are provided. Different MV-CBCT clinical protocols, ranging from daily to weekly image-guidance, which includes image acquisition, reconstruction, registration with planning CT, and treatment couch offsets corrections, were commissioned. The image quality characteristics of the MVision system were measured and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, including the image noise and uniformity, low-contrast resolution, and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the image reconstruction and registration software was evaluated. Data show that a 2 cm large object with 1% electron density contrast can be detected with the MVision system with 10 cGy at isocenter and that the registration software is accurate within 2 mm in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions

2007-08-01

339

Commissioning and clinical implementation of a mega-voltage cone beam CT system for treatment localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The improvement in conformal radiotherapy techniques with steep dose gradients has allowed for the delivery of higher doses to a tumor volume while maintaining the sparing of surrounding normal tissue. In this situation, verification of patient setup and evaluation of internal organ motion just prior to radiation delivery is a crucial step. To this end, several volumetric image-guided techniques have been developed for patient localization, such as the Siemens MVision mega-voltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) system. In this work, the commissioning and clinical implementation of the MVision system is presented. The geometry and gain calibration procedures for the system are described, and guidelines for quality assurance procedures are provided. Different MV-CBCT clinical protocols, ranging from daily to weekly image-guidance, which includes image acquisition, reconstruction, registration with planning CT, and treatment couch offsets corrections, were commissioned. The image quality characteristics of the MVision system were measured and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, including the image noise and uniformity, low-contrast resolution, and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the image reconstruction and registration software was evaluated. Data show that a 2 cm large object with 1% electron density contrast can be detected with the MVision system with 10 cGy at isocenter and that the registration software is accurate within 2 mm in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. PMID:17879781

Gayou, Olivier; Miften, Moyed

2007-08-01

340

A high resolution Mirnov array for the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past two decades, the increase in neutral-beam heating and {alpha} particle production in magnetically confined fusion plasmas has led to an increase in energetic particle driven mode activity, much of which has an electromagnetic signature which can be detected by the use of external Mirnov coils. Typically, the frequency and spatial wave number band of such oscillations increase with increasing injection energy, offering new challenges for diagnostic design. In particular, as the frequency approaches the megahertz range, care must be taken to model the stray capacitance of the coil, which limits the resonant frequency of the probe; model transmission line effects in the system, which if unchecked can produce system resonances; and minimize coil conductive shielding, so as to minimize skin currents which limit the frequency response of the coil. As well as optimizing the frequency response, the coils should also be positioned to confidently identify oscillations over a wide wave number band. This work, which draws on new techniques in stray capacitance modeling and coil positioning, is a case study of the outboard Mirnov array for high-frequency acquisition in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, and is intended as a roadmap for the design of high frequency, weak field strength magnetic diagnostics.

Hole, M. J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Appel, L. C.; Martin, R. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
341

A high resolution Mirnov array for the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past two decades, the increase in neutral-beam heating and ? particle production in magnetically confined fusion plasmas has led to an increase in energetic particle driven mode activity, much of which has an electromagnetic signature which can be detected by the use of external Mirnov coils. Typically, the frequency and spatial wave number band of such oscillations increase with increasing injection energy, offering new challenges for diagnostic design. In particular, as the frequency approaches the megahertz range, care must be taken to model the stray capacitance of the coil, which limits the resonant frequency of the probe; model transmission line effects in the system, which if unchecked can produce system resonances; and minimize coil conductive shielding, so as to minimize skin currents which limit the frequency response of the coil. As well as optimizing the frequency response, the coils should also be positioned to confidently identify oscillations over a wide wave number band. This work, which draws on new techniques in stray capacitance modeling and coil positioning, is a case study of the outboard Mirnov array for high-frequency acquisition in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, and is intended as a roadmap for the design of high frequency, weak field strength magnetic diagnostics.

2009-12-01

342

Plasmid diversity in arctic strains of Psychrobacter spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six strains of Psychrobacter spp. isolated from guano of little auks collected on Spitsbergen island (Arctic) carried nine plasmids that were fully sequenced. These replicons (ranging in size from 2917 to 14924 bp) contained either repA (ColE2-type) or repB (iteron-type) replication systems of a relatively narrow host range, limited to Psychrobacter spp. All but one of the plasmids carried predicted mobilization for conjugal transfer systems, encoding relaxases of the MOBQ, MOBV or MOBP families. The plasmids also contained diverse additional genetic load, including a type II restriction-modification system and a gene encoding a putative subunit C of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC)-an antioxidant enzyme and major scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Detailed comparative sequence analyses, extended to all plasmids identified so far in psychrophilic bacteria, distinguished groups of the most ubiquitous replicons, which play a key role in horizontal gene transfer in cold environments. PMID:23479249

Dziewit, Lukasz; Cegielski, Adrian; Romaniuk, Krzysztof; Uhrynowski, Witold; Szych, Antoni; Niesiobedzki, Pawel; Zmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena J; Zdanowski, Marek K; Bartosik, Dariusz

2013-05-01

343

[Construction of efficient conjugal plasmids between Escherichia coli and Streptomycetes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugal plasmid pGH112 has been developed based on the replicons of Streptomyces coelicolor plasmid SCP2 and E. coli ColE. The plasmid contains ampicilin resistance gene(amp) for selection in E. coli and thiostrepton resistance gene (tsr) for selection in Streptomycetes, and a 0.76 kb oriT fragment of (IncP) RK2. Conjugal transfer of pGH112 was performed from E. coli to S. coelicolor A3(2), S. avermitilis, S. lividans TK54, S. toxytricini NNRL15443, S. venezuelae ISP5230 and Sacc. erythraea by conjugation, results show that the plasmid was able to transfer efficenctly from E. coli to Streptomycetes, was stably inherited in the recipients. pGH113 was constructed from pGH112 by combining the constitutive ermE promoter with green fluorescent protein gene(gfp). PMID:15973986

Mo, Hong-Bo; Bai, Lin-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Lan; Yang, Ke-Qian

2004-09-01

344

Incompatibility of Escherichia coli rho mutants with plasmids is mediated by plasmid-specific transcription.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Escherichia coli rho-15 mutant (deficient in transcription termination) is known to be incompatible with pBR322 and other plasmids (J. S. Fassler, G. F. Arnold, and I. Tessman, Mol. Gen. Genet. 204:424-429, 1986). We show that failure of pBR322 to transform rho-15 is mediated by transcription from the tet promoter and readthrough from the tet gene into the rom region. Using an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible promoter to replace the tet promoter, we have demonstrated that ...

1997-01-01

345

Genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae by heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid.  

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A number of heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) coding for erythromycin, tylosin, lincomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol resistance have been introduced into Streptococcus pneumoniae via genetic transformation with frequencies that varied between 10(-5) to as high as 5 x 10(-1) per colony-forming unit. Transformation with plasmid DNA required pneumococcal competence, was competed by chromosomal DNA, and showed a saturation at about 0.5 micrograms/ml (with a recipient popu...

Barany, F.; Tomasz, A.

1980-01-01

346

Large Plasmids from Soil Bacteria Enriched on Halogenated Alkanoic Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four Pseudomonas species and two Alcaligenes species were isolated from soil with a capacity to grow on halogenated alkanoic acids. They were shown to contain one of five large plasmids. The plasmids had molecular weights ranging from 98,800 to 190,000. They were associated with the ability to utilize the halogenated substrates 2-monochloropropionic acid and 2-monochloroacetic acid and with resistance towards one or more of the heavy metals mercury, selenium, and tellurium. The largest plasmi...

Hardman, David J.; Gowland, Peter C.; Slater, J. Howard

1986-01-01

347

Isolation and properties of plasmids from Deinococcus radiodurans Sark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioresistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, can repair completely almost all of DNA damages including double strand breaks induced by gamma-rays up to about 5 kGy. In order to reveal the repair mechanism, it is necessary to develop a cloning vector available for the genetic analysis. We tried to isolate plasmids from D.radiodurans Sark strain. In the present paper the isolation and properties of plasmids were described. (author)

1990-01-01

348

Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

1980-01-01

349

Distribution of heterogeneous and homologous plasmids in Bacillus spp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 75 strains (including 5 reference strains) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. sphaericus, B. subtilis, and B. thuringiensis and 36 species-unidentified Bacillus strains were surveyed for plasmids by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide equilibrium centrifugation of cell lysates in a study of antibiotic resistance in host cells. Of the 111 strains, 13 (including 3 reference strains) were found to harbor plasmids, and 5...

1983-01-01

350

Plasmid Involvement in Parathion Hydrolysis by Pseudomonas diminuta  

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An organism identified as Pseudomonas diminuta was found to hydrolyze parathion. Cells grown for 48 h contained 3,400 U of parathion hydrolase activity per liter of broth. Expression of enzymatic activity was lost at a high frequency (9 to 12%) after treatment with mitomycin C. Hydrolase-negative derivatives were missing a plasmid present in the wild-type organism. The molecular mass of this plasmid (pCS1), as determined by electron microscopy, was about 44 × 106 daltons.

Serdar, Cu?neyt M.; Gibson, David T.; Munnecke, Douglas M.; Lancaster, John H.

1982-01-01

351

First Detection of Plasmid-Encoded blaOXY ?-Lactamase?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three Klebsiella oxytoca isolates and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from three children admitted to the Hematology Unit of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain) exhibited a susceptibility pattern suggesting OXY ?-lactamase hyperproduction. All the isolates contained a 95-kb plasmid that harbored blaOXY-1, which was transferred by electrotransformation but could not be self-transferred by conjugation. A qnrS1 gene was also harbored in the blaOXY-1-carrying plasmid. This is the first r...

Gonza?lez-lo?pez, J. J.; Coelho, A.; Larrosa, M. N.; Lavilla, S.; Bartolome?, R.; Prats, G.

2009-01-01

352

Plasmids of endophytic bacteria as vectors for transformation in plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endophytic microorganisms in general have a rich potential as producers of novel bioactive compounds, as nitrogen fixers, IAA producers, plant toxicity reducers, etc. Endophytic bacteria can also be used as vectors for transferring genes of interest to plants. These plasmid bearers have the advantage of colonizing the plant and rhizosphere with ease. In the present work, plasmids of endophytic bacteria were used as vectors instead of whole organism, for genetic studies. The advantage bein...

2010-01-01

353

Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach...

Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S.; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

2012-01-01

354

Identifying inaccuracies on emergency medicine residency applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Previous trials have showed a 10–30% rate of inaccuracies on applications to individual residency programs. No studies have attempted to corroborate this on a national level. Attempts by residency programs to diminish the frequency of inaccuracies on applications have not been reported. We seek to clarify the national incidence of inaccuracies on applications to emergency medicine residency programs. Methods This is a multi-center, single-b...

Katz Eric D; Shockley Lee; Kass Lawrence; Howes David; Tupesis Janis P; Weaver Christopher; Sayan Osman R; Hogan Victoria; Begue Jason; Vrocher Diamond; Frazer Jackie; Evans Timothy; Hern Gene; Riviello Ralph; Rivera Antonio

2005-01-01

355

Thiophilic interaction chromatography for supercoiled plasmid DNA purification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercoiled plasmid DNA was selectively purified from its open circular form by thiophilic interaction chromatography, performed in the presence of high concentrations of water-structuring salts. To identify optimal conditions for purification, various aromatic thioether ligands were coupled to a chromatographic support and screened for their ability to separate plasmid isoforms from each other and from other host cell contaminants, including RNA, genomic DNA, protein, and endotoxins. Selectivity of the chromatographic medium depended on the structure of the ligands, with characteristics of the substituents on the aromatic ring determining the resolution between the different plasmid DNA isoforms. Optimal resolution was obtained with ligands consisting of an thioaromate, substituted with highly electronegative groups. When 2-mercaptopyridine was used as a ligand, the difference in conductivity for eluting open circular and supercoiled plasmid DNA is only 6 mS/cm. However, with 4-nitrothiophol the resolution for plasmid DNA separation on the media increased, resulting in a 20 mS/cm difference. When used in combination with a prior group separation step, these aromatic thioether ligands facilitated the isolation of highly purified supercoiled plasmid DNA, suitable for use in gene therapy and DNA vaccine applications. PMID:15063627

Sandberg, Lena M; Bjurling, Asa; Busson, Philippe; Vasi, Jozsef; Lemmens, Raf

2004-04-01

356

The characteristics of micrococcus (deinococcus) radiodurans sark plasmids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characterization of micrococcus (deinococcus) radiodurans sark plasmids. This bacterium has been classified as a new genus deinococcus radiodurans which is resistant to gamma-rays. It can repair itself completely almost all of DNA damages including double strand breaks induced by gamma-rays up to about 5 KGy. To reveal the repair mechanism, several investigations had been done to develop a cloning vector available for the genetic analysis. For this purpose D. radiodurans Sark are to be prepared as a vector by studying the characteristics of its plasmid. Plasmids were isolated by electrophoresis using 0.6% low-melting-temperature agarose in TAE and run for 5.5 hours, followed by the identification. An antibiotic marker was also carried out in this experiment to identify its location in the genetic materials of the cell, beside making a restriction map of the plasmid. Results have shown that D. radiodurans Sark has 4 plasmids (P1, P2, P3, and P4) and the refampicin resistant genes were not found in the plasmid. (authors). 14 refs; 4 figs

1994-01-01

357

General practitioner residency consultations: video feedback analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse longitudinally two decades of Portuguese general practi-tioner (GP residents' consultation features, such as consultation length- estimating its major determinants- as well as to compare with GP residents from other Western practices. Methods: This pilot study followed a retrospective and descriptive design, comprising of the analysis of videotaped consultations with real patients from GP residents (southern Portugal, between 1990 and 2008. Main studied variables were consultation length and purpose, participant demographics and residency site characteristics. Results: From 516 residents, 68.0were females, mainly between 26-35 years old (50.6. Female patients' proportion equalled doctors', with the most frequent age group being the 46-65 years old (41.3. The consultation took on average 22 minutes and 22 seconds, with no significant differences by year and residency location. Main consultation purposes were previous scheduling (31.6 and acute symptoms (30.0. Duration was consistently longer than practising GPs from other countries, keeping in mind the supervised practice. Significant and positive predictors of consultation length were number of attendants and patients' frequency at the residency site. Conclusions: South Portugal GP residency program consultations were lengthier in comparison to similar practice in Europe and other Western countries. Length correlated preferably with patient related variables than with professionals', while confirming the longitudinal homogeneity in the residency consultation format for the last two decades.

Afonso M. Cavaco

2011-12-01

358

Allelopathy of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms competing for two complementary resources in a chemostat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a model of competition between plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free organisms for two complementary nutrients in a chemostat. We assume that the plasmid-bearing organism produces an allelopathic agent at the cost of its reproductive abilities which is lethal to plasmid-free organism. Our analysis leads to different thresholds in terms of the model parameters acting as conditions under which the organisms associated with the system cannot thrive even in the absence of competition. Local stability of the system is obtained in the absence of one or both the organisms. Also, global stability of the system is obtained in the presence of both the organisms. Computer simulations have been carried out to illustrate various analytical results. PMID:22873609

Bhattacharyya, Joydeb; Smith, Hal L; Pal, Samares

2012-01-01

359

Awareness of Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology Among Residents and Residency Directors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Awareness of the subspecialty of infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology is low among United States residents and residency directors. Objective. Given the burden of infectious diseases on women's health, we sought to assess current awareness, interest, and perceived value of the subspecialty of infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology among current United States obstetrics and gynecology residents and residency directors. Methods. Two separate surveys addressing awareness, perceived value and interest in the subspecialty were sent to (1 a random 20% sample of obstetrics and gynecology residents and (2 all obstetrics and gynecology residency directors. Results. Seventy percent of the residency directors were familiar with the subspecialty and 67.0% placed value on infectious disease specialists in an academic department. Thirty percent of the residents reported awareness of the subspecialty. Thirty-six percent of residency directors reported that medical infectious disease specialists deliver formal education to the obstetrics and gynecology residents. Conclusion. United States obstetrics and gynecology residents and residency directors have a low awareness of the subspecialty. An open niche exists for formal education of residents in infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology by department specialists. These findings can be incorporated into ongoing recruitment efforts for the subspecialty of infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology.

David E. Soper

2006-11-01

360

Relationship between pNG2, an Emr plasmid in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and plasmids in aerobic skin coryneforms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erythromycin-resistant (Emr) coryneforms from cutaneous lesions and erythromycin-susceptible (Ems) coryneforms from normal skin sites were screened for plasmids. Approximately one-third of the 40 isolates carried one or more plasmids ranging in mass from 2.5 to 36 megadaltons, all exhibiting different restriction enzyme digest patterns. In contrast, only Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains comprising a single cohort of apparently identical Emr, pNG2-carrying isolates have been identified as p...

Schiller, J.; Strom, M.; Groman, N.; Coyle, M.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Cell-cycle-specific F plasmid replication: regulation by cell size control of initiation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

F plasmid replication during the Escherichia coli division cycle was investigated by using the membrane-elution technique to produce cells labeled at different times during the division cycle and scintillation counting for quantitative analysis of radioactive plasmid DNA. The F plasmid replicated, like the minichromosome, during a restricted portion of the bacterial division cycle; i.e., F plasmid replication is cell-cycle specific. The F plasmid replicated at a different time during the divi...

1991-01-01

362

Origin and direction of in vitro replication of Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ampicillin resistance plasmids.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The origin of replication of Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ampicillin resistance plasmids was located by cloning BamHI restriction fragments into vector plasmid pAT153 and a derivative plasmid, pAT2. Selection was made for plasmid maintenance in a polA mutant. Direction of replication was determined by in vitro replication of plasmid DNA in the presence of radiolabeled deoxynucleotide.

Mcnicol, P. J.; Albritton, W. L.; Ronald, A. R.

1984-01-01

363

Induction of multiple plasmid recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by psoralen reaction and double strand breaks.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA damage-induced multiple recombination was studied by cotransforming yeast cells with pairs of nonreplicating plasmids carrying different genetic markers. Reaction of one of the plasmids with the interstrand crosslinking agent, psoralen, stimulated cellular transformation by the undamaged plasmid. The cotransformants carried copies of both plasmids cointegrated in tandem arrays at chromosomal sites homologous to either the damaged or the undamaged DNA. Plasmid linearization, by restriction...

Saffran, W. A.; Smith, E. D.; Chan, S. K.

1991-01-01

364

Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture). Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transform...

Yoshida, Naoto; Nakajima-kambe, Toshiaki; Matsuki, Kaori; Shigeno, Toshiya

2007-01-01

365

Infectivity Acts as In Vivo Selection for Maintenance of the Chlamydial Cryptic Plasmid?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlamydia trachomatis contains a conserved ?7.5-kb plasmid. Loss of the plasmid results in reduced glycogen accumulation, failure to activate TLR2, and reduced infectivity. We hypothesized that reduced infectivity functions as a means of selection for plasmid maintenance. We directly examined the biological significance of the reduced infectivity associated with plasmid deficiency by determining the relative fitness of plasmid-deficient CM972 versus that of wild-type C. muridarum Nigg in mi...

2011-01-01

366

Generation of low KV x-ray portal images with mega-voltage electron beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The increasing complexity of radiation therapy plans and reduced target margins, have made accurate localization of patients at treatment a crucial quality assurance issue. Mega-voltage portal images, the standard for treatment localization, are inherently low in contrast because x-ray attenuation at these energies is similar for most body tissues. Thus anatomical features are difficult to distinguish and match to features on a reference diagnostic image. This project investigates the possibly of using x-rays created by an external target placed in the path of a clinical mega-voltage electron beam. This target is optimised to produce a higher proportion of useful imaging x-rays in the range of 50-200kV. It is thought that a high efficiency Varian aSi500 amorphous silicon EPID will be sufficient to compensate for the very low efficiency of x-ray production. The project was undertaken with concurrent theoretical and experimental components. The former involved Monte Carlo models of low Z target design while in the later, experimental data was gathered to validate the model and explore the practical issues associated with electron mode image acquisition. A 6 MeV electron beam model for a Varian Clinac 21EX was developed with EGS4/BEAMnrc User Code and compared to measured beam data. Phase space data scored at the secondary collimator then became the input for simulations of a target placed in the accessory tray. Target materials were predominately low atomic number (Z) because a) production of high energy x-rays is minimized and, b) fewer low energy x-rays produced will be absorbed within the target. Photon and electron energy spectrums of the modified beam were evaluated for a range of target geometries. Ultimately, several materials were used in combination to optimise an x-ray yield for energies <200kV while removing electrons and very low energy x-rays, that contribute to patient dose but not to image formation. Low energy images of a PIPs EPID QA phantom and a purpose built contrast phantom were evaluated for contrast enhancement using purpose written MATLAB code. Information from these images was implemented in the Monte Carlo model to refine the target construction. Electron mode image acquisition was achieved using the clinical (R and V) and service interfaces however the EPID was activated using an internal trigger rather then a trigger pulse from the linac, since it does not recognise the linac pulses for electron modes. Images could be acquired in as little as 5 monitor units (MU), with reasonable quality images generated with ?20MU. Doses of this magnitude indicate that such images could be acquired in a clinically viable amount of time, especially if higher dose rates was used e.g. 1000MU/min. Image quality is affected because the EPID is not synchronised to the linac pulses. Furthermore a flood-field correction image for the low energy beam is difficult to acquire and a 'standard' one has been applied. Although not optimal for efficient x-ray production, the low Z target maximises the content of low energy x-rays in the imaging beam, leading to portal images with improved contrast. Using a high efficiency EPID, images could be acquired in clinically practical times. This method of low energy portal imaging is relatively simple, inexpensive to construct and easy to install. Image quality would benefit from a special imaging mode that maximizes EPID performance under these conditions. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

2004-12-01

367

Curing the plasmid pMC1 from the poly (?-glutamic acid) producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain using plasmid incompatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 is a glutamate-independent poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) producing strain which consists of a circular chromosome (3,995,227 bp) and an endogenous plasmid pMC1 (6,758 bp). The study of the function of native plasmid and the genome-size reduction of the B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain requires elimination of the endogenous plasmid. Traditional plasmid-curing procedures using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or acridine orange combined with heat treatment have been shown to be ineffective in this strain. Plasmid incompatibility is an effective method for curing which has been studied before. In our research, the hypothetical Rep protein gene and the origin of replication of the endogenous plasmid were cloned into the temperature-sensitive vector yielding the incompatible plasmid pKSV7-rep-ori. This plasmid was transformed into LL3 by electroporation. The analysis of the strain bearing incompatible plasmids after incubation at 30 °C for 30 generations showed the production of plasmid cured strains. High frequency of elimination was achieved with more than 93 % of detected strains showing to be plasmid-cured. This is the first report describing plasmid cured in a ?-PGA producing strain using this method. The plasmid-cured strains showed an increase of ?-PGA production by 6 % and led to a yield of 4.159 g/l, compared to 3.918 g/l in control and cell growth increased during the early stages of the exponential phase. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization revealed that the ?-PGA produced by plasmid-cured strains and the wild strains were identical in terms of molecular weight. What is more, the further study of plasmid function showed that curing of the endogenous plasmid did not affect its sporulation efficiency. PMID:23873640

Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Jingqiang; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shufang

2013-09-01

368

The Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia hermsii Contains Multiple, Antigen-Encoding Circular Plasmids That Are Homologous to the cp32 Plasmids of Lyme Disease Spirochetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Borrelia hermsii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, was found to contain multiple circular plasmids approximately 30 kb in size. Sequencing of a DNA library constructed from circular plasmid fragments enabled assembly of a composite DNA sequence that is homologous to the cp32 plasmid family of the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Analysis of another relapsing fever bacterium, B. parkeri, indicated that it contains linear homologs of the B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi cp32 plasmid...

Stevenson, Brian; Porcella, Stephen F.; Oie, Katrina L.; Fitzpatrick, Cecily A.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Lubke, Lori; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Schwan, Tom G.

2000-01-01

369

Expansion of the IncX plasmid family for improved identification and typing of novel plasmids in drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

IncX plasmids are narrow host range plasmids of Enterobactericeae that have been isolated for over 50years. They are known to encode type IV fimbriae enabling their own conjugative transfer, and to provide accessory functions to their host bacteria such as resistance towards antimicrobial agents and biofilm formation. Previous plasmid-based replicon typing procedures have indicated that the prevalence of IncX plasmids is low among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. However, examination of a number of IncX-like plasmid sequences and their occurrence in various organisms suggests that IncX plasmid diversity and prevalence is underappreciated. To address these possible shortcomings, we generated additional plasmid sequences of IncX plasmids of interest and compared them to the genomes of all sequenced IncX-like plasmids. These comparisons revealed that IncX plasmids possess a highly syntenic plasmid backbone, but that they are quite divergent with respect to nucleotide and amino acid similarity. Based on phylogenetic comparisons of the sequenced IncX plasmids, the IncX plasmid group has been expanded to include at least four subtypes, IncX1-IncX4. A revised IncX plasmid replicon typing procedure, based upon these sequences and subtypes, was then developed. Use of this revised typing procedure revealed that IncX plasmid occurrence among bacterial populations is much more common than had previously been acknowledged. Thus, this revised procedure can be used to better discern the occurrence of IncX type plasmids among enterobacterial populations.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Bielak, Eliza Maria

2012-01-01

370

Direct Democracy in Decision Making for Mega-Projects: A New Culture of “Governance in Partnership”?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decision making for urban and transport infrastructure mega-projects has been increasingly contested in the recent past. Citizens obviously do not see themselves well enough represented through the elected politicians. Regular information and participation fora do not seem to offer satisfactory co-decision opportunities for increasingly critical citizens. The paper analyses the theoretical background of the current planning crisis and suggests more radical forms of citizens’ involvement: The hypothesis suggests that instruments for direct democratic decision making can open up new pathways to support the break-through of the citizens’ will. The paper analyses an interesting case study where two referenda around the same issue closely followed each other: Firstly, a top-down initiated referendum with a tendentious formulation of the question and with strong single-sided media support and, secondly, a referendum initiated by a citizens’ petition. Even though the citizens’ initiative managed to win the referendum, invalidating the previous decisions, a new challenge lies in the lacking motivation of political leaders to implement it. Finally, the case study helps to formulate some proposals for improvement of direct democratic instruments. The main lesson that can be learned from the case study, however, is that our societies are in desperate need for a new “culture of governance in partnership” with the people, the stakeholders and the affected neighbouring societies. Political decision making and planning needs more transparent, fair and honest communication, exchange and mutual respect and learning. Such culture would make societies more liveable and, at the same time, resilient against any sort of crisis.

Rainer ROTHFUß

2012-12-01

371

Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 ?g/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 ?g/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

1993-04-01

372

Identification, abundance and seasonal variation of anthropogenic organic aerosols from a mega-city in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PM2.5 aerosols were collected in Nanjing, a typical mega-city in China, during summer and winter 2004 and were characterized for aromatic and cyclic compounds using a GC/MS technique to understand the air pollution problem. They include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, phthalates and hydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs). PAHs, hopanes and OH-PAHs presented higher concentrations in winter (26-178, 3.0-18, and 0.013-0.421 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) than in summer (12-96, 1.6-11, and 0.029-0.171 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) due to an enhanced coal burning for house heating and atmospheric inversion layers developed in the cold season. In contrast, phthalates are more abundant in summer (109-368 ng m{sup -3}, average 230 ng m{sup -3}) than in winter (33-390 ng m{sup -3}, average 170 ng m{sup -3}) due to an enhanced evaporation from plastics during the hot season and the subsequent deposition on the pre-existing particles. Generally, all the identified compounds showed higher concentrations in nighttime than in daytime due to inversion layers and increased emissions from heavy-duty trucks at night. PAHs, hopanes and phthalates in Nanjing aerosols are 5-100 times more abundant than those in Los Angeles, USA, indicating a serious air pollution problem in the city. Concentrations of OH-PAHs are 1-3 orders of magnitude less than their parent PAHs and comparable to those reported from other international cities. Source identification using diagnostic ratios of the organic tracers suggests that PAHs in Nanjing urban area are mainly derived from coal burning, whereas hopanes are more attributable to traffic emissions.

Wang, G.H.; Kawamura, K.; Zhao, X.; Li, Q.G.; Dai, Z.X.; Niu, H.Y. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Inst. of Low Temperature Science

2007-01-15

373

Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity ??10?5. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations

2013-12-01

374

An NMR solution study of the mega-oligosaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex pectic mega-oligosaccharide that is released enzymatically from the primary cell wall of higher plants. It contains roughly 30 monosaccharide units (MW ?5 kDa) including very unusual residues such as Kdo, Dha, aceric acid and apiose. Previous studies have demonstrated that these monomers are arranged into four structurally well-defined oligosaccharide side chains (A-D), linked to a homogalacturonan mainchain, but the specific attachment sites of these branches on the pectic backbone have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, fairly complete assignments of the 750 MHz 1 H NMR spectra and partial assignments of the 13 C NMR spectra of the sodium-borohydride-reduced RG-II monomer were obtained for a 5 mM sample isolated from red wine. On the whole, these data corroborate the primary structures of the sidechains previously established by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and FAB-MS spectrometry but some heterogeneity has been demonstrated (partial substitution at B5, B6, and A5). The preferred orientations of the majority of the sidechain glycosidic linkages in the RG-II monomer have been determined from the sequential nOe data and the solution structure is generally in good agreement with the stable conformers previously obtained by molecular modeling (MM3) of the disaccharide and sidechain oligosaccharide building blocks. All of a two-residue, a three-residue, and a four-residue segment of the backbone have been tentatively identified from long range interactions between sidechain protons as well as in the mainchain. Taking into account the length of the 9-mer galacturonan mainchain described in prior work, these building blocks constitute almost the complete structure of RG-II (Scheme 2)

1999-07-01

375

An NMR solution study of the mega-oligosaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex pectic mega-oligosaccharide that is released enzymatically from the primary cell wall of higher plants. It contains roughly 30 monosaccharide units (MW {approx}5 kDa) including very unusual residues such as Kdo, Dha, aceric acid and apiose. Previous studies have demonstrated that these monomers are arranged into four structurally well-defined oligosaccharide side chains (A-D), linked to a homogalacturonan mainchain, but the specific attachment sites of these branches on the pectic backbone have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, fairly complete assignments of the 750 MHz {sup 1} H NMR spectra and partial assignments of the {sup 13} C NMR spectra of the sodium-borohydride-reduced RG-II monomer were obtained for a 5 mM sample isolated from red wine. On the whole, these data corroborate the primary structures of the sidechains previously established by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and FAB-MS spectrometry but some heterogeneity has been demonstrated (partial substitution at B5, B6, and A5). The preferred orientations of the majority of the sidechain glycosidic linkages in the RG-II monomer have been determined from the sequential nOe data and the solution structure is generally in good agreement with the stable conformers previously obtained by molecular modeling (MM3) of the disaccharide and sidechain oligosaccharide building blocks. All of a two-residue, a three-residue, and a four-residue segment of the backbone have been tentatively identified from long range interactions between sidechain protons as well as in the mainchain. Taking into account the length of the 9-mer galacturonan mainchain described in prior work, these building blocks constitute almost the complete structure of RG-II (Scheme 2)

Herve du Penhoat, Catherine; Gey, Claude [CNRS - associated with University Joseph Fourier, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (France); Pellerin, Patrice [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unite de Recherches des Biopolymeres et des Aromes, Institut des Produits de la Vigne (France); Perez, Serge [CNRS - associated with University Joseph Fourier, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (France)

1999-07-15

376

Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak  

Science.gov (United States)

In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity ? ?10. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations.

Stanier, A.; Browning, P.; Gordovskyy, M.; McClements, K. G.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Lukin, V. S.

2013-12-01

377

Das práticas de gestão de grandes projetos urbanos / Management practices of urban mega projects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo busca contribuir para o maior aprofundamento da discussão sobre um fenômeno comum a algumas cidades brasileiras: os Grandes Projetos Urbanos (GPUs). Para tanto, parte-se da assertiva de que se trata ainda de um conceito em formação na literatura acadêmica. Nesse sentido, baseado em [...] uma pesquisa bibliográfica, o artigo discute seu delineamento conceitual e sua implementação no cenário brasileiro a partir da década de 1970, estabelecendo relações com as práticas e modelos de gestão urbana presenciados ao longo das últimas quatro décadas de análise. Os resultados evidenciam aspectos similares e díspares no debate teórico sobre GPUs, enquanto as conclusões demonstram a necessidade de maior aprofundamento conceitual do tema, tendo em vista a relevância da discussão e reflexão sobre esse tipo de intervenção urbanística no planejamento do território das cidades contemporâneas. Abstract in english This article aims to contribute to further deepen the discussion of a phenomenon common to several Brazilian cities: the Urban Mega Projects (UMPs). To do so, it starts from the assertion that it's still an emergent concept in the academic literature. Based on a bibliographic research, the article d [...] iscusses its formation and implementation in the Brazilian context since the 1970s, establishing relationships with the practices and models of urban management witnessed over the last four decades of analysis. The results reveal similarities and dissimilarities in the theoretical debate on UMPs, while the final conclusions show the need for deepening conceptual reflections on this topic, as it is a central question on this kind of intervention in territorial planning of contemporary cities.

Gadens, Letícia Nerone; Hardt, Letícia Peret Antunes; Frey, Klaus.

378

Two-fluid simulations of driven reconnection in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the merging-compression method of plasma start-up, two flux-ropes with parallel toroidal current are formed around in-vessel poloidal field coils, before merging to form a spherical tokamak plasma. This start-up method, used in the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), is studied as a high Lundquist number and low plasma-beta magnetic reconnection experiment. In this paper, 2D fluid simulations are presented of this merging process in order to understand the underlying physics, and better interpret the experimental data. These simulations examine the individual and combined effects of tight-aspect ratio geometry and two-fluid physics on the merging. The ideal self-driven flux-rope dynamics are coupled to the diffusion layer physics, resulting in a large range of phenomena. For resistive MHD simulations, the flux-ropes enter the sloshing regime for normalised resistivity ??10{sup ?5}. In Hall-MHD, three regimes are found for the qualitative behaviour of the current sheet, depending on the ratio of the current sheet width to the ion-sound radius. These are a stable collisional regime, an open X-point regime, and an intermediate regime that is highly unstable to tearing-type instabilities. In toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the final state after merging is a MAST-like spherical tokamak with nested flux-surfaces. It is also shown that the evolution of simulated 1D radial density profiles closely resembles the Thomson scattering electron density measurements in MAST. An intuitive explanation for the origin of the measured density structures is proposed, based upon the results of the toroidal Hall-MHD simulations.

Stanier, A.; Browning, P.; Gordovskyy, M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); McClements, K. G.; Gryaznevich, M. P. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lukin, V. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2013-12-15

379

Evidence for a Mega-Tsunami Generated by Giant Flank Collapse of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde  

Science.gov (United States)

Mega-tsunamis generated by ocean island flank collapses are expected to be some of the most hazardous forces of nature, yet evidence for their near-source effects and inferred high run-ups so far is scarce or hotly debated. A newly discovered deposit on the northern coast of Santiago Island (Cape Verde), however, documents the magnitude and run-up height associated with this kind of event. Additionally to chaotic conglomerates distributed from sea-level up to 100 m elevation standing on slopes as steep as 20°, the deposit comprises a number of scattered megaclasts of submarine lava flows, limestone and tuff. The megaclasts are presently located over a higher substructural slope built on younger subaerial lava flows and at elevations ranging 160-220 m a.s.l. All megaclasts correspond to lithologies that crop out exclusively in nearby cliff faces. The origin of this deposit is consequently attributed to an exceptional wave that plucked blocks from the cliff face, transported them inland and deposited them over the higher slopes of the volcanic edifice. The distribution of the megaclasts, together with the local geomorphology, is in agreement with a tsunami that approached the island edifice from the west and was refracted along its northern flank, flooding a series of northwest-oriented valleys. This suggests that the well-known flank collapse of Fogo volcano, located 55 km west of Santiago, is the most likely source, a hypothesis being tested with surface exposure dating. The inferred run-up exceeded 200 m and is consistent with numerical simulations by Paris et al. 2011, implying that the present Fogo island morphology probably developed by at least one giant flank collapse with devastating near-source effects.

Ramalho, R. S.; Madeira, J.; Helffrich, G. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Winckler, G.; Quartau, R.; Adena, K.

2013-12-01

380

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-12-01

382

Urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urinary incontinence is a multi-factorial condition that has a high impact on older persons living in nursing homes. While urinary incontinence is common, only a small percentage of nursing home residents have an official diagnosis. Factors influencing urinary incontinence in this population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents and to study the factors associated with urinary incontinence in this population. Residents from six different nursing homes were included in this study. Data on sex, age, medication, comorbid illnesses, urinary incontinence and the use of absorbent pads was collected. Barthel`s Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL was used to estimate residents’ functional levels. Post-voiding residual urine was measured by means of a portable ultrasound. A questionnaire was completed by the nursing staff for each of the residents. In total, 173 residents participated in the study. One hundred and twenty-two residents (69% were incontinent for urine and 144 used absorbent pads (83%. Fourteen percent of residents used absorbent pads ‘just to make sure’. They did not have a history of urinary incontinence. Low ADL score, dementia and urinary tract infection were significantly associated with incontinence for urine. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing homes is high. Absorbent products are frequently used without a history of urinary incontinence. Physical impairment, dementia and urinary tract infections are significantly associated with urinary incontinence.

Ove Hellzèn

2012-06-01

383

Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

Lewis, Catherine F.

2004-01-01

384

Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

2007-01-01

385

Encountering Patient Suicide: A Resident's Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors reviewed the current literature for psychiatry residents' reactions to the suicide of a patient. This review also examines the responses of training programs to residents after such an incident. Method: Using Ovid Medline, the authors conducted a review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2006, with search phrases…

Fang, Farrah; Kemp, Janet; Jawandha, Arshdeep; Juros, Jakub; Long, Laura; Nanayakkara, Sonali; Stepansky, Christian; Thompson, L. Brian; Anzia, Joan

2007-01-01

386

Emotional intelligence in orthopedic surgery residents  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. Methods We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Results Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Conclusion Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing.

Chan, Kevin; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit

2014-01-01

387

Residence time distribution studies in process vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the residence time distribution of fluid in process units from an impulse injection of radiotracer. It computes for the mean residence time spent by a fluid when passing through a process unit. It also shows techniques to select a flow model that represents the experimental data obtained. (author)

1985-01-01

388

Pediatricians' attitudes concerning motherhood during residency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because half of pediatric residents are women, pregnancy is increasingly common among pediatric house staff. We hypothesized that the heavy work load of pregnant pediatric residents is tolerated because those who have experienced a residency themselves underestimate the strain of residency compared with other work. A questionnaire, designed to survey pediatricians' attitudes concerning the effects of employment on the fetus, mother, and newborn infant, was produced in two formats, which were identical except that one concerned residents, while the other concerned women employed full-time in other jobs. Each type of questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected members of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Respondents in both groups shared many attitudes concerning the effects of maternal employment. Certain subgroups (eg, males, those married to spouses not employed, and those women not pregnant in residency) judged employment as more harmful in general. Contrary to the original hypothesis, however, all subgroups consistently judged residency as more deleterious than other work. Training programs need to adopt humane strategies to integrate motherhood with residency. PMID:2356796

Balk, S J; Christoffel, K K; Bijur, P E

1990-07-01

389

Characterization of ampicillin resistance plasmids of Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with regard to location of origin of transfer and mobilization by a conjugative plasmid of Haemophilus ducreyi.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Restriction endonuclease maps of the ampicillin resistance plasmids of Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae show marked structural similarities. Transfer frequencies obtained by mobilization correlated with physical structure and were enhanced by increased homology with the conjugative plasmid. The origin of transfer of each plasmid was located within a specific restriction fragment.

Mcnicol, P. J.; Albritton, W. L.; Ronald, A. R.

1983-01-01

390

POTENTIAL FOR TRANSDUCTION OF PLASMIDS IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT OF PLASMID DONOR CONCENTRATION AND A NATURAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ON TRANSDUCTION IN 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA'  

Science.gov (United States)

The transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid Rms149 by the generalized transducing phage DS1 was shown to occur during a nine day incubation of environmental test chambers in a freshwater reservoir. Plasmid DNA was transferred from a nonlysogenic plasmid donor to a DS1 lyso...

391

Thioredoxin-like proteins in F and other plasmid systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative plasmid transfers from donor to recipient bacterium. During this process, single-stranded plasmid DNA is actively and specifically transported from the cytoplasm of the donor, through a large membrane-spanning assembly known as the pore complex, and into the cytoplasm of the recipient. In Gram negative bacteria, construction of the pore requires localization of a subset of structural and catalytically active proteins to the bacterial periplasm. Unlike the cytoplasm, the periplasm contains proteins that promote disulfide bond formation within or between cysteine-containing proteins. To ensure proper protein folding and assembly, bacteria employ periplasmic redox systems for thiol oxidation, disulfide bond/sulfenic acid reduction, and disulfide bond isomerization. Recent data suggest that plasmid-based proteins belonging to the disulfide bond formation family play an integral role in the conjugative process by serving as mediators in folding and/or assembly of pore complex proteins. Here we report the identification of 165 thioredoxin-like family members across 89 different plasmid systems. Using phylogenetic analysis, all but nine family members were categorized into thioredoxin-like subfamilies. In addition, we discuss the diversity, conservation, and putative roles of thioredoxin-like proteins in plasmid systems, which include homologs of DsbA, DsbB, DsbC, DsbD, DsbG, and CcmG from Escherichia coli, TlpA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Com1 from Coxiella burnetii, as well as TrbB and TraF from plasmid F, and the absolute conservation of a disulfide isomerase in plasmids containing homologs of the transfer proteins TraH, TraN, and TraU. PMID:23721857

Hemmis, Casey W; Schildbach, Joel F

2013-09-01

392

Evaluation of in Ovo Delivery System for Plasmid DNA Vaccination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In ovo vaccination against Marek`s Disease Virus (MDV is a common practice in more than 85% of broilers produced in the US. DNA vaccines represent a new tool to prevent infectious diseases in many species, including poultry. An in ovo delivery system for plasmid DNA vaccines is described in which we evaluate the route of delivery (air cell vs amniotic cavity, transfection reagent (IFA+DMSO vs polyethylenimine, dose of plasmid DNA (1 to 100 µg/egg and the nature of humoral immune responses. A plasmid DNA (CMV-EGFP-BGH construct expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP under cytomegalovirus (CMV immediate early promoter was used to optimize the route of delivery and formulation for in ovo DNA vaccination. A plasmid expressing the hemmagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene of Newcastle disease virus (pIRES-HN-EGFP was used to evaluate five different dosages of DNA and the humoral immune responses after in ovo vaccination. Higher expression of EGFP and hatchability were obtained when 18-day-old embryos were inoculated through the amniotic cavity using a cationic lipid adjuvant containing polyethylenimine (PEI-ExGen®. Transgene expression was observed even when low amounts of plasmid DNA were used (1 µg/egg. A dose-dependent response was observed with plasmid DNA concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 60 and 100 µg/egg. Better responses were detected when embryos were inoculated with 60 µg of plasmid DNA. Detectable humoral responses were observed as measured by ELISA and isotope-ELISA assays.

L. Moura

2007-01-01

393

Feedback from Chief Residents about Proposed Revisions of the Special Requirements for Internal Medicine Residencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 272 medical school chief residents concerning proposed revisions of internal medicine residency requirements found the most strongly supported changes were: enhanced training in interviewing, interpersonal, and physical examination skills; increased emphasis on residency as an educational experience and on general internal medicine in…

Reynolds, P. Preston; And Others

1995-01-01

394

The internal structure of the Mega-dunes in the Badainjaran desert revealed by ground penetrating radar and its implications to arid hydrology  

Science.gov (United States)

Badainjaran desert in northwestern China has the world's highest stationary sand dunes, which are up to 500 m tall. Despite the prevailing dry and windy weather conditions the mega dunes were relatively moist underneath a dry surface layer of about 20 cm. It is very common to see a lake directly at the foot of the leeward side of a mega dune. Using 50- and 100-MHz antenna we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys on both the windward and leeward of three mega dunes in southeastern Badainjaran desert. The GPR surveys clearly revealed the existence of numerous, almost evenly spaced calcareous cement and travertine features at shallow depth on the windward side of the mega dunes. The leeward tilted orientation of these calcareous cement and travertine features will be likely inducing more infiltration toward the leeward thus getting more recharge to the lake than the windward side. This trend may be one key factors to keep the lake exist in a very arid environment with high evaporation rate. The GPR profile also clearly depicted the shape of the water table beneath the mega dunes. The water table is gradually elevated outward from the lake, implies that the lake is possibly recharged by both precipitation from the vadose zone and the free water recharge from beneath the water table. A preliminary precipitation-evaporation-yield analysis based on our observation indicates that the lakes we studied may be survival if no further reduction of precipitation in this desert area.

Qian, R.; Li, J.; Liu, L.

2013-12-01

395

Is Canadian surgical residency training stressful?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Surgical residency has the reputation of being arduous and stressful. We sought to determine the stress levels of surgical residents, the major causes of stress and the coping mechanisms used. Methods We developed and distributed a survey among surgical residents across Canada. Results A total of 169 participants responded: 97 (57%) male and 72 (43%) female graduates of Canadian (83%) or foreign (17%) medical schools. In all, 87% reported most of the past year of residency as somewhat stressful to extremely stressful, with time pressure (90%) being the most important stressor, followed by number of working hours (83%), residency program (73%), working conditions (70%), caring for patients (63%) and financial situation (55%). Insufficient sleep and frequent call was the component of residency programs that was most commonly rated as highly stressful (31%). Common coping mechanisms included staying optimistic (86%), engaging in enjoyable activities (83%), consulting others (75%) and exercising (69%). Mental or emotional problems during residency were reported more often by women (p = 0.006), who were also more likely than men to seek help (p = 0.026), but men reported greater financial stress (p = 0.036). Foreign graduates reported greater stress related to working conditions (p < 0.001), residency program (p = 0.002), caring for family members (p = 0.006), discrimination (p < 0.001) and personal and family safety (p < 0.001) than Canadian graduates. Conclusion Time pressure and working hours were the most common stressors overall, and lack of sleep and call frequency were the most stressful components of the residency program. Female sex and graduating from a non-Canadian medical school increased the likelihood of reporting stress in certain areas of residency.

Aminazadeh, Nasser; Farrokhyar, Forough; Naeeni, Amir; Naeeni, Marjan; Reid, Susan; Kashfi, Arash; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

2012-01-01

396

Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our experiencein the design of an ultra-high speed image sensor targeting the theoretical maximum frame rate is summarized. The imager is the backside illuminated in situ storage image sensor (BSI ISIS). It is confirmed that the critical factor limiting the highest frame rate is the signal electron transit time from the generation layer at the back side of each pixel to the input gate to the in situ storage area on the front side. The theoretical maximum frame rate is estimated at 100 Mega-fr...

Dao Vu Truong Son; Takeharu Goji Etoh; Masatoshi Tanaka; Nguyen Hoang Dung; Vo Le Cuong; Kohsei Takehara; Toshiro Akino; Kenji Nishi; Hitoshi Aoki; Junichi Nakai

2009-01-01

397

Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our experience in the design of an ultra-high speed image sensor targeting the theoretical maximum frame rate is summarized. The imager is the backside illuminated in situ storage image sensor (BSI ISIS). It is confirmed that the critical factor limiting the highest frame rate is the signal electron transit time from the generation layer at the back side of each pixel to the input gate to the in situ storage area on the front side. The theoretical maximum frame rate is estimated at 100 Mega-f...

Dao, Vu Truong Son; Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Nguyen, Hoang Dung; Le Cuong, Vo; Takehara, Kohsei; Akino, Toshiro; Nishi, Kenji; Aoki, Hitoshi; Nakai, Junichi

2010-01-01

398

Self-organization during spherical torus formation by flux rope merging in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak  

Science.gov (United States)

Merging-compression start-up in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak provides an opportunity to investigate the merging of flux ropes through magnetic reconnection, and the self-organization into a single flux rope, in a low-plasma-?, high-Lundquist-number plasma. We present an overview of simulations of this process using the compressible Hall-MHD equations in two dimensions. Preliminary results of an analytical model of the self-organization, assuming a helicity-conserving relaxation to a minimum energy state, are also presented. The relevance of these models to solar plasmas is discussed.

Browning, P. K.; Stanier, A.; Ashworth, G.; McClements, K. G.; Lukin, V. S.

2014-06-01

399

Replicase-based plasmid DNA shows anti-tumor activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Double stranded RNA (dsRNA has multiple anti-tumor mechanisms. Over the past several decades, there have been numerous attempts to utilize synthetic dsRNA to control tumor growth in animal models and clinical trials. Recently, it became clear that intracellular dsRNA is more effective than extracellular dsRNA on promoting apoptosis and orchestrating adaptive immune responses. To overcome the difficulty in delivering a large dose of synthetic dsRNA into tumors, we propose to deliver a RNA replicase-based plasmid DNA, hypothesizing that the dsRNA generated by the replicase-based plasmid in tumor cells will inhibit tumor growth. Methods The anti-tumor activity of a plasmid (pSIN-? that encodes the sindbis RNA replicase genes (nsp1-4 was evaluated in mice with model tumors (TC-1 lung cancer cells or B16 melanoma cells and compared to a traditional pCMV-? plasmid. Results In cell culture, transfection of tumor cells with pSIN-? generated dsRNA. In mice with model tumors, pSIN-? more effectively delayed tumor growth than pCMV-?, and in some cases, eradicated the tumors. Conclusion RNA replicase-based plasmid may be exploited to generate intracellular dsRNA to control tumor growth.

Weiss Richard

2011-03-01

400

Transcription-replication collision increases recombination efficiency between plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been proposed that the stalling of the replication forks can induce homologous recombination in several organisms, and that arrested replication forks may offer nuclease targets, thereby providing a substrate for proteins involved in double-strand repair. In this article, we constructed a plasmid with the potential for transcription-replication collision (TRC), in which DNA replication and RNA transcription occur on the same DNA template simultaneously. Theoretically, transcription will impede DNA replication and increase homologous recombination. To validate this hypothesis, another plasmid was constructed that contained a homologous sequence with the exception of some mutated sites. Co-transfection of these two plasmids into 293T cells resulted in increased recombination frequency. The ratio of these two plasmids also affected the recombination frequency. Moreover, we found high expression levels of RAD51, which indicated that the increase in the recombination rate was probably via the homologous recombination pathway. These results indicate that mutant genes in plasmids can be repaired by TRC-induced recombination. PMID:24161752

Jialiang, Li; Feng, Chen; Zhen, Xu; Jibing, Chen; Xiang, Lv; Lingling, Zhang; Depei, Liu

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
401

Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2007-01-01

402

blaCMY-2-positive IncA/C plasmids from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are a distinct component of a larger lineage of plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large multidrug resistance plasmids of the A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) have been found in a diverse group of Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We present three completed sequences from IncA/C plasmids that originated from Escherichia coli (cattle) and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (human) and that carry the cephamycinase gene blaCMY-2. These large plasmids (148 to 166 kbp) share extensive sequence identity and synteny. The most divergent plasmid, peH4H, has lost several conjugation-related genes and has gained a kanamycin resistance region. Two of the plasmids (pAM04528 and peH4H) harbor two copies of blaCMY-2, while the third plasmid (pAR060302) harbors a single copy of the gene. The majority of single-nucleotide polymorphisms comprise nonsynonymous mutations in floR. A comparative analysis of these plasmids with five other published IncA/C plasmids showed that the blaCMY-2 plasmids from E. coli and S. enterica are genetically distinct from those originating from Yersinia pestis and Photobacterium damselae and distal to one originating from Yersinia ruckeri. While the overall similarity of these plasmids supports the likelihood of recent movements among E. coli and S. enterica hosts, their greater divergence from Y. pestis or Y. ruckeri suggests less recent plasmid transfer among these pathogen groups. PMID:19949054

Call, Douglas R; Singer, Randall S; Meng, Da; Broschat, Shira L; Orfe, Lisa H; Anderson, Janet M; Herndon, David R; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Daniels, Joshua B; Besser, Thomas E

2010-02-01

403

Plasmid Mediated Streptomycin and Sulfonamide Resistance in Haemophilus parasuis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptomycin and sulfonamide resistance in Haemophilus parasuis is an emerging phenomenon that has not yet been characterized from a molecular perspective. The aim of the present research was to determine the molecular mechanism of Haemophilus parasuis resistant to streptomycin and sulfonamide. One high level streptomycin and sulfonamide-resistant isolate from China was submitted for MIC determination and plasmid extract, then sequencing and annotation. One plasmid extracted from the bacteria strain, designated pHPS-A67 (4.2 kb, contain fifteen open reading frames including streptomycin resistance gene StrA, sulfonamide resistance gene Sul 2 and mobilization protein genes Mob A, Mob B and Mob C. This is believed to be the first report of native Haemophilus parasuis contains plasmid which mediated streptomycin and sulfonamide resistance in this microorganism.

Qigai He

2012-01-01

404

Simulation of residents behavior in nuclear disaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear disaster management is a socio-technological issue that must consider both social safety and public sense of security. Above all, the evacuation schema is particularly important because the most serious threat of a nuclear disaster is exposure of residents to radiation and the public is immediately participated in it. In order to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the scheme, it is important to predict resident behavior under various assumptions and conditions in a disaster. In this study, we developed a simulation system of emergency response that can simulate both organizational behavior and resident's cognitive process in nuclear disasters.

Kanno, T. [RISTEX, Tokyo (Japan); Shimizu, T.; Oku, M.; Furuta, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-11-15

405

[Induced mutagenesis of plasmid as well as chromosomal genes inserted into plasmid DNA. II. The mutagenic action of chemical factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

To proceed the works on induced mutagenesis in plasmids, mutagenic effects of chemicals on the DNA of RSF2124 plasmid mediating colicine E1 biosynthesis and resistance to ampicillin, were studied. After exposure to mutagens, plasmid DNA was used to transform Escherichia coli C600 rk-mk-cells. The lethal effect was estimated from inactivation of the ampicillin marker, the mutagenic effect being measured by the appearance of mutants unable to synthesize colicine (Col-). The reaction of the plasmid DNA with a mutagen was stopped by 10-fold dilutions of aliquots in TEN buffer, followed by dialysis in 10 mH CaCl2 for 24 h. To select the most efficient mutagens for plasmid DNA, the compounds were predominantly tested which are known to be effective in other systems (transforming and transfecting DNA, microbial viruses). An a result, all chemicals tested by their activity were classified into 4 groups: inducing more than 100 fold increase (hydroxylamine, O-methylhydroxylamine); inducing 10 fold increase (UV-irradiation, lambda = 254 nm; W-mutagenesis, gamma-irradiation, nitrous acid, mitomycin C); inducing less than 10fold increase (indirect UV-mutagenesis, nitrous acid, beta-chloroethyldiethylamine hydrochloride, nitrosoguanidine); no mutagenic effect (acridine orange, ethyl methane sulfonate, sodium azide, O-beta-diethylhydroxylamine). PMID:3902566

Esipova, V V; Vedunova, S L; Kriviski?, A S

1985-08-01

406

Earthquake forecasting test for Kanto district to reduce vulnerability of urban mega earthquake disasters  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project on earthquake predictability research. The final goal of this project is to search for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo joined CSEP and started the Japanese testing center called as CSEP-Japan. This testing center provides an open access to researchers contributing earthquake forecast models applied to Japan. Now more than 100 earthquake forecast models were submitted on the prospective experiment. The models are separated into 4 testing classes (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions covering an area of Japan including sea area, Japanese mainland and Kanto district. We evaluate the performance of the models in the official suite of tests defined by CSEP. The total number of experiments was implemented for approximately 300 rounds. These results provide new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. We started a study for constructing a 3-dimensional earthquake forecasting model for Kanto district in Japan based on CSEP experiments under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters. Because seismicity of the area ranges from shallower part to a depth of 80 km due to subducting Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, we need to study effect of depth distribution. We will develop models for forecasting based on the results of 2-D modeling. We defined the 3D - forecasting area in the Kanto region with test classes of 1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years, and magnitudes from 4.0 to 9.0 as in CSEP-Japan. In the first step of the study, we will install RI10K model (Nanjo, 2011) and the HISTETAS models (Ogata, 2011) to know if those models have good performance as in the 3 months 2-D CSEP-Japan experiments in the Kanto region before the 2011 Tohoku event (Yokoi et al., in preparation). We use CSEP-Japan experiments as a starting model of non-divided column in a depth. In the presentation, we will discuss the performance of the models comparing results of the Kanto district with those obtained in all over Japan by CSEP-Japan and also add to discuss the results of the 3-month experiments after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake to understand the learning ability of the models associated with recent seismicity of the area.

Yokoi, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.

2012-12-01

407

Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n=12) were untreated (n=6) or received either a Wt-GHRH (n=2) or HV-GHRH (n=4) plasmid. At birth, half of each litter was cross-fostered (treated to controls and controls to treated only). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows were heavier at birth (HV-GHRH, 1.65+/-0.07kg; Wt-GHRH, 1.46+/-0.05kg vs. Controls, 1.27+/-0.03kg; P>or=0.001) and at weaning (Wt-GHRH, 6.01+/-0.21kg and HV-GHRH, 6.34+/-0.15kg vs. Controls, 5.37+/-0.14kg; P>or=0.02, respectively). Control piglets cross-fostered to plasmid-injected sows grew faster to weaning (Wt-GHRH, 5.61+/-0.15kg and HV-GHRH, 5.70+/-0.29kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows that suckled on control sows were larger than control piglets on control sows (Wt-GHRH, 5.93+/-0.20kg and HV-GHRH, 6.2+/-0.19kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively), but smaller than their littermates left on their treated mothers. The observed improvements were maintained until the end of the study when the offspring were 170-day-old. The results suggest that the improved growth of offspring of GHRH plasmid-treated sows pre-weaning is attributable to improved maternal performance, while after weaning the effects on the pituitary component are relevant. PMID:20188245

Khan, Amir S; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Fiorotto, Marta L; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

2010-02-23